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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
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Behavior and Social Issues
Number of Followers: 7  
 
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ISSN (Print) 1064-9506 - ISSN (Online) 2376-6786
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Gender Bias toward Supervisors’ Empowering Leadership Behavior

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      Abstract: Abstract Gender bias continues to impact women’s roles in the workplace with significantly fewer women in high-level leadership roles than men. In recent years, many workplaces have shifted from a traditional top-down management model to empowering leadership models focused on increasing the autonomy of employees. This study sought to identify if employees demonstrate gender bias related to empowering leadership behaviors. Forty-one individuals completed a survey that asked questions regarding their work history then identified supervisor images they associated with either positive, negative, or neutral examples of empowering leadership behavior, and finally completed a preference assessment for which supervisor they would prefer to work for or not to work for. Most participants selected the female supervisor image as representative of empowering leadership behavior. Additionally, despite employment histories with preference toward male supervisors, participants indicated a preference to work for female supervisors. Results of this study are discussed in relation to gender bias in the workplace and implications for employers and hiring managers.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
       
  • Exploratory Analysis of the Contextual Influence of Motherhood on
           Probability Discounting in Women

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      Abstract: Abstract When it comes to financial decision-making, women may be more risk averse than men, and mothers are more risk-averse than non-mothers on average (Charness & Gneezy, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 83, 50–58, 2012; Ross, 2021). This pattern of responding is attributed as one reason for gender-based pay differences that negatively impact women in the workforce and risks placing blame on women when not considering the broader social context operating around womanhood and motherhood. The present study is an exploratory experimental analysis of the influence of motherhood as a context variable affecting probability discounting rates of women across two experiments. In the first experiment, a college student sample of non-mothers completed a standard probability discounting task and an additive discounting task where they imagined having a hypothetical child while completing the task. Results showed steeper probability discounting in the hypothetical motherhood condition (t(28) = –2.30, p < 0.05). In the second experiment, a sample of mothers recruited using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk completed the standard probability discounting task and a subtractive discounting task where they imagined that they had chosen not to have children and completed the task. Results showed lower probability discounting rates in the hypothetical non-motherhood condition (t(50) = –5.29, p < 0.01). Taken together, these results suggest that motherhood may be a broad context variable that influences discounting rates and further research is needed to pinpoint specific components within the social experiences of mothers that contribute to financial disadvantages for women within oppressive social systems.
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
       
  • Picture-Text Compounds in Early Reading: A Descriptive Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Early reading materials commonly include the simultaneous presentation of pictures and text. Despite the ubiquity of picture-text compounds, several researchers have found that this arrangement may impair the word-reading performances of young children. Specifically, a learner may accurately respond when the picture and text are presented together but show reduced accuracy when the text is presented alone. Additional research has not reported these same effects; yet, given the considerable range in participants, procedures, and experimental designs in this literature, it is unclear when or for whom picture-text compounds may impede reading performance. This descriptive review provides a synthesis of articles that compared participants’ word-reading performance during picture-text compound and text-only arrangements. Participant characteristics, target description, training and testing procedures, experimental design, and findings were coded for each article. A total of 37 experiments met the inclusion criteria, the small majority of which reported detrimental effects of picture-text compounds on word-reading performance (64.9%). Null findings were most common in experiments that utilized between-subjects designs, although procedural arrangements and participant descriptions varied considerably across experiments. Additional research is needed to better describe the conditions that may promote or inhibit control by the text in picture-text compounds and learner characteristics or histories that might predict these or similar overselective performances.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
       
  • If You See Something, Say Something: Cultivating an
           Actively-Caring-for-People Culture

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      PubDate: 2023-08-18
       
  • Experimental Analysis of Macrocontingencies and Metacontingencies Between
           Group Competition

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      Abstract: Abstract Metacontingencies describe a functional relationship between interlocking behavioral contingencies that produce an aggregate product and a selecting environment. Various metacontingency procedures employ operant contingencies and metacontingencies concurrently to investigate participant’s choices to engage in a behavior as a function of either the magnitude or frequency of consequences. However, little research attention has been given to evaluate macrocontingencies to metacontingencies in the context of between-group competition. The present study compared the results of three experimental groups. In experimental group 1, participants responded to the task together and were allowed to use vocal communication. In experimental group 2, participants responded to the task individually. In experimental group 3, participants responded to the task together but were not allowed to use vocal communication. The results showed that some participants in group 2 reached a high percentage of correct responses, but the sum of their performance (macrocontingency) was not significantly better than chance. The performance of participants who cooperated (groups 1 and 3) was significantly better than chance. We discuss the role of between-group selection, within-group variability and social contingencies in the adaptive value of cooperation.
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
       
  • Mass Hysteria and Xenophobia: They’re Not in your Mind, or So Say
           Two New Books

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      Abstract: Abstract Two recent books – The Sleeping Beauties and other stories of mystery illness by Suzanne O’Sullivan (2021, Pantheon Books) and Of fear and strangers – a history of xenophobia by George Makari (2021, Norton) – offer interesting and provocative consideration of social problems that will be of interest to behavior scientists, especially those with interests in cultural practices. This review examines each book and explores shared themes, perspectives, and implications of analyses of these social disorders. Both provide detailed and fascinating accounts of behavior science explanations of pervasive social issues and raise questions for research and implications for practice. Both books are recommended for graduate courses and may enrich scholarly work in programs offering concentration in culturo-behavior science.
      PubDate: 2023-08-01
       
  • BSI in 2023: The Spring Issue and Beyond

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      PubDate: 2023-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00133-6
       
  • An Intersectional Examination of Disability and Race Models in
           Behavior-Analytic Practice

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      Abstract: Abstract The United States (U.S.) population is becoming increasingly diverse, with disability being prevalent among different races and ethnicities (Passel & Cohn, 2008; Vespa et al., 2020). In response, behavior analysts should engage in ongoing cultural humility to ensure their clinical practice is effective and responsive to diverse populations in order to disrupt the maintenance of ableist perceptions of people with disabilities. To date, behavior-analytic literature has yet to highlight the overlap of disability and race as it relates to clinical practice. Therefore, the current paper examines the intersectional considerations of ableism and racism in behavior analytic practices while exploring different models of disability (e.g., social model, medical model, moral model) culminating into Disability Critical Race Theory (DisCrit). Recommendations and actionable steps are provided for behavior analysts to address structural inequities by engaging in and promoting inclusive practices across organizations, service providers, research, and education. A greater understanding of the aforementioned models can begin to highlight and address some of the ableist practices in applied behavior analysis expressed by individuals from historically oppressed communities based on race, ethnicity, and disability.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-022-00116-z
       
  • Guest Editorial: It is Time for Systemic Change - A Call for Action in
           Implementing Inclusive and Culturally Responsive Educational Practices for
           Young People

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      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00132-7
       
  • Critical Race Theory in Education: How Banning its Tenets Undermines our
           Best Hope for Equity in Education

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      Abstract: Abstract Critical Race Theory (CRT) and its potential contributions to K–12 public education is under scrutiny by lawmakers and parent groups across the United States. Banning the tenets of CRT will produce even less equitable outcomes for our most vulnerable student populations. Interdisciplinary collaboration is critical for behavior analysts working alongside educators in public schools. This paper will unite educators and behavior analysts in a scholarly discussion of the origins, definition, and opposition to CRT; highlight current inequities and disparities in educational systems; outline the effectiveness of culturally relevant pedagogical practices; and propose a call to action for behavior analysts to collaborate with educators to improve equitable student outcomes.
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00130-9
       
  • Metacontingency Terminology, Philosophical Assumptions, and the Scientific
           Dialogue: A Response to Ardila-S├ínchez and Hayes (2023)

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      Abstract: Abstract Ardila-Sánchez and Hayes (2023, this issue) discuss how differing philosophical assumptions might reflect on differing metacontingency terminology and debate some of the arguments presented by Sampaio and Haydu (2023). We respond by restating the urgent need to clarify the definition of cultural milieu, which is illustrated by an argument about discriminative stimuli as components of the cultural milieu. We clarify that the differences in metacontingency terminology that we did not emphasize were related to interlocking behavioral contingencies (IBCs) and cultural consequences, and not to cultural milieu and group-rule generation. We question any rigid separations of “Skinnerian” and “Kantorian views” of cultural phenomena, insisting that we focus on a unified culturo-behavior science. We elucidate that verbal responses and stimuli may participate in IBCs, cultural antecendents, or selecting environment variables; answer some questions about the latter two concepts; and clarify that the we presented a COVID-19 psychological support project not to empirically validate the concept, but to illustrate and test the conceptual coherence of the terms and theory.
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00131-8
       
  • A Pilot Study Exploring Practices that Support the Longevity of Community
           Gardens Supported by Religious Organizations

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      Abstract: Abstract Current food production methods in the United States (US) contribute to environmental degradation as well as food insecurity. Food production by means of community gardens has the potential to reduce the deleterious effects of current production methods. However, many community gardens face challenges that hinder their longevity, thereby reducing the likelihood of the support they might provide for environmentally sustainable food production and decreased food insecurity for community members. Researchers conducted a literature review regarding best practices for community gardens, and used ethnographic research methods to inform a culturo-behavioral systems analysis using the Total Performance System and matrix (systems interdependency) analysis to better understand the cultural practices of two established community gardens in the southwest region of the US. The results of the analyses are presented in terms of recommendations to support each community garden’s sustainability. Recommendations regarding future research include environmental manipulations to identify functional relations and potential outcome measures for improving the longevity of community gardens.
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00124-7
       
  • On the Role of Philosophical Assumptions in Conceptual Analysis: A Reply
           to (Sampaio & Haydu 2023)

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      Abstract: Abstract Sampaio and Haydu (2023) reconceptualize the cultural milieu based on a Skinnerian view of cultural phenomena. We contend, however, that important differences among the multiple meanings of the cultural milieu have been offered in the literature (Ardila-Sánchez et al., 2019; Houmanfar et al., 2010; Houmanfar & Rodrigues, 2006). The elements included within the cultural milieu illustrate the pitfalls of employing multiple logics that compromise the definition of “stimulus functions.” What seem to be completely different issues are grouped together, generating confusion in the application of this construct and a lack of specificity in the conception of cultural phenomena. We suggest that (Sampaio & Haydu) analysis exemplifies the issues encountered in the application of the cultural milieu and argue that constructs, such as the cultural milieu, cannot play multiple roles in a theory without risking conceptual incoherence. We offer one clarification concerning the philosophical assumptions upon which (Sampaio & Haydu) offer their conceptual analysis, one question regarding their analytic aims, and one disagreement concerning their conclusions.
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00128-3
       
  • Self-Management Interventions for At-Risk and Low-Income Students: A
           Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Poverty continues to pose a threat to children’s development of behavioral regulation skills, which can impact students’ academic readiness and achievement. Self-management has been studied throughout the literature to teach student independence and self-regulation skills, both of which are critical for learning in the classroom. To date, there has been no systematic review of self-management strategies for low-income students in general education settings. Thus, the purpose of this review was to examine the efficacy of self-management strategies with this population. A systematic review of the literature identified 10 studies that implemented self-management strategies with low-income students. Across the 10 studies, interventions varied in design features and recording modality. Common self-management strategies to increase student academic performance or on-task behavior included self-monitoring, graphing, error correction, and self-evaluation. Results support the use of several variations of self-management with low-income students in general education settings. This review highlights essential features when designing self-management strategies to promote academic achievement and regulation of classroom behaviors.
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00125-6
       
  • An Interdisciplinary Approach to Treating Severe Behavior in a Juvenile
           Justice Facility: Teaching Behavioral Self-Management via Telehealth

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      Abstract: Abstract Adolescents living in residential juvenile justice facilities often receive mental health services during their stay to address committed offenses, yet some display challenging behavior during moments of conflict within the facility. These challenging behaviors could result in risk of harm to self or others, or the individual may experience punishment from facility staff. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of an additive voluntary focused intervention for individuals who continued to display challenging behavior despite participation in “treatment as usual” in a juvenile justice facility. We implemented a self-management intervention, supported through interprofessional collaboration, via telehealth with four male adolescents. Using Behavior Skills Training, we taught participants to self-monitor precursors for challenging behavior and identify an alternative behavior to engage in to prevent overt challenging behavior events. Alternative behaviors were responses incompatible with the challenging behavior, or served as a rule to prompt self-management of further behavior. Results show all four participants increased their selection of alternative behaviors when presented with an evocative situation and a precursor for a severe behavior event during simulations. In addition, three participants stated they would use alternative behaviors across precursors not presented during teaching; however, two participants required booster sessions to maintain appropriate responding during simulations. Outside of simulated sessions, facility staff reported modest decreases in participants’ challenging behavior during and after the intervention.
      PubDate: 2023-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00123-8
       
  • Cultural Milieu and Group-Rules in an Elaborated Account of
           Metacontingencies: Conceptual Analysis and an Illustration in a COVID-19
           Psychological Support Project

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      Abstract: Abstract The elaborated account of the metacontingency explicitly incorporated the role of antecedent events (with the concept of cultural milieu or cultural-organizational milieu) and verbal behavior (clearly related to what was termed group-rule generation). We argue that the cultural milieu encompasses two functionally distinct entities: antecedent environmental variables affecting the culturant (the organization members’ activities)—what we termed cultural antecedents; and variables affecting the selecting environment or the consumer practices (members external to the organization responsible for producing cultural consequences)—what we termed selecting environment variables. Besides that, we propose that group-rule generation is not an element of a metacontingency distinct from the culturant, but that it describes verbal components of the interlocking behavioral contingencies; and that these verbal components are not present in all culturants but are especially important in more complex ones. We illustrate this conceptual analysis with reference to a COVID-19 psychological support project undertaken at a public university in Brazil and conclude by suggesting theoretical and methodological implications.
      PubDate: 2023-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00126-5
       
  • Guideposts to a Better Future: A Review of Engineering the Upswing by H.
           S. Pennypacker and F. I. Perez

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      Abstract: Abstract In Engineering the Upswing, H. S. Pennypacker and F. I. Perez begin by placing the cultural malaise currently afflicting the United States (U.S.) in the context of longitudinal data showing progressive change over a 60 year period in the U.S. Pennypacker and Perez then use the findings of social scientists to identify some dimensions of current cultural problems and they argue, with examples, for the power of behavioral science to engineer solutions. Their book inspires confidence in the possibility of a better future.
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-023-00121-w
       
  • Measuring the Dissemination Impact of Culturo-Behavioral Science

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      Abstract: Abstract Culturo-behavior science addresses many of the world’s most significant problems and therefore has potential to create world-changing outcomes. Before systems level changes that improve the world can be implemented, however, it is first necessary for the public to know about and take interest in the accomplishments of culturo-behavior science. Measurable evidence that this kind of influence is being achieved is a component of “dissemination impact,” an important but often overlooked form of accountability on sciences that target real-world problems. We describe a method for quantifying some aspects of dissemination impact and present data on how much of this impact has been earned by articles published in Behavior and Social Issues. The results provide considerable food for thought about how culturo-behavior science can proceed toward making the strategic pursuit of dissemination impact a component of its evidence-based practices.
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-022-00120-3
       
  • Pay Equity Among Behavior-Analytic Practitioners Who Serve Children

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      Abstract: Abstract Pay disparities have numerous adverse effects upon organizations, employees, and clients, which can affect the organization's ability to deliver services, including culturally responsive services. Evidence is accumulating that pay inequity, particularly among females and males, is present within the field of behavior analysis (Li et al., 2018; Vance & Saini, 2022). The purpose of the present study was to examine the annual income of Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA) and doctoral-level BCBAs (BCBA-Ds) who work with children, with a particular focus on the impact that salary practices have on the provision of services to this age group. A survey was distributed to collect information regarding annual income, demographics, and various aspects of service delivery. The sample included 236 (96.7%) BCBAs and eight (3.3%) BCBA-Ds who had been in the field an average of 11.3 years (N = 244). Annual income for female BCBAs and male BCBAs was $74,888 and $79,140, respectively. For those who served children and adolescents, female respondents earn an annual average of $75,840, while male respondents earn an average of $74, 673. The annual incomes of female BCBAs that served urban, rural, and combined rural and urban regions were $76,931, $69,198, and $77,199, respectively. The observed differences between service regions were statistically significant, whereas the difference observed between females and males was not. Considering this, females made less than male counterparts in nearly every comparison, which is alarming. The present study adds to the growing list of observations indicating that a change in salary practices is needed to improve behavior-analytic service delivery to clients.
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-022-00118-x
       
  • Behavioral Interventions Contributing to Reducing Poverty and Inequities

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      Abstract: Abstract Behavioral science has a long history of engaging in efforts to understand and address socially important issues. Poverty and inequities in health and development are among the most important and complex social issues facing the world today. With its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the United Nations (2015) has focused attention and guidance on addressing key global challenges, including to “end poverty” (SDG 1), “ensure good health and well-being for all” (SDG3), and “reduce inequality within and among countries” (SDG 10). In this paper, we provide a framework and illustrative examples of contributions of behavioral science to these issues. We feature illustrative behavioral interventions at the individual, relationship, community, and societal levels. We highlight the diversity of issues, intervention methods, and settings reflected in applications of behavioral science. By joining methods from behavioral science, public health, and other disciplines—and the experiential knowledge of those most affected by inequities—behavioral methods can make significant contributions to collaborative efforts to assure health and well-being for all.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s42822-022-00114-1
       
 
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