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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
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Open Psychology Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1874-3501
Published by Bentham Open Homepage  [69 journals]
  • An Examination of the Social Identity Model of Collective Action in the
           Context of Vietnam

    • Abstract: Introduction:Although collective action relating to land and environmental disputes in Vietnam has been increasing over the past decades, there is little research from the perspective of social psychology on this topic.Objective:This study was conducted to examine the applicability of the social identity model of collective action [SIMCA] in the context of Vietnam. Specifically, we assessed the predictive powers of moral conviction, politicized identity, group-based anger, and group efficacy on people’s intentions to engage in collective action in a situation where people from three communes of Hanoi blocked garbage trucks to enter a waste treatment complex located in this area.Methods:The participants were 132 residents from these communes. We collected the data by a self-report survey and then executed regression and path analyses to test our hypotheses.Results and Discussion:The results indicated that, except for group efficacy, variables in SIMCA were capable of independently predicting intentions to participate in collective action. Also, politicized identity had directly and indirectly positive effects on collective action intentions through group-based anger but not group efficacy. Politicized identity and group-based anger played partial mediating roles in the relationship between moral conviction and collective action intentions.Conclusion:These findings partly supporting the proposed SIMCA demonstrated the impacts of Vietnam's unique cultural and political characteristics on individuals' engagement in collective action relating to land and environmental disputes between people and their local authorities.
  • Intimate Partner Violence: A Literature Review

    • Abstract: Background:Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a complex issue that appears to be more prevalent in developing nations. Many factors contribute to this problem.Objective:This article aimed to review and synthesize available knowledge on the subject of Intimate Partner Violence. It provides specific information that fills the knowledge gap noted in more global reports by the World Health Organization.Methods:A literature search was conducted in English and Spanish in EBSCO and Scopus and included the keywords “Intimate, Partner, Violence, IPV.” The articles included in this review cover the results of empirical studies published from 2004 to 2020.Results:The results show that IPV is associated with cultural, socioeconomic, and educational influences. Childhood experiences also appear to contribute to the development of this problem.Conclusion:Only a few studies are focusing on empirically validated interventions to solve IPV. Well-implemented cultural change strategies appear to be a solution to the problem of IPV. Future research should focus on examining the results of strategies or interventions aimed to solve the problem of IPV.
  • Examining the Influence of Personality Traits and Family Income on
           Psychological Distress Among Farmers: The Role of Educational Status

    • Abstract: Introduction:Farming in most developing nations is still largely agrarian. Hence, ensuring high productivity among farmers requires that they must be both physically and psychologically healthy. The current study aimed at investigating the role of personality types and some demographic factors on psychological distress in farmers.Methods:The study employed a cross-sectional survey design of 301 farmers (male = 193, female = 107; age range = 17 – 74; M = 45.6 SD = 11.5) sampled purposively and conveniently from three major farm settlements in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Data were analyzed using multiple regression stratified by educational status.Results:Findings revealed that high neuroticism and low family income predicted psychological distress in less-educated farmers but not among more educated counterparts.Conclusion:Outcomes imply that less-educated farmers may be vulnerable to psychological distress due to personality disposition and economic factors. Increasing the level of literacy among farmers may wane the negative impact of neuroticism and low income on emotional wellness.
  • Religious Fundamentalism between Traits and Values

    • Abstract: Introduction:Religious fundamentalism is a complex religious phenomenon that involves cultural and social domains. Like values, it would potentially provide a description of how human beings should be. Nevertheless, extensive research has focused on the association between traits and fundamentalism, while the link with values has so far been neglected.Methods:We examined how traits and values might predict religious fundamentalism in a sample of 250 Italian Catholics (57.5% females).Results:Results partially confirmed the significant positive correlation between neuroticism and consciousness traits and religious fundamentalism, and highlighted the strong positive association with openness to change/conservative dimension value. In addition, when the overlap between traits and values was controlled for, hierarchical regression showed that values predicted fundamentalism better than traits.Conclusion:These findings could support the hypothesis that religious fundamentalism can be conceptualized as a motivational-goal attitude trait more than an enduring disposition.
  • The Impact of Dominant Personality Traits on Team Roles

    • Abstract: Background:The Gulf region is notorious for importing Asian laborers for blue-collar work due to the cheap costs associated with it. With many languages and cultural barriers present, understanding the needs of these workers and their preferred methods of communication has proven to be a challenge. Their ways are often misinterpreted, both collectively and individually. From years of observation, these mishaps are primarily due to the lack of understanding and resources available to investigate such issues, especially in masses. Team effectiveness and efficiency depend on numerous factors, such as structure, competencies of team members, commitment, collaboration, support, benchmarks of perfection, and leadership qualities. It is the most important component; the individuals can benefit from an evaluation of how each of their unique characteristics can contribute to the whole. Thus, we investigate the personality type and see if it has an association with their ethnicity, as well as correlations to their individual team roles.Objective:The study aims to find relationships between ethnicity and personality types in order to enhance their value creation in the workplace. Also, if there are correlations between them and team roles, managers will be better equipped when making decisions regarding team building and cohesiveness.Methods:Each participant was given the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type and Belbin team role type computer-based questionnaires. Based on the test results, the participants were divided on the basis of their ethnicity, having one personality among 16 personalities and the team-work role played. The ethnicity, personality type, and the team-work role played were measured in terms of frequency. The hypothesis was tested to determine the relationship among the variables of the study, and cross-tabulation was done among personality and team-work roles to determine the association between them.Results:The test results indicated a significant relationship between ethnicity and personality type, however, personality type and ethnicity do not impact the team role. From the outcome of the research conducted and the use of several types of statistical analysis, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between personality and ethnicity type. As observed, the findings are as follows: - Egyptians are primarily (42%) ISTPs and secondarily ENFJs (25%). - In Indians, the most frequent type is ISTJ, with an occurrence of 52%. - Lebanese are most frequently ESTPs (46%). - In Filipinos, the most frequent type is ENFP, with 31%. Although the test results indicated that there is a significant relationship between ethnicity and personality type, however, personality type and ethnicity do not impact the team role. Furthermore, it was observed that ENFP personality types were complete finishers, coordinators and monitor evaluators in a team. ESTP personality types were implementers, team-workers and specialists. ISTP played the role of plant, investigator, or specialist. ISTJ was observed to be shapers.Conclusion:The combined instruments will help break cross-cultural barriers and allow for a better understanding of ethnicity and stigmas, which may subconsciously exist, both projected by the individual and perceived by the receiver.
  • Validating the Arabic Scale of Happiness among College Students

    • Abstract: Background:Happiness is well known to have positive consequences not only on one person but also on society as a whole. For this reason, psychologists have become increasingly interested in positive psychology in general and in happiness in particular. This interest has been reflected in studying happiness and measuring it. Thus, questions raised lately about the best methods or producers and tools to accurately measure it. And, because happiness is a culturally influenced construct, the applicability of such tools needs to be verified across cultures.Objectives:The study aimed at assessing the reliability and validity of the Arab Scale of Happiness (ASH). The study was conducted on college students, and the analysis included testing of several statistical analyses such as the correlations between two tools for measuring happiness, namely, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWKS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II).Methods:A total of 731 college students from a public university in UAE were recruited for the tests used in the study. The validation process of the ASH included assessing its factor structure using both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity, discriminant validity, and internal reliability of the scale were assessed and reported in addition to evaluating gender differences.Results:Results indicated that the ASH is unidimensional, with a dominant factor explained more than 50% of the variance. The internal reliability of the ASH was high (α= .93), and all items performed properly in measuring happiness. The scale has a good convergent validity as it is highly and positively correlated with OHQ and SWLS, and good discriminate validity as its highly and negatively correlated with BDI-II.Conclusion:The ASH is a reliable and valid scale for measuring happiness among youth and college students. It is necessary to establish its appropriateness for use across populations or countries in future studies. Furthermore, the scale can be used in cross-cultural applications to assess happiness among different groups of individuals.
  • Thinking for Three: Mothers’ and Fathers’ Narratives on
           Transition to Parenthood

    • Abstract: Background: The birth of the first child represents a challenging event in the new-parents' life. Although literature highlighted that this period is experienced in a different way by the new mothers and new fathers, little is known about the broader evolutionary challenge that the transition to parenthood entails, also due to the difficulty of starting to think for three.Objective: The present study aims to explore the new-parents' autobiographical narratives after childbirth, to examine the meaning they construct of this event, and investigate the differences between the experience of new mothers and new fathers.Methods: Thirteen couples were recruited for the study. After childbirth, an individual open interview was conducted in order to collect information of the personal experience of becoming a parent. All interviews, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, were analyzed by T-Lab software in order to explore similarities and differences between them, using thematic analysis to perform unsupervised clustering of narrations to highlight the emerging themes, and we evaluated the elementary contexts of the narratives. A subsequent in-depth analysis regarding the process of delivery was conducted through the LIWCResults: Similar but not overlapping themes emerged from narratives. Overall, parents have to face three crucial issues: giving a meaning to the childbirth experience, reorganizing family life, and managing the newborn. However, new-mothers and new-fathers live this period not only with different roles, but also referring to different contexts and seem to house two different spaces: one mental and one physical. Fathers more than mothers highlighted the social aspects of childbirth.Conclusion: Results highlight that childbirth represents an important turning point, which implies the transition from thinking for two to thinking for three. In this process, the two parents play, narratively, two different roles. Limitations, strengths, and implications are discussed.
  • Socio-Demographic and Environmental Determinants of Adverse Childhood
           Experience among School-Going Adolescents in Jimma town, Jimma, Southwest

  • Factor Structure and Validity of the Korean Version of the Patient Health
           Questionnaire-9 Among Early Childhood Teachers

    • Abstract: Background:Depression is prevalent among teachers, particularly those in early childhood education. Thus, their depressive symptoms’ accurate assessment is important in both research and practice, and, for this purpose, the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) has shown considerable promise in depression screening and diagnosis. Although the PHQ-9 has been widely employed in both clinical and nonclinical settings, its validity among early childhood teachers in Korea is questionable, and its dimensionality remains controversial. This study’s purposes were thus to provide data on the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the PHQ-9’s Korean version and to investigate associations between the PHQ-9 and a corresponding psychiatric instrument, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).Methods:For this study, 252 early childhood teachers completed both the PHQ-9’s Korean version and the BDI-II. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare goodness-of-fit for four distinct factor models suggested by extant literature. Convergent validity was assessed by examining correlations between the PHQ-9 and the BDI-II.Results:A two-factor model with three items labeled “somatic” and six labeled “affective” provided the best fit. The scale’s convergent validity was supported by significant correlations with theoretically related measures, and its internal consistency was adequate.Conclusion:Overall, the results suggest that the PHQ-9’s Korean version is best conceptualized as a multidimensional measure of depression and confirms the PHQ-9 as a reliable assessment of depression among Korean early childhood teachers.
  • Elderly Muslim Wellbeing: Family Support, Participation in Religious
           Activities, and Happiness

    • Abstract: Aims:The aim of this study was to examine the effect of family support and participation in religious activities on the happiness of elderly muslims.Background:An increase in the number of older age people should be balanced with the increased quality of their life. The quality of life is influenced by internal factors such as self-quality, as well as external factors such as family support and religious activities.Objective:The objective of this research was to identify differences in the level of happiness of elderly muslims based on several factors: Work, health, salary, Islamic study, and marriage.Methods:Three hundred and ten elderly muslims (133 male, 177 female) participated in this study. Respondents were selected by simple random sampling of the elderly muslim population in seven districts in Central Java province, Indonesia.Results:The results showed 1) there was a correlation between family support and participation in religious activities and the happiness of elderly Muslims, 2) a healthy elderly person has a higher level of happiness than a sick elderly person; elderly who partake in Islamic studies one to two times a week have higher happiness than the elderly who do not; the retired elderly have the highest happiness compared to the elderly who still work and the elderly who do not (the lowest level of happiness), and there was no difference in the level of happiness in terms of salary and marriage.Conclusion:Family support and participation in religious activities are the main predictors of subjective well-being in the muslim elderly. In addition, there are other predictors such as health and participation in Islamic studies.
  • The Egyptian Validation Study of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and
           its Utility in Predicting Depression

    • Abstract: Aims:The present study aims at validating the RSA and examining its incremental validity as a predictor of depression as measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).Methods:150 healthy participants completed the RSA, Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). After ensuring the psychometric properties of the RSA, SOC, and BDI, 220 Egyptian students were recruited from Minia University to fill in the RSA and BDI in order to assess the potential capacity of the RSA to predict depression.Results:Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 5-factor structure model fitted well and the goodness of fit indices were within the acceptable limits. Construct validity was shown by a positive correlation between the RSA and the SOC, and a negative correlation with the BDI. The RSA and its subscales significantly predicted the BDI even when accounting for age and gender.Conclusion:The RSA is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring resilience in the Egyptian sample and it could be useful for measurement and intervention. The findings highlight the incremental validity of the RSA as a good predictor of depression.
  • Patterns of Associations among Resilience, Risk and Protective Factors in
           Adolescents with Blindness

    • Abstract: Aims:Blindness is a bane to humanity globally, and living with blindness is a challenge to anyone – young or old, educated or uneducated, rich or poor. Many countries have high rates of blindness, and Ethiopia is one. The study aims to explore the level of resilience, the extent of risk, and protective factors operating upon blind adolescents in Addis Ababa.Background:Resilience can significantly impact the quality of life of humans. Risk-taking and protective factors found in one's environment are significant predictors of resilience, valid even for the blind. The study intends to explore the level of resilience, the extent of risk, and protective factors operating upon blind adolescents in Addis Ababa.Objectives:The objectives identified for the study are:• To assess the risk and protective factors operating upon Adolescents With Blindness (AWB) and establishing the pattern with which risk factors and protective resources relate to each other and predict resilience.• To investigate the way the type of onset of blindness and some selected demographic variables relate to resilience among AWB.Methods:Data for the study were collected randomly from 80 blind adolescents using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Risk Factors Scale Adolescent Form, and Protective Factors Scale-Adolescent Form. The data were analyzed with t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression.Results:Low levels of resilience, presence of higher risk factors and serious lack of protective resources existed among AWB. While risk factors were negatively correlated with resilience, protective factors correlated with resilience positively. The risks and protective resources found in various levels of the environment together accounted for 89.3% of the variance in resilience. Gender, time of onset of blindness, parental education and family income influenced resilience.Conclusion:This study presents an all-inclusive picture of the resilience status of AWB’s, the extent of risk and protective factors currently operating upon them under the present context of Addis Ababa. Adolescents having blindness currently living in Addis Ababa are less resilient. They are faced with umpteen risk factors at home, school, neighborhood, community and societal levels.
  • Entrepreneurial Career Probabilities of Adolescents

    • Abstract: Introduction:The extent of new enterprise creation is a key driver contributing to economic, social, individual, and cultural values. Given a relatively low rate of Total Early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) in Germany, an understanding of the predictors of adolescent entrepreneurial career preferences is critical in developing ways to foster the interest of young people in entrepreneurship. Although the late precursors of the intention to become self-employed are largely understood, only a few studies have investigated which early individual-level factors affect the subjective probability of becoming an entrepreneur.Objective:The objective of the current study is to identify and statistically examine personality factors that affect the subjective probability of adolescents becoming entrepreneurs.Methods:Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel, we employed logistic regression to research the dependence of the variable “probability of becoming self-employed” on independent variables such as gender, locus of control (LoC), and personality traits for German adolescents aged between 16–17 years.Results:The study reveals a positive influence of the personality traits conscientiousness, extraversion, and LoC on the probability of being self-employed for German adolescents aged between 16–17 years. Agreeableness and neuroticism were found to have no significant effect on the subjective probability of adolescents becoming entrepreneurs, and openness was found to have no significant impact on high likelihood of being self-employed. For adolescents, being female has a significant impact only on a medium probability to be self-employed.Conclusion:To the current body of personality models explaining early adolescent entrepreneurial career preferences, we contribute a model which refers to a representative sample of adolescents in German society.
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