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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
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Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2002-2867
Published by Stockholm University Press Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Moral Stress among Swedish Health Care Workers During the COVID-19
           Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Aims: This study quantifies to what extent Health care workers (HCWs) experienced moral stress and to what extent their experiences of moral stress were related to gender and age as well as to working directly with COVID-19 patients and other work-related factors.Methods: This study consists of a cross-sectional survey that was conducted among 16,044 Swedish HCWs. A total of 153,300 HCWs and support staff who participated in the COVID-19 training offered by the Karolinska Institute were invited by email to participate in a web survey during autumn 2020.Results: This study is the first to quantify the frequency and severity of moral stress in a large group of HCWs. Moral stress was reported to a higher extent by HCWs involved in COVID-19 care and those involved in direct patient care. A lack of resources and the restrictions that hindered the patients’ family and friends from being involved were major causes of moral stress. Informal support was reported as being the most available and useful for dealing with moral stress.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that moral stress is common among HCWs who work with infected patients during a pandemic. The goal should not be to eliminate moral stress, as such stress may be viewed as a normal reaction to moral issues, but organizational structures (sufficient staffing and resources), could decrease the likelihood of morally stressful situations. Finally, to avoid the development of moral distress and its potential consequences, improvements could be made in providing HCWs with support tools for managing moral stress. Published on 2023-02-16 11:57:52
  • Aspects of Ethical Conflicts and their Implications for Work-Related
           Well-Being: A Cross-Sectional Study among Health and Social Care

    • Abstract: Moral distress is a pervasive phenomenon in health and social care organisations when employees feel unable to follow their ethical convictions, leading to impaired well-being and staff turnovers. While previous research has focused on identifying external root causes of moral distress, it has overlooked the subjective and multidimensional nature of ethical conflicts in explaining moral distress and its detrimental consequences for occupational well-being. We argue that ethical conflicts and moral distress are compounded, and it is important to investigate how employees themselves interpret situations that make them prone to moral distress. For this purpose, we surveyed 1,279 health and social care professionals who reported and assessed a recent ethical conflict from their work. Results showed that ethical conflicts involved three dimensions: ethical responsibilities to clients, ambiguous decision-making in organisations, and conflicting demands arising from relationships. Conflicting demands predicted general health, job satisfaction and turnover intentions, and ambiguous decision-making predicted general health and job satisfaction. Job autonomy, time pressure and organisational justice remained the most powerful predictors for indicators of work-related well-being. In resolving ethical conflicts and managing moral distress, organisational means are necessary. In particular, managers should be able to lead discussion about values with employees. In future, research should pay more attention to the social, dynamic and versatile nature of ethical conflicts in work organisations. Published on 2023-01-02 10:11:20
  • On the Road Again – Using Rule-Oriented and Participative Leadership to
           Reduce Threats and Violence in the Construction Industry

    • Abstract: Threats and violence are acute safety issues in many industries and effect a large proportion of the Swedish workforce. In the construction industry, more than half of constructions workers redirecting traffic at construction sites are subjected to threats or violence at least once a year.To help construction companies to systematically address and handle health and safety issues in accordance with the Provisions of the Swedish Work Environment Authority on Systematic Work Environment Management, an interventions method named Building Health has been developed by Gyllensten and colleagues. The intervention involved rule-oriented and participative leadership practise and was evaluated through a single case effect study in a middle-sized construction company.The results showed significant reductions in the one-year prevalence of threats of violence (pre-intervention = 35.0%; post-intervention = 19.0%; χ2 = 7.047; p = .008), feelings of being threatened (pre-intervention = 42.7%; post-intervention = 23.8%; χ2 = 9.188; p = .002), and conflicts with third parties (pre-intervention = 48.5%; post-intervention = 30.6%; χ2 = 7.913; p = .005).Combining rule-oriented and participative leadership when helping construction companies to improve their systematic work environment management for efficient handling of health and safety issues can have substantial positive effects on employees’ work environment. Published on 2022-12-27 10:30:38
  • Workplace Sexual Harassment Increases the Risk of PTSD Symptoms with
           Higher Frequency and Harassment Coming from a Colleague or Leader as Risk

    • Abstract: This study examined the effect of workplace sexual harassment on posttraumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms while also examining the effect of harassment frequency, harassment source, and workplace social capital. The sample consisted of 3153 Danish social educators (females 79.3%) responding to the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II item on sexual harassment (COPSOQ). The prevalence of sexual harassment was 22% exposed within the recent year.We found a significant positive relationship between exposure to workplace sexual harassment and PTSD symptoms. Harassment frequency was associated with significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Harassment from a colleague/leader compared to a client was associated with higher levels of PTSD symptoms although the difference was not statistically significant. Workplace social capital had an inverted association with PTSD symptoms, but there was no moderation effect on the relationship between sexual harassment and PTSD. These findings suggest that higher harassment frequency and harassment from a colleague/leader is associated with an increased severity of PTSD symptoms following exposure to workplace sexual harassment. Workplace social capital seems to alleviate level of PTSD symptoms, but did not moderate the association between exposure to workplace sexual harassment and PTSD symptoms. Possibly, feelings of shame and guilt may discourage some employees from disclosing their experiences with colleagues or leaders and thereby seek available support at the workplace. Future studies need to uncover the barriers that prevent victims of sexual harassment from seeking and benefitting from social support available at the workplace. Published on 2022-08-16 12:27:00
  • Incoherent Yet Still Moral' Followers’ Perceptions of Their
           Leaders’ Integrity

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to broaden the current understanding of leader integrity by applying a social-cognitive process model to leaders’ moral decision-making. Leaders (n = 223) were classified into different integrity styles (informational, normative, or diffuse-avoidant) based on their personal descriptions of how they approach moral questions and make moral decisions at work. We then investigated how followers (n = 963) perceived these leaders’ integrity (moral behavior, behavioral integrity, and consistency) and their leader-member exchange (LMX) quality by using a hierarchical leader-follower sample. Followers evaluated normative leaders to show the highest amount of consistency compared to the other integrity styles, although perceptions of leader consistency did not associate with LMX quality. Instead, follower-rated leader moral behavior had the strongest relationship with LMX quality both within and between leader-follower groups. Based on our results, morality is a more important integrity component to follower relationships than consistency. However, the leader’s moral motives behind their decisions might not translate directly and similarly to his or her followers. This means that leaders should pay attention to how transparent, fair, and equal their decisions and justifications behind them appear to others. We also provide a qualitative rating scheme for recognizing differences in personal integrity styles. Published on 2022-08-16 12:12:47
  • An Analysis of Social Stressors with Clients, Emotional Labor Strategies,
           and Disengagement: A Diary Study on Social Work

    • Abstract: The present seven-day diary study evaluated emotional labor strategies as mediators of the relationship between social stressors and disengagement on a short-term and intra-individual basis. The expectation was that surface acting and deep acting should precede higher disengagement. Before and after work, 63 social workers completed daily questions on social stressors with clients, emotional labor strategies, and disengagement. Multilevel analyses of up to 236 daily measurements revealed that more intense social stressors with clients predicted more intense surface acting, deep acting, and disengagement after work. Deep acting anteceded higher disengagement. An analysis of the indirect effects presented a significant positive indirect path from social stressors with clients via deep acting to disengagement. These findings bring to light how emotional labor strategies and disengaging work styles, despite being maladaptive long-term, may have a beneficial function for social workers on a day-to-day basis and intra-individual level. Published on 2022-06-29 12:33:22
  • Openness about Sexual Orientation and Exposure to Workplace Bullying

    • Abstract: Previous studies of workplace bullying have not investigated whether Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) employees experience bullying in similar or different ways to their heterosexual counterparts. This study reports on how and to what extent sexuality or sexual orientation influences the experience of workplace bullying and whether openness about sexual orientation elevates risks and shapes exposure to bullying. Using a large and rigorously compiled sample of the British working population comprising 500 non-heterosexuals and 722 heterosexuals (N = 1,222) and applying latent Class Cluster Analysis, a similar behavioural pattern of bullying for LGB employees emerged as for heterosexuals, although LGB employees were 1.34 times more likely to be bullied, and not being open about their sexual orientation elevated the risk of bullying. LGB employees were also more likely to be exposed to intrusive, sexualized behaviours and behaviours of an exclusionary nature. Altogether, this suggests that prejudices and stereotyping towards LGB people persist. Whilst being open about their sexual orientation did not make LGB people more likely to become a target of bullying as hypothesized, those who only reveal their sexual orientation when asked, were significantly more likely to be exposed to negative acts than those who were totally open. This indicates that non-disclosure does not prevent others at work making assumptions of sexual orientation, indicating that stereotyping of LGBs plays a greater part in disclosure than has previously been acknowledged. Published on 2022-06-13 11:11:25
  • Congruence Rules! Increased Self-efficacy after Occupational Health
           Interventions—if Leaders and Teams Agree on the Participative Safety

    • Abstract: To succeed with participatory occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions it is not sufficient to consider only the employees’ perspective, as perceptual distance between leaders and teams is known to have an effect on outcomes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of leaders’ and teams’ perceptions of a non-threatening interpersonal atmosphere of trust and support (i.e., a participative safety climate) on employees’ changes in confidence in their ability at work to 1) interact socially (social self-efficacy), 2) manage emotions (emotional self-efficacy), and 3) solve tasks (cognitive self-efficacy) following a participatory OHS intervention. Thirty leaders and 348 employees in 28 teams from 5 organizations completed surveys before and after the intervention. Polynomial regression with response surface analyses revealed that agreement between leaders and teams regarding participative safety before the intervention related positively to all three self-efficacy dimensions after the intervention. These results exemplify how leaders’ and their teams’ different perceptions of the climate before implementing an intervention may affect changes in intervention-relevant outcomes. The findings contribute to the emergent understanding of how interventions are dependent on the organizational context where they are implemented. It also points to the need to consider non-linear relations in intervention research. The findings suggest that in practice, organizations conducting participatory OHS interventions should assess and address pre-intervention climate factors to succeed. Congruence matters. Published on 2022-06-08 12:50:11
  • Using a Smartphone App to Assess and Support Transfer of Training of
           Leadership Skills – A Feasibility Study

    • Abstract: Studies have shown that leadership behaviors can have a large impact on workplace productivity and health, and considerable time and money is spent on leadership training. The transfer of skills learned in training to daily practice at the workplace is an important outcome. This study investigated the use of a smartphone app and ecological momentary assessment to improve and measure transfer of training. The app was used in conjunction with a leadership training program and combined reminders, checklists, and single-item work environment questions. Managers (N = 17) used the app over an 11-week time period, collecting data multiple times each week for an intensive longitudinal within-participants design with no control group. Results indicate that the number of self-reported skills increased during the training period and that the app was appreciated as a skills training support. Published on 2022-04-01 11:21:09
  • “No Worries, there is No Error-Free Leadership!”: Error Strain,
           Worries about Leadership, and Leadership Career Intentions among

    • Abstract: The growing body of research suggests that leadership is not among the most attractive career goals, especially for the younger work force. However, the need for leadership has not diminished. To shed light on the “problem of supply”, this study addresses the question of why high-potential individuals (i.e., non-leaders) do not pursue leadership positions by focusing on worries about leadership (WAL) and error-related strain. We had two aims: (1) to identify different profiles of WAL among highly educated professionals, and (2) to explore whether their error strain and leadership career intentions differ among the identified WAL profiles. Data were gathered from 955 highly educated Finnish employees representing different sectors. WAL was measured by a three-dimensional scale consisting of worries about failure, work-life imbalance, and harming others. Based on the Latent Profile Analysis, six WAL profiles emerged: (1) Average-WAL (37% of respondents), (2) Low-WAL (34%), (3) High-WAL (6%), (4) Failure-sensitive (9%), (5) Imbalance-sensitive (4%) and (6) Harm-sensitive (11%). Professionals in the Low-WAL profile reported the lowest error strain, whereas employees in the profiles of High-WAL and Failure-sensitive reported the highest error strain. Employees in the Low-WAL profile were more willing to pursue a leadership career in an unfamiliar organization compared to employees in other profiles. In addition, employees within the Low-WAL profile were more willing to pursue a leadership career in an unfamiliar organization compared to their home organization. Implications of our findings and future directions are discussed. Published on 2022-03-29 11:21:20
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