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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista Costarricense de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista de Cultura Teológica     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios e Investigación en Psicología y Educación     Open Access  
Revista de Investigacion Psicologica     Open Access  
Revista de Psicodidáctica     Open Access  
Revista de Psicodidáctica (English ed.)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología : Segunda Epoca     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología Social, International Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Revista Electrónica de Metodología Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Laborativa     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista Psicológica Herediana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Wímb Lu     Open Access  
Revue de psychoéducation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée / European Review of Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revue québécoise de psychologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia     Open Access  
Roeper Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Rorschachiana     Hybrid Journal  
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics     Open Access  
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Satir International Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review     Hybrid Journal  
School Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
School Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Seeing and Perceiving     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Self and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Sexual Abuse A Journal of Research and Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sexual Offending : Theory, Research, and Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Simmel Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sleep Medicine : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Social Action : The Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology     Free   (Followers: 3)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Social Inclusion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Issues and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Social Psychological and Personality Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Social Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Society and Security Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Somnologie - Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Spanish Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
SSM - Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia z Kognitywistyki i Filozofii Umysłu     Open Access  
Studies in Asian Social Science     Open Access  
SUCHT - Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Praxis / Journal of Addiction Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Suma Psicologica     Open Access  
Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah     Open Access  
Teaching of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Terapia Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tesis Psicologica     Open Access  
TESTFÓRUM     Open Access  
The Arts in Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Clinical Neuropsychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
The International Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Journals of Gerontology : Series B : Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
The Psychoanalytic Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Themenzentrierte Interaktion     Hybrid Journal  
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Communities : The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Thérapie familiale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Thinking & Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tobacco Use Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Torture Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transactional Analysis Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Undecidable Unconscious : A Journal of Deconstruction and Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Psychology     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACHS     Open Access  
Vinculo - Revista do NESME     Open Access  
VIVESIANA     Open Access  
Voices : The Art and Science of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wege zum Menschen : Zeitschrift für Seelsorge und Beratung, heilendes und soziales Handeln     Hybrid Journal  
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Western Undergraduate Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Yaşam Becerileri Psikoloji Dergisi / Life Skills Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Arbeits - und Organisationspsychologie A&O     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zeitschrift für Gerontopsychologie und -psychiatrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für Individualpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Neuropsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Psychologie / Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Psych
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-8611
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 45-88: A Comparison of Methods for Synthesizing
           Results from Previous Research to Obtain Priors for Bayesian Structural
           Equation Modeling

    • Authors: Holmes Finch
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Bayesian estimation of latent variable models provides some unique advantages to researchers working with small samples and complex models when compared with the more commonly used maximum likelihood approach. A key aspect of Bayesian modeling involves the selection of prior distributions for the parameters of interest. Prior research has demonstrated that using default priors, which are typically noninformative, may yield biased and inefficient estimates. Therefore, it is recommended that data analysts obtain useful, informative priors from prior research whenever possible. The goal of the current simulation study was to compare several methods designed to combine results from prior studies that will yield informative priors for regression coefficients in structural equation models. These methods include noninformative priors, Bayesian synthesis, pooled analysis, aggregated priors, standard meta-analysis, power priors, and the meta-analytic predictive methods. Results demonstrated that power priors and meta-analytic predictive priors, used in conjunction with Bayesian estimation, may yield the most accurate estimates of the latent structure coefficients. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 89-99: Differences between Germans in the
           ‘Young’, ‘Adult’, and ‘Over-40s’ Age
           Groups Regarding Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety and Satisfaction with
           Life

    • Authors: Felix Viktor Herbertz, Tanja Zimmermann
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Depression and anxiety, the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide, are among the top four mental disorders in Germany, and both impact life satisfaction. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction in different age groups has not been sufficiently examined. The present cross-sectional study of a non-clinical sample of a German-speaking population analyzes the links between age—specifically, certain life stages—as predictors for depression and anxiety symptoms and life satisfaction. Therefore, three age groups were formed from all the participants (N = 478): ‘Young’ (18–24 years), ‘Adult’ (25–39 years), and ‘Over-40s’ (40 years and older). The German versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7), and the German Quality of Life Questionnaire (FLZ-A) were used for our analysis. Our statistical analysis consisted of χ2 tests and an ANCOVA for determining the associations between categorical variables. The Over 40s age group showed statistically significantly higher life satisfaction than the ‘Adult’ age group. Comparing levels of depressive or anxiety symptoms, there were no statistically significant differences across the age groups. These findings highlight the significance of considering age as a factor in understanding mental health and well-being. Further research is warranted to investigate supplementary factors that could potentially contribute to the variations observed within the different age groups.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 100-110: Personality Traits Leading Respondents to
           Refuse to Answer a Forced-Choice Personality Item: An Item Response Tree
           (IRTree) Model

    • Authors: Martin Storme, Nils Myszkowski, Emeric Kubiak, Simon Baron
      First page: 100
      Abstract: In the present article, we investigate personality traits that may lead a respondent to refuse to answer a forced-choice personality item. For this purpose, we use forced-choice items with an adapted response format. As in a traditional forced-choice item, the respondent is instructed to choose one out of two statements to describe their personality. However, we also offer the respondent the option of refusing to choose. In this case, however, the respondent must report a reason for refusing to choose, indicating either that the two statements describe them equally well, or that neither statement describes them adequately. We use an Item Response Tree (IRTree) model to simultaneously model refusal to choose and the reason indicated by the respondent. Our findings indicate that respondents who score high on openness are more likely to refuse to choose, and they tend to identify more often with both statements in the forced-choice item. Items containing non-socially desirable statements tend to be skipped more often, with the given reason being that neither proposition describes the respondent well. This tendency is stronger among respondents who score high on agreeableness, that is, a trait that is typically related to social desirability. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 111-134: Applying SEM, Exploratory SEM, and Bayesian
           SEM to Personality Assessments

    • Authors: Hyeri Hong, Alfonso J. Martinez
      First page: 111
      Abstract: Despite the importance of demonstrating and evaluating how structural equation modeling (SEM), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) work simultaneously, research comparing these analytic techniques is limited with few studies conducted to systematically compare them to each other using correlated-factor, hierarchical, and bifactor models of personality. In this study, we evaluate the performance of SEM, ESEM, and BSEM across correlated-factor, hierarchical, and bifactor structures and multiple estimation techniques (maximum likelihood, robust weighted least squares, and Bayesian estimation) to test the internal structure of personality. Results across correlated-factor, hierarchical, and bifactor models highlighted the importance of controlling for scale coarseness and allowing small off-target loadings when using maximum likelihood (ML) and robust weighted least squares estimation (WLSMV) and including informative priors (IP) when using Bayesian estimation. In general, Bayesian-IP and WLSMV ESEM models provided noticeably best model fits. This study is expected to serve as a guide for professionals and applied researchers, identify the most appropriate ways to represent the structure of personality, and provide templates for future research into personality and other multidimensional representations of psychological constructs. We provide Mplus code for conducting the demonstrated analyses in the online supplement.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 135-142: A Gender Analysis of Hospital Workers during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic Using the Distress Questionnaire-5: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Stefania De Simone, Massimo Franco, Giuseppe Servillo, Maria Vargas
      First page: 135
      Abstract: At high risk of experiencing symptoms of stress, female healthcare workers also faced the psychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aims of this study are to investigate whether women are associated with a high level of psychological distress in comparison to men and to explore the risk factors associated with a high level of psychological distress in women. For this purpose, a multivariable logistic regression model was tested with sex, age and professional role as predictors of psychological distress in women. We found that (1)women working in the four Italian hospitals analyzed during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced more psychological distress than men, (2) being between 26 and 35 years old and being a medical doctor were associated with the risk of women developing psychological distress, (3) being a female medical doctor presents a 23% risk of developing psychological distress, (4) female nurses working in COVID-19s ward had a 50% risk and female non-healthcare personnel working in COVID-19 wards had a 69% risk of developing psychological distress. In conclusion, our results suggest that interventions for supporting and promoting mental well-being among female healthcare workers are mandatory, especially for the professional categories of nurses and non-healthcare workers.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 143-162: Proteins in Scalp Hair of Preschool Children

    • Authors: Cynthia R. Rovnaghi, Kratika Singhal, Ryan D. Leib, Maria Xenochristou, Nima Aghaeepour, Allis S. Chien, Deendayal Dinakarpandian, Kanwaljeet J. S. Anand
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Background. Early childhood experiences have long-lasting effects on subsequent mental and physical health, education, and employment. The measurement of these effects relies on insensitive behavioral signs, subjective assessments by adult observers, neuroimaging or neurophysiological studies, or retrospective epidemiologic outcomes. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms of these long-term changes in development and health status remain unknown. Methods. We analyzed scalp hair from healthy children and their mothers using an unbiased proteomics platform combining tandem mass spectrometry, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and collision-induced dissociation to reveal commonly observed hair proteins with a spectral count of 3 or higher. Results. We observed 1368 non-structural hair proteins in children and 1438 non-structural hair proteins in mothers, with 1288 proteins showing individual variability. Mothers showed higher numbers of peptide spectral matches and hair proteins compared to children, with important age-related differences between mothers and children. Age-related differences were also observed in children, with differential protein expression patterns between younger (2 years and below) and older children (3–5 years). We observed greater similarity in hair protein patterns between mothers and their biological children compared with mothers and unrelated children. The top 5% of proteins driving population variability represented biological pathways associated with brain development, immune signaling, and stress response regulation. Conclusions. Non-structural proteins observed in scalp hair include promising biomarkers to investigate the long-term developmental changes and health status associated with early childhood experiences.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 163-176: Emotions and Coping: “What I Feel
           about It, Gives Me More Strategies to Deal with It'”

    • Authors: Cristina de Sousa, Helena Vinagre, João Viseu, João Ferreira, Helena José, Isabel Rabiais, António Almeida, Susana Valido, Maria João Santos, Sandy Severino, Luís Sousa
      First page: 163
      Abstract: Background: Personal emotions and affects have been identified and studied in the context of pandemics, as well as coping strategies centered on emotional regulation or the balance between positive and negative emotions. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to identify an emotion and affect structure in our sample and analyze the relationship of these dimensions with resilient coping in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: This study employed a cross-sectional design that involved a non-probabilistic sample with 598 participants over the age of 18, with 51.1% being female, and an average age of 40.73 years. First, the emotional structure was identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Secondly, a linear regression analysis was performed to investigate emotional dimensions as predictors of coping. Results: A valid and reliable emotional structure with four dimensions was identified. The regression model revealed that coping is positively associated with the active and positive dimension and negatively correlated with the negative and moral dimensions. Conclusions: Emotional dimensions are predictors of coping, with moral and negative dimensions having a negative effect, while active and positive dimensions have a positive effect. When designing interventions for coping strategies, multiple dimensions of emotions and affective states in people who are in vulnerable situations must be considered.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 177-195: In Mind and Spirit: The Psychosocial Impacts
           of Religiosity in Youth Mental Health Treatment

    • Authors: Katherine Klee, John P. Bartkowski
      First page: 177
      Abstract: The rise in suicides among elementary- to high-school-aged youth has alarmed health professionals for years, only to be amplified by the long-lasting effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Religion and spirituality offer many people significant psychosocial support in pandemic circumstances, often acting as platforms for hope and social connectedness. Yet, given the adultocentric world they inhabit, young people must often negotiate or reconsider the role of religion and spirituality in the context of their developmental trajectory. This research explores mental health professionals’ approaches to religiosity and spirituality in the delivery of therapeutic care to youth at risk of suicide. Qualitative analyses of interview transcripts conducted with youth mental health clinicians in the state of Texas underscore a myriad of contextual factors related to treating suicidal ideation and behaviors. We categorize our findings according to licensed mental health professionals’ (1) navigation of youth clients’ religious/spiritual preferences aligned with or opposed to familial preferences; (2) selective integration of youth-oriented religious/spiritual elements into treatment as warranted; and (3) reflections on the impacts of religion/spirituality on treatment efficacy for child and adolescent clients. This study adds to current research on religion and spirituality’s impact on mental health and its therapeutic integration into treatment practices tailored for youth.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 196-209: The IADC Grief Questionnaire as a Brief
           Measure for Complicated Grief in Clinical Practice and Research: A
           Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Fabio D’Antoni, Claudio Lalla
      First page: 196
      Abstract: IADC (induced after-death communication) therapy is a grief treatment developed by Botkin that is increasingly being acknowledged for its effectiveness in various countries worldwide. In clinical practice, professionals trained in IADC therapy employ a brief evaluation tool called the IADC Grief Questionnaire (IADC-GQ) to determine whether mourning can be disturbed or stopped, resulting in complicated grief. This preliminary research aimed to establish the psychometric properties of the IADC-GQ. The factor structure was analyzed in a sample consisting of 113 participants undergoing psychological treatment who had endured the loss of a loved one for a minimum of six months. The findings revealed a two-dimensional framework comprising two distinct factors: the “Clinical Score”, encompassing the most distressing elements of grief, and the “Continuing Bond” factor, which is associated with feelings of connection to the departed and thoughts regarding the existence of life after death. The IADC-GQ has the potential to be easily and quickly employed in both research and clinical settings. Moreover, it can qualitatively assist therapists during clinical interviews by highlighting the key areas where the grieving process may encounter obstacles.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 210-220: Walking Forward Together—The Next
           Step: Indigenous Youth Mental Health and the Climate Crisis

    • Authors: Michael Brown, Sabina Mirza, Jay Lu, Suzanne L. Stewart
      First page: 210
      Abstract: The climate crisis has resulted in mental health challenges for varying demographic groups of all ages, but Indigenous youth are one of the most vulnerable populations impacted by the climate crisis. Conversations regarding Indigenous youth and the climate crisis are often held without their presence or input, identifying a gap in research and the literature. The findings from this review include the components of climate change regarding the mental health of Indigenous youth as being direct and indirect pathways of impact and resistance. Direct pathways include the more immediate and physical consequences of climate change associated with mental unwellness. Indirect pathways include less obvious consequences to those without lived experience, such as disruptions to culture and magnified social inequities, which also result in negative mental health consequences. The resistance component explores how Indigenous youth have been protesting and actively speaking out, which highlights the importance of the inclusion of Indigenous youth voices in decision-making spaces related to mental health service resources (i.e., funding) and policy in climate action. This review ends with a discussion on ways forward, the limitations herein, and how the uniqueness of the research may contribute to climate justice.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 221-235: The Positive Association between Grit and
           Mental Toughness, Enhanced by a Minimum of 75 Minutes of
           Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity, among US Students

    • Authors: Andreas Stamatis, Grant B. Morgan, Ali Boolani, Zacharias Papadakis
      First page: 221
      Abstract: Drawing from the 2015 Gucciardi et al.’s mental toughness (MT) framework, this study examines the association between grit and MT in US college students, while considering the moderating role of at least 75 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) based on recommendations from the American College of Sports Medicine. We administered the Grit-S Scale and the Mental Toughness Index in two samples of a total of 340 US undergraduate student-athletes and graduate students. The Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies was employed to ensure internal validity, while statistical procedures including principal component analysis and regression models were utilized to analyze the collected data. A weighted component combining grit and the interaction between MVPA and grit significantly predicted MT, explaining 23% of its variability. Drawing from a specific conceptual framework, this study provides novel insights into the relationship between grit, engagement in at least 75 min of MVPA per week, and MT among US collegiate students. The findings support a positive association between grit, MVPA, and both MT and a specific component of MT, highlighting the significance of these factors in enhancing performance and suggesting potential implications for future research and practical applications in the field.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 236-260: Nonparametric Kernel Smoothing Item Response
           Theory Analysis of Likert Items

    • Authors: Purya Baghaei, Farshad Effatpanah
      First page: 236
      Abstract: Likert scales are the most common psychometric response scales in the social and behavioral sciences. Likert items are typically used to measure individuals’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and behavioral changes. To analyze the psychometric properties of individual Likert-type items and overall Likert scales, mostly methods based on classical test theory (CTT) are used, including corrected item–total correlations and reliability indices. CTT methods heavily rely on the total scale scores, making it challenging to directly examine the performance of items and response options across varying levels of the trait. In this study, Kernel Smoothing Item Response Theory (KS-IRT) is introduced as a graphical nonparametric IRT approach for the evaluation of Likert items. Unlike parametric IRT models, nonparametric IRT models do not involve strong assumptions regarding the form of item response functions (IRFs). KS-IRT provides graphics for detecting peculiar patterns in items across different levels of a latent trait. Differential item functioning (DIF) can also be examined by applying KS-IRT. Using empirical data, we illustrate the application of KS-IRT to the examination of Likert items on a psychological scale.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 260-272: The Impact of Dementia on the Psychosocial
           Well-Being of Informal Caregivers in Asia: A Scoping Review Comparing
           High-Income and Low–Middle-Income Countries

    • Authors: Aiza Amor Padre-e Abayon, Millicent Raymonds, Priya Brahmbhatt, Shelina Samnani, Fahad Hanna
      First page: 260
      Abstract: The need for informal caregiving has become a crucial topic for researchers and policymakers. This review explores the psychosocial impact on caregivers providing dementia care in high-income and low–middle-income Asian countries. A scoping review was undertaken following the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) protocol. A systematic search of four databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Medline, and Medline Complete) was conducted. Articles were screened following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Fourteen articles (11 cross-sectional, 1 longitudinal, 1 case-control, and 1 descriptive phenomenological study) were selected for the final analysis. The most frequently reported findings from low–middle-income countries were dementia caregivers working longer hours and experiencing financial issues, poor physical health, and lower life satisfaction, which progressively and collectively affected caregivers’ psychosocial well-being and quality of life. However, the impact was less significant in high-income Asian countries, particularly those where efforts are being made to identify the burdens associated with caring for people with dementia and providing appropriate support. This review demonstrates clear evidence that caring for people with dementia may affect informal caregivers’ quality of life, particularly in low–middle-income Asian countries. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may be needed to confirm these findings.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 273-287: Freezing Effect and Bystander Effect:
           Overlaps and Differences

    • Authors: Elena Siligato, Giada Iuele, Martina Barbera, Francesca Bruno, Guendalina Tordonato, Aurora Mautone, Amelia Rizzo
      First page: 273
      Abstract: The present article provides a detailed comparison of two psychological phenomena, the freezing effect and the bystander effect, across their neurobiological, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions. This study focuses on identifying and analyzing the similarities and differences between these two responses to stressful and traumatic events. While the freezing effect is characterized by an involuntary neurobiological response to immediate threats, resulting in temporary immobilization or paralysis, the bystander effect describes a cognitive and social phenomenon where individuals refrain from offering help in emergencies when others are present. The study explores affective aspects, including emotional responses and trauma-related impacts associated with both phenomena. Through a comparative analysis, this research unveils important understandings regarding the distinctions among these responses, including their triggers, underlying mechanisms, and observable behaviors. It also highlights overlapping aspects, particularly in how both phenomena can lead to inaction in critical moments. This comparative study contributes to a deeper understanding of the complex interaction between the brain, individual cognition, and social dynamics in the face of danger and stress. The findings of this research have significant implications for understanding human behavior in emergencies, offering valuable perspectives that can be applied in the domains of psychology, training for emergency response, and trauma therapy.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 288-304: Early Change in Quality of Life in the
           Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa

    • Authors: Eliza D. Newton, Liquan Liu, Janet Conti, Stephen Touyz, Jon Arcelus, Sloane Madden, Kathleen Pike, Phillipa Hay
      First page: 288
      Abstract: This study aimed to examine whether early change in self-reported quality of life (QoL) was a predictor of outcomes in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). Given suggestions that people with AN overestimate their QoL when unwell, we hypothesised that any early change in self-reported QoL, be it an early improvement or early worsening, would predict better outcomes in terms of end-of-treatment body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, and QoL. Participants were 78 adult outpatients engaged in cognitive behaviour therapy for anorexia nervosa (CBT-AN) either with or without the embedded compulsive exercise module “compuLsive Exercise Activity TheraPy” (LEAP). Polynomial regression was utilised to examine the effects of varying combinations of baseline and 10-week self-reported physical-health-relatedr QoL (SF-12; PHRQoL subscale), mental-health-related QoL (SF-12; MHRQoL subscale), and eating-disorder-specific QoL (EDQoL; global, psychological, cognitive/physical, financial, and school/work subscales) on end-of-treatment BMI, ED psychopathology, and QoL. Greater magnitudes of early change in global EDQoL scores, both positive and negative, predicted better MHRQoL but not BMI or ED psychopathology at the end of treatment. Psychological EDQoL ratings also accounted for 38.1% of the variance in end-of-treatment ED psychopathology, although tests examining the 6ratings may be meaningful in predicting treatment outcomes. The positive impact of early worsening in QoL ratings suggests that early QoL ratings are inflated due to denial and poor insight. Clinicians should be reassured that early QoL decline does not indicate treatment failure.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 305-344: Well-Being Technologies and Positive
           Psychology Strategies for Training Metacognition, Emotional Intelligence
           and Motivation Meta-Skills in Clinical Populations: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Eleni Mitsea, Athanasios Drigas, Charalabos Skianis
      First page: 305
      Abstract: The holistic growth and psychological well-being of people with special needs and disabilities remain high on the priority agenda for sustainable and inclusive education. Digital well-being technologies and especially “smart technologies”, are ready to revolutionize mental health interventions by meeting trainees’ needs and providing them with more positive and transformative mental, emotional, and social experiences. Μeta-skills refer to a set of consciousness-raising competences that incorporate meta-cognitive, social–emotional, and motivational attributes, allowing individuals to intentionally achieve a state of optimal functioning. Although positive psychology and well-being technologies are considered promising intervention approaches, there is less knowledge regarding the effectiveness of such interventions among people with special needs and disabilities, especially in the crucial domain of meta-skills development. Thus, the current systematic review aims to examine positive psychology strategies as well as the synergy with well-being technologies in the development of metacognition, emotional intelligence, and motivation meta-skills in populations with special training needs and disabilities. The PRISMA methodology was utilized to answer the research questions. A total of forty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that positive psychology strategies improved a wide range of meta-skills, including self-regulation, emotional control, behavioral control, inhibition control, self-awareness, intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, adaptation, goal setting, and self-compassion. Artificial intelligence tools, wearables, smart applications, immersive technologies (virtual and augmented reality), neurofeedback and biofeedback technologies, as well as digital games were found to effectively assist such training programs. The results of the current review may provide positive feedback in the discussion about digitally-aided mental health interventions for training the meta-skills of mental and emotional health.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 345-355: Evidence of Validity, Invariance, and
           Reliability of the Body Image Dimension in the Body Investment Scale: A
           Study in Spanish University Students

    • Authors: Diego Diaz-Milanes, Carmen Santin Vilariño, Montserrat Andrés-Villas, Ana Segura-Barriga, Pedro Juan Pérez-Moreno
      First page: 345
      Abstract: Background: This study focused on the widely used Body Image subscale, a dimension of the Body Investment Scale developed by Orbach and Mikulincer in 1998. Specifically, we explored its psychometric properties and potential use for health promotion research among young Spanish university students. Method: A sample of 793 participants (75.28% female) aged 18–26 years (M = 20.68; SD = 2.13) completed the questionnaire and related variables. Results: A unidimensional structure was confirmed with a good fit, demonstrating gender- and age-invariance, along with robust internal consistency. The scale exhibited a significant association with self-esteem, life satisfaction, a sense of coherence, and psychological distress. Conclusions: The Body Image subscale can be considered unidimensional. The obtained factor solution provides a reliable, valid, and invariant measure across gender and age for assessing body feelings in Spanish university students. Therefore, the instrument can effectively investigate the relationship between body image and health-related behaviors. Additionally, it can serve as a valuable tool in designing effective health interventions for university students to prevent mental health conditions, such as eating disorders or suicidal behaviors.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 356-375: Work-Related Flow in Contrast to Either
           Happiness or PERMA Factors for Human Resources Management Development of
           Career Sustainability

    • Authors: Carol Nash
      First page: 356
      Abstract: In promoting career sustainability, psychological theories historically have informed human resource management (HRM) development—three assessment directions are among them: work-related flow, happiness promotion, and appraising PERMA (Positive Emotions, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment) factors. Csikszentmihalyi’s work-related flow represents an optimally challenging work-related process. Happiness promotion strives to maintain a pleased satisfaction with the current experience. PERMA represents measurable positive psychological factors constituting well-being. Reliable and validated, the experience of flow has been found to determine career sustainability in contrast to the more often investigated happiness ascertainment or identifying PERMA factors. Career sustainability research to inform HRM development is in its infancy. Therefore, publishers’ commitment to sustainability provides integrity. Given MDPI’s uniquely founding sustainability concern, its journal articles were searched with the keywords “flow, Csikszentmihalyi, work”, excluding those pertaining to education, health, leisure, marketing, non-workers, and spirituality, to determine the utilization of work-related flow to achieve career sustainability. Of the 628 returns, 28 reports were included for potential assessment. Current studies on Csikszentmihalyi’s work-related flow ultimately represented three results. These provide insight into successful, positive methods to develop career sustainability. Consequently, HRM is advised to investigate practices for assessing and encouraging employees’ engagement with work-related flow with the aim of ensuring career sustainability.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 376: Correction: Hong et al. Applying SEM,
           Exploratory SEM, and Bayesian SEM to Personality Assessments. Psych 2024,
           6, 111–134

    • Authors: Hyeri Hong, Walter P. Vispoel, Alfonso J. Martinez
      First page: 376
      Abstract: Addition of an Author [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 377-400: Item Response Analysis of a Structured
           Mixture Item Response Model with mirt Package in R

    • Authors: Minho Lee, Yon Soo Suh, Minjeong Jeon
      First page: 377
      Abstract: Structured mixture item response models (StrMixIRMs) are a special type of constrained confirmatory mixture item response theory (IRT) model for detecting latent performance differences in a measurement instrument by characteristic item groups, and classifying respondents according to these differences. In light of limited software options for estimating StrMixIRMs under existing frameworks, this paper proposes reparameterizing it as a confirmatory mixture IRT model using interaction effects between latent classes and item groups. The reparameterization allows for easier implementation of StrMixIRMs with multiple software programs that have mixture modeling capabilities, including open-source ones. This widens the accessibility to these models to a broad range of users and thus can facilitate research and applications of StrMixIRMs. This paper serves two main goals: First, we introduce StrMixIRMs, focusing on the proposed reparameterization based on interaction effects and its various extensions. Second, we illustrate use cases of this novel reparameterization within the mirt 1.41 package in R by employing two empirical datasets. Detailed R code with notes are provided for the applications along with an interpretation of the outputs.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 401-425: A Robust Indicator Mean-Based Method for
           Estimating Generalizability Theory Absolute Error and Related
           Dependability Indices within Structural Equation Modeling Frameworks

    • Authors: Hyeryung Lee, Walter P. Vispoel
      First page: 401
      Abstract: In this study, we introduce a novel and robust approach for computing Generalizability Theory (GT) absolute error and related dependability indices using indicator intercepts that represent observed means within structural equation models (SEMs). We demonstrate the applicability of our method using one-, two-, and three-facet designs with self-report measures having varying numbers of scale points. Results for the indicator mean-based method align well with those obtained from the GENOVA and R gtheory packages for doing conventional GT analyses and improve upon previously suggested methods for deriving absolute error and corresponding dependability indices from SEMs when analyzing three-facet designs. We further extend our approach to derive Monte Carlo confidence intervals for all key indices and to incorporate estimation procedures that correct for scale coarseness effects commonly observed when analyzing binary or ordinal data.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 426-437: Qualitative Pilot Interventions for the
           Enhancement of Mental Health Support in Doctoral Students

    • Authors: Chloe Casey, Steven Trenoweth, Orlanda Harvey, Jason Helstrip, Fiona Knight, Julia Taylor, Martyn Polkinghorne
      First page: 426
      Abstract: Doctoral degrees include Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and other professional doctorates such as Engineering Doctorate (EngD), Doctor of Education (EdD), or Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy). Unlike undergraduate- or postgraduate-taught students, doctoral study focuses on a single, autonomous piece of research. Research indicates a high occurrence of mental health problems in doctoral students. This paper describes the piloting and qualitative evaluation of a range of interventions designed to enhance the mental health support for doctoral students at one UK university. These interventions sought to target an array of known factors that affect the mental health of doctoral students, including individual capacity for coping with stress and social support availability.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2024-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 1-20: Life-Space: Is It Anywhere Outside Our
           Minds'

    • Authors: António de Castro Caeiro
      First page: 1
      Abstract: This paper explores the intricate relationship between our personal experiences of space and the autobiographical nature of our geography. Our geographical awareness is profoundly shaped by the places we have been, encompassing a rich tapestry of places such as childhood homes, educational institutions, vacation spots, and bustling city streets. These spaces become imbued with personal memories and significance, forming the backdrop of our individual narratives. While these experiences are inherently personal and unique, they are also shared in a broader sense. This duality of personal fand communal experience adds layers of complexity to our understanding of space. Furthermore, our experiences of space are deeply intertwined with the passage of time.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010001
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 21-34: Further Refinement of the Center for
           Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10: Complementary Evidence from
           Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory

    • Authors: Anita Padmanabhanunni, Tyrone B. Pretorius
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The assessment of mental health, particularly depression, in university student populations is crucial for effective intervention and support. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10 (CES-D10) among 322 university students in the Western Cape province of South Africa, employing both classical test theory and item response theory. Participants were also assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and a short form of the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The results reveal satisfactory reliability indices for the CES-D10 based on Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega. However, Item 8 was identified as problematic across multiple metrics, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis; therefore, the exclusion of this item is recommended for improved scale performance. The 9-item version displayed superior fit in the CFA and better construct validity than the 10-item scale. Scores on the CES-D10 were positively correlated with perceived stress and hopelessness and negatively correlated with life satisfaction, supporting the criterion-related validity of the scale. The study extends the psychometric validation literature of the CES-D10 by incorporating Rasch analysis, underscoring the benefits of using multiple statistical frameworks to achieve robust findings. These results have relevance for mental health assessment among university students in developing contexts, providing an evidence-based tool for early intervention.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 6, Pages 34-44: Neuroanatomical Correlates of Anxiety
           Disorders and Their Implications in Manifestations of Cognitive and
           Behavioral Symptoms

    • Authors: Mathilde Jeanne, Fraser Carson, Felippe Toledo
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Developing an anxiety disorder can be the source of further cognitive, behavioral, and emotional struggles, impacting the quality of life of people experiencing such disorders and leading to a burden on health systems. Increased knowledge of the neurobiological events leading to the development of such disorders can be crucial for diagnostic procedures, as well as the selection and adaptation of therapeutic and preventive measures. Despite recent advances in this field, research is still at the initial steps when it comes to understanding the specific neurofunctional processes guiding these changes in the brains of people with an anxiety disorder. This narrative review gathered knowledge from previous studies, with the aim of evaluating the neuroanatomical changes observed in individuals experiencing social or generalized anxiety disorder (SAD, GAD), to further link these anxiety-related structural modifications with brain function abnormalities and the expression of symptoms in individuals experiencing anxiety disorders. In addition, contradictory results are discussed, leading to suggestions for future studies.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/psych6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1019-1029: How Anxious and Stressed Are Emerging
           Adults' The Role of Mindfulness and Intolerance of Uncertainty

    • Authors: Marina Nekić
      First page: 1019
      Abstract: The focus on mental health during emerging adulthood (EA) is necessary due to the development of mental disorders before the age of 25 and the adverse effects of stress and anxiety on psychological well-being. Mindfulness has been shown to aid in coping with stress and anxiety, while intolerance of uncertainty can lead to higher distress levels. The aim of this research was to explore the prevalence and interrelationships between anxiety, stress, intolerance of uncertainty, and mindfulness, as well as potential gender differences. The study involved 425 emerging adults, with a majority of female participants. Anxiety and stress levels were found to be mild, with anxiety tending towards a moderate level in women. Gender differences were observed solely within the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty, with women displaying higher levels of intolerance. For women, all of the measured variables correlated as expected; stress and anxiety showed moderate positive relationships with the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty but negative ones with mindfulness. Furthermore, the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty were negatively correlated with mindfulness in the female sample. Whereas for men, only anxiety and stress correlated positively, and stress also exhibited a negative relationship with mindfulness. Additionally, the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty showed low negative correlations with mindfulness. Significant predictors for anxiety were inhibitory anxiety, as one of the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty and mindfulness. On the other hand, all of the measured predictors were statistically significant for stress, indicating that being intolerant of uncertainty and less mindful were associated with higher stress levels. An identifying factor contributing to anxiety and stress during EA, for both men and women, is essential because it increases our understanding, which may lead to more efficient prevention and treatment strategies.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040068
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1030-1045: Is Less More' Reevaluating the
           Psychometric Properties of the Sense of Coherence-13 and a Revised
           Seven-Item Version in South Africa Using Classical Theory and Item
           Response Theory

    • Authors: Tyrone B. Pretorius, Anita Padmanabhanunni
      First page: 1030
      Abstract: Studies on the dimensionality and factor structure of the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13) scale have produced inconsistent results, and there is a need for comprehensive psychometric testing of the scale in different populations and using diverse methodologies. SOC refers to the individual’s ability to perceive life as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful. The current study investigated the dimensionality of the SOC-13 through the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), ancillary bifactor indices and item response theory in a sample of young adults in South Africa. Participants were students (n = 322) who completed the SOC-13, the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and short forms of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the trait scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. CFA indicated the best fit for a one-factor model, but the problematic parameter estimates raise concerns about the construct validity of the scale. Non-parametric item response theory (Mokken scale analysis [MSA]) identified limitations in the original 13-item version, suggesting a more dependable seven-item version (SOC-7). This revised scale exhibited strong psychometric characteristics and was consistent with the theoretical foundations that underpin the construct. We verified the unidimensional structure of the SOC with the more stringent parametric item-response theory (Rasch analysis) which confirmed that the seven-item SOC is unidimensional. Rasch analysis confirmed the measurement invariance of the SOC-13 in terms of gender and area of residence. The study suggests that a shorter seven-item version consisting of items from the three components of sense of coherence has comparative properties to the 13-item version but the evidence does not provide support for the use of the SOC-13 as a multidimensional measure. Research in the area of sense of coherence would benefit from further validation studies of both the original SOC-13 and the revised SOC-7, especially across populations and settings.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040069
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1046-1056: Multiple Passions and Psychosomatic Health

    • Authors: Karolina Mudło-Głagolska, Paweł Larionow
      First page: 1046
      Abstract: People are often passionate about different activities in their lives. This study examined the role of multiple passions in psychosomatic health (i.e., subjective vitality and somatic symptoms) using variable-centered and person-centered approaches. Our sample consisted of 267 Polish adults, who filled out the measures on harmonious passion (HP), obsessive passion (OP), subjective vitality as a trait, and somatic symptoms in four categories (exhaustion, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular complaints). In general, HP showed protective properties against individual somatic complaints, whereas OP was associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms, chiefly cardiovascular complaints. We highlighted that, unlike the first passion, the second passion can explain the differences in well-being and ill-being. Our study indicated the moderate health-promoting effects of HP, and the moderate-to-strong adverse effects of OP on somatic health. Having multiple passions of obsessive nature may be harmful for somatic health. In order to be healthy, prevention of the development of multiple passions with high obsessive levels seems to be a priority. Potential psychosomatic pathways were discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040070
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1057-1076: System 1 vs. System 2 Thinking

    • Authors: Sergio Da Silva
      First page: 1057
      Abstract: This paper explores the dual-processing hypothesis of the mind, Systems 1 and 2, by examining debates between cognitive and evolutionary psychologists. I structure the discussion in a back-and-forth manner to emphasize the differences. I show that, while the majority of cognitive psychologists now embrace the dual-processing theory of the mind, Systems 1 and 2, there are still some who disagree. Most evolutionary psychologists, in contrast, dispute the existence of System 2, a domain-general mind, although some disagree. However, a consensus is growing in favor of System 2, although evolutionary psychologists’ concerns must be addressed. The uniqueness of this review is that it contrasts the perspectives of cognitive psychologists with evolutionary psychologists, which is uncommon in the cognitive psychology literature, which tends to overlook evolutionary viewpoints.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040071
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1077-1100: Smartphone App-Based Interventions to
           Support Smoking Cessation in Smokers with Mental Health Conditions: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Jinsong Chen, Joanna Chu, Samantha Marsh, Tianyi Shi, Chris Bullen
      First page: 1077
      Abstract: Background—Despite global efforts to control tobacco use, smoking remains a leading cause of preventable diseases, mortality, and disparities, especially among individuals with mental health conditions. Smartphone apps have emerged as cost-effective tools to aid smokers in quitting; however, their evidence-based foundation remains understudied. This research conducted two searches to identify relevant apps: one through the scientific literature and the other from app stores. Methods—The study sought apps designed to assist smokers with mental health conditions in quitting. Searches were conducted in the scientific literature and major app stores. The apps found were evaluated for their basis in theory, features, and claimed effectiveness. Usage and rating scores were compared. Results—Among 23 apps found from app store search, only 10 (43%) were evidence-based and none had explicit reference to theory, while all apps identified in the literature were developed by applying theory. However, app store apps had significantly higher user numbers and ratings than those identified in the literature (mean rating 4.7 out of 5.0). Conclusion—Smokers with mental health conditions have limited support from currently available smoking cessation apps. Apps identified in the scientific literature lack sufficient use and longevity. Sustained support beyond research projects is crucial for enabling theoretically informed evidence-based apps to be available for people with mental health conditions, as is greater collaboration between developers and researchers to create apps that engage with end-user design.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040072
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1101-1108: Predicting Myalgic
           Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Early Symptoms of COVID-19
           Infection

    • Authors: Chelsea Hua, Jennifer Schwabe, Leonard A. Jason, Jacob Furst, Daniela Raicu
      First page: 1101
      Abstract: It is still unclear why certain individuals after viral infections continue to have severe symptoms. We investigated if predicting myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) development after contracting COVID-19 is possible by analyzing symptoms from the first two weeks of COVID-19 infection. Using participant responses to the 54-item DePaul Symptom Questionnaire, we built predictive models based on a random forest algorithm using the participants’ symptoms from the initial weeks of COVID-19 infection to predict if the participants would go on to meet the criteria for ME/CFS approximately 6 months later. Early symptoms, particularly those assessing post-exertional malaise, did predict the development of ME/CFS, reaching an accuracy of 94.6%. We then investigated a minimal set of eight symptom features that could accurately predict ME/CFS. The feature reduced models reached an accuracy of 93.5%. Our findings indicated that several IOM diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS occurring during the initial weeks after COVID-19 infection predicted Long COVID and the diagnosis of ME/CFS after 6 months.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040073
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1109-1121: Detecting Faking on Self-Report Measures
           Using the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    • Authors: Walter P. Vispoel, Murat Kilinc, Wei S. Schneider
      First page: 1109
      Abstract: We compared three methods for scoring the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) to detect faked responses on self-report measures: (1) polytomous, (2) dichotomous emphasizing exaggerating endorsement of socially desirable behaviors, and (3) dichotomous emphasizing exaggerating denial of such behaviors. The results revealed that respondents on average were able to fake good or fake bad and that faking markedly affected score distributions, subscale score intercorrelations, and overall model fits. When using the Impression Management scale, polytomous and dichotomous exaggerated endorsement scoring were best for detecting faking good, whereas polytomous and dichotomous exaggerated denial scoring were best for detecting faking bad. When using the Self-Deceptive Enhancement scale, polytomous and dichotomous exaggerated endorsement scoring again were best for detecting faking good, but dichotomous exaggerated denial scoring was best for detecting faking bad. Percentages of correct classification of honest and faked responses for the most effective methods for any given scale ranged from 85% to 93%, with accuracy on average in detecting faking bad greater than in detecting faking good and greater when using the Impression Management than using the Self-Deceptive Enhancement scale for both types of faking. Overall, these results best support polytomous scoring of the BIDR Impression Management scale as the single most practical and efficient means to detect faking. Cut scores that maximized classification accuracy for all scales and scoring methods are provided for future use in screening for possible faking within situations in which relevant local data are unavailable.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040074
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1122-1139: L0 and Lp Loss Functions in Model-Robust
           Estimation of Structural Equation Models

    • Authors: Alexander Robitzsch
      First page: 1122
      Abstract: The Lp loss function has been used for model-robust estimation of structural equation models based on robustly fitting moments. This article addresses the choice of the tuning parameter ε that appears in the differentiable approximations of the nondifferentiable Lp loss functions. Moreover, model-robust estimation based on the Lp loss function is compared with a recently proposed differentiable approximation of the L0 loss function and a direct minimization of a smoothed version of the Bayesian information criterion in regularized estimation. It turned out in a simulation study that the L0 loss function slightly outperformed the Lp loss function in terms of bias and root mean square error. Furthermore, standard errors of the model-robust SEM estimators were analytically derived and exhibited satisfactory coverage rates.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040075
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1140-1155: Interaction Map: A Visualization Tool for
           Personalized Learning Based on Assessment Data

    • Authors: Eric Ho, Minjeong Jeon
      First page: 1140
      Abstract: Personalized learning is the shaping of instruction to meet students’ needs to support student learning and improve learning outcomes. While it has received increasing attention in education, limited resources are available to help educators properly leverage assessment data to foster personalized learning. Motivated by this need, we introduce a new visualization tool, the interaction map, to foster personalized learning based on assessment data. The interaction map approach is engineered by the latent space item response model, a recent development in assessment data-leveraging social network analysis methodologies. In the interaction map, students and test items are mapped into a two-dimensional geometric space, in which their distances tell us about the student’s strengths and weaknesses with individual or groups of test items given their overall ability levels. Student profiles can be generated based on these distances to display individual student strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we introduce a user-friendly, free web-based software IntMap in which users can upload their own assessment data and view the customizable interaction map and student profiles based on settings that users can adjust. We illustrate the use of the software with an educational assessment example.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040076
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1156-1169: Gender Differences, Trauma, and Resilience
           of Children Born of Rape, and Perception of Their Behavior by Parents and
           the Community in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    • Authors: Cécilia A. Foussiakda, Claire Gavray, Yannick Mugumaarhahama, Juvenal B. Balegamire, Adelaïde Blavier
      First page: 1156
      Abstract: This study was conducted in the eastern DR Congo to analyze the trauma of children born of rape (CBOR), and their behavior as it is perceived by their parents and community. Twenty-four families of women rape survivors and twenty-seven control families were used. The Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children, Child Behavior Checklist, and Child and Youth Resilience Measure tests were applied. In addition, a discussion group was conducted with community members. Comparatively to girls, boys born from rape are traumatized and have psychopathological concerns such as anxiety, depression, and summation, and high internalized and externalized behaviors compared to boys from control families. Furthermore, CBOR are aggressive and gather in gangs. Despite the suffering, both CBOR and their siblings increase their resilience over the years and derive it from their environment, especially in the absence of the father who has become a polygamist. Girls born of rape are more resilient than their siblings.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040077
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1170-1190: Unveiling the Dot-Perspective Task:
           Integrating Implicit-Mentalistic with Sub-Mentalistic Processes

    • Authors: Cong Fan, Tirta Susilo, Jason Low
      First page: 1170
      Abstract: Adults’ performances on the dot-perspective task showed a consistency effect: participants were slower to judge their own visual perspective when their own perspective and others’ perspective were different compared to when both perspectives were the same. This effect has been explained by two competing accounts: the implicit mentalising account suggests the effect arises from relatively automatic tracking of others’ visual perspectives, whereas the submentalising account suggests the effect arises from domain-general attentional orienting. We conducted three experiments to adjudicate between the two competing accounts. Experiment 1 manipulated eye–head directional cues (gaze-averted-face versus head-averted-face) and measured its effect on implicit mentalising (in the dot-perspective task) and attentional orienting (in the Posner task). Eye–head directional cues modulated attentional orienting but not implicit mentalising, supporting the importance of visual access and the existence of implicit mentalising in the dot-perspective task. Experiment 2 compared the effect of gaze-averted versus finger-pointing agents. Finger-pointing direction might induce attentional orienting effects on both tasks. Experiment 3 combined finger-pointing with manipulation of the agent’s visual access (eyes-sighted versus eyes-covered) on the dot-perspective task. Visual access did not modulate the consistency effect when finger-pointing was simultaneously displayed. The findings of Experiments 2 and 3 indicated the contribution of the sub-mentalistic process to the dot-perspective task. Overall, the findings suggest that implicit mentalising and submentalising may co-exist in human social perceptual processes. Visual access appears to play a dominant role in modulating implicit mentalising on the dot-perspective task, but the process may be interfered with by finger-pointing cues (more salient than gaze cues) via a sub-mentalistic attentional-orienting mechanism.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040078
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1191-1206: The Induction of Religious Experiences and
           Temporal Lobe Activation: Neuronal Source Localization Using EEG Inverse
           Solutions

    • Authors: Yoshija Walter, Thomas Koenig
      First page: 1191
      Abstract: Knowledge about brain source localizations for religious states of mind is still limited. Previous studies have usually not set a direct emphasis on experience. The present study investigated the phenomenon of religious experience using inverse solution calculations, and it is one of the first to measure the dimension of experience directly. A total of 60 evangelical Christians participated in an experiment where they were asked to engage in worship and try to connect with God. Using a bar slider, the participants continuously rated how strongly they sensed God’s presence at any given moment. A selection of songs helped to induce the desired experience. Measurements were made using EEG with 64 electrodes and inverse solutions were calculated with sLORETA. We appropriated two mutually compatible hypotheses from the literature pertaining to religious experiences: the executive inhibition hypothesis (reformulated as the frontal relaxation hypothesis) and the temporal involvement hypothesis. Our results did not yield any information about the frontal areas; however, they indicated that the right temporal cortex appeared to be involved during the experience.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040079
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1207-1223: Control–Value Appraisals and
           Achievement Emotions: A Moderation Analysis

    • Authors: Maysa Abuzant, Wajeeh Daher, Fayez Mahamid
      First page: 1207
      Abstract: Emotions in second language acquisition have started to gain attention in the past few years. One of the main theories that has been used to investigate students’ achievement emotions is Pekrun’s control–value theory of achievement emotions. This research aims to use the control–value theory to investigate the relationship between control and value appraisals, their interaction, and the effect they have on anxiety, boredom, and enjoyment in the context of SLA. Data were collected from 515 university students enrolled in an English language course whose first language was Arabic. The results of analyzing the data indicated that students’ perceived intrinsic, attainment, and utility value interacted differently with students’ perceived control to affect anxiety, boredom, and enjoyment. The results highlight the role played by intrinsic value in the relationship between control and anxiety and control and enjoyment.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040080
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1224-1240: What Is Psychological Spin' A
           Thermodynamic Framework for Emotions and Social Behavior

    • Authors: Eva K. Deli
      First page: 1224
      Abstract: One of the most puzzling questions in neuroscience is the nature of emotions and their role in consciousness. The brain’s significant energy investment in maintaining the resting state indicates its essential role as the ground state of consciousness, the source of the sense of self. Emotions, the brain’s homeostatic master regulators, continuously measure and motivate the recovery of the psychological equilibrium. Moreover, perception’s information-energy exchange with the environment gives rise to a closed thermodynamic cycle, the reversible Carnot engine. The Carnot cycle forms an exothermic process; low entropy and reversible resting state turn the focus to the past, causing regret and remorse. The endothermic reversed Carnot cycle creates a high entropy resting state with irreversible activations generating novelty and intellect. We propose that the cycle’s direction represents psychological spin, where the endothermic cycle’s energy accumulation forms up-spin, and the energy-wasting exothermic cycle represents down-spin. Psychological spin corresponds to attitude, the determining factor in cognitive function and social life. By applying the Pauli exclusion principle for consciousness, we can explain the need for personal space and the formation of hierarchical social structures and animals’ territorial needs. Improving intuition about the brain’s intelligent computations may allow new treatments for mental diseases and novel applications in robotics and artificial intelligence.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040081
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1241-1255: Exploring the Link between Smartphone Use,
           Recorded Violence, and Social Sharing in 80 Case Studies in Italy

    • Authors: Amelia Rizzo, Emanuela Princiotta, Giada Iuele
      First page: 1241
      Abstract: The increasing prevalence of violence recorded and shared through smartphones in today’s digital age has raised concerns about the underlying reasons driving such behavior. However, the lack of experimental studies and scientific evidence exploring the relationship between smartphone use and acts of violence has hindered our understanding of this phenomenon. To bridge this gap, the present study aimed to investigate the potential link between smartphone usage and the perpetration of violence, specifically focusing on incidents where violent acts were recorded and shared publicly. Given the challenges associated with directly observing such occurrences and the limitations of self-reporting due to social desirability bias, the study adopted a novel approach by analyzing major news outlets. Cross-referencing the most recent cases involving 80 episodes of violence, spanning from 2017 to 2023, accompanied by smartphone-recorded videos, the research aimed to gain insights into the role and outcomes of content dissemination. The findings revealed a concerning trend, indicating a rise in violence perpetrated with the aid of smartphones, where subsequent sharing on social networks and instant messaging platforms contributed to the viral spread of such content. This study provides valuable insights into the connection between smartphone usage, violence, and the sharing of violent content. The implications of these findings highlight the need for further research and the development of tools to detect and address violence-related issues in the digital space. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of responsible social media usage and collective efforts to curb the spread of violent content and foster a safer online environment.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040082
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1256-1269: Uncovering Cognitive Distortions in
           Adolescents: Cultural Adaptation and Calibration of an Arabic Version of
           the “How I Think Questionnaire”

    • Authors: Fairouz Azaiez, Amayra Tannoubi, Taoufik Selmi, Frank Quansah, Medina Srem-Sai, John Elvis Hagan, Chiraz Azaiez, Houda Bougrine, Nasr Chalghaf, Ghada Boussayala, Imane Ghalmi, Mazin Inhaier Lami, Mazin Dawood Ahmed AL-Hayali, Ahmed Wateed Mazyed Shdr AL-Rubaiawi, Nabee Muttlak Nasser AL-Sadoon
      First page: 1256
      Abstract: This study adapted and validated the How I Think Questionnaire (HIT-Q), intending to develop an Arabic version of the measure. The study assessed the (a) factorial structure of the Arabic version of the How I Think Questionnaire (A-HIT-Q), (b) construct validity evidence of the A-HIT-Q based on the internal structure of the scale, and (c) criterion validity evidence, highlighting how the cognitive distortions measure relates to some key theoretical variables such as depression. This study involved 762 Tunisian students aged 15–22 years, using a non-probabilistic sampling method. The students were boys (n = 297) and girls (n = 465). They completed self-report forms on Arabic-HIT-Q, depression (HADS), sleep (ISI), and physical activity participation, adhering to all relevant ethical considerations. Exploratory analysis revealed four factors which accounted for 73.46% of the variations in the distortion measure. Reliability analysis showed good internal consistency (α = 0.915) and temporal stability (r = 0.879). Criterion validity evidence showed cognitive distortion (as measured with the A-HIT-Q) was significantly associated with physical activity participation, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. However, no significant relationship has been observed between cognitive distortion, age, gender, and study levels. The evidence gathered supports the utility of the A-HIT-Q. Thus, the instrument demonstrates high efficacy in assessing the levels of cognitive distortions among adolescent students residing in Arabic-speaking regions.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040083
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1270-1287: Exploring the Experiences of Integrative
           Psychotherapists Regarding Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic in
           Greece: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    • Authors: Anna Filippou, Vaitsa Giannouli
      First page: 1270
      Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic invaded every aspect of everyday life; shook individuals’ personal, social, economic, and value systems; and led to a loss of the fundamental sense of safety and predictability, marking a global health emergency. Being exposed to the adverse life events of their clients and working under higher levels of risk, psychotherapists are experiencing increased anxiety and work-related stress. The objective of the study is to acquire a better comprehension of the processes and factors that supported integrative psychotherapists in Greece to promote resilience during the pandemic, to explore possible effective interventions, and to contribute to the limited literature on psychotherapists’ ability to foster positive outcomes for themselves and ultimately for their clients. The study utilised a qualitative perspective, analysed by an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The participants experienced increased distress associated with the pandemic; however, they could develop adaptive strategies to safeguard against these adverse effects and balance personal and professional needs, maintaining resilience. In the professional field, they flexibly used the advantages of the Integrative Approach to adapt to the social conditions and the needs of the clients.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040084
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 602-618: The Role of Microbiota Pattern in Anxiety
           and Stress Disorders—A Review of the State of Knowledge

    • Authors: Karolina Krupa-Kotara, Weronika Gwioździk, Sandra Nandzik, Mateusz Grajek
      First page: 602
      Abstract: Interest in the human microbiome in terms of mental health has increased with the rise in psychiatric diseases and disorders. The digestive system, the immune system, the brain, and the autonomic nervous system can all suffer from long-term lack of sleep and relaxation brought on by stress. There is little doubt that stress affects the human intestinal microbiota’s health and encourages problems with its composition, according to scientific studies. Chronic stress exposure raises the risk of both physical and mental illnesses. Therefore, this review’s goal was to support the theory that diseases including anxiety and stress are influenced by microbiome patterns. A total of 8600 sources directly relevant to this study’s topic were chosen from the 236,808 records returned by the literature search, and those with the highest scientific value were then selected based on bibliometric impact factors, language, and year of publication. A total of 87 sources, the most recent scientific output, were finally used for the literature review’s final analysis. The small number of studies on the subject indicates that it is still a developing problem, according to the literature study.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030038
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 619-629: Trafficking Women for Sexual Exploitation: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Sofia Patrício Gomes, Ana Isabel Sani
      First page: 619
      Abstract: Human trafficking is a complex global problem that demands current and scientifically grounded knowledge capable of coordinating interventions among various sectors of society. To address this issue, a systematic collection of scientific articles was conducted in two databases (Web of Science and Scielo) using keywords in both English and Portuguese. After screening 267 articles based on title, abstract, and full text, an 11-article sample was analyzed for quality. The results revealed that conceptual inconsistency is a challenge in signaling human trafficking, particularly in cases of sexual exploitation of women where it may be associated with prostitution, pimping, or migration—all of which are activities tied to financial gain. Addressing human trafficking requires action from concept to practice, including strengthened policies for sanctions and necessary support for victims.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030039
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 630-649: Institutional Factors Affecting
           Postsecondary Student Mental Wellbeing: A Scoping Review of the Canadian
           Literature

    • Authors: Abhinand Thaivalappil, Jillian Stringer, Alison Burnett, Andrew Papadopoulos
      First page: 630
      Abstract: There have been increased calls to address the growing mental health concerns of postsecondary students in Canada. Health promotion focuses on prevention and is needed as part of a comprehensive approach to student mental health support, with an emphasis on not just the individual but also the sociocultural environment of postsecondary institutions. The aim was to conduct a scoping review of the literature pertaining to the associations between postsecondary institutional factors and student wellbeing. The review included a comprehensive search strategy, relevance screening and confirmation, and data charting. Overall, 33 relevant studies were identified. Major findings provide evidence that institutional attitudes, institutional (in)action, perceived campus safety, and campus climate are associated with mental wellbeing, suggesting that campus-wide interventions can benefit from continued monitoring and targeting these measures among student populations. Due to the large variability in reporting and measurement of outcomes, the development of standardized measures for measuring institutional-level factors are needed. Furthermore, institutional participation and scaling up established population-level assessments in Canada that can help systematically collect, evaluate, and compare findings across institutions and detect changes in relevant mental health outcomes through time.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030040
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 650-661: Who Is Responsible for Nurse Wellbeing in a
           Crisis' A Single Centre Perspective

    • Authors: Luke Hughes, Anika Petrella, Lorna A Fern, Rachel M Taylor
      First page: 650
      Abstract: Background: Leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic often manifested as a command-and-control style of leadership which had detrimental emotional impacts on staff, particularly the nursing workforce. Leadership can have detrimental effects on staff wellbeing, or it can greatly boost their ability to handle a crisis. We sought to explore the interrelationship between leadership and nurses’ wellbeing in an inner-city university hospital during the initial wave of the pandemic. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of interview data collected during a hospital-wide evaluation of barriers and facilitators to changes implemented to support the surge of COVID-19 related admissions during wave one. Data were collected through semi-structured video interviews during May–July 2020. Interviews were analysed using Framework analysis. Results: Thirty-one nurses participated, including matrons (n = 7), sisters (n = 8), and specialist nursing roles (n = 16). Three overarching themes were identified: the impact on nurses, personal factors, and organisational factors. The impact on nurses manifested as distress and fatigue. Coping and help-seeking behaviours were found to be the two personal factors which underpinned nurses’ wellbeing. The organisational factors that impacted nurses’ wellbeing included decision-making, duty, and teamwork. Conclusions: The wellbeing of the workforce is pivotal to the health service, and it is mutually beneficial for patients, staff, and leaders. Addressing how beliefs and misconceptions around wellbeing are communicated and accessing psychological support are key priorities to supporting nurses during pandemics.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030041
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 662-669: Comparing Frequency and Severity Ratings for
           ME/CFS versus Controls

    • Authors: Leonard A. Jason, Sage Benner, Nicole Hansel
      First page: 662
      Abstract: Most questionnaires for somatic symptoms focus on occurrence, frequency, or severity, and in doing so, they might not be able to comprehensively assess the burden that symptoms present to patients. For example, a symptom might occur at a high frequency but only a minimal severity, so that it is less likely to be a burden on a patient; whereas a symptom that has both a high frequency and severity is more likely to be negatively impacting a patient. Study 1 examined frequency and severity scores for classic Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) symptoms among patients with ME/CFS versus a control group. Findings in Study 1 indicate there were more frequency/severity discrepancies for individuals with ME/CFS versus the control group. Study 1 concluded that collecting data on both measures of symptom burden provides unique indicators that can better assess the burden of the symptoms on patients. In a separate data set, Study 2 reported reliability data on slight differences in the time period and the way the severity was assessed. Study 2 findings indicated high levels of reliability for these changes in the time period and the way questions were asked. These studies provide important psychometric properties that could lead to more reliable and valid assessments of patients with post-viral illnesses.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030042
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 670-678: Bridging the Gap between Dermatology and
           Psychiatry: Prevalence and Treatment of Excoriation Disorders Secondary to
           Neuropsychiatric Medications

    • Authors: Brittany M. Thompson, Joshua M. Brady, Jeffrey D. McBride
      First page: 670
      Abstract: (1) Background: The dermatillomania and trichotillomania disorders in this study refer to the subcategory of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs) that are medication-induced. Patients with typical dermatillomania or trichotillomania disorder generally present with other OCD symptoms, although this is not present in the cases of medication-induced skin picking or hair pulling disorders found in the current literature. This paper serves to investigate the prevalence and treatment methods of medication-induced excoriation disorders. (2) Methods: The PubMed database was queried for cases of medication-induced dermatillomania or trichotillomania. The database search resulted in 80 results, 7 of which were full-length case reports in English with acceptable detail on clinical course, yielding nine patients. (3) Results: All patients who discontinued their offending agent had complete resolution of symptoms. Patients who continued their medications saw a resolution of symptoms when treated with an additional medication. Atypical antipsychotics and SSRIs were also noted to have been the offending agent in some cases but a successful treatment in other cases. (4) Conclusion: Patients who discontinued their offending agent or added additional pharmacotherapy for dermatillomania or trichotillomania had the best outcomes. Abnormal serotonin and dopamine levels are thought to be connected to the pathology of this disease.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030043
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 679-687: Re-Examining the Cognitive Scale of the
           Developmental Support in Childcare

    • Authors: Takahiro Shimmura, Akira Yasumura
      First page: 679
      Abstract: The Cognitive Scale of the Development Support in Childcare (CSDSC) developed in 2023 has adequate reliability and validity. However, it has some limitations in terms of its factor structure. Thus, we re-examined the structural factors, reliability, and validity of the scale using the same data (513 valid responses) as in the original study. In contrast to the two-factor model of the original scale, the revised scale has a one-factor structure. The scale’s Cronbach’s α value was 0.83. A confirmatory factor analysis used to assess whether a one- or two-factor structure was more appropriate for the scale demonstrated that the one-factor model was a better fit, and the revised scale had a higher degree of validity than the original one. The results indicate that the revised and shortened CSDSC has sufficiently high levels of reliability and validity, suggesting that the scale is appropriate for evaluating nursery teachers’ values regarding child development support in childcare.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030044
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 688-714: Approximate Invariance Testing in Diagnostic
           Classification Models in the Presence of Attribute Hierarchies: A Bayesian
           Network Approach

    • Authors: Alfonso J. Martinez, Jonathan Templin
      First page: 688
      Abstract: This paper demonstrates the process of invariance testing in diagnostic classification models in the presence of attribute hierarchies via an extension of the log-linear cognitive diagnosis model (LCDM). This extension allows researchers to test for measurement (item) invariance as well as attribute (structural) invariance simultaneously in a single analysis. The structural model of the LCDM was parameterized as a Bayesian network, which allows attribute hierarchies to be modeled and tested for attribute invariance via a series of latent regression models. We illustrate the steps for carrying out the invariance analyses through an in-depth case study with an empirical dataset and provide JAGS code for carrying out the analysis within the Bayesian framework. The analysis revealed that a subset of the items exhibit partial invariance, and evidence of full invariance was found at the structural level.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030045
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 715-723: Walking with a Mobile Phone: A Randomised
           Controlled Trial of Effects on Mood

    • Authors: Randi Collin, Elizabeth Broadbent
      First page: 715
      Abstract: It is now common to see pedestrians looking at their mobile phones while they are walking. Looking at a mobile phone can cause stooped posture, slower gait, and lack of attention to surroundings. Because these walking characteristics have been associated with negative affect, walking while looking at a mobile phone may have negative effects on mood. This study aimed to investigate whether walking while looking at a mobile phone had psychological effects. One hundred and twenty-five adults were randomised to walk in a park either with or without reading text on a mobile phone. Participants wore a fitness tracker to record pace and heart rate, and posture was calculated from video. Self-reported mood, affect, feelings of power, comfort, and connectedness with nature were assessed. The phone group walked significantly slower, with a more stooped posture, slower heart rate, and felt less comfortable than the phone-free group. The phone group experienced significant decreases in positive mood, affect, power, and connectedness with nature, as well as increases in negative mood, whereas the phone-free group experienced the opposite. There was no significant mediation effect of posture on mood; however, feeling connected with nature significantly mediated the effects of phone walking on mood. In conclusion, individuals experience better wellbeing when they pay attention to the environment rather than their phone while walking. More research is needed to investigate the effects of performing other activities on a mobile phone on mood while walking and in other settings.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030046
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 724-741: Contemporary Mirror Imaging between American
           and Iranian Citizens: An Exploratory Mixed-Method Research Study

    • Authors: Parvaneh (Paria) Yaghoubi Jami, Kasra Tabrizi
      First page: 724
      Abstract: In this study, an exploratory mixed-method approach was employed to investigate the attitudes of Iranians and Americans toward each other, specifically focusing on two critical incidents in their modern history. Drawing from quantitative and qualitative data collected in relation to the hostage crisis in 1979, the missile attack on an Iranian passenger plane (Iran Air 655) in 1988, and the travel ban (Executive Order 13780) in 2018, the study aimed to uncover any changes in attitudes over the course of history. Unlike previous research, the majority of participants had a more balanced and less biased viewpoint toward each other and approached the incidents by considering the consequences and ethical aspects associated with each event. These findings challenge the notion of a mirror image effect, which suggests that people tend to adopt their government’s attitude toward other nations. Instead, participants demonstrated a tendency to rely on their own judgment and critically evaluate information, rather than blindly accepting media narratives.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030047
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 742-756: The Hidden Power of “Thank You”:
           Exploring Aspects, Expressions, and the Influence of Gratitude in
           Religious Families

    • Authors: Chelladurai, Marks, Dollahite, Kelley, Allsop
      First page: 742
      Abstract: Gratitude has been extensively studied over the past two decades. Among several predictors, aspects of religiosity and spirituality have been consistent predictors of gratitude. To explore the religious motivations and processes that foster the practice of gratitude, we undertook a systematic thematic analysis using interview data from a national qualitative project of 198 highly religious families. Participants (n = 476) included mothers, fathers, and children from various socioeconomic backgrounds and from diverse religious, racial, and ethnic backgrounds in the United States of America. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the participants’ homes. Data for this study were analyzed using a team-based approach to qualitative analysis. The findings were organized thematically, including: (a) aspects of gratitude, (b) expressions of gratitude, and (c) the influence of gratitude. Two aspects of gratitude were identified: functional—what people were grateful for—and directional—to whom they were grateful. Expressions of gratitude involved participation in regular, gratitude-focused prayers and mutual day-to-day appreciation. The relational context and implications and context of gratitude in religious families were further examined and reported with sub-themes: (a) gratitude prompted positive re-evaluation of relationships and (b) gratitude reinforced religious faith. Implications, strengths, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030048
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 757-769: Accurate Standard Errors in Multilevel
           Modeling with Heteroscedasticity: A Computationally More Efficient
           Jackknife Technique

    • Authors: Steffen Zitzmann, Sebastian Weirich, Martin Hecht
      First page: 757
      Abstract: In random-effects models, hierarchical linear models, or multilevel models, it is typically assumed that the variances within higher-level units are homoscedastic, meaning that they are equal across these units. However, this assumption is often violated in research. Depending on the degree of violation, this can lead to biased standard errors of higher-level parameters and thus to incorrect inferences. In this article, we describe a resampling technique for obtaining standard errors—Zitzmann’s jackknife. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study to compare the technique with the commonly used delete-1 jackknife, the robust standard error inMplus, and a modified version of the commonly used delete-1 jackknife. Findings revealed that the resampling techniques clearly outperformed the robust standard error in rather small samples with high levels of heteroscedasticity. Moreover, Zitzmann’s jackknife tended to perform somewhat better than the two versions of the delete-1 jackknife and was much faster.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030049
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 770-786: An Introduction to Bayesian Knowledge
           Tracing with pyBKT

    • Authors: Okan Bulut, Jinnie Shin, Seyma N. Yildirim-Erbasli, Guher Gorgun, Zachary A. Pardos
      First page: 770
      Abstract: This study aims to introduce Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT), a probabilistic model used in educational data mining to estimate learners’ knowledge states over time. It also provides a practical guide to estimating BKT models using the pyBKT library available in Python. The first section presents an overview of BKT by explaining its theoretical foundations and advantages in modeling individual learning processes. In the second section, we describe different variants of the standard BKT model based on item response theory (IRT). Next, we demonstrate the estimation of BKT with the pyBKT library in Python, outlining data pre-processing steps, parameter estimation, and model evaluation. Different cases of knowledge tracing tasks illustrate how BKT estimates learners’ knowledge states and evaluates prediction accuracy. The results highlight the utility of BKT in capturing learners’ knowledge states dynamically. We also show that the model parameters of BKT resemble the parameters from logistic IRT models.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030050
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 787-791: Mobile Mental Health Units in Greece:
           Bridging Clinical Practice and Research in the Rural Context

    • Authors: Vaios Peritogiannis, Maria Samakouri
      First page: 787
      Abstract: The present Special Issue of Psych, which has been now fully released, aimed to highlight the importance of the Mobile Mental Health Units (MMHUs) in delivering services in rural and remote areas in Greece, and to stress their role as an easily accessible setting that provides a wide range of community-based psychosocial interventions, well beyond usual psychiatric care [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030051
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 792-801: Multi-Center Validation of Pain Assessment
           in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) Scale in Malaysia

    • Authors: Hoon Lang Teh, In Jiann Tan, Hong Tak Lim, Yun Ying Ho, Chai Chen Ng, Rosmahani Mohd Ali, Jia Nee Ling, Wan Chieh Lim, Gordon Hwa Mang Pang, Hwee Hwee Chua, Faisal Norizan, Norazlina Ibrahim, Chin Eang Goh, Gin Wei Chai, Malarkodi Suppamutharwyam, Melinda Ang, Dyascynthia Musa, Soo Chin Chan, Nurulakmal Obet, Yan Xi Yew, Zhen Aun Yee, Ai Vuen Lee, Way Ti Ooi, Hee Kheen Ho, Yee Leng Lee, Rohilin Justa, Yoong Wah Lee, Hwei Wern Tay, Kuo Zhau Teo, Nor Hakima Makhtar, Ungku Ahmad Ameen Ungku Mohd Zam
      First page: 792
      Abstract: The detection of pain in persons with advanced dementia is challenging due to their inability to verbally articulate the pain they are experiencing. Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) is an observer-rated pain assessment tool developed based on non-verbal expressions of pain for persons with severe dementia. This study aimed to perform construct validation of PAINAD for pain assessment in persons with severe dementia in Malaysia. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from 27 April 2022 to 28 October 2022 in eight public hospitals in Malaysia. The PAINAD scale was the index test, and the Discomfort Scale—Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DS-DAT) and Nurse-Reported Pain Scale (NRPS) were the reference tests for construct and concurrent validity assessment. Pain assessment for the study subjects was performed by two raters concurrently at rest and during activity. The PAINAD score was determined by the first rater, whereas the DS-DAT and NRPS were assessed by the second rater, and they were blinded to each other’s findings to prevent bias. PAINAD showed good positive correlations ranging from 0.325 to 0.715 with DS-DAT and NRPS at rest and during activity, with a p-value of <0.05. It also demonstrated statistically significant differences when comparing pain scores at rest and during activity, pre- and post-intervention. In conclusion, the PAINAD scale is a reliable observer-rated pain assessment tool for persons with severe dementia in Malaysia. It is also sensitive to changes in the pain level during activity and at rest, pre- and post-intervention.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030052
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 802-813: Examining the Associations between Personal
           Protective Equipment, Training, Policy, and Acute Care Workers’
           Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Ashley Clelland, Okan Bulut, Sharla King, Matthew D. Johnson
      First page: 802
      Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low personal protective equipment (PPE) availability and high stress and anxiety among frontline healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear how other factors, such as infection prevention and control (IPC) training and IPC policy support, correlate with workers’ distress. The current study explores these relationships. We conducted a secondary analysis of a public survey dataset from Statistics Canada. Acute care workers’ survey responses (n = 7379) were analyzed using structural equation modeling to examine relationships between features of the IPC work environment and acute care workers’ ratings of their stress and mental health. We found that PPE availability (β = −0.16), workplace supports (i.e., training, IPC policy compliance, and enforcement) (β = −0.16), and support for staying home when sick (β = −0.19) were all negatively correlated with distress. Together, these features explained 18.4% of the overall variability in workers’ distress. Among surveyed acute care workers, PPE availability was related to their distress; however, having workplace support and an emphasis on staying home when sick was also relevant. Overall, the results highlight that, in addition to PPE availability, workplace supports and emphasis on staying home are important. IPC professionals and healthcare leaders should consider these multiple features as they support acute care workers during future infectious disease outbreaks.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030053
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 814-835: Bayesian Regularized SEM: Current
           Capabilities and Constraints

    • Authors: Sara van Erp
      First page: 814
      Abstract: An important challenge in statistical modeling is to balance how well our model explains the phenomenon under investigation with the parsimony of this explanation. In structural equation modeling (SEM), penalization approaches that add a penalty term to the estimation procedure have been proposed to achieve this balance. An alternative to the classical penalization approach is Bayesian regularized SEM in which the prior distribution serves as the penalty function. Many different shrinkage priors exist, enabling great flexibility in terms of shrinkage behavior. As a result, different types of shrinkage priors have been proposed for use in a wide variety of SEMs. However, the lack of a general framework and the technical details of these shrinkage methods can make it difficult for researchers outside the field of (Bayesian) regularized SEM to understand and apply these methods in their own work. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of Bayesian regularized SEM, with a focus on the types of SEMs in which Bayesian regularization has been applied as well as available software implementations. Through an empirical example, various open-source software packages for (Bayesian) regularized SEM are illustrated and all code is made available online to aid researchers in applying these methods. Finally, reviewing the current capabilities and constraints of Bayesian regularized SEM identifies several directions for future research.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030054
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 836-846: Connecting the Dots: Occupational Stressors
           and PTSD Symptoms as Serial Mediators of the Relationship between Fear of
           COVID-19 and Burnout among Portuguese Police Officers

    • Authors: Bárbara Sousa, Patrícia Correia-Santos, Patrício Costa, Ângela Maia
      First page: 836
      Abstract: Police officers are exposed to several operational and organizational stressors that significantly impact on their mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic was a new stressor that further exacerbated existing stressors, highlighting the need for a better understanding of its impact on the mental health of police officers. This study tested the hypothesis that occupational stressors and PTSD are serial mediators of the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and burnout. Two hundred Portuguese police officers completed an online survey that assessed their fear of COVID-19, exposure to operational and organizational stressors, PTSD, and burnout. The results of the serial mediation analysis indicated that not only do occupational stressors act as mediators between fear of COVID-19 and burnout but also that PTSD is a mediator. The findings of this study underscore the need for interventions to reduce the negative impact of operational and organizational stressors on the mental health of police officers. Furthermore, this study highlights the power of police institutions for prevention and intervention with these professionals. By recognizing the specific stressors that contribute to the development of PTSD and burnout, our study provides a foundation for the development of direct interventions that can help to minimize the adverse effects of these stressors
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030055
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 847-865: Evaluating Model Fit in Two-Level Mokken
           Scale Analysis

    • Authors: Letty Koopman, Bonne J. H. Zijlstra, L. Andries Van der Ark
      First page: 847
      Abstract: Currently, two-level Mokken scale analysis for clustered test data is being developed. This paper contributes to this development by providing model-fit procedures for two-level Mokken scale analysis. New theoretical insights suggested that the existing model-fit procedure from traditional (one-level) Mokken scale analyses can be used for investigating model fit at both level 1 (respondent level) and level 2 (cluster level) of two-level Mokken scale analysis. However, the traditional model-fit procedure requires some modifications before it can be used at level 2. In this paper, we made these modifications and investigated the resulting model-fit procedure. For two model assumptions, monotonicity and invariant item ordering, we investigated the false-positive count and the sensitivity count of the level 2 model-fit procedure, with respect to the number of model violations detected, and the number of detected model violations deemed statistically significant. For monotonicity, the detection of model violations was satisfactory, but the significance test lacked power. For invariant item ordering, both aspects were satisfactory.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030056
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 866-875: Obesity and Life History: The Hypothesis of
           Psychological Phenotypes

    • Authors: Amelia Rizzo, Aldo Sitibondo
      First page: 866
      Abstract: The aim of the present study is to postulate the existence of psychological phenotypes associated with obesity, based on individual history. While metabolic phenotypes have been acknowledged in the field of medicine, the same cannot be affirmed in the realm of psychology. A longstanding tradition in obesity research has sought to identify shared characteristics among individuals affected by obesity, including personality traits. However, research found no adequate empirical evidence to support the existence of a specific psychological and psychopathological profile among individuals with obesity. Recent efforts in the literature have attempted to correlate these findings and ascertain which metabolic phenotype correlates with a diminished quality of life. We propose a novel differentiation between two categories: (1) individuals who affected by obesity since childhood, and (2) individuals who developed obesity following a life event. Further investigations are imperative to amass experimental data that substantiate this hypothesis. Proactively identifying psychological phenotypes is presumed to impact therapeutic outcomes.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030057
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 876-895: Expanding NAEP and TIMSS Analysis to Include
           Additional Variables or a New Scoring Model Using the R Package Dire

    • Authors: Paul Dean Bailey, Blue Webb
      First page: 876
      Abstract: The R packages Dire and EdSurvey allow analysts to make a conditioning model with new variables and then draw new plausible values. This is important because results for a variable not in the conditioning model are biased. For regression-type analyses, users can also use direct estimation to estimate parameters without generating new plausible values. Dire is distinct from other available software in R in that it requires fixed item parameters and simplifies calculation of high-dimensional integrals necessary to calculate composite or subscales. When used with EdSurvey, it is very easy to use published item parameters to estimate a new conditioning model. We show the theory behind the methods in Dire and a coding example where we perform an analysis that includes simple process data variables. Because the process data is not used in the conditioning model, the estimator is biased if a new conditioning model is not added with Dire.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030058
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 896-907: Increased Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex
           Related to Planning during a Handwriting Task

    • Authors: Akiko Megumi, Jungpil Shin, Yuta Uchida, Akira Yasumura
      First page: 896
      Abstract: We investigated the relationship between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function during a drawing task. Thirty-three participants using pen tablets provided the data for this task. PFC activity was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during a simple zig-zag task and a complex periodic line (PL) pattern task. For each task, there was a trace condition and a prediction condition. The Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ) was used to examine the association between brain-function measurements and executive function during the task. PFC activity was analyzed in the right, middle, and left regions. Oxygenated hemoglobin values measured with fNIRS were converted to z-values and analyzed as a measure of brain activity. Drawing fluency was measured using the line length. In the PL pattern task, the line length was significantly shorter under the prediction condition than under the trace condition. Activity in the right PFC under the prediction condition was significantly higher than that under the trace condition in the PL pattern task, and the score of the EFQ planning subscale was associated with activity in the right PFC. Activity in the right PFC is important for fluent drawing, suggesting that it is also important during drawing activities involving symbols such as letters.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030059
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 908-927: Parameter Estimation of KST-IRT Model under
           Local Dependence

    • Authors: Sangbeak Ye, Augustin Kelava, Stefano Noventa
      First page: 908
      Abstract: A mantra often repeated in the introductory material to psychometrics and Item Response Theory (IRT) is that a Rasch model is a probabilistic version of a Guttman scale. The idea comes from the observation that a sigmoidal item response function provides a probabilistic version of the characteristic function that models an item response in the Guttman scale. It appears, however, more difficult to reconcile the assumption of local independence, which traditionally accompanies the Rasch model, with the item dependence existing in a Guttman scale. In recent work, an alternative probabilistic version of a Guttman scale was proposed, combining Knowledge Space Theory (KST) with IRT modeling, here referred to as KST-IRT. The present work has, therefore, a two-fold aim. Firstly, the estimation of the parameters involved in KST-IRT models is discussed. More in detail, two estimation methods based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) procedure are suggested, i.e., Marginal Maximum Likelihood (MML) and Gibbs sampling, and are compared on the basis of simulation studies. Secondly, for a Guttman scale, the estimates of the KST-IRT models are compared with those of the traditional combination of the Rasch model plus local independence under the interchange of the data generation processes. Results show that the KST-IRT approach might be more effective in capturing local dependence as it appears to be more robust under misspecification of the data generation process, but it comes with the price of an increased number of parameters.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030060
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 928-947: Measurement of Individual Differences in
           State Empathy and Examination of a Model in Japanese University Students

    • Authors: Maine Tobari, Atsushi Oshio
      First page: 928
      Abstract: The typical state empathy research used perspective-taking instructions and examined the effect of instructions on empathy-related variables. Empathy-arousing processes were generally not measured. The effect of perspective-taking instructions has been questioned recently. Observers could imagine targets’ feelings without such instructions. This study evoked empathy in Japanese undergraduates (N = 157) without instructional procedure, and based on participants’ responses to questionnaires, measured individual differences between antecedent, process, and intrapersonal outcome variables of state empathy, referring to the organizational model and theories of empathy-arousing processes. The purpose of this study was to measure these variables, examine the causal relationship between them using path analysis, and clarify how empathy occurs. In this way, we could suggest through which processes and antecedent factors intrapersonal empathic outcomes are produced. It is probably the first attempt to clarify how empathy occurs using a social psychological study framework and questionnaire method. This research was originally conducted in 2011 based on two similar studies not published internationally, when only some of the variables were used in our analyses. Afterwards, we constructed another analysis method, reanalyzed the data in 2019 and further reanalyzed in 2023 to obtain the final version of the results. Limitations and scientific and practical implications were discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030061
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 948-965: RMX/PIccc: An Extended Person–Item Map
           and a Unified IRT Output for eRm, psychotools, ltm, mirt, and TAM

    • Authors: Milica Kabic, Rainer W. Alexandrowicz
      First page: 948
      Abstract: A constituting feature of item response models is that item and person parameters share a latent scale and are therefore comparable. The Person–Item Map is a useful graphical tool to visualize the alignment of the two parameter sets. However, the “classical” variant has some shortcomings, which are overcome by the new RMX package (Rasch models—eXtended). The package provides the RMX::plotPIccc() function, which creates an extended version of the classical PI Map, termed “PIccc”. It juxtaposes the person parameter distribution to various item-related functions, like category and item characteristic curves and category, item, and test information curves. The function supports many item response models and processes the return objects of five major R packages for IRT analysis. It returns the used parameters in a unified form, thus allowing for their further processing. The R package RMX is freely available at osf….
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030062
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 966-982: A SAS Macro for Automated Stopping of Markov
           Chain Monte Carlo Estimation in Bayesian Modeling with PROC MCMC

    • Authors: Wolfgang Wagner, Martin Hecht, Steffen Zitzmann
      First page: 966
      Abstract: A crucial challenge in Bayesian modeling using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation is to diagnose the convergence of the chains so that the draws can be expected to closely approximate the posterior distribution on which inference is based. A close approximation guarantees that the MCMC error exhibits only a negligible impact on model estimates and inferences. However, determining whether convergence has been achieved can often be challenging and cumbersome when relying solely on inspecting the trace plots of the chain(s) or manually checking the stopping criteria. In this article, we present a SAS macro called %automcmc that is based on PROC MCMC and that automatically continues to add draws until a user-specified stopping criterion (i.e., a certain potential scale reduction and/or a certain effective sample size) is reached for the chain(s).
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030063
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 983-995: Evaluating the Effect of Planned Missing
           Designs in Structural Equation Model Fit Measures

    • Authors: Paula C. R. Vicente
      First page: 983
      Abstract: In a planned missing design, the nonresponses occur according to the researcher’s will, with the goal of increasing data quality and avoiding overly extensive questionnaires. When adjusting a structural equation model to the data, there are different criteria to evaluate how the theoretical model fits the observed data, with the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), standardized root mean square residual (SRMR), comparative fit index (CFI) and Tucker–Lewis index (TLI) being the most common. Here, I explore the effect of the nonresponses due to a specific planned missing design—the three-form design—on the mentioned fit indices when adjusting a structural equation model. A simulation study was conducted with correctly specified model and one model with misspecified correlation between factors. The CFI, TLI and SRMR indices are affected by the nonresponses, particularly with small samples, low factor loadings and numerous observed variables. The existence of nonresponses when considering misspecified models causes unacceptable values for all the four fit indexes under analysis, namely when a strong correlation between factors is considered. The results shown here were performed with the simsem package in R and the full information maximum-likelihood method was used for handling missing data during model fitting.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030064
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 996-1000: Editorial for the Special Issue
           “Computational Aspects and Software in Psychometrics II”

    • Authors: Alexander Robitzsch
      First page: 996
      Abstract: There has been tremendous progress in statistical software in the field of psychometrics in providing open-source solutions [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030065
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1001-1003: Editorial to the Special Issue
           

    • Authors: Alexander Robitzsch
      First page: 1001
      Abstract: The Special Issue “Feature Papers in Psychometrics and Educational Measurement” (https://www [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030066
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1004-1018: A Comparison of Methods for Determining
           the Number of Factors to Retain with Exploratory Factor Analysis of
           Dichotomous Data

    • Authors: W. Holmes Finch
      First page: 1004
      Abstract: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a very widely used statistical procedure in the social and behavioral sciences. This technique features in validity studies, as well as investigations of latent structure underlying observed measurements. A primary aspect of using EFA is determining the number of factors to retain. In addition to theoretical considerations, a variety of statistical tools have been developed and recommended for use in assisting researchers with respect to factor retention. Some research has been conducted to investigate the accuracy of these methods in the case of continuous factor indicators. The purpose of the current simulation study was to extend this earlier work to situations in which the indicator variables are dichotomous, as with questionnaire or test items. Results of this study revealed that an approach based on the combined results of the empirical Kaiser criterion, comparative data, and Hull methods, as well as Gorsuch’s CNG scree plot test by itself, all yielded accurate results with respect to the number of factors to retain. Implications for practice are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030067
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 234-248: Scale Type Revisited: Some Misconceptions,
           Misinterpretations, and Recommendations

    • Authors: Leah Feuerstahler
      First page: 234
      Abstract: Stevens’s classification of scales into nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio types is among the most controversial yet resilient ideas in psychological and educational measurement. In this essay, I challenge the notion that scale type is essential for the development of measures in these fields. I highlight how the concept of scale type, and of interval-level measurement in particular, is variously interpreted by many researchers. These (often unstated) differences in perspectives lead to confusion about what evidence is appropriate to demonstrate interval-level measurement, as well as the implications of scale type for research in practice. I then borrow from contemporary ideas in the philosophy of measurement to demonstrate that scale type can only be established in the context of well-developed theory and through experimentation. I conclude that current notions of scale type are of limited use, and that scale type ought to occupy a lesser role in psychometric discourse and pedagogy.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 249-273: Using Structural Equation Modeling to
           Reproduce and Extend ANOVA-Based Generalizability Theory Analyses for
           Psychological Assessments

    • Authors: Walter P. Vispoel, Hyeryung Lee, Tingting Chen, Hyeri Hong
      First page: 249
      Abstract: Generalizability theory provides a comprehensive framework for determining how multiple sources of measurement error affect scores from psychological assessments and using that information to improve those assessments. Although generalizability theory designs have traditionally been analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) procedures, the same analyses can be replicated and extended using structural equation models. We collected multi-occasion data from inventories measuring numerous dimensions of personality, self-concept, and socially desirable responding to compare variance components, generalizability coefficients, dependability coefficients, and proportions of universe score and measurement error variance using structural equation modeling versus ANOVA techniques. We further applied structural equation modeling techniques to continuous latent response variable metrics and derived Monte Carlo-based confidence intervals for those indices on both observed score and continuous latent response variable metrics. Results for observed scores estimated using structural equation modeling and ANOVA procedures seldom varied. Differences in reliability between raw score and continuous latent response variable metrics were much greater for scales with dichotomous responses, thereby highlighting the value of doing analyses on both metrics to evaluate gains that might be achieved by increasing response options. We provide detailed guidelines for applying the demonstrated techniques using structural equation modeling and ANOVA-based statistical software.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 274-302: COPS in Action: Exploring Structure in the
           Usage of the Youth Psychotherapy MATCH

    • Authors: Thomas Rusch, Katherine Venturo-Conerly, Gioia Baja, Patrick Mair
      First page: 274
      Abstract: This article is an introduction to Cluster Optimized Proximity Scaling (COPS) aimed at practitioners, as well as a tutorial on the usage of the corresponding R package cops. COPS is a variant of multidimensional scaling (MDS) that aims at providing a clustered configuration while still representing multivariate dissimilarities faithfully. It subsumes most popular MDS versions as special cases. We illustrate the ideas, use, flexibility and versatility of the method and the package with data from clinical psychology on how modules of the Modular Approach to Therapy for Children (MATCH) are used by clinicians in the wild. We supplement the COPS analyses with density-based hierarchical clustering in the original space and faceting with support vector machines. We find that scaling with COPS gives a sensible and insightful spatial arrangement of the modules, allows easy identification of clusters of modules and provides clear facets of modules corresponding to the MATCH protocols. In that respect COPS works better than both standard MDS and clustering.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 303-319: Improvement of the Learning Strategies of
           University Students through a Program Based on Service-Learning

    • Authors: Mirian Hervás Torres
      First page: 303
      Abstract: Background: Currently, educational attainment has risen significantly among young people, causing changes in the labor market where skills have become more important. Thus, tertiary education has become an “essential vehicle” to develop high-level skills that would boost students’ professional, social, and personal lives. Methods: The aim of the survey is to study the effects of an intervention program based on two methodologies, service-learning and peer mentoring, to enhance the learn-to-learn and social skills of undergraduate students. The sample was composed of 69 undergraduate students of four different degrees. The methodological design adopted was quasi-experimental pretest–posttest. The intervention consisted of 955 mentoring sessions (878 one-to-one and 77 in groups) among the undergraduate students and students in compulsory education. The undergraduate students participated as mentors. Before, they had three sessions of training. Weekly mentoring sessions were spread out during out-of-school time for 90 min each. Results: The results show a few statistically significant differences in favor of the posttest phase in strategies for the learning and social skills of the participants. Conclusions: Although the program did not obtain the expected results, these outcomes agree with the other studies that investigate intervention programs that use service-learning and peer mentoring methodologies.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 320-335: Adaptation and Validation of the Arabic
           Version of the University Student Engagement Inventory (A-USEI) among
           Sport and Physical Education Students

    • Authors: Amayra Tannoubi, Frank Quansah, John Elvis Hagan, Medina Srem-Sai, Tore Bonsaksen, Nasr Chalghaf, Ghada Boussayala, Chiraz Azaiez, Haifa Snani, Fairouz Azaiez
      First page: 320
      Abstract: The present study validated the University Student Engagement Inventory (USEI) in the Arabic language (A) by assessing its factor structure, construct validity, reliability, and concurrent validity. A total of 864 Tunisian Physical Education and Sport students provided data which was used to perform exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, using samples comprising 366 (aged 19–25 years) and 498 (aged 19–26 years) students, respectively. The A-USEI, grade-point average (GPA), and Physical Education Grit (PE–Grit) scales were completed via online surveys. The exploratory factor analysis revealed that the A-USEI had three dimensions. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the second-order model was more suitable than the first-order multi-factor model. Using the indicators for the second-order model, the three factors showed good reliability, with their average variance extracted (AVE) values reflecting sufficient validity. The correlation analyses between the two scales’ scores and the A-USEI scores showed a moderate correlation, confirming the adapted scale’s concurrent validity. The study concludes that A-USEI is a valid tool for assessing student engagement among Arabic students. In addition, the practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 336-349: Exploring Approaches for Estimating
           Parameters in Cognitive Diagnosis Models with Small Sample Sizes

    • Authors: Miguel A. Sorrel, Scarlett Escudero, Pablo Nájera, Rodrigo S. Kreitchmann, Ramsés Vázquez-Lira
      First page: 336
      Abstract: Cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) are increasingly being used in various assessment contexts to identify cognitive processes and provide tailored feedback. However, the most commonly used estimation method for CDMs, marginal maximum likelihood estimation with Expectation–Maximization (MMLE-EM), can present difficulties when sample sizes are small. This study compares the results of different estimation methods for CDMs under varying sample sizes using simulated and empirical data. The methods compared include MMLE-EM, Bayes modal, Markov chain Monte Carlo, a non-parametric method, and a parsimonious parametric model such as Restricted DINA. We varied the sample size, and assessed the bias in the estimation of item parameters, the precision in attribute classification, the bias in the reliability estimate, and computational cost. The findings suggest that alternative estimation methods are preferred over MMLE-EM under low sample-size conditions, whereas comparable results are obtained under large sample-size conditions. Practitioners should consider using alternative estimation methods when working with small samples to obtain more accurate estimates of CDM parameters. This study aims to maximize the potential of CDMs by providing guidance on the estimation of the parameters.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 350-375: dexter: An R Package to Manage and Analyze
           Test Data

    • Authors: Ivailo Partchev, Jesse Koops, Timo Bechger, Remco Feskens, Gunter Maris
      First page: 350
      Abstract: In this study, we present a package for R that is intended as a professional tool for the management and analysis of data from educational tests and useful both in high-stakes assessment programs and survey research. Focused on psychometric models based on the sum score as the scoring rule and having sufficient statistics for their parameters, dexter fully exploits the many theoretical and practical advantages of this choice: lack of unnecessary assumptions, stable and fast estimation, and powerful and sensible diagnostic techniques. It includes an easy to use data management system tailored to the structure of test data and compatible with the current paradigm of tidy data. Companion packages currently include a graphical user interface and support for multi-stage testing.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 376-385: Applications and Extensions of Metric
           Stability Analysis

    • Authors: Leah Feuerstahler
      First page: 376
      Abstract: Item response theory models and applications are affected by many sources of variability, including errors associated with item parameter estimation. Metric stability analysis (MSA) is one method to evaluate the effects of item parameter standard errors that quantifies how well a model determines the latent trait metric. This paper describes how to evaluate MSA in dichotomous and polytomous data and describes a Bayesian implementation of MSA that does not require a positive definite variance–covariance matrix among item parameters. MSA analyses are illustrated in the context of an oral-health-related quality of life measure administered before and after prosthodontic treatment. The R code to implement the methods described in this paper is provided.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 386-395: bmtest: A Jamovi Module for
           Brunner–Munzel’s Test—A Robust Alternative to
           Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney’s Test

    • Authors: Julian D. Karch
      First page: 386
      Abstract: In psychological research, comparisons between two groups are frequently made to demonstrate that one group exhibits higher values. Although Welch’s unequal variances t-test has become the preferred parametric test for this purpose, surpassing Student’s equal variances t-test, the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test remains the predominant nonparametric approach despite sharing similar limitations with Student’s t-test. Specifically, the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test is associated with strong, unrealistic assumptions and lacks robustness when these assumptions are violated. The Brunner–Munzel test overcomes these limitations, featuring fewer assumptions, akin to Welch’s t-test in the parametric domain, and has thus been recommended over the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test. However, the Brunner–Munzel test is currently unavailable in user-friendly statistical software, such as SPSS, making it inaccessible to many researchers. In this paper, I introduce the bmtest module for jamovi, a freely available user-friendly software. By making the Brunner–Munzel test accessible to a wide range of researchers, the bmtest module has the potential to improve nonparametric statistical analysis in psychology and other disciplines.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 396-415: Bayesian Estimation of Latent Space Item
           Response Models with JAGS, Stan, and NIMBLE in R

    • Authors: Jinwen Luo, Ludovica De Carolis, Biao Zeng, Minjeong Jeon
      First page: 396
      Abstract: The latent space item response model (LSIRM) is a newly-developed approach to analyzing and visualizing conditional dependencies in item response data, manifested as the interactions between respondents and items, between respondents, and between items. This paper provides a practical guide to the Bayesian estimation of LSIRM using three open-source software options, JAGS, Stan, and NIMBLE in R. By means of an empirical example, we illustrate LSIRM estimation, providing details on the model specification and implementation, convergence diagnostics, model fit evaluations and interaction map visualizations.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 416-426: SAS PROC IRT and the R Mirt Package: A
           Comparison of Model Parameter Estimation for Multidimensional IRT Models

    • Authors: Ki Cole, Insu Paek
      First page: 416
      Abstract: This study investigates the performance of estimation methods for multidimensional IRT models with dichotomous and polytomous data in two well-known IRT programs: SAS PROC IRT and the mirt package in R. A simulation study was used to compare performance on a simple structure Rasch model, complex structure 2PL model, and bifactor graded response model. Under RMSE and bias criteria regarding item parameter recovery, PROC IRT and mirt showed nearly identical performance in the simple structure condition. When a complex structure was used, mirt performed better in terms of the recovery of intercept parameters, while the recovery of slope parameters depended on the program and the sample sizes: PROC IRT tended to be better with small samples (N=500) according to RMSE, and mirt was better for larger samples (N=1000 and 2500) according to RMSE and bias for the slope parameter recovery. When a bifactor structure was used, mirt was preferred in all cases; differences lessened as sample size increased.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 427-446: Developing Psycho-Behavioural Skills: The
           Talent Development Coach Perspective

    • Authors: Graham Moodie, Jamie Taylor, Dave Collins
      First page: 427
      Abstract: A large body of evidence highlights the importance of psycho-behavioural skills as a key feature of talent development in sport. The purpose of this study was to explore pedagogic intentions of coaches in the psychological development of athletes. Eleven coaches were purposefully sampled for interview based on a track record of expert practice. Using reflexive thematic analysis, three overarching themes were generated as representing the coaches’ work: knowing and shaping the athlete’s needs, purposeful breadth and flexibility of teaching approaches, using challenge to test skill development, and the necessity of review and refinement. Reflecting these data, we suggest the need for an increased appreciation of the role of the sports coach beyond the technical and tactical, with the recommendation that coaches build their knowledge and skillset across a breadth of domains to support the psychological development of athletes more effectively.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 447-460: Understanding Embodied Effects of Posture: A
           Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Karen Lin, Elizabeth Broadbent
      First page: 447
      Abstract: Some evidence suggests body postures can elicit emotion. Compared to neutral postures, constrictive postures are associated with negative affect and low arousal, whereas expansive postures have shown mixed effects. Qualitative methods may allow insights into this phenomenon. We asked 15 participants (mean age 43 years) to adopt eight different expansive, constrictive, or neutral postures, drawn from previous power posing or postural studies. After a minute in each posture, participants were interviewed about how they felt and when they might adopt the posture in real life. Interviews were audio recorded and inductive thematic analysis conducted. Power poses were associated with power and confidence, but also aggression, arrogance, intimidation, and disrespect. The slumped posture was associated with sadness and low control, and the upright seated posture with being alert and apprehensive as well as formality. Neutral postures were associated with feeling relaxed and comfortable. These results suggest that expansive postures have mixed emotional effects, but are inappropriate in some contexts.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 461-477: Detecting Differential Item Functioning in
           2PL Multistage Assessments

    • Authors: Rudolf Debelak, Sebastian Appelbaum, Dries Debeer, Martin J. Tomasik
      First page: 461
      Abstract: The detection of differential item functioning is crucial for the psychometric evaluation of multistage tests. This paper discusses five approaches presented in the literature: logistic regression, SIBTEST, analytical score-based tests, bootstrap score-based tests, and permutation score-based tests. First, using an simulation study inspired by a real-life large-scale educational assessment, we compare the five approaches with respect to their type I error rate and their statistical power. Then, we present an application to an empirical data set. We find that all approaches show type I error rates close to the nominal alpha level. Furthermore, all approaches are shown to be sensitive to uniform and non-uniform DIF effects, with the score-based tests showing the highest power.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 478-496: A Simulation and Empirical Study of
           Differential Test Functioning (DTF)

    • Authors: Güler Yavuz Temel
      First page: 478
      Abstract: Detecting and understanding DTF is very important under various DIF conditions. In this study, the performance of DTF, DRF, SIBTEST, and CSIBTEST approaches in detecting DIF effects was investigated using a simulation study and a real dataset. It was observed that different DIF conditions (uniform, non-uniform), the proportion of DIF items in the test, the DIF size, and the DIF effect (balanced, unbalanced) affected the performance of the methods, and especially in the case of the non-uniform DIF condition, the power rates of sDTF, sDRF, and SIBTEST statistics were low. In addition, according to the DTF estimations with the balanced/unbalanced DIF effect condition, in some cases, the effect of DIF on the overall test could be negligible. However, it was clearly emphasized in this study that DTF analyses should accompany DIF studies since DTF analysis may change with different DIF and test conditions.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 497-507: The Contribution of Society of Social
           Psychiatry P. Sakellaropoulos to the Psychiatric Reform in Rural Greece

    • Authors: Harilaos Papachristou, Iliana Lazogiorgou-Kousta, Vasilis Chronopoulos, Athena Fragouli-Sakellaropoulou
      First page: 497
      Abstract: The present paper aims to describe the structure, function, and goals of two of the oldest Mobile Mental Health Units in Greece, namely, the Mobile Mental Health Unit in Fokida (MMHU-F) and the Mobile Mental Health Unit in Thrace (Alexandroupolis, MMHU-T). Information about their historical background, catchment areas, and current staffing, as well as the services provided by each MMHU is discussed. The focus of the paper is slightly biased towards the MMHU-F because it is the only available mental health service in the whole Fokida prefecture. The major goals of the MMHUs are the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of relapse of severe mental illness within the community. Other important goals of the MMHUs are psychoeducation, psychological support for the family/caregivers, as well as vocational training and support for patients with severe mental illness. Statistical data depicting the demographic characteristics and diagnostic profiles of patients in each MMHU is also provided, and the differences between the two MMHUs are briefly discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 508-525: “It’s Not a One-Time
           Conversation”: Australian Parental Views on Supporting Young People
           in Relation to Pornography Exposure

    • Authors: Sally Burke, Mayumi Purvis, Carol Sandiford, Bianca Klettke
      First page: 508
      Abstract: While pornography provides opportunities for sexual exploration for young people, early and easy access also has possible negative implications for young people’s behavioural and sexual development. Parental responsibilities concerning their children’s consumption of pornography are largely misunderstood. This study explored parental experiences and beliefs about pornography education for young people using a qualitative study (n = 8, 6 females, 2 males). Interview data were analysed using a reflexive thematic approach. Results indicated that parents have concerns about the ease of access to pornography and the unmediated ideas it presents. Additionally, parents believe they have a responsibility to educate young people about pornography through having open and honest conversations and providing supervision. Further, parents believe that schools should be doing more to educate young people about pornography. This study extends upon current literature by suggesting that although parents feel well-equipped to communicate with and educate young people about pornography consumption, they lack confidence in their capacities to do this.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 526-544: Longitudinal Sexting Research: A Systematic
           Review

    • Authors: Yunhao Hu, Elizabeth Mary Clancy, Bianca Klettke
      First page: 526
      Abstract: The exchange of intimate messages, images, and videos via digital means, also referred to as sexting, has drawn considerable academic attention in recent years. Specifically, cross-sectional research has indicated that sexting can be associated with harmful outcomes such as depression, anxiety, and cyberbullying. However, there is currently limited empirical research examining the causal relationship between these factors, and to date, there has been no systematic review of the longitudinal studies on sexting. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarise and review the current research addressing long-term outcomes and predictors of sexting. A systematic search of databases was conducted. Eight databases were searched, with twenty-four longitudinal studies meeting the inclusion criteria and thus included in this review. The quality of individual studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool. Overall, longitudinal research into sexting is scarce, and variability in definitions, measured variables, and sample demographics have created challenges in achieving consensus across variables. For example, findings were inconclusive regarding causal relationships between sexting, cyberbullying/bullying, and psychological health outcomes. Findings indicated that positive peer norms predicted sexting and that sexting was predictive of future offline sexual behaviours. Future longitudinal research would benefit from differentiating between consensual and non-consensual sexting behaviours in measurement. Future prevention efforts should focus on addressing peer norms that develop around sexting behaviours.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 545-575: Extending Applications of Generalizability
           Theory-Based Bifactor Model Designs

    • Authors: Walter P. Vispoel, Hyeryung Lee, Tingting Chen, Hyeri Hong
      First page: 545
      Abstract: In recent years, researchers have described how to analyze generalizability theory (GT) based univariate, multivariate, and bifactor designs using structural equation models. However, within GT studies of bifactor models, variance components have been limited to those reflecting relative differences in scores for norm-referencing purposes, with only limited guidance provided for estimating key indices when making changes to measurement procedures. In this article, we demonstrate how to derive variance components for multi-facet GT-based bifactor model designs that represent both relative and absolute differences in scores for norm- or criterion-referencing purposes using scores from selected scales within the recently expanded form of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-2). We further develop and apply prophecy formulas for determining how changes in numbers of items, numbers of occasions, and universes of generalization affect a wide variety of indices instrumental in determining the best ways to change measurement procedures for specific purposes. These indices include coefficients representing score generalizability and dependability; scale viability and added value; and proportions of observed score variance attributable to general factor effects, group factor effects, and individual sources of measurement error. To enable readers to apply these techniques, we provide detailed formulas, code in R, and sample data for conducting all demonstrated analyses within this article.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020036
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 576-601: Ethical Decision-Making in Law Enforcement:
           A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Ronald P. Dempsey, Elizabeth E. Eskander, Veljko Dubljević
      First page: 576
      Abstract: Decision-making in uncertain and stressful environments combined with the high-profile cases of police violence in the United States has generated substantial debates about policing and created challenges to maintaining public confidence and trust in law enforcement. However, despite the manifestations of reactions across the ideological spectrum, it is unclear what information is available in the literature about the convergence between ethical decision-making and policing. Therefore, an interdisciplinary scoping review was conducted to map the nature and extent of research evidence, identify existing gaps in knowledge, and discuss future implications for ethical decision-making in law enforcement. This review investigates the interaction between the job complexities of policing (psychological and normative factors) and aspects of ethical decision-making, synthesizing three distinct themes: (1) socio-moral dimensions impact the job complexities of police work, (2) lethal means and moral injury influence intuitive and rational decision-making, and (3) police wellness and interventions are critical to sustaining police readiness. Gaps in recruiting, training, and leadership and managerial practices can be broadly transformed to fundamentally emphasize officer wellness and a holistic approach to ethical practices, enabling police officers to uphold the rule of law, promote public safety, and protect the communities they serve.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020037
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 102-112: Electrodermal Activity Implicating a
           Sympathetic Nervous System Response under the Perception of Sensing a
           Divine Presence—A Psychophysiological Analysis

    • Authors: Yoshija Walter, Andreas Altorfer
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that religious worship experiences may recruit the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in an activating fashion. For this reason, we hypothesized that measurements of the electrodermal activity (EDA) would concur with the notion that the subjective experience of sensing the presence of God recruits a sympathetic nervous system response. We analyzed the EDA of 37 evangelical participants and calculated classic galvanic skin response (GSR) measures. Our experimental design included six conditions with and without music consisting of religious and non-religious songs plus a resting-state condition, which were used to induce a variance in the religious experience suitable for statistical analyses. Results showed that both tonic and phasic signals as well as the overall electrical skin conductance (SC) were positively associated with the religious experience, defined as sensing the presence of God. This implicates that we can accept the hypothesis that such a religious experience under the influence of worship seems to recruit the sympathetic nervous system.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 113-122: Measuring the Effectiveness of Career
           Education: A Kindergarten Intervention

    • Authors: Alessandro Buffoli, Teresa Rinaldi, Roberta Morici, Diego Boerchi
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Several studies have confirmed the importance of career education in promoting career development in children. This study aims to test whether specific career education interventions would develop new conceptions about career choice and career attainment in kindergarten pupils. The intervention was conducted directly by teachers who were adequately trained and supervised. The career conceptions were assessed in experimental and control groups through the Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment protocol, before and after career education intervention. The results showed that the two groups started from the same level and increased their conceptions over time. However, the experimental groups increased them much more, and statistically significantly, than the control groups.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 123-132: Nonverbal Intelligence Does Matter for the
           Perception of Second Language Sounds

    • Authors: Georgios P. Georgiou
      First page: 123
      Abstract: Although there has been considerable research on the interplay between intelligence and second language (L2) learning, research focusing on the intelligence and L2 speech perception link is limited. The present study aims to fill this gap. The native language of the participants was Cypriot Greek and they spoke English as an L2. The participants completed a forced-choice psychoacoustic test in which they discriminated L2 sound contrasts and a nonverbal intelligence test which measured their nonverbal intelligence capacities. They were divided into two groups according to their performance in the intelligence test, namely, a low IQ and a high IQ group. The results showed that the high IQ group discriminated the majority of the L2 contrasts better than the low IQ group. In addition, the degree of perceived difficulty for most L2 contrasts differed between the two groups. It is concluded that nonverbal intelligence is associated with the discrimination of L2 sounds. This can be explained by the possibility that either intelligence triggers the more efficient functioning of other domains, such as information processing and attention, leading to increased speech perception skills, or that it directly affects the categorization of speech sounds resulting in the development of more robust L2 categories.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 133-147: Effect Sizes for Estimating Differential
           Item Functioning Influence at the Test Level

    • Authors: W. Holmes Finch, Brian F. French
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Differential item functioning (DIF) is a critical step in providing evidence to support a scoring inference in building a validity argument for a psychological or educational assessment. Effect sizes can assist in understanding the accumulation of DIF at the test score level. The current simulation study investigated the performance of several proposed effect size measures under a variety of conditions. Conditions under study included varied sample sizes, DIF effect sizes, the proportion of items with DIF, and the type of DIF (additive vs. non-additive). DIF effect sizes under study included sDTF%, uDTF%, τ^w2, d, R¯Δ2, IDIF2*, and S−DIF−V. The results of this study suggest that across study conditions, τ^w2, IDIF2*, and d were consistently the most accurate measures of the DIF effects. The effect sizes were also estimated in an empirical example. Recommendations and implications for practice are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 148-193: Home First: Stability and Opportunity in
           Out-of-Home Care

    • Authors: Steven P. Segal
      First page: 148
      Abstract: In this report, the concept of “Home First” is introduced for those children who require long-term, non-kin placements. The term “Home First” connotes a placement engendering stability and continuity; this concept is introduced in conjunction with an evaluation of the historical, theoretical, and empirical evidence surrounding different forms of out-of-home placement, including group-care placements and foster family care. In light of these observations and studies, this report will argue that stability is a major factor, perhaps a necessary if not a sufficient condition, in successful child development. It will argue for the initiation of a new focus on the creation of long-term positive and stable residential placements within the out-of-home care system and show that such placements can and have contributed to the development of healthy, happy, and successful adulthoods. This report offers a bio-psycho-social perspective on child development in out-of-home care. It provides a brief overview of the multiple bio-psycho-social theoretical perspectives that inform us on the necessary role of stability in growth and development and the contribution of instability to dysfunction. This report considers stability in out-of-home care in relation to its associated outcomes and those factors believed to enhance or detract from these outcomes. It reviews the history of substitutive care provision for children and youth and the role of the “stability objective” in that history. Finally, it looks at how child welfare system priorities have influenced stability, and it offers some suggestions for ensuring more stable growth and development in child placement provision.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 194-208: A Systematic Review Exploring the
           Effectiveness of Mindfulness for Sexual Functioning in Women with Cancer

    • Authors: Samantha Banbury, Chris Chandler, Joanne Lusher
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Sexual intimacy is a basic human need that is associated with quality of life whereby its absence can significantly impact both interpersonal and personal wellbeing. This systematic review aimed to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the available literature on mindfulness treatments for sexual functioning in women diagnosed with cancer. Electronic searches including PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and registered clinical trials yielded 10 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that treatment intervention designs varied and included mixed methods, randomised clinical trials, single arm non-randomised trials and those with the absence of any control. Furthermore, both brief and longer-term mindfulness interventions were trialled across different sexual domains. Whilst inconclusive, mindfulness-based interventions appear to support sexual function and quality of life in both early- and post-cancer survivors. However, in some instances, there were outcome inconsistencies in sexual desire, arousal and orgasm. This review has identified a current shortage in research on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based treatments for supporting sexual functioning in women with cancer; and so far, no research has been conducted in palliative care. This unmet need in supporting sexual functioning in women with cancer, including palliative care, carries important implications for both psychosexual and oncological healthcare services as sexual intimacy does not end with cancer diagnosis or prognosis.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 209-223: Where Is the Research about Stepmothers'
           A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Salomé Elizabeth Scholtz, Ruan Spies
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Developments in remarriage and divorce have led to an influx of research on stepfamilies. However, previous studies show that the experiences of stepmothers are underreported. Therefore, a scoping review of the currently available academic literature (2012–2022) on stepmother experiences was conducted to identify the way forward for future research. A final sample of 11 articles indicate that stepmother research is mainly WEIRD and qualitative. Stepmothers reportedly experience ambivalent emotions which they often deal with silently, whilst navigating ambiguous stepmother roles with possibly limited support or acknowledgement under the wicked stepmother stereotype. Counselling and research are encouraged to assist this forgotten member of the stepfamily. Gaps in research and further research opportunities are identified.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 224-233: Verification of the Japanese Version of
           Greene’s Moral Dilemma Task’s Validity and Reliability

    • Authors: Yoshiyuki Takimoto, Akira Yasumura
      First page: 224
      Abstract: The moral dilemma task developed by Greene et al., which comprises personal and impersonal moral dilemmas, is useful for clarifying people’s moral judgments. This study develops and validates a Japanese version of this questionnaire. Ten new questions were added to the Japanese version using back-translation, and its internal validity was tested. A second survey was conducted among the same participants one month after the first survey (n = 231). The intraclass correlation coefficient through retesting was found to be 0.781. Test-retest, internal consistency, and criterion-related validity were confirmed by retesting the Japanese version of the moral dilemma task. Moral judgments differed in gender, with women and men tending to be more utilitarian in situations where emotions were less and more likely to be involved, respectively. The association between age and deontological moral judgments was also observed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista Costarricense de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista de Cultura Teológica     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios e Investigación en Psicología y Educación     Open Access  
Revista de Investigacion Psicologica     Open Access  
Revista de Psicodidáctica     Open Access  
Revista de Psicodidáctica (English ed.)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología : Segunda Epoca     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología Social, International Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Revista Electrónica de Metodología Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Laborativa     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista Psicológica Herediana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Wímb Lu     Open Access  
Revue de psychoéducation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée / European Review of Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revue québécoise de psychologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia     Open Access  
Roeper Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Rorschachiana     Hybrid Journal  
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics     Open Access  
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Satir International Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review     Hybrid Journal  
School Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
School Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Seeing and Perceiving     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Self and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Sexual Abuse A Journal of Research and Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sexual Offending : Theory, Research, and Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Simmel Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sleep Medicine : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Social Action : The Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology     Free   (Followers: 3)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Social Inclusion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Issues and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Social Psychological and Personality Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Social Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Society and Security Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Somnologie - Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Spanish Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
SSM - Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia z Kognitywistyki i Filozofii Umysłu     Open Access  
Studies in Asian Social Science     Open Access  
SUCHT - Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Praxis / Journal of Addiction Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Suma Psicologica     Open Access  
Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah     Open Access  
Teaching of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Terapia Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tesis Psicologica     Open Access  
TESTFÓRUM     Open Access  
The Arts in Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Clinical Neuropsychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
The International Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Journals of Gerontology : Series B : Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
The Psychoanalytic Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Themenzentrierte Interaktion     Hybrid Journal  
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Communities : The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Thérapie familiale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Thinking & Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tobacco Use Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Torture Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transactional Analysis Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Undecidable Unconscious : A Journal of Deconstruction and Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Psychology     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACHS     Open Access  
Vinculo - Revista do NESME     Open Access  
VIVESIANA     Open Access  
Voices : The Art and Science of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wege zum Menschen : Zeitschrift für Seelsorge und Beratung, heilendes und soziales Handeln     Hybrid Journal  
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Western Undergraduate Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Yaşam Becerileri Psikoloji Dergisi / Life Skills Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Arbeits - und Organisationspsychologie A&O     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zeitschrift für Gerontopsychologie und -psychiatrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für Individualpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Neuropsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Psychologie / Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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