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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
New School Psychology Bulletin     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Occupational Health Science     Hybrid Journal  
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Open Journal of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Neuroimaging Journal     Open Access  
Open Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Pensando Psicología     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Persona     Open Access  
Persona : Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Persona Studies     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Personnel Assessment and Decisions     Open Access  
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectives on Behavior Science     Hybrid Journal  
Perspectives On Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Perspectives Psy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Phenomenology & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Philosophical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
physiopraxis     Hybrid Journal  
PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Poiésis     Open Access  
Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Porn Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
PPmP - Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Practice Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie     Hybrid Journal  
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century     Open Access  
Professional Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psic : Revista de Psicologia da Vetor Editora     Open Access  
Psico     Open Access  
Psicoanalisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicobiettivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicoespacios     Open Access  
Psicogente     Open Access  
Psicol?gica Journal     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Prática     Open Access  
Psicologia da Educação     Open Access  
Psicologia della salute     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicología desde el Caribe     Open Access  
Psicologia di Comunità. Gruppi, ricerca-azione, modelli formativi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia e Saber Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia e Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Psicologia em Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia em Revista     Open Access  
Psicologia Ensino & Formação     Open Access  
Psicologia Hospitalar     Open Access  
Psicologia Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia para América Latina     Open Access  
Psicologia USP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad     Open Access  
Psicologia, Saúde e Doenças     Open Access  
Psicooncología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicoperspectivas     Open Access  
Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane     Full-text available via subscription  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
Psikohumaniora : Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi     Open Access  
Psisula : Prosiding Berkala Psikologi     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Psych     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PsyCh Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PSYCH up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psych. Pflege Heute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychê     Open Access  
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychiatrie et violence     Open Access  
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatrische Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 357)
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis, Self and Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychoanalytic Dialogues: The International Journal of Relational Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychoanalytic Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Psychoanalytic Review The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychodynamic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychologia : Advances de la Disciplina     Open Access  
Psychologica     Open Access  
Psychologica Belgica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Psychological Perspectives: A Semiannual Journal of Jungian Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Psychological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Psychological Science and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science and Education psyedu.ru     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science In the Public Interest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Psychological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychological Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Psychologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologische Rundschau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology     Open Access  
Psychology & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychology and Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal  
Psychology and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychology in Russia: State of the Art     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology in Society     Open Access  
Psychology Learning & Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Consciousness : Theory, Research, and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Language and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Leaders and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Psychology of Men and Masculinity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Psychology of Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Psychology of Popular Media Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Psychology of Women Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychology Research and Behavior Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology, Community & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Psychology, Health & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychomusicology : Music, Mind, and Brain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
psychopraxis. neuropraxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychosomatic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychosomatic Medicine and General Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychotherapeut     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Politics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Psychotherapy in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
PsychTech & Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Psyecology - Bilingual Journal of Environmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psyke & Logos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psykhe (Santiago)     Open Access  
Quaderni di Gestalt     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderns de Psicologia     Open Access  
Qualitative Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Qualitative Research in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Quality and User Experience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quantitative Methods for Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Reading Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rehabilitation Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Religion, Brain & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-8611
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 142-159: Qualitative Methods with Nvivo Software: A
           Practical Guide for Analyzing Qualitative Data

    • Authors: David B. Allsop, Joe M. Chelladurai, Elisabeth R. Kimball, Loren D. Marks, Justin J. Hendricks
      First page: 142
      Abstract: From 1995–2016, there has been a 15-fold increase in qualitative scholarship in the social sciences, but the rigor and quality of published work has ranged widely. Little scholarship provides concrete, pragmatic explanations of (and directions regarding) the execution of systematic, high-rigor qualitative analysis. The present article guides the developing qualitative researcher through technical and procedural aspects of analyzing qualitative data with specific attention to reliability and rigor. Guidance addressing transcription, importing data, forming coding pairs, performing initial/open coding (examples of three types), determining core themes, systematic team-based coding, maintaining a data audit trail, creating a Numeric Content Analysis (NCA) table, and preparing work for publication is provided. Materials include several tables and figures that offer practical demonstrations on how to use Nvivo in data analysis. Transcription tips and outsourcing benefits and cautions are also offered. Altogether, the present article provides qualitative researchers practical guidance for executing multiple stages of qualitative analysis.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 160-172: An Open Trial on the Feasibility and
           Efficacy of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention with Psychoeducational
           Elements on Atopic Eczema and Chronic Itch

    • Authors: Julia Harfensteller
      First page: 160
      Abstract: (1) Background: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) are psychological group interventions conducted over several weeks. Their effects on reducing stress and improving physical and psychological health have been proven in various clinical populations. Growing evidence suggests that MBIs might be beneficial for dermatology patients. This article reports on a novel Mindfulness-based Training for chronic Skin Conditions (MBTSC) with psychoeducational elements that was developed with the goal of improving self-regulation including stress management and emotion regulation in patients and to help in coping with disease symptoms such as itch and scratching. The intervention was tested in a pilot efficacy trial in order to examine feasibility and to collect preliminary data on the effectiveness of the intervention on disease severity including itch perception and on psychological distress in an atopic dermatitis (AD) sample. (2) Methods: Following an uncontrolled pre-test-post-test design based on standardized self-report measures, nine adult AD patients were recruited from a dermatology clinic. Data were collected at baseline, post-treatment and 3 month follow-up. Patients completed questionnaires assessing disease severity, itch perception, stress, anxiety and depression, mindfulness and intervention acceptability. The 7 week intervention included seven weekly sessions and a daily home-practice requirement, supported by guided audio-meditations and reading material. (3) Results: Quantitative data showed improvements in disease severity, itch perception and stress levels with small to medium effect sizes. Psychological distress increased at post-treatment—significantly in the case of depression. Qualitative data highlighted the mixed effects of MBTSC on symptoms. Treatment acceptability was high and 100% of the participants completed the intervention; (4) Conclusions: These data indicate that MBTSC is feasible and that it might be a useful tool as adjunct therapy for AD. Further studies with larger samples and control groups are needed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 173-186: Development and Validation of an Inventory
           for Stressful Situations in University Students Involving Coping
           Mechanisms: An Interesting Cultural Mix in Ghana

    • Authors: Frank Quansah, Francis Ankomah, John Elvis Hagan, Medina Srem-Sai, James Boadu Frimpong, Francis Sambah, Thomas Schack
      First page: 173
      Abstract: Cognitive and behavioural coping strategies are relevant approaches for individuals such as university students as they attempt to manage stressful situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic and other academic-related pursuits within their social milieu. Although several instruments have been developed to measure the coping situations of such individuals, few studies have developed students’ specific coping inventories, with none in the African context. Of the few that exist, a culturally dominant code such as religion has been ignored by many scholars in the development of coping measures. In this study, a cultural-mix coping inventory was developed and validated using university students in Ghana. Two distinct interrelated objectives were addressed. First, the structure of the coping inventory was identified through principal component analysis. Further confirmatory factor as well as reliability analyses were then performed to provide evidence of construct validity of the scale. The outcome of the study revealed a sixteen-item psychometrically sound coping inventory with a four-dimensional structure, namely, active coping, religious coping, behaviour disengagement, and emotional support. The implications of the results are further discussed in detail.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 187-199: Differential Diagnosis of MCI, Dementia and
           Depression—A Comparison of Different Cognitive Profiles

    • Authors: Christina Wunner, Anne Schubert, Markus Gosch, Mark Stemmler
      First page: 187
      Abstract: Three-hundred-and-thirty-four cognitive profiles from neuropsychological examinations assessed during a 5-year period (2015 to 2020) from geriatric patients of a day clinic in the south of Germany were analyzed. For this purpose, the profiles were divided into the following subgroups: (1) Mild Cognitive Impairment, no depression (2) Onset or mild dementia, no depression (3) No cognitive deficit, depression (4) cognitively impaired (MCI, dementia) and depression. Subgroups were be compared using analysis of variance (independent variable IV: diagnostic groups, dependent variable DV: cognitive functions) to reveal specific differences that will allow a differential diagnosis. Post-hoc comparisons and a graphical representation of the cognitive profiles were also investigated. All cognitive profiles with a Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE) score of 25 or more points were selected for analysis if they had complete data from the following testing procedures: MMSE, clock drawing test, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Syndrom-Kurztest (SKT), Nuremberg Aging Inventory (NAI) maze test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) story immediate and delayed. The results will help to improve the differential diagnostic examination of older depressed people with and without cognitive impairment: Depressed patients usually have no objectifiable memory impairment and inconspicuous scores in the logical structure of thought processes, while attention was usually impaired in both depressed and demented patients.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 200-214: Geographical Variation in Mental Hospital
           Discharges in Greece: A Nationwide Study (1999–2012)

    • Authors: Katerina Dadouli, Apostolia Hatziefthimiou, Varvara A. Mouchtouri, Panagiotis Ntellas, Lemonia Anagnostopoulos, Michalis Koureas, Konstantinos Bonotis, Nikolaos Christodoulou, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Background: The primary goal of this study is to estimate the pattern of hospital discharges throughout Greece due to mental disorders between 1999 and 2012. Methods: Data for discharges were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority. A sex- and age-adjusted proportional hospitalization ratio (PHR) was used to estimate the ratio between the hospitalizations in each prefecture and the overall hospitalizations. Additionally, age-adjusted admission rates and hospitalization days were calculated for each sex. Descriptive and time series analysis were conducted to understand the epidemiological characteristics and to investigate the trend of annual PHR, respectively. Correlation between disorders and sociodemographic characteristics was also tested. Global and local spatial analysis was conducted to assess the spatial homogeneity of disorders and to detect any clusters of similar values. Results: More males (55%) were hospitalized. Schizophrenic and other psychoses were stated as the primary diagnosis of discharges (54.3%) for mental disorders, contributing to the highest annual mean number of hospitalization-days for male (296.9) and female patients (341.0). Most patients were out of the workforce, and most patients with drug dependence (74.5%) and schizophrenia and other psychoses (55.9%) remained unmarried. Higher PHRs were discovered in the north, while schizophrenic and other psychoses (R = 0.492), affective psychoses (R = 0.534), senile and presenile organic psychotic conditions (R = 0.543) were correlated with alcohol consumption (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The study provides evidence of geographical variation of discharges due to mental disorders and a significant association between disorders and alcohol consumption, marriage status and absence of the workforce.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 215-225: Examination of PTSD and Depression Levels
           and Demographic Data of Syrian Refugee Children during the Pandemic

    • Authors: Elif Erol, Dilara Demirpençe Seçinti
      First page: 215
      Abstract: Background: The worldwide population of child refugees is estimated to be over 10 million. Refugee children and adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups in the world, and the pandemic created new challenges for them. Objective: This study aimed to examine the PTSD and depression levels of Syrian refugee children and adolescents, the difficulties they experienced in access to food and education, and the changes in their family income, and evaluate the effects of these factors on symptom severities of depression and PTSD. Methods: We used data obtained from 631 Syrian refugee children between the ages of 7 and 15. Assessment measures for exposure to PTSD and depression included a socio-demographic form, stressors related to COVID-19, the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (CATS), and the patient-rated Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). ANCOVA is conducted to evaluate the differences between the symptoms of PTSD and depression. The regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the scales and the demographic data. Results: The study finds that 40.7% of the refugee children experienced at least one trauma, 24.9% met the criteria for PTSD, and 15.5% met the criteria for depression. The changes in income and food access are associated with PTSD and depression, while access to education is not associated with PTSD and depression. The adolescents aged between 12 and 15 show more depression and PTSD symptoms then the children aged between 7 and 11. Conclusions: The study revealed that the most risky group in refugee children and adolescents in terms of PTSD and depression were the adolescents aged between 12 and 15 and the children and adolescent whose family income was decreased and had limited access to food.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 226-237: US Nurses’ Challenges with Personal
           Protective Equipment during COVID-19: Interview Findings from the
           Frontline Workforce

    • Authors: Shannon D. Simonovich, Elizabeth Aquino, Christina Lattner, Cheryl Soco, Tiffany N. Ponder, Lily Amer, Stephanie Howard, Gilliane Nwafor, Payal Shah, Donna Badowski, Susan Krawczyk, Lucy Mueller Wiesemann, Roxanne S. Spurlark, Kashica J. Webber-Ritchey, Young-Me Lee
      First page: 226
      Abstract: This study aimed to describe nurses’ experiences with personal protective equipment while providing patient care during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. From May 2020 to September 2020, 100 individual interviews were conducted with nurses from diverse backgrounds and practice settings. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and verified for thematic analysis. Three key themes emerged related to personal protective equipment during COVID-19: (1) concerns with safety, (2) concerns with personal protective equipment supply, and (3) concerns with health care systems changing personal protective equipment policies. These findings support the importance of transparent and equitable institution-wide PPE standards in creating safe working environments. Clear communication around personal protective equipment policies and procedures, personal protective equipment education, and assurance of equitable access to equipment that can mitigate risk and disability while also reducing fear, confusion, and frustration among nurses. Maintaining clear and consistent personal protective equipment guidelines and communication regarding supplies and procedures enhances transparency during both routine and critical times de-escalating the inevitable strain concomitant with providing patient care during a global pandemic.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 238-246: Parental Attitudes and Beliefs toward
           Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Prince Sultan Military Medical
           City, Riyadh City

    • Authors: Nader Alrahili, Mansour Abdulaziz Al Harthi, Sarah Jassim Ababtain, Salma Saad Al Sharif, Mohammed Abdulaziz Alnuwaysir, Roaa Fahad Al Huzaimi
      First page: 238
      Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate attitudes and beliefs among parents of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with regard to symptoms, causes, prognosis, and management. The study was of a cross-sectional descriptive design including 283 parents of patients with ADHD (preschool, primary school, and adolescent). It was conducted at child and adolescent outpatient clinics in Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh to assess parents’ knowledge, attitudes, treatments, and beliefs regarding ADHD. Among 283 parents, 59.8% believed that diet could improve ADHD symptoms. Approximately 75% of parents believed that ADHD is a form of misbehavior rather than a neurodevelopmental disorder, whereas 55.6% believed that ADHD is a genetic disease. In total, 89% of parents wanted to treat their children by receiving specialist advice and recommendations. A significant and nonsignificant correlation between gender and preschool and primary school was recorded, respectively. However, a positive correlation was recorded between age and caregiver’s education in adolescents. Since parents’ attitudes and perceptions were poor overall, the mismanagement of ADHD was noticed. Furthermore, government-level media campaigns should be implemented to enhance parents’ knowledge and debunk myths in order to improve ADHD management.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 247-257: Psychometric Properties of the Short Form-36
           (SF-36) in Parents of Children with Mental Illness

    • Authors: Madeline Reed, Shannon V. Reaume, Mark A. Ferro
      First page: 247
      Abstract: Given the stressful experiences of parenting children with mental illness, researchers and health professionals must ensure that the health-related quality of life of these vulnerable parents is measured with sufficient validity and reliability. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SF-36 in parents of children with mental illness. The data come from 99 parents whose children were currently receiving mental health services. The correlated two-factor structure of the SF-36 was replicated. Internal consistencies were robust (α > 0.80) for all but three subscales (General Health, Vitality, Mental Health). Inter-subscale and component correlations were strong. Correlations with parental psychopathology ranged from r = −0.32 to −0.60 for the physical component and r = −0.39 to −0.75 for the mental component. Parents with clinically relevant psychopathology had significantly worse SF-36 scores. SF-36 scores were inversely associated with the number of child diagnoses. The SF-36 showed evidence of validity and reliability as a measure of health-related quality of life in parents of children with mental illness and may be used as a potential outcome in the evaluation of family-centered approaches to care within child psychiatry. Given the relatively small sample size of this study, research should continue to examine its psychometric properties in more diverse samples of caregivers.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 258-268: The Mediating Role of School and Sibling
           Bullying in the Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Mental
           Health Symptoms

    • Authors: Ioannis Katsantonis
      First page: 258
      Abstract: Recently, empirical studies have indicated an association between well-being and mental health. The nature of this association remains unclear since some studies suggest it is weak, whilst others indicate it is strong. The present study seeks to contribute to this dialogue by modelling not only the relationship between well-being and internalising and externalising mental health symptoms but also by introducing a mediation model where school and sibling bullying, as risk factors, are acting as mediators. A national sample of 1244 youth (Mage = 12.47, SD = 1.69) from the Understanding Society household panel study in the UK was utilised to estimate the structural equation model. The findings showed that the direct effect of well-being on internalising symptoms was negative and strong, whereas it was negative and moderate on externalising symptoms. Furthermore, the pattern of indirect effects from subjective well-being to internalising and externalising mental health symptoms displayed some differences in the level of statistical significance and strength. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 269-276: Intolerance of Uncertainty and Risk
           Perception during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Fear of

    • Authors: Maria Teresa Graffeo, Gaia Albano, Laura Salerno, Maria Di Blasi, Gianluca Lo Coco
      First page: 269
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic, a period of uncertainty and risk, has presented a threat to people’s physical and mental health worldwide. Previous research has shown that pandemic-related uncertainty can contribute to individuals’ psychological distress and coping responses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and risk perception (i.e., individual’s perceived likelihood of becoming infected both for themselves and people in one’s own country and perceived severity of the infection), and the mediating role of fear of COVID-19. This two-wave longitudinal study (T1 = April 2020; T2 = May 2020) involved 486 young adults (age range = 18–29 years; Mage = 23.84 ± 2.94). Participants provided demographic data as well as measures of intolerance of uncertainty, fear of COVID-19, and risk perception. Structural equation modeling showed that intolerance of uncertainty was indirectly related to risk perception through fear of COVID-19. The study confirms the central role of IU in fear management and, consequently, in determining individuals’ risk estimates.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 277-280: Community Psychiatry in Rural Greece: The
           Role of the Mobile Mental Health Units

    • Authors: Vaios Peritogiannis, Ioanna V. Papathanasiou, Orestis Giotakos
      First page: 277
      Abstract: Almost a decade ago, an article published in the official journal of the Hellenic Psychiatric Association, concerning the state of Greek mental health reform, referred to the significant shortages of mental health staff and services in rural areas of the country [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 281-291: Dance Movement Psychotherapy in Breast
           Cancer: “Throwing the Βall to Μount Olympus”

    • Authors: Spyridoula Karaferi, Maria N. Papaliagka (Papaliaga), Maria Tolia, Antigoni Poultsidi, Panagiotis D. Felemegas, Konstantinos Bonotis
      First page: 281
      Abstract: The present study is a Dance Movement Psychotherapy (DMP) pilot intervention designed to address the psychological challenges faced by Greek breast cancer patients, after surgery and around radiotherapy treatment. It was designed as a 12 weeks’ project, involving patients of diverse age and educational level, mostly living in rural areas. The personality and psychopathology inventory Symptoms’ Check List-90 (SCL-90), the therapist’s records and video self-observation were used in a mixed method approach. Thirteen subjects initiated the study, but they were gradually reduced and only four completed it. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-25 addressing this fact. Positive results of qualitative interpretation of the therapist’s data and SCL-90, as well as changes in movement patterns and self-perception evaluated via video self-observation, showed that the intervention was beneficial for the patients who completed it. However, the fact that not all the participants were able to finish the program, implies that although DMT intervention at an early stage can help some patients deal with strong emotions, careful evaluation of eligible individuals should precede. Besides the patients’ medical condition, demographic and personality characteristics should be considered in the design of future similar studies.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 292-300: Exploring Internet Addiction in Italian
           Nurses during the COVID-19 Outbreak

    • Authors: Roberto Lupo, Simone Zacchino, Alessia Lezzi, Pierluigi Lezzi, Antonino Calabrò, Maicol Carvello, Luana Conte, Elsa Vitale
      First page: 292
      Abstract: (1) Background: Nomophobia is considered a digital and virtual contemporary society disorder and refers to discomfort, anxiety, nervousness, or distress caused by being out of contact with a cell phone or computer. The present study had a twofold objective: to evaluate the expert use of the Internet among Italian nurses by correlating it with socio-demographic characteristics, such as: sex, years of work experience, professional role, and level of nursing education; and to assess a possible increase in the levels of nomophobia among Italian nurses during COVID-19 compared to the pre-pandemic period. (2) Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from April to September 2020, such as during the First Wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. (3) Results: A total of 502 nurses were enrolled in the present study. Significantly differences were reported in the IAT (Internet Addiction Test) levels according to socio-demographic characteristics since males reported significantly higher IAT levels than females (p < 0.001). Nurses who worked more than 6 years reported significantly higher IAT levels (p = 0.031) than their younger colleagues. More nursing managers and coordinators reported significantly higher IAT levels than registered nurses (p < 0.001). This trend was repeated by considering the nursing educational level, as nurses who recorded more years of nursing educational level reported significantly higher IAT levels than the others (p = 0.003). Additionally, significant differences were reported according to all the socio-demographic characteristics considered and IAT subdimensions, namely: Salience, Excessive Use, Neglect Work, Anticipation, and Lack of Control. (4) Conclusions: The study revealed higher levels of Internet addiction in men than in women during the COVID-19 pandemic period, as well as a significant correlation between nomophobia, years of work experience, and the role of nursing coordinator/manager.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 301-317: Humans and the Olfactory Environment: A Case
           of Gene-Culture Coevolution'

    • Authors: Peter Frost
      First page: 301
      Abstract: As hunter-gatherers, humans used their sense of smell to identify plants and animals, to find their way within a foraging area, or to distinguish each other by gender, age, kinship, or social dominance. Because women gathered while men hunted, the sexes evolved different sensitivities to plant and animal odors. They also ended up emitting different odors. Male odors served to intimidate rival males or assert dominance. With the rise of farming and sedentism, humans no longer needed their sense of smell to find elusive food sources or to orient themselves within a large area. Odors now came from a narrower range of plants and animals. Meanwhile, body odor was removed through bathing to facilitate interactions in enclosed spaces. This new phenotype became the template for the evolution of a new genotype: less sensitivity to odors of wild plants and animals, lower emissions of male odors, and a more negative response to them. Further change came with the development of fragrances to reodorize the body and the home. This new olfactory environment coevolved with the ability to represent odors in the mind, notably for storage in memory, for vicarious re-experiencing, or for sharing with other people through speech and writing.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 318-342: Dealing with Missing Responses in Cognitive
           Diagnostic Modeling

    • Authors: Shenghai Dai, Dubravka Svetina Valdivia
      First page: 318
      Abstract: Missing data are a common problem in educational assessment settings. In the implementation of cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs), the presence and/or inappropriate treatment of missingness may yield biased parameter estimates and diagnostic information. Using simulated data, this study evaluates ten approaches for handling missing data in a commonly applied CDM (the deterministic inputs, noisy “and” gate (DINA) model): treating missing data as incorrect (IN), person mean (PM) imputation, item mean (IM) imputation, two-way (TW) imputation, response function (RF) imputation, logistic regression (LR), expectation-maximization (EM) imputation, full information maximum likelihood (FIML) estimation, predictive mean matching (PMM), and random imputation (RI). Specifically, the current study investigates how the estimation accuracy of item parameters and examinees’ attribute profiles from DINA are impacted by the presence of missing data and the selection of missing data methods across conditions. While no single method was found to be superior to other methods across all conditions, the results suggest the use of FIML, PMM, LR, and EM in recovering item parameters. The selected methods, except for PM, performed similarly across conditions regarding attribute classification accuracy. Recommendations for the treatment of missing responses for CDMs are provided. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4020028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 38-48: Validation of the Visual Cognitive Assessment
           Test (VCAT) for the Early Diagnosis of Cognitive Impairment in
           Multilingual Population in Malaysia

    • Authors: Li Yun Ng, Chen Joo Chin, Monica Danial, Stephenie Ann Albart, Purnima Devi Suppiah, Kurubaran Ganasegeran, Wei Theng Tan, Hung Eun Hoo, Ewe Eow Teh, Gaaitheri Karupiah, Laavanya Vijaya Kumar, Wen Mei Choong, Hooi Ling Tan, Szer Lik Yeap, Al-Zilal Abdul Wahid, Khian Boon Ng, Mohammad Nabhan Khalil, Esther G. Ebenezer, Basanta Kumar Mohanty, Helvinder Kaur, Xin Hui Choo, Wee Kooi Cheah, Sreevali Muthuvadivelu, Prema Muninathan, Hoon Lang Teh, Chiann Ni Thiam, Jia Hui Loh, Alan Swee Hock Ch’ng, Nagaendran Kandiah, Irene Looi
      First page: 38
      Abstract: As Malaysia undergoes a demographic transformation of population aging, the prevalence of dementia is expected to rise, posing a major public health threat issue. Early screening to detect cognitive impairment is important to implement appropriate clinical interventions. The Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT) is a language-neutral cognitive assessment screening tool suitable for multilingual populations. This study was aimed to validate the VCAT screening tool for the detection of cognitive impairment amongst the population of Malaysia. A total of 184 participants were recruited, comprising 79 cognitively healthy participants (CHP), 46 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 59 mild dementia (Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular Dementia) patients from five hospitals between May 2018 and December 2019 to determine the usefulness of VCAT. Diagnostic performance was assessed using area under the curve (AUC), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysies was performed to determine the recommended cutoff scores. ROC analyses for the VCAT was comparable with that of MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) in differentiating between CHP, MCI, and mild dementia (AD and VaD) participants. The findings of this study suggest the following optimal cutoff score for VCAT: Dementia 0–19, MCI 20–23, Normal 24–30. The mean ± SD time to complete the VCAT was 10.0 ± 2.75 min in the CHP group and 15.4 ± 4.52 min in the CI group. Results showed that 76.0% of subjects thought that the instructions in VCAT were similar or easier to understand compared with MoCA. This study showed that the VCAT is a valid and useful screening tool for patients with cognitive impairment in Malaysia and is feasible to be used in the clinical settings.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 49-59: The Interventions of a Mobile Mental Health
           Unit on the Refugee Crisis on a Greek Island

    • Authors: Iliana Fylla, Eleonora Fousfouka, Maria Kostoula, Pinelopi Spentzouri
      First page: 49
      Abstract: This present study concerns refugees and asylum seekers who have been referred to a Mobile Mental Health Unit (MMHU-Ch) in rural Greece on a Northeast Aegean Island during the refugee crisis in 2015. Our objective is the examination and recording of psychopathology characteristics’, the presentation of the therapeutic interventions provided, and the difficulties. The sample is composed of 418 requests made by refugees, asylum seekers, adults, and children. The clinical and demographic data have been gathered from the MMHU-Ch’s charts. The study is retrospective, descriptive with quantitative and categorical variables. The data has been analyzed with the utilization of SPSS. The dominant diagnosis in children involves anxiety disorders, developmental disorders, and PTSD. One noteworthy finding is the high percentage of suicide behavior regardless of psychiatric diagnosis, which should be further examined. As far as interventions are concerned, the conclusions which have arisen are the gradually stronger commitment of the referents, but also the high percentage of requests that dropped out. Further examination of the interventions and their efficiency is recommended as well as probing the features of psychopathology in the long term with a view to clarifying the patronizing and aggravating factors.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 60-70: Engagement Analysis of Canadian Public Health
           and News Media Facebook Posts and Sentiment Analysis of Corresponding
           Comments during COVID-19

    • Authors: Melissa MacKay, Taylor Colangeli, Sydney Gosselin, Sophie Neumann, Andrew Papadopoulos
      First page: 60
      Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, key stakeholders have used social media to rapidly disseminate essential information to the public to help them make informed health-related decisions. Our research examined how the public responded to official actors’ Facebook posts during COVID-19 and examined the comment sentiment and post engagement rates. CBC News and CTV News received a greater proportion of negative comments and a lower average post engagement rate compared with Healthy Canadians. Additionally, the proportion of negative and positive comments varied over time for all sources; however, over 30% of the comments for all three actors were consistently negative. Key stakeholders should monitor the public’s response to their social media posts and adapt their messages to increase the effectiveness of their crisis communication efforts to encourage the adoption of protective measures.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 71-72: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Psych in 2021

    • Authors: Psych Editorial Office Psych Editorial Office
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 73-88: Evaluating Stan’s Variational Bayes
           Algorithm for Estimating Multidimensional IRT Models

    • Authors: Esther Ulitzsch, Steffen Nestler
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Bayesian estimation of multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models in large data sets may come with impractical computational burdens when general-purpose Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers are employed. Variational Bayes (VB)—a method for approximating the posterior distribution—poses a potential remedy. Stan’s general-purpose VB algorithms have drastically improved the accessibility of VB methods for a wide psychometric audience. Using marginal maximum likelihood (MML) and MCMC as benchmarks, the present simulation study investigates the utility of Stan’s built-in VB function for estimating multidimensional IRT models with between-item dimensionality. VB yielded a marked speed-up in comparison to MCMC, but did not generally outperform MML in terms of run time. VB estimates were trustworthy only for item difficulties, while bias in item discriminations depended on the model’s dimensionality. Under realistic conditions of non-zero correlations between dimensions, VB correlation estimates were subject to severe bias. The practical relevance of performance differences is illustrated with data from PISA 2018. We conclude that in its current form, Stan’s built-in VB algorithm does not pose a viable alternative for estimating multidimensional IRT models.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 89-99: Psychotherapy as a Polyphonic and Playful

    • Authors: Cátia Guerra, Raquel Pedrosa, Patrícia Nunes, Joana Rebelo, Eva Osório, António Roma-Torres
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Since the emergence of hypnosis, we have witnessed a multiplication of psychotherapies, which have different backgrounds and aims. The omnipresence of psychotherapy leads us to an inevitable question: what is psychotherapy' In this article, we analyse the concept of mental disorder and how psychotherapy works, underlining three mechanisms: influence, polyphonic dialogue and play. Focusing on the therapeutic dialogue, we explore what is told during therapy and how, what is done while telling, and how dialogue can create new narratives and new meanings, highlighting the importance of influencing the patient on changing the symptomatic behaviour. We also consider how the multiple voices of the patient, therapist and others can generate an alternative to the monologic discourse of the disease. While the psychiatric illness may indicate a sterile dialogue which often expands the pathology, communicating in a different and active way can create new and healthier meanings. Therefore, one of the therapy’s aims is to influence the patient, throughout a dialogic and playful conversation, to gain freedom from disease.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 100-104: Τhe Contribution of Mobile Mental Health
           Units to Community Psychiatric Care in Greece

    • Authors: Maria Samakouri, Olympia Evagorou, Athena Frangouli-Sakellaropoulou
      First page: 100
      Abstract: The implementation of Mobile Mental Health Units (MMHUs) was a decisive step in the psychiatric reform and the development of community psychiatric care in Greece [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 105-113: Gender Gap in Healthcare
           Worker—Patient Communication during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An
           Italian Observational Study

    • Authors: Vitale Elsa
      First page: 105
      Abstract: The value of the healthcare worker–patient communication has been well demonstrated and validated in several studies evidencing its relation to positive patient health outcomes, including better care response, simpler decision-making, better patient psychological well-being, and, therefore, considerable patient care satisfaction. The present study purposed to assess how patients perceived healthcare worker–patient communication during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether there were any gender-related differences among participants. From March 2020 to April 2020, an online questionnaire was administered to those who declared a patient’s condition in this period. The data considered included data on gender and a Quality of Communication questionnaire (QOC). A total of 120 patients were recruited online. Of these, 52 (43.33%) were females and 68 (56.67%) were males. Significant differences were recorded between females and males in the QOC questionnaire as regards Item no.2 (p = 0.033), Item no.6 (p = 0.007), Item no.11 (p = 0.013), Item no.12 (p = 0.003), Item no.13 (p = 0.002), Item no.15 (p = 0.008), and Item no.16 (p = 0.037), respectively. The potentially different elements between the two sexes considered were assessed in: Component 1: the need to be completely informed about their own health condition, and Component 2: the need to receive authentic and sincere communication from the healthcare worker involved. In light of the present findings, it has emerged that male patients seemed to be more active and positive in effective healthcare worker–patient communication.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 114-118: Editorial of the Psych Special Issue
           “Computational Aspects, Statistical Algorithms and Software in

    • Authors: Alexander Robitzsch
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Statistical software in psychometrics has made tremendous progress in providing open source solutions (e [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Psych, Vol. 4, Pages 119-141: Optimized Clinical Strategies for
           Treatment-Resistant Depression: Integrating Ketamine Protocols with
           Trauma- and Attachment-Informed Psychotherapy

    • Authors: Sherry-Anne Muscat, Glenn Hartelius, Courtenay Richards Crouch, Kevin W. Morin
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Strategically timed trauma- and attachment-informed psychotherapy to address underlying emotional wounds, paired with ketamine administered in precision-calibrated doses to ensure high-entropy brain states, may be key to improving the quality and duration of ketamine’s therapeutic efficacy for treatment-resistant depression. This approach optimizes the opportunities for change created by ketamine’s known effects as a rapid antidepressant that stimulates synaptogenesis, normalizes neural connectivity and coherence, enhances neuroplasticity, reduces inflammation, and induces high-entropy brain states with associated subjective psychedelic experiences. Ketamine, a non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist is a safe, effective, fast-acting dissociative anesthetic that, as a standalone treatment, also exhibits rapid sustained antidepressant effects, even in many patients with treatment-resistant depression. A prior history of developmental trauma and attachment injuries are known primary factors in the etiology of treatment resistance in depression and other mental disorders. Thus, the adjunct of targeted psychotherapy attuned to trauma and attachment injuries may enhance and prolong ketamine efficacy and provide an opportunity for lasting therapeutic change. Psychotherapy engagement during repeated ketamine sessions for patient safety and integration of altered states, paired with separate individualized psychotherapy-only sessions timed 24–48 h post ketamine induction, takes advantage of peak ketamine-induced dendritic spine growth in the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, and normalized network connectivity across brain structures. This strategically timed paired-session approach also exploits the therapeutic potential created by precision-calibrated ketamine-linked high-entropy brain states and associated psychedelic experiences that are posited to disrupt overly rigid maladaptive thoughts, behaviors, and disturbing memories associated with treatment-resistant depression; paired sessions also support integration of the felt sense of happiness and connectivity associated with psychedelic experiences.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/psych4010012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
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