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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
New Ideas in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
New School Psychology Bulletin     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Occupational Health Science     Hybrid Journal  
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Open Journal of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Neuroimaging Journal     Open Access  
Open Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Pensando Psicología     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Persona     Open Access  
Persona : Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Persona Studies     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Personnel Assessment and Decisions     Open Access  
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectives on Behavior Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives On Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Perspectives Psy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology and Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Philosophical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
physiopraxis     Hybrid Journal  
PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Poiésis     Open Access  
Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Porn Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Possibility Studies & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PPmP - Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Practice Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie     Hybrid Journal  
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century     Open Access  
Professional Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psic : Revista de Psicologia da Vetor Editora     Open Access  
Psico     Open Access  
Psicoanalisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicobiettivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicoespacios     Open Access  
Psicogente     Open Access  
Psicol?gica Journal     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Prática     Open Access  
Psicologia da Educação     Open Access  
Psicologia della salute     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicología desde el Caribe     Open Access  
Psicologia di Comunità. Gruppi, ricerca-azione, modelli formativi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia e Saber Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia e Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Psicologia em Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia em Revista     Open Access  
Psicologia Ensino & Formação     Open Access  
Psicologia Hospitalar     Open Access  
Psicologia Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia para América Latina     Open Access  
Psicologia USP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad     Open Access  
Psicologia, Saúde e Doenças     Open Access  
Psicooncología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicoperspectivas     Open Access  
Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane     Full-text available via subscription  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
Psikohumaniora : Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi     Open Access  
Psisula : Prosiding Berkala Psikologi     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Psych     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PsyCh Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PSYCH up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psych. Pflege Heute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychê     Open Access  
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychiatrie et violence     Open Access  
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatrische Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388)
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis, Self and Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Psychoanalytic Dialogues: The International Journal of Relational Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Psychoanalytic Review The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychodynamic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychologia : Advances de la Disciplina     Open Access  
Psychologica     Open Access  
Psychologica Belgica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Psychological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 250)
Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Psychological Perspectives: A Semiannual Journal of Jungian Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Psychological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 230)
Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324)
Psychological Science and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science and Education psyedu.ru     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science In the Public Interest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Psychological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychological Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Psychologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologische Rundschau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology     Open Access  
Psychology & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal  
Psychology and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Psychology in Russia: State of the Art     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology in Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychology Learning & Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Consciousness : Theory, Research, and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Language and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Leaders and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychology of Men and Masculinity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Psychology of Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Psychology of Popular Media Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Psychology of Women Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychology Research and Behavior Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology, Community & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Psychology, Health & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychomusicology : Music, Mind, and Brain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Psychopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
psychopraxis. neuropraxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychosomatic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychosomatic Medicine and General Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychotherapeut     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Politics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Psychotherapy in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
PsychTech & Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psyecology - Bilingual Journal of Environmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psyke & Logos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psykhe (Santiago)     Open Access  
Quaderni di Gestalt     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderns de Psicologia     Open Access  
Qualitative Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Qualitative Research in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Quality and User Experience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Quantitative Methods for Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Reading Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rehabilitation Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)

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Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-8611
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1019-1029: How Anxious and Stressed Are Emerging
           Adults' The Role of Mindfulness and Intolerance of Uncertainty

    • Authors: Marina Nekić
      First page: 1019
      Abstract: The focus on mental health during emerging adulthood (EA) is necessary due to the development of mental disorders before the age of 25 and the adverse effects of stress and anxiety on psychological well-being. Mindfulness has been shown to aid in coping with stress and anxiety, while intolerance of uncertainty can lead to higher distress levels. The aim of this research was to explore the prevalence and interrelationships between anxiety, stress, intolerance of uncertainty, and mindfulness, as well as potential gender differences. The study involved 425 emerging adults, with a majority of female participants. Anxiety and stress levels were found to be mild, with anxiety tending towards a moderate level in women. Gender differences were observed solely within the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty, with women displaying higher levels of intolerance. For women, all of the measured variables correlated as expected; stress and anxiety showed moderate positive relationships with the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty but negative ones with mindfulness. Furthermore, the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty were negatively correlated with mindfulness in the female sample. Whereas for men, only anxiety and stress correlated positively, and stress also exhibited a negative relationship with mindfulness. Additionally, the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty showed low negative correlations with mindfulness. Significant predictors for anxiety were inhibitory anxiety, as one of the dimensions of intolerance of uncertainty and mindfulness. On the other hand, all of the measured predictors were statistically significant for stress, indicating that being intolerant of uncertainty and less mindful were associated with higher stress levels. An identifying factor contributing to anxiety and stress during EA, for both men and women, is essential because it increases our understanding, which may lead to more efficient prevention and treatment strategies.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5040068
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 602-618: The Role of Microbiota Pattern in Anxiety
           and Stress Disorders—A Review of the State of Knowledge

    • Authors: Karolina Krupa-Kotara, Weronika Gwioździk, Sandra Nandzik, Mateusz Grajek
      First page: 602
      Abstract: Interest in the human microbiome in terms of mental health has increased with the rise in psychiatric diseases and disorders. The digestive system, the immune system, the brain, and the autonomic nervous system can all suffer from long-term lack of sleep and relaxation brought on by stress. There is little doubt that stress affects the human intestinal microbiota’s health and encourages problems with its composition, according to scientific studies. Chronic stress exposure raises the risk of both physical and mental illnesses. Therefore, this review’s goal was to support the theory that diseases including anxiety and stress are influenced by microbiome patterns. A total of 8600 sources directly relevant to this study’s topic were chosen from the 236,808 records returned by the literature search, and those with the highest scientific value were then selected based on bibliometric impact factors, language, and year of publication. A total of 87 sources, the most recent scientific output, were finally used for the literature review’s final analysis. The small number of studies on the subject indicates that it is still a developing problem, according to the literature study.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030038
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 619-629: Trafficking Women for Sexual Exploitation: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Sofia Patrício Gomes, Ana Isabel Sani
      First page: 619
      Abstract: Human trafficking is a complex global problem that demands current and scientifically grounded knowledge capable of coordinating interventions among various sectors of society. To address this issue, a systematic collection of scientific articles was conducted in two databases (Web of Science and Scielo) using keywords in both English and Portuguese. After screening 267 articles based on title, abstract, and full text, an 11-article sample was analyzed for quality. The results revealed that conceptual inconsistency is a challenge in signaling human trafficking, particularly in cases of sexual exploitation of women where it may be associated with prostitution, pimping, or migration—all of which are activities tied to financial gain. Addressing human trafficking requires action from concept to practice, including strengthened policies for sanctions and necessary support for victims.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030039
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 630-649: Institutional Factors Affecting
           Postsecondary Student Mental Wellbeing: A Scoping Review of the Canadian

    • Authors: Abhinand Thaivalappil, Jillian Stringer, Alison Burnett, Andrew Papadopoulos
      First page: 630
      Abstract: There have been increased calls to address the growing mental health concerns of postsecondary students in Canada. Health promotion focuses on prevention and is needed as part of a comprehensive approach to student mental health support, with an emphasis on not just the individual but also the sociocultural environment of postsecondary institutions. The aim was to conduct a scoping review of the literature pertaining to the associations between postsecondary institutional factors and student wellbeing. The review included a comprehensive search strategy, relevance screening and confirmation, and data charting. Overall, 33 relevant studies were identified. Major findings provide evidence that institutional attitudes, institutional (in)action, perceived campus safety, and campus climate are associated with mental wellbeing, suggesting that campus-wide interventions can benefit from continued monitoring and targeting these measures among student populations. Due to the large variability in reporting and measurement of outcomes, the development of standardized measures for measuring institutional-level factors are needed. Furthermore, institutional participation and scaling up established population-level assessments in Canada that can help systematically collect, evaluate, and compare findings across institutions and detect changes in relevant mental health outcomes through time.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030040
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 650-661: Who Is Responsible for Nurse Wellbeing in a
           Crisis' A Single Centre Perspective

    • Authors: Luke Hughes, Anika Petrella, Lorna A Fern, Rachel M Taylor
      First page: 650
      Abstract: Background: Leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic often manifested as a command-and-control style of leadership which had detrimental emotional impacts on staff, particularly the nursing workforce. Leadership can have detrimental effects on staff wellbeing, or it can greatly boost their ability to handle a crisis. We sought to explore the interrelationship between leadership and nurses’ wellbeing in an inner-city university hospital during the initial wave of the pandemic. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of interview data collected during a hospital-wide evaluation of barriers and facilitators to changes implemented to support the surge of COVID-19 related admissions during wave one. Data were collected through semi-structured video interviews during May–July 2020. Interviews were analysed using Framework analysis. Results: Thirty-one nurses participated, including matrons (n = 7), sisters (n = 8), and specialist nursing roles (n = 16). Three overarching themes were identified: the impact on nurses, personal factors, and organisational factors. The impact on nurses manifested as distress and fatigue. Coping and help-seeking behaviours were found to be the two personal factors which underpinned nurses’ wellbeing. The organisational factors that impacted nurses’ wellbeing included decision-making, duty, and teamwork. Conclusions: The wellbeing of the workforce is pivotal to the health service, and it is mutually beneficial for patients, staff, and leaders. Addressing how beliefs and misconceptions around wellbeing are communicated and accessing psychological support are key priorities to supporting nurses during pandemics.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030041
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 662-669: Comparing Frequency and Severity Ratings for
           ME/CFS versus Controls

    • Authors: Leonard A. Jason, Sage Benner, Nicole Hansel
      First page: 662
      Abstract: Most questionnaires for somatic symptoms focus on occurrence, frequency, or severity, and in doing so, they might not be able to comprehensively assess the burden that symptoms present to patients. For example, a symptom might occur at a high frequency but only a minimal severity, so that it is less likely to be a burden on a patient; whereas a symptom that has both a high frequency and severity is more likely to be negatively impacting a patient. Study 1 examined frequency and severity scores for classic Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) symptoms among patients with ME/CFS versus a control group. Findings in Study 1 indicate there were more frequency/severity discrepancies for individuals with ME/CFS versus the control group. Study 1 concluded that collecting data on both measures of symptom burden provides unique indicators that can better assess the burden of the symptoms on patients. In a separate data set, Study 2 reported reliability data on slight differences in the time period and the way the severity was assessed. Study 2 findings indicated high levels of reliability for these changes in the time period and the way questions were asked. These studies provide important psychometric properties that could lead to more reliable and valid assessments of patients with post-viral illnesses.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030042
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 670-678: Bridging the Gap between Dermatology and
           Psychiatry: Prevalence and Treatment of Excoriation Disorders Secondary to
           Neuropsychiatric Medications

    • Authors: Brittany M. Thompson, Joshua M. Brady, Jeffrey D. McBride
      First page: 670
      Abstract: (1) Background: The dermatillomania and trichotillomania disorders in this study refer to the subcategory of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs) that are medication-induced. Patients with typical dermatillomania or trichotillomania disorder generally present with other OCD symptoms, although this is not present in the cases of medication-induced skin picking or hair pulling disorders found in the current literature. This paper serves to investigate the prevalence and treatment methods of medication-induced excoriation disorders. (2) Methods: The PubMed database was queried for cases of medication-induced dermatillomania or trichotillomania. The database search resulted in 80 results, 7 of which were full-length case reports in English with acceptable detail on clinical course, yielding nine patients. (3) Results: All patients who discontinued their offending agent had complete resolution of symptoms. Patients who continued their medications saw a resolution of symptoms when treated with an additional medication. Atypical antipsychotics and SSRIs were also noted to have been the offending agent in some cases but a successful treatment in other cases. (4) Conclusion: Patients who discontinued their offending agent or added additional pharmacotherapy for dermatillomania or trichotillomania had the best outcomes. Abnormal serotonin and dopamine levels are thought to be connected to the pathology of this disease.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030043
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 679-687: Re-Examining the Cognitive Scale of the
           Developmental Support in Childcare

    • Authors: Takahiro Shimmura, Akira Yasumura
      First page: 679
      Abstract: The Cognitive Scale of the Development Support in Childcare (CSDSC) developed in 2023 has adequate reliability and validity. However, it has some limitations in terms of its factor structure. Thus, we re-examined the structural factors, reliability, and validity of the scale using the same data (513 valid responses) as in the original study. In contrast to the two-factor model of the original scale, the revised scale has a one-factor structure. The scale’s Cronbach’s α value was 0.83. A confirmatory factor analysis used to assess whether a one- or two-factor structure was more appropriate for the scale demonstrated that the one-factor model was a better fit, and the revised scale had a higher degree of validity than the original one. The results indicate that the revised and shortened CSDSC has sufficiently high levels of reliability and validity, suggesting that the scale is appropriate for evaluating nursery teachers’ values regarding child development support in childcare.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030044
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 688-714: Approximate Invariance Testing in Diagnostic
           Classification Models in the Presence of Attribute Hierarchies: A Bayesian
           Network Approach

    • Authors: Alfonso J. Martinez, Jonathan Templin
      First page: 688
      Abstract: This paper demonstrates the process of invariance testing in diagnostic classification models in the presence of attribute hierarchies via an extension of the log-linear cognitive diagnosis model (LCDM). This extension allows researchers to test for measurement (item) invariance as well as attribute (structural) invariance simultaneously in a single analysis. The structural model of the LCDM was parameterized as a Bayesian network, which allows attribute hierarchies to be modeled and tested for attribute invariance via a series of latent regression models. We illustrate the steps for carrying out the invariance analyses through an in-depth case study with an empirical dataset and provide JAGS code for carrying out the analysis within the Bayesian framework. The analysis revealed that a subset of the items exhibit partial invariance, and evidence of full invariance was found at the structural level.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030045
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 715-723: Walking with a Mobile Phone: A Randomised
           Controlled Trial of Effects on Mood

    • Authors: Randi Collin, Elizabeth Broadbent
      First page: 715
      Abstract: It is now common to see pedestrians looking at their mobile phones while they are walking. Looking at a mobile phone can cause stooped posture, slower gait, and lack of attention to surroundings. Because these walking characteristics have been associated with negative affect, walking while looking at a mobile phone may have negative effects on mood. This study aimed to investigate whether walking while looking at a mobile phone had psychological effects. One hundred and twenty-five adults were randomised to walk in a park either with or without reading text on a mobile phone. Participants wore a fitness tracker to record pace and heart rate, and posture was calculated from video. Self-reported mood, affect, feelings of power, comfort, and connectedness with nature were assessed. The phone group walked significantly slower, with a more stooped posture, slower heart rate, and felt less comfortable than the phone-free group. The phone group experienced significant decreases in positive mood, affect, power, and connectedness with nature, as well as increases in negative mood, whereas the phone-free group experienced the opposite. There was no significant mediation effect of posture on mood; however, feeling connected with nature significantly mediated the effects of phone walking on mood. In conclusion, individuals experience better wellbeing when they pay attention to the environment rather than their phone while walking. More research is needed to investigate the effects of performing other activities on a mobile phone on mood while walking and in other settings.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030046
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 724-741: Contemporary Mirror Imaging between American
           and Iranian Citizens: An Exploratory Mixed-Method Research Study

    • Authors: Parvaneh (Paria) Yaghoubi Jami, Kasra Tabrizi
      First page: 724
      Abstract: In this study, an exploratory mixed-method approach was employed to investigate the attitudes of Iranians and Americans toward each other, specifically focusing on two critical incidents in their modern history. Drawing from quantitative and qualitative data collected in relation to the hostage crisis in 1979, the missile attack on an Iranian passenger plane (Iran Air 655) in 1988, and the travel ban (Executive Order 13780) in 2018, the study aimed to uncover any changes in attitudes over the course of history. Unlike previous research, the majority of participants had a more balanced and less biased viewpoint toward each other and approached the incidents by considering the consequences and ethical aspects associated with each event. These findings challenge the notion of a mirror image effect, which suggests that people tend to adopt their government’s attitude toward other nations. Instead, participants demonstrated a tendency to rely on their own judgment and critically evaluate information, rather than blindly accepting media narratives.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030047
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 742-756: The Hidden Power of “Thank You”:
           Exploring Aspects, Expressions, and the Influence of Gratitude in
           Religious Families

    • Authors: Chelladurai, Marks, Dollahite, Kelley, Allsop
      First page: 742
      Abstract: Gratitude has been extensively studied over the past two decades. Among several predictors, aspects of religiosity and spirituality have been consistent predictors of gratitude. To explore the religious motivations and processes that foster the practice of gratitude, we undertook a systematic thematic analysis using interview data from a national qualitative project of 198 highly religious families. Participants (n = 476) included mothers, fathers, and children from various socioeconomic backgrounds and from diverse religious, racial, and ethnic backgrounds in the United States of America. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the participants’ homes. Data for this study were analyzed using a team-based approach to qualitative analysis. The findings were organized thematically, including: (a) aspects of gratitude, (b) expressions of gratitude, and (c) the influence of gratitude. Two aspects of gratitude were identified: functional—what people were grateful for—and directional—to whom they were grateful. Expressions of gratitude involved participation in regular, gratitude-focused prayers and mutual day-to-day appreciation. The relational context and implications and context of gratitude in religious families were further examined and reported with sub-themes: (a) gratitude prompted positive re-evaluation of relationships and (b) gratitude reinforced religious faith. Implications, strengths, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030048
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 757-769: Accurate Standard Errors in Multilevel
           Modeling with Heteroscedasticity: A Computationally More Efficient
           Jackknife Technique

    • Authors: Steffen Zitzmann, Sebastian Weirich, Martin Hecht
      First page: 757
      Abstract: In random-effects models, hierarchical linear models, or multilevel models, it is typically assumed that the variances within higher-level units are homoscedastic, meaning that they are equal across these units. However, this assumption is often violated in research. Depending on the degree of violation, this can lead to biased standard errors of higher-level parameters and thus to incorrect inferences. In this article, we describe a resampling technique for obtaining standard errors—Zitzmann’s jackknife. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study to compare the technique with the commonly used delete-1 jackknife, the robust standard error inMplus, and a modified version of the commonly used delete-1 jackknife. Findings revealed that the resampling techniques clearly outperformed the robust standard error in rather small samples with high levels of heteroscedasticity. Moreover, Zitzmann’s jackknife tended to perform somewhat better than the two versions of the delete-1 jackknife and was much faster.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030049
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 770-786: An Introduction to Bayesian Knowledge
           Tracing with pyBKT

    • Authors: Okan Bulut, Jinnie Shin, Seyma N. Yildirim-Erbasli, Guher Gorgun, Zachary A. Pardos
      First page: 770
      Abstract: This study aims to introduce Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT), a probabilistic model used in educational data mining to estimate learners’ knowledge states over time. It also provides a practical guide to estimating BKT models using the pyBKT library available in Python. The first section presents an overview of BKT by explaining its theoretical foundations and advantages in modeling individual learning processes. In the second section, we describe different variants of the standard BKT model based on item response theory (IRT). Next, we demonstrate the estimation of BKT with the pyBKT library in Python, outlining data pre-processing steps, parameter estimation, and model evaluation. Different cases of knowledge tracing tasks illustrate how BKT estimates learners’ knowledge states and evaluates prediction accuracy. The results highlight the utility of BKT in capturing learners’ knowledge states dynamically. We also show that the model parameters of BKT resemble the parameters from logistic IRT models.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030050
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 787-791: Mobile Mental Health Units in Greece:
           Bridging Clinical Practice and Research in the Rural Context

    • Authors: Vaios Peritogiannis, Maria Samakouri
      First page: 787
      Abstract: The present Special Issue of Psych, which has been now fully released, aimed to highlight the importance of the Mobile Mental Health Units (MMHUs) in delivering services in rural and remote areas in Greece, and to stress their role as an easily accessible setting that provides a wide range of community-based psychosocial interventions, well beyond usual psychiatric care [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030051
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 792-801: Multi-Center Validation of Pain Assessment
           in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) Scale in Malaysia

    • Authors: Hoon Lang Teh, In Jiann Tan, Hong Tak Lim, Yun Ying Ho, Chai Chen Ng, Rosmahani Mohd Ali, Jia Nee Ling, Wan Chieh Lim, Gordon Hwa Mang Pang, Hwee Hwee Chua, Faisal Norizan, Norazlina Ibrahim, Chin Eang Goh, Gin Wei Chai, Malarkodi Suppamutharwyam, Melinda Ang, Dyascynthia Musa, Soo Chin Chan, Nurulakmal Obet, Yan Xi Yew, Zhen Aun Yee, Ai Vuen Lee, Way Ti Ooi, Hee Kheen Ho, Yee Leng Lee, Rohilin Justa, Yoong Wah Lee, Hwei Wern Tay, Kuo Zhau Teo, Nor Hakima Makhtar, Ungku Ahmad Ameen Ungku Mohd Zam
      First page: 792
      Abstract: The detection of pain in persons with advanced dementia is challenging due to their inability to verbally articulate the pain they are experiencing. Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) is an observer-rated pain assessment tool developed based on non-verbal expressions of pain for persons with severe dementia. This study aimed to perform construct validation of PAINAD for pain assessment in persons with severe dementia in Malaysia. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from 27 April 2022 to 28 October 2022 in eight public hospitals in Malaysia. The PAINAD scale was the index test, and the Discomfort Scale—Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DS-DAT) and Nurse-Reported Pain Scale (NRPS) were the reference tests for construct and concurrent validity assessment. Pain assessment for the study subjects was performed by two raters concurrently at rest and during activity. The PAINAD score was determined by the first rater, whereas the DS-DAT and NRPS were assessed by the second rater, and they were blinded to each other’s findings to prevent bias. PAINAD showed good positive correlations ranging from 0.325 to 0.715 with DS-DAT and NRPS at rest and during activity, with a p-value of <0.05. It also demonstrated statistically significant differences when comparing pain scores at rest and during activity, pre- and post-intervention. In conclusion, the PAINAD scale is a reliable observer-rated pain assessment tool for persons with severe dementia in Malaysia. It is also sensitive to changes in the pain level during activity and at rest, pre- and post-intervention.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030052
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 802-813: Examining the Associations between Personal
           Protective Equipment, Training, Policy, and Acute Care Workers’
           Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Ashley Clelland, Okan Bulut, Sharla King, Matthew D. Johnson
      First page: 802
      Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low personal protective equipment (PPE) availability and high stress and anxiety among frontline healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear how other factors, such as infection prevention and control (IPC) training and IPC policy support, correlate with workers’ distress. The current study explores these relationships. We conducted a secondary analysis of a public survey dataset from Statistics Canada. Acute care workers’ survey responses (n = 7379) were analyzed using structural equation modeling to examine relationships between features of the IPC work environment and acute care workers’ ratings of their stress and mental health. We found that PPE availability (β = −0.16), workplace supports (i.e., training, IPC policy compliance, and enforcement) (β = −0.16), and support for staying home when sick (β = −0.19) were all negatively correlated with distress. Together, these features explained 18.4% of the overall variability in workers’ distress. Among surveyed acute care workers, PPE availability was related to their distress; however, having workplace support and an emphasis on staying home when sick was also relevant. Overall, the results highlight that, in addition to PPE availability, workplace supports and emphasis on staying home are important. IPC professionals and healthcare leaders should consider these multiple features as they support acute care workers during future infectious disease outbreaks.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030053
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 814-835: Bayesian Regularized SEM: Current
           Capabilities and Constraints

    • Authors: Sara van Erp
      First page: 814
      Abstract: An important challenge in statistical modeling is to balance how well our model explains the phenomenon under investigation with the parsimony of this explanation. In structural equation modeling (SEM), penalization approaches that add a penalty term to the estimation procedure have been proposed to achieve this balance. An alternative to the classical penalization approach is Bayesian regularized SEM in which the prior distribution serves as the penalty function. Many different shrinkage priors exist, enabling great flexibility in terms of shrinkage behavior. As a result, different types of shrinkage priors have been proposed for use in a wide variety of SEMs. However, the lack of a general framework and the technical details of these shrinkage methods can make it difficult for researchers outside the field of (Bayesian) regularized SEM to understand and apply these methods in their own work. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of Bayesian regularized SEM, with a focus on the types of SEMs in which Bayesian regularization has been applied as well as available software implementations. Through an empirical example, various open-source software packages for (Bayesian) regularized SEM are illustrated and all code is made available online to aid researchers in applying these methods. Finally, reviewing the current capabilities and constraints of Bayesian regularized SEM identifies several directions for future research.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030054
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 836-846: Connecting the Dots: Occupational Stressors
           and PTSD Symptoms as Serial Mediators of the Relationship between Fear of
           COVID-19 and Burnout among Portuguese Police Officers

    • Authors: Bárbara Sousa, Patrícia Correia-Santos, Patrício Costa, Ângela Maia
      First page: 836
      Abstract: Police officers are exposed to several operational and organizational stressors that significantly impact on their mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic was a new stressor that further exacerbated existing stressors, highlighting the need for a better understanding of its impact on the mental health of police officers. This study tested the hypothesis that occupational stressors and PTSD are serial mediators of the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and burnout. Two hundred Portuguese police officers completed an online survey that assessed their fear of COVID-19, exposure to operational and organizational stressors, PTSD, and burnout. The results of the serial mediation analysis indicated that not only do occupational stressors act as mediators between fear of COVID-19 and burnout but also that PTSD is a mediator. The findings of this study underscore the need for interventions to reduce the negative impact of operational and organizational stressors on the mental health of police officers. Furthermore, this study highlights the power of police institutions for prevention and intervention with these professionals. By recognizing the specific stressors that contribute to the development of PTSD and burnout, our study provides a foundation for the development of direct interventions that can help to minimize the adverse effects of these stressors
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030055
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 847-865: Evaluating Model Fit in Two-Level Mokken
           Scale Analysis

    • Authors: Letty Koopman, Bonne J. H. Zijlstra, L. Andries Van der Ark
      First page: 847
      Abstract: Currently, two-level Mokken scale analysis for clustered test data is being developed. This paper contributes to this development by providing model-fit procedures for two-level Mokken scale analysis. New theoretical insights suggested that the existing model-fit procedure from traditional (one-level) Mokken scale analyses can be used for investigating model fit at both level 1 (respondent level) and level 2 (cluster level) of two-level Mokken scale analysis. However, the traditional model-fit procedure requires some modifications before it can be used at level 2. In this paper, we made these modifications and investigated the resulting model-fit procedure. For two model assumptions, monotonicity and invariant item ordering, we investigated the false-positive count and the sensitivity count of the level 2 model-fit procedure, with respect to the number of model violations detected, and the number of detected model violations deemed statistically significant. For monotonicity, the detection of model violations was satisfactory, but the significance test lacked power. For invariant item ordering, both aspects were satisfactory.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030056
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 866-875: Obesity and Life History: The Hypothesis of
           Psychological Phenotypes

    • Authors: Amelia Rizzo, Aldo Sitibondo
      First page: 866
      Abstract: The aim of the present study is to postulate the existence of psychological phenotypes associated with obesity, based on individual history. While metabolic phenotypes have been acknowledged in the field of medicine, the same cannot be affirmed in the realm of psychology. A longstanding tradition in obesity research has sought to identify shared characteristics among individuals affected by obesity, including personality traits. However, research found no adequate empirical evidence to support the existence of a specific psychological and psychopathological profile among individuals with obesity. Recent efforts in the literature have attempted to correlate these findings and ascertain which metabolic phenotype correlates with a diminished quality of life. We propose a novel differentiation between two categories: (1) individuals who affected by obesity since childhood, and (2) individuals who developed obesity following a life event. Further investigations are imperative to amass experimental data that substantiate this hypothesis. Proactively identifying psychological phenotypes is presumed to impact therapeutic outcomes.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030057
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 876-895: Expanding NAEP and TIMSS Analysis to Include
           Additional Variables or a New Scoring Model Using the R Package Dire

    • Authors: Paul Dean Bailey, Blue Webb
      First page: 876
      Abstract: The R packages Dire and EdSurvey allow analysts to make a conditioning model with new variables and then draw new plausible values. This is important because results for a variable not in the conditioning model are biased. For regression-type analyses, users can also use direct estimation to estimate parameters without generating new plausible values. Dire is distinct from other available software in R in that it requires fixed item parameters and simplifies calculation of high-dimensional integrals necessary to calculate composite or subscales. When used with EdSurvey, it is very easy to use published item parameters to estimate a new conditioning model. We show the theory behind the methods in Dire and a coding example where we perform an analysis that includes simple process data variables. Because the process data is not used in the conditioning model, the estimator is biased if a new conditioning model is not added with Dire.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030058
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 896-907: Increased Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex
           Related to Planning during a Handwriting Task

    • Authors: Akiko Megumi, Jungpil Shin, Yuta Uchida, Akira Yasumura
      First page: 896
      Abstract: We investigated the relationship between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function during a drawing task. Thirty-three participants using pen tablets provided the data for this task. PFC activity was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during a simple zig-zag task and a complex periodic line (PL) pattern task. For each task, there was a trace condition and a prediction condition. The Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ) was used to examine the association between brain-function measurements and executive function during the task. PFC activity was analyzed in the right, middle, and left regions. Oxygenated hemoglobin values measured with fNIRS were converted to z-values and analyzed as a measure of brain activity. Drawing fluency was measured using the line length. In the PL pattern task, the line length was significantly shorter under the prediction condition than under the trace condition. Activity in the right PFC under the prediction condition was significantly higher than that under the trace condition in the PL pattern task, and the score of the EFQ planning subscale was associated with activity in the right PFC. Activity in the right PFC is important for fluent drawing, suggesting that it is also important during drawing activities involving symbols such as letters.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030059
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 908-927: Parameter Estimation of KST-IRT Model under
           Local Dependence

    • Authors: Sangbeak Ye, Augustin Kelava, Stefano Noventa
      First page: 908
      Abstract: A mantra often repeated in the introductory material to psychometrics and Item Response Theory (IRT) is that a Rasch model is a probabilistic version of a Guttman scale. The idea comes from the observation that a sigmoidal item response function provides a probabilistic version of the characteristic function that models an item response in the Guttman scale. It appears, however, more difficult to reconcile the assumption of local independence, which traditionally accompanies the Rasch model, with the item dependence existing in a Guttman scale. In recent work, an alternative probabilistic version of a Guttman scale was proposed, combining Knowledge Space Theory (KST) with IRT modeling, here referred to as KST-IRT. The present work has, therefore, a two-fold aim. Firstly, the estimation of the parameters involved in KST-IRT models is discussed. More in detail, two estimation methods based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) procedure are suggested, i.e., Marginal Maximum Likelihood (MML) and Gibbs sampling, and are compared on the basis of simulation studies. Secondly, for a Guttman scale, the estimates of the KST-IRT models are compared with those of the traditional combination of the Rasch model plus local independence under the interchange of the data generation processes. Results show that the KST-IRT approach might be more effective in capturing local dependence as it appears to be more robust under misspecification of the data generation process, but it comes with the price of an increased number of parameters.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030060
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 928-947: Measurement of Individual Differences in
           State Empathy and Examination of a Model in Japanese University Students

    • Authors: Maine Tobari, Atsushi Oshio
      First page: 928
      Abstract: The typical state empathy research used perspective-taking instructions and examined the effect of instructions on empathy-related variables. Empathy-arousing processes were generally not measured. The effect of perspective-taking instructions has been questioned recently. Observers could imagine targets’ feelings without such instructions. This study evoked empathy in Japanese undergraduates (N = 157) without instructional procedure, and based on participants’ responses to questionnaires, measured individual differences between antecedent, process, and intrapersonal outcome variables of state empathy, referring to the organizational model and theories of empathy-arousing processes. The purpose of this study was to measure these variables, examine the causal relationship between them using path analysis, and clarify how empathy occurs. In this way, we could suggest through which processes and antecedent factors intrapersonal empathic outcomes are produced. It is probably the first attempt to clarify how empathy occurs using a social psychological study framework and questionnaire method. This research was originally conducted in 2011 based on two similar studies not published internationally, when only some of the variables were used in our analyses. Afterwards, we constructed another analysis method, reanalyzed the data in 2019 and further reanalyzed in 2023 to obtain the final version of the results. Limitations and scientific and practical implications were discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030061
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 948-965: RMX/PIccc: An Extended Person–Item Map
           and a Unified IRT Output for eRm, psychotools, ltm, mirt, and TAM

    • Authors: Milica Kabic, Rainer W. Alexandrowicz
      First page: 948
      Abstract: A constituting feature of item response models is that item and person parameters share a latent scale and are therefore comparable. The Person–Item Map is a useful graphical tool to visualize the alignment of the two parameter sets. However, the “classical” variant has some shortcomings, which are overcome by the new RMX package (Rasch models—eXtended). The package provides the RMX::plotPIccc() function, which creates an extended version of the classical PI Map, termed “PIccc”. It juxtaposes the person parameter distribution to various item-related functions, like category and item characteristic curves and category, item, and test information curves. The function supports many item response models and processes the return objects of five major R packages for IRT analysis. It returns the used parameters in a unified form, thus allowing for their further processing. The R package RMX is freely available at osf….
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030062
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 966-982: A SAS Macro for Automated Stopping of Markov
           Chain Monte Carlo Estimation in Bayesian Modeling with PROC MCMC

    • Authors: Wolfgang Wagner, Martin Hecht, Steffen Zitzmann
      First page: 966
      Abstract: A crucial challenge in Bayesian modeling using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation is to diagnose the convergence of the chains so that the draws can be expected to closely approximate the posterior distribution on which inference is based. A close approximation guarantees that the MCMC error exhibits only a negligible impact on model estimates and inferences. However, determining whether convergence has been achieved can often be challenging and cumbersome when relying solely on inspecting the trace plots of the chain(s) or manually checking the stopping criteria. In this article, we present a SAS macro called %automcmc that is based on PROC MCMC and that automatically continues to add draws until a user-specified stopping criterion (i.e., a certain potential scale reduction and/or a certain effective sample size) is reached for the chain(s).
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030063
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 983-995: Evaluating the Effect of Planned Missing
           Designs in Structural Equation Model Fit Measures

    • Authors: Paula C. R. Vicente
      First page: 983
      Abstract: In a planned missing design, the nonresponses occur according to the researcher’s will, with the goal of increasing data quality and avoiding overly extensive questionnaires. When adjusting a structural equation model to the data, there are different criteria to evaluate how the theoretical model fits the observed data, with the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), standardized root mean square residual (SRMR), comparative fit index (CFI) and Tucker–Lewis index (TLI) being the most common. Here, I explore the effect of the nonresponses due to a specific planned missing design—the three-form design—on the mentioned fit indices when adjusting a structural equation model. A simulation study was conducted with correctly specified model and one model with misspecified correlation between factors. The CFI, TLI and SRMR indices are affected by the nonresponses, particularly with small samples, low factor loadings and numerous observed variables. The existence of nonresponses when considering misspecified models causes unacceptable values for all the four fit indexes under analysis, namely when a strong correlation between factors is considered. The results shown here were performed with the simsem package in R and the full information maximum-likelihood method was used for handling missing data during model fitting.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030064
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 996-1000: Editorial for the Special Issue
           “Computational Aspects and Software in Psychometrics II”

    • Authors: Alexander Robitzsch
      First page: 996
      Abstract: There has been tremendous progress in statistical software in the field of psychometrics in providing open-source solutions [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030065
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1001-1003: Editorial to the Special Issue

    • Authors: Alexander Robitzsch
      First page: 1001
      Abstract: The Special Issue “Feature Papers in Psychometrics and Educational Measurement” (https://www [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030066
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 1004-1018: A Comparison of Methods for Determining
           the Number of Factors to Retain with Exploratory Factor Analysis of
           Dichotomous Data

    • Authors: W. Holmes Finch
      First page: 1004
      Abstract: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a very widely used statistical procedure in the social and behavioral sciences. This technique features in validity studies, as well as investigations of latent structure underlying observed measurements. A primary aspect of using EFA is determining the number of factors to retain. In addition to theoretical considerations, a variety of statistical tools have been developed and recommended for use in assisting researchers with respect to factor retention. Some research has been conducted to investigate the accuracy of these methods in the case of continuous factor indicators. The purpose of the current simulation study was to extend this earlier work to situations in which the indicator variables are dichotomous, as with questionnaire or test items. Results of this study revealed that an approach based on the combined results of the empirical Kaiser criterion, comparative data, and Hull methods, as well as Gorsuch’s CNG scree plot test by itself, all yielded accurate results with respect to the number of factors to retain. Implications for practice are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5030067
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 234-248: Scale Type Revisited: Some Misconceptions,
           Misinterpretations, and Recommendations

    • Authors: Leah Feuerstahler
      First page: 234
      Abstract: Stevens’s classification of scales into nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio types is among the most controversial yet resilient ideas in psychological and educational measurement. In this essay, I challenge the notion that scale type is essential for the development of measures in these fields. I highlight how the concept of scale type, and of interval-level measurement in particular, is variously interpreted by many researchers. These (often unstated) differences in perspectives lead to confusion about what evidence is appropriate to demonstrate interval-level measurement, as well as the implications of scale type for research in practice. I then borrow from contemporary ideas in the philosophy of measurement to demonstrate that scale type can only be established in the context of well-developed theory and through experimentation. I conclude that current notions of scale type are of limited use, and that scale type ought to occupy a lesser role in psychometric discourse and pedagogy.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 249-273: Using Structural Equation Modeling to
           Reproduce and Extend ANOVA-Based Generalizability Theory Analyses for
           Psychological Assessments

    • Authors: Walter P. Vispoel, Hyeryung Lee, Tingting Chen, Hyeri Hong
      First page: 249
      Abstract: Generalizability theory provides a comprehensive framework for determining how multiple sources of measurement error affect scores from psychological assessments and using that information to improve those assessments. Although generalizability theory designs have traditionally been analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) procedures, the same analyses can be replicated and extended using structural equation models. We collected multi-occasion data from inventories measuring numerous dimensions of personality, self-concept, and socially desirable responding to compare variance components, generalizability coefficients, dependability coefficients, and proportions of universe score and measurement error variance using structural equation modeling versus ANOVA techniques. We further applied structural equation modeling techniques to continuous latent response variable metrics and derived Monte Carlo-based confidence intervals for those indices on both observed score and continuous latent response variable metrics. Results for observed scores estimated using structural equation modeling and ANOVA procedures seldom varied. Differences in reliability between raw score and continuous latent response variable metrics were much greater for scales with dichotomous responses, thereby highlighting the value of doing analyses on both metrics to evaluate gains that might be achieved by increasing response options. We provide detailed guidelines for applying the demonstrated techniques using structural equation modeling and ANOVA-based statistical software.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 274-302: COPS in Action: Exploring Structure in the
           Usage of the Youth Psychotherapy MATCH

    • Authors: Thomas Rusch, Katherine Venturo-Conerly, Gioia Baja, Patrick Mair
      First page: 274
      Abstract: This article is an introduction to Cluster Optimized Proximity Scaling (COPS) aimed at practitioners, as well as a tutorial on the usage of the corresponding R package cops. COPS is a variant of multidimensional scaling (MDS) that aims at providing a clustered configuration while still representing multivariate dissimilarities faithfully. It subsumes most popular MDS versions as special cases. We illustrate the ideas, use, flexibility and versatility of the method and the package with data from clinical psychology on how modules of the Modular Approach to Therapy for Children (MATCH) are used by clinicians in the wild. We supplement the COPS analyses with density-based hierarchical clustering in the original space and faceting with support vector machines. We find that scaling with COPS gives a sensible and insightful spatial arrangement of the modules, allows easy identification of clusters of modules and provides clear facets of modules corresponding to the MATCH protocols. In that respect COPS works better than both standard MDS and clustering.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 303-319: Improvement of the Learning Strategies of
           University Students through a Program Based on Service-Learning

    • Authors: Mirian Hervás Torres
      First page: 303
      Abstract: Background: Currently, educational attainment has risen significantly among young people, causing changes in the labor market where skills have become more important. Thus, tertiary education has become an “essential vehicle” to develop high-level skills that would boost students’ professional, social, and personal lives. Methods: The aim of the survey is to study the effects of an intervention program based on two methodologies, service-learning and peer mentoring, to enhance the learn-to-learn and social skills of undergraduate students. The sample was composed of 69 undergraduate students of four different degrees. The methodological design adopted was quasi-experimental pretest–posttest. The intervention consisted of 955 mentoring sessions (878 one-to-one and 77 in groups) among the undergraduate students and students in compulsory education. The undergraduate students participated as mentors. Before, they had three sessions of training. Weekly mentoring sessions were spread out during out-of-school time for 90 min each. Results: The results show a few statistically significant differences in favor of the posttest phase in strategies for the learning and social skills of the participants. Conclusions: Although the program did not obtain the expected results, these outcomes agree with the other studies that investigate intervention programs that use service-learning and peer mentoring methodologies.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 320-335: Adaptation and Validation of the Arabic
           Version of the University Student Engagement Inventory (A-USEI) among
           Sport and Physical Education Students

    • Authors: Amayra Tannoubi, Frank Quansah, John Elvis Hagan, Medina Srem-Sai, Tore Bonsaksen, Nasr Chalghaf, Ghada Boussayala, Chiraz Azaiez, Haifa Snani, Fairouz Azaiez
      First page: 320
      Abstract: The present study validated the University Student Engagement Inventory (USEI) in the Arabic language (A) by assessing its factor structure, construct validity, reliability, and concurrent validity. A total of 864 Tunisian Physical Education and Sport students provided data which was used to perform exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, using samples comprising 366 (aged 19–25 years) and 498 (aged 19–26 years) students, respectively. The A-USEI, grade-point average (GPA), and Physical Education Grit (PE–Grit) scales were completed via online surveys. The exploratory factor analysis revealed that the A-USEI had three dimensions. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the second-order model was more suitable than the first-order multi-factor model. Using the indicators for the second-order model, the three factors showed good reliability, with their average variance extracted (AVE) values reflecting sufficient validity. The correlation analyses between the two scales’ scores and the A-USEI scores showed a moderate correlation, confirming the adapted scale’s concurrent validity. The study concludes that A-USEI is a valid tool for assessing student engagement among Arabic students. In addition, the practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 336-349: Exploring Approaches for Estimating
           Parameters in Cognitive Diagnosis Models with Small Sample Sizes

    • Authors: Miguel A. Sorrel, Scarlett Escudero, Pablo Nájera, Rodrigo S. Kreitchmann, Ramsés Vázquez-Lira
      First page: 336
      Abstract: Cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) are increasingly being used in various assessment contexts to identify cognitive processes and provide tailored feedback. However, the most commonly used estimation method for CDMs, marginal maximum likelihood estimation with Expectation–Maximization (MMLE-EM), can present difficulties when sample sizes are small. This study compares the results of different estimation methods for CDMs under varying sample sizes using simulated and empirical data. The methods compared include MMLE-EM, Bayes modal, Markov chain Monte Carlo, a non-parametric method, and a parsimonious parametric model such as Restricted DINA. We varied the sample size, and assessed the bias in the estimation of item parameters, the precision in attribute classification, the bias in the reliability estimate, and computational cost. The findings suggest that alternative estimation methods are preferred over MMLE-EM under low sample-size conditions, whereas comparable results are obtained under large sample-size conditions. Practitioners should consider using alternative estimation methods when working with small samples to obtain more accurate estimates of CDM parameters. This study aims to maximize the potential of CDMs by providing guidance on the estimation of the parameters.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 350-375: dexter: An R Package to Manage and Analyze
           Test Data

    • Authors: Ivailo Partchev, Jesse Koops, Timo Bechger, Remco Feskens, Gunter Maris
      First page: 350
      Abstract: In this study, we present a package for R that is intended as a professional tool for the management and analysis of data from educational tests and useful both in high-stakes assessment programs and survey research. Focused on psychometric models based on the sum score as the scoring rule and having sufficient statistics for their parameters, dexter fully exploits the many theoretical and practical advantages of this choice: lack of unnecessary assumptions, stable and fast estimation, and powerful and sensible diagnostic techniques. It includes an easy to use data management system tailored to the structure of test data and compatible with the current paradigm of tidy data. Companion packages currently include a graphical user interface and support for multi-stage testing.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 376-385: Applications and Extensions of Metric
           Stability Analysis

    • Authors: Leah Feuerstahler
      First page: 376
      Abstract: Item response theory models and applications are affected by many sources of variability, including errors associated with item parameter estimation. Metric stability analysis (MSA) is one method to evaluate the effects of item parameter standard errors that quantifies how well a model determines the latent trait metric. This paper describes how to evaluate MSA in dichotomous and polytomous data and describes a Bayesian implementation of MSA that does not require a positive definite variance–covariance matrix among item parameters. MSA analyses are illustrated in the context of an oral-health-related quality of life measure administered before and after prosthodontic treatment. The R code to implement the methods described in this paper is provided.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 386-395: bmtest: A Jamovi Module for
           Brunner–Munzel’s Test—A Robust Alternative to
           Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney’s Test

    • Authors: Julian D. Karch
      First page: 386
      Abstract: In psychological research, comparisons between two groups are frequently made to demonstrate that one group exhibits higher values. Although Welch’s unequal variances t-test has become the preferred parametric test for this purpose, surpassing Student’s equal variances t-test, the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test remains the predominant nonparametric approach despite sharing similar limitations with Student’s t-test. Specifically, the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test is associated with strong, unrealistic assumptions and lacks robustness when these assumptions are violated. The Brunner–Munzel test overcomes these limitations, featuring fewer assumptions, akin to Welch’s t-test in the parametric domain, and has thus been recommended over the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test. However, the Brunner–Munzel test is currently unavailable in user-friendly statistical software, such as SPSS, making it inaccessible to many researchers. In this paper, I introduce the bmtest module for jamovi, a freely available user-friendly software. By making the Brunner–Munzel test accessible to a wide range of researchers, the bmtest module has the potential to improve nonparametric statistical analysis in psychology and other disciplines.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 396-415: Bayesian Estimation of Latent Space Item
           Response Models with JAGS, Stan, and NIMBLE in R

    • Authors: Jinwen Luo, Ludovica De Carolis, Biao Zeng, Minjeong Jeon
      First page: 396
      Abstract: The latent space item response model (LSIRM) is a newly-developed approach to analyzing and visualizing conditional dependencies in item response data, manifested as the interactions between respondents and items, between respondents, and between items. This paper provides a practical guide to the Bayesian estimation of LSIRM using three open-source software options, JAGS, Stan, and NIMBLE in R. By means of an empirical example, we illustrate LSIRM estimation, providing details on the model specification and implementation, convergence diagnostics, model fit evaluations and interaction map visualizations.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 416-426: SAS PROC IRT and the R Mirt Package: A
           Comparison of Model Parameter Estimation for Multidimensional IRT Models

    • Authors: Ki Cole, Insu Paek
      First page: 416
      Abstract: This study investigates the performance of estimation methods for multidimensional IRT models with dichotomous and polytomous data in two well-known IRT programs: SAS PROC IRT and the mirt package in R. A simulation study was used to compare performance on a simple structure Rasch model, complex structure 2PL model, and bifactor graded response model. Under RMSE and bias criteria regarding item parameter recovery, PROC IRT and mirt showed nearly identical performance in the simple structure condition. When a complex structure was used, mirt performed better in terms of the recovery of intercept parameters, while the recovery of slope parameters depended on the program and the sample sizes: PROC IRT tended to be better with small samples (N=500) according to RMSE, and mirt was better for larger samples (N=1000 and 2500) according to RMSE and bias for the slope parameter recovery. When a bifactor structure was used, mirt was preferred in all cases; differences lessened as sample size increased.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 427-446: Developing Psycho-Behavioural Skills: The
           Talent Development Coach Perspective

    • Authors: Graham Moodie, Jamie Taylor, Dave Collins
      First page: 427
      Abstract: A large body of evidence highlights the importance of psycho-behavioural skills as a key feature of talent development in sport. The purpose of this study was to explore pedagogic intentions of coaches in the psychological development of athletes. Eleven coaches were purposefully sampled for interview based on a track record of expert practice. Using reflexive thematic analysis, three overarching themes were generated as representing the coaches’ work: knowing and shaping the athlete’s needs, purposeful breadth and flexibility of teaching approaches, using challenge to test skill development, and the necessity of review and refinement. Reflecting these data, we suggest the need for an increased appreciation of the role of the sports coach beyond the technical and tactical, with the recommendation that coaches build their knowledge and skillset across a breadth of domains to support the psychological development of athletes more effectively.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 447-460: Understanding Embodied Effects of Posture: A
           Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Karen Lin, Elizabeth Broadbent
      First page: 447
      Abstract: Some evidence suggests body postures can elicit emotion. Compared to neutral postures, constrictive postures are associated with negative affect and low arousal, whereas expansive postures have shown mixed effects. Qualitative methods may allow insights into this phenomenon. We asked 15 participants (mean age 43 years) to adopt eight different expansive, constrictive, or neutral postures, drawn from previous power posing or postural studies. After a minute in each posture, participants were interviewed about how they felt and when they might adopt the posture in real life. Interviews were audio recorded and inductive thematic analysis conducted. Power poses were associated with power and confidence, but also aggression, arrogance, intimidation, and disrespect. The slumped posture was associated with sadness and low control, and the upright seated posture with being alert and apprehensive as well as formality. Neutral postures were associated with feeling relaxed and comfortable. These results suggest that expansive postures have mixed emotional effects, but are inappropriate in some contexts.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 461-477: Detecting Differential Item Functioning in
           2PL Multistage Assessments

    • Authors: Rudolf Debelak, Sebastian Appelbaum, Dries Debeer, Martin J. Tomasik
      First page: 461
      Abstract: The detection of differential item functioning is crucial for the psychometric evaluation of multistage tests. This paper discusses five approaches presented in the literature: logistic regression, SIBTEST, analytical score-based tests, bootstrap score-based tests, and permutation score-based tests. First, using an simulation study inspired by a real-life large-scale educational assessment, we compare the five approaches with respect to their type I error rate and their statistical power. Then, we present an application to an empirical data set. We find that all approaches show type I error rates close to the nominal alpha level. Furthermore, all approaches are shown to be sensitive to uniform and non-uniform DIF effects, with the score-based tests showing the highest power.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 478-496: A Simulation and Empirical Study of
           Differential Test Functioning (DTF)

    • Authors: Güler Yavuz Temel
      First page: 478
      Abstract: Detecting and understanding DTF is very important under various DIF conditions. In this study, the performance of DTF, DRF, SIBTEST, and CSIBTEST approaches in detecting DIF effects was investigated using a simulation study and a real dataset. It was observed that different DIF conditions (uniform, non-uniform), the proportion of DIF items in the test, the DIF size, and the DIF effect (balanced, unbalanced) affected the performance of the methods, and especially in the case of the non-uniform DIF condition, the power rates of sDTF, sDRF, and SIBTEST statistics were low. In addition, according to the DTF estimations with the balanced/unbalanced DIF effect condition, in some cases, the effect of DIF on the overall test could be negligible. However, it was clearly emphasized in this study that DTF analyses should accompany DIF studies since DTF analysis may change with different DIF and test conditions.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 497-507: The Contribution of Society of Social
           Psychiatry P. Sakellaropoulos to the Psychiatric Reform in Rural Greece

    • Authors: Harilaos Papachristou, Iliana Lazogiorgou-Kousta, Vasilis Chronopoulos, Athena Fragouli-Sakellaropoulou
      First page: 497
      Abstract: The present paper aims to describe the structure, function, and goals of two of the oldest Mobile Mental Health Units in Greece, namely, the Mobile Mental Health Unit in Fokida (MMHU-F) and the Mobile Mental Health Unit in Thrace (Alexandroupolis, MMHU-T). Information about their historical background, catchment areas, and current staffing, as well as the services provided by each MMHU is discussed. The focus of the paper is slightly biased towards the MMHU-F because it is the only available mental health service in the whole Fokida prefecture. The major goals of the MMHUs are the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of relapse of severe mental illness within the community. Other important goals of the MMHUs are psychoeducation, psychological support for the family/caregivers, as well as vocational training and support for patients with severe mental illness. Statistical data depicting the demographic characteristics and diagnostic profiles of patients in each MMHU is also provided, and the differences between the two MMHUs are briefly discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 508-525: “It’s Not a One-Time
           Conversation”: Australian Parental Views on Supporting Young People
           in Relation to Pornography Exposure

    • Authors: Sally Burke, Mayumi Purvis, Carol Sandiford, Bianca Klettke
      First page: 508
      Abstract: While pornography provides opportunities for sexual exploration for young people, early and easy access also has possible negative implications for young people’s behavioural and sexual development. Parental responsibilities concerning their children’s consumption of pornography are largely misunderstood. This study explored parental experiences and beliefs about pornography education for young people using a qualitative study (n = 8, 6 females, 2 males). Interview data were analysed using a reflexive thematic approach. Results indicated that parents have concerns about the ease of access to pornography and the unmediated ideas it presents. Additionally, parents believe they have a responsibility to educate young people about pornography through having open and honest conversations and providing supervision. Further, parents believe that schools should be doing more to educate young people about pornography. This study extends upon current literature by suggesting that although parents feel well-equipped to communicate with and educate young people about pornography consumption, they lack confidence in their capacities to do this.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 526-544: Longitudinal Sexting Research: A Systematic

    • Authors: Yunhao Hu, Elizabeth Mary Clancy, Bianca Klettke
      First page: 526
      Abstract: The exchange of intimate messages, images, and videos via digital means, also referred to as sexting, has drawn considerable academic attention in recent years. Specifically, cross-sectional research has indicated that sexting can be associated with harmful outcomes such as depression, anxiety, and cyberbullying. However, there is currently limited empirical research examining the causal relationship between these factors, and to date, there has been no systematic review of the longitudinal studies on sexting. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarise and review the current research addressing long-term outcomes and predictors of sexting. A systematic search of databases was conducted. Eight databases were searched, with twenty-four longitudinal studies meeting the inclusion criteria and thus included in this review. The quality of individual studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool. Overall, longitudinal research into sexting is scarce, and variability in definitions, measured variables, and sample demographics have created challenges in achieving consensus across variables. For example, findings were inconclusive regarding causal relationships between sexting, cyberbullying/bullying, and psychological health outcomes. Findings indicated that positive peer norms predicted sexting and that sexting was predictive of future offline sexual behaviours. Future longitudinal research would benefit from differentiating between consensual and non-consensual sexting behaviours in measurement. Future prevention efforts should focus on addressing peer norms that develop around sexting behaviours.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 545-575: Extending Applications of Generalizability
           Theory-Based Bifactor Model Designs

    • Authors: Walter P. Vispoel, Hyeryung Lee, Tingting Chen, Hyeri Hong
      First page: 545
      Abstract: In recent years, researchers have described how to analyze generalizability theory (GT) based univariate, multivariate, and bifactor designs using structural equation models. However, within GT studies of bifactor models, variance components have been limited to those reflecting relative differences in scores for norm-referencing purposes, with only limited guidance provided for estimating key indices when making changes to measurement procedures. In this article, we demonstrate how to derive variance components for multi-facet GT-based bifactor model designs that represent both relative and absolute differences in scores for norm- or criterion-referencing purposes using scores from selected scales within the recently expanded form of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-2). We further develop and apply prophecy formulas for determining how changes in numbers of items, numbers of occasions, and universes of generalization affect a wide variety of indices instrumental in determining the best ways to change measurement procedures for specific purposes. These indices include coefficients representing score generalizability and dependability; scale viability and added value; and proportions of observed score variance attributable to general factor effects, group factor effects, and individual sources of measurement error. To enable readers to apply these techniques, we provide detailed formulas, code in R, and sample data for conducting all demonstrated analyses within this article.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020036
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 576-601: Ethical Decision-Making in Law Enforcement:
           A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Ronald P. Dempsey, Elizabeth E. Eskander, Veljko Dubljević
      First page: 576
      Abstract: Decision-making in uncertain and stressful environments combined with the high-profile cases of police violence in the United States has generated substantial debates about policing and created challenges to maintaining public confidence and trust in law enforcement. However, despite the manifestations of reactions across the ideological spectrum, it is unclear what information is available in the literature about the convergence between ethical decision-making and policing. Therefore, an interdisciplinary scoping review was conducted to map the nature and extent of research evidence, identify existing gaps in knowledge, and discuss future implications for ethical decision-making in law enforcement. This review investigates the interaction between the job complexities of policing (psychological and normative factors) and aspects of ethical decision-making, synthesizing three distinct themes: (1) socio-moral dimensions impact the job complexities of police work, (2) lethal means and moral injury influence intuitive and rational decision-making, and (3) police wellness and interventions are critical to sustaining police readiness. Gaps in recruiting, training, and leadership and managerial practices can be broadly transformed to fundamentally emphasize officer wellness and a holistic approach to ethical practices, enabling police officers to uphold the rule of law, promote public safety, and protect the communities they serve.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5020037
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 38-49: A Cautionary Note Regarding Multilevel Factor
           Score Estimates from Lavaan

    • Authors: Steffen Zitzmann
      First page: 38
      Abstract: To compute factor score estimates, lavaan version 0.6–12 offers the function lavPredict( ) that can not only be applied in single-level modeling but also in multilevel modeling, where characteristics of higher-level units such as working environments or team leaders are often assessed by ratings of employees. Surprisingly, the function provides results that deviate from the expected ones. Specifically, whereas the function yields correct EAP estimates of higher-level factors, the ML estimates are counterintuitive and possibly incorrect. Moreover, the function does not provide the expected standard errors. I illustrate these issues using an example from organizational research where team leaders are evaluated by their employees, and I discuss these issues from a measurement perspective.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 50-52: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Psych in 2022

    • Authors: Psych Editorial Office Psych Editorial Office
      First page: 50
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 53-59: Depression, Anxiety, and Traumatic Stress
           Symptoms among Emergency Service Workers in Finland after a Post-Critical
           Incident Seminar—A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Sanna Korpela, Hilla Nordquist
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Emergency service workers encounter potentially traumatic incidents as part of their normal work duties. They are, therefore, at an increased risk of symptoms of poor mental health. In the past, post-critical incident seminars (PCIS) were offered to police officers in Finland who had suffered mental health consequences from a critical incident at work. Recently, the same seminar has been offered to emergency service workers in Finland. In this pilot study, the effects of PCIS on the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress are tentatively mapped using self-assessment inventories. Fifteen emergency service workers who attended a PCIS in April 2021 filled out the inventories at the beginning of the PCIS and one, three, and six months after the PCIS. All symptoms measured in this study (depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress) decreased after the PCIS, but the clearest decrease was observed in traumatic stress symptoms. Future similar research should use a control group and a larger sample, track mental health symptom scores over a longer period, and compare qualitative and quantitative data to contribute to a richer understanding of this issue.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 60-69: Healthcare Provider Reports on Social
           Determinants of Health in Opioid Treatment

    • Authors: Christopher Cambron, Ramkiran Gouripeddi, Julio C. Facelli
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Opioid overdose and death from overdose continue to present a pressing problem in the United States. It is well-established that a range of social and economic factors, often referred to as social determinants of health (SDOH), are associated with increased opioid overdose and death. Few studies have examined healthcare provider reports on social and economic barriers to opioid treatment. Healthcare providers (N = 161) participating in opioid Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) programs were surveyed on the portion of their patients experiencing 15 different SDOH. Results indicated that multiple determinants were experienced by the majority of their patients, with poverty as the most commonly experienced social determinant (72%). Regression analyses indicated that physicians generally reported a lower portion of patients experiencing SDOH compared with social workers, nurse practitioners, and other healthcare providers. Results suggest that SDOH are widely experienced by patients seeking opioid treatment and that professional backgrounds may be related to reports of SDOH at the point of care. Multi-disciplinary teams involving social workers, nurse practitioners, and other healthcare providers may improve the identification of social and economic barriers to opioid treatment.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 70-79: The Intersection of Personality Traits and
           Social Media Usage: Large-Scale Representative Samples of Internet Users
           in Sweden

    • Authors: John Magnus Roos
      First page: 70
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the relationship between the Big Five model of personality traits and social media usage in a Swedish context. The paper consists of three representative studies of the Swedish population in the age range 16 to 85. In Study 1 (N = 6542), the Big Five personality factors were measured by HP5i. In Study 2 (N = 3322) and Study 3 (N = 3302), the Big Five personality factors were measured by BFI-10. Different personality inventories and time periods for data collection were the basis for the breakdown of the studies. In all three studies, social media usage was measured by a self-reported estimation of frequencies. For each study, correlation matrixes between the study variables were first presented, followed by hierarchical regression analyses to test if personality factors predicted internet users’ social media usage. Gender and age were control variables. Over and above the effects of gender and age, all three studies found that social media usage is positively associated with extraversion. The first two studies also found that social media usage is associated with a high degree of openness to experiences and a low degree of conscientiousness. The reliability of the findings is strengthened through different personality inventories, large-scale representative samples of the Swedish population, and replications over time. However, since personality and social media usage vary between different cultures and time periods, caution should be taken in generalizing the results.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 80-101: Perceived Body Image towards Disordered
           Eating Behaviors and Supplement Use: A Study of Mauritian Gym-Goers

    • Authors: Numrata Moty, Jhoti Somanah, Manish Putteeraj
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Purpose: Individuals with body image distortions tend to develop an obsession with calorie intake and weight, leading to compounded coping strategies such as modified eating behaviors, supplement use, and excessive exercise. In the local context, little is known about the equation connecting body image to improper eating behaviors and other potential coping mechanisms. This study primarily aims at critically identifying the nexus between features of disordered eating behavior including supplement use, and body image. Methodology: A probabilistic randomized sample of 305 gym members was assessed based on their level of body satisfaction and its influence on their eating habits and supplement use through a structured survey. Findings: Only 37% of the participants were satisfied with their body image. The results concurred with the notion of a poor body image influencing body esteem (χ2 (10) = 137.21, p < 0.05; Cramer V = 0.474). While exercise motivated the use of supplements, a significant relationship was also observed between disordered eating habits and supplement use (χ2 (4) = 48.63, p < 0.05; Cramer V = 0.399). A predictive model was successfully drawn inclusive of the disordered eating behaviors dimensions as a potent predictor of body image (χ2 (56) = 397.12, p < 0.001. Implications: This study presents an in-depth analysis of the magnitude of disordered eating behaviors with respect to individuals in the local fitness industry, and the need for professional support programs toward the re-alignment of body image in an effort to curtail the development of eating disorders in Mauritian gym-goers.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 102-112: Electrodermal Activity Implicating a
           Sympathetic Nervous System Response under the Perception of Sensing a
           Divine Presence—A Psychophysiological Analysis

    • Authors: Yoshija Walter, Andreas Altorfer
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that religious worship experiences may recruit the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in an activating fashion. For this reason, we hypothesized that measurements of the electrodermal activity (EDA) would concur with the notion that the subjective experience of sensing the presence of God recruits a sympathetic nervous system response. We analyzed the EDA of 37 evangelical participants and calculated classic galvanic skin response (GSR) measures. Our experimental design included six conditions with and without music consisting of religious and non-religious songs plus a resting-state condition, which were used to induce a variance in the religious experience suitable for statistical analyses. Results showed that both tonic and phasic signals as well as the overall electrical skin conductance (SC) were positively associated with the religious experience, defined as sensing the presence of God. This implicates that we can accept the hypothesis that such a religious experience under the influence of worship seems to recruit the sympathetic nervous system.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 113-122: Measuring the Effectiveness of Career
           Education: A Kindergarten Intervention

    • Authors: Alessandro Buffoli, Teresa Rinaldi, Roberta Morici, Diego Boerchi
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Several studies have confirmed the importance of career education in promoting career development in children. This study aims to test whether specific career education interventions would develop new conceptions about career choice and career attainment in kindergarten pupils. The intervention was conducted directly by teachers who were adequately trained and supervised. The career conceptions were assessed in experimental and control groups through the Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment protocol, before and after career education intervention. The results showed that the two groups started from the same level and increased their conceptions over time. However, the experimental groups increased them much more, and statistically significantly, than the control groups.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 123-132: Nonverbal Intelligence Does Matter for the
           Perception of Second Language Sounds

    • Authors: Georgios P. Georgiou
      First page: 123
      Abstract: Although there has been considerable research on the interplay between intelligence and second language (L2) learning, research focusing on the intelligence and L2 speech perception link is limited. The present study aims to fill this gap. The native language of the participants was Cypriot Greek and they spoke English as an L2. The participants completed a forced-choice psychoacoustic test in which they discriminated L2 sound contrasts and a nonverbal intelligence test which measured their nonverbal intelligence capacities. They were divided into two groups according to their performance in the intelligence test, namely, a low IQ and a high IQ group. The results showed that the high IQ group discriminated the majority of the L2 contrasts better than the low IQ group. In addition, the degree of perceived difficulty for most L2 contrasts differed between the two groups. It is concluded that nonverbal intelligence is associated with the discrimination of L2 sounds. This can be explained by the possibility that either intelligence triggers the more efficient functioning of other domains, such as information processing and attention, leading to increased speech perception skills, or that it directly affects the categorization of speech sounds resulting in the development of more robust L2 categories.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 133-147: Effect Sizes for Estimating Differential
           Item Functioning Influence at the Test Level

    • Authors: W. Holmes Finch, Brian F. French
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Differential item functioning (DIF) is a critical step in providing evidence to support a scoring inference in building a validity argument for a psychological or educational assessment. Effect sizes can assist in understanding the accumulation of DIF at the test score level. The current simulation study investigated the performance of several proposed effect size measures under a variety of conditions. Conditions under study included varied sample sizes, DIF effect sizes, the proportion of items with DIF, and the type of DIF (additive vs. non-additive). DIF effect sizes under study included sDTF%, uDTF%, τ^w2, d, R¯Δ2, IDIF2*, and S−DIF−V. The results of this study suggest that across study conditions, τ^w2, IDIF2*, and d were consistently the most accurate measures of the DIF effects. The effect sizes were also estimated in an empirical example. Recommendations and implications for practice are discussed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 148-193: Home First: Stability and Opportunity in
           Out-of-Home Care

    • Authors: Steven P. Segal
      First page: 148
      Abstract: In this report, the concept of “Home First” is introduced for those children who require long-term, non-kin placements. The term “Home First” connotes a placement engendering stability and continuity; this concept is introduced in conjunction with an evaluation of the historical, theoretical, and empirical evidence surrounding different forms of out-of-home placement, including group-care placements and foster family care. In light of these observations and studies, this report will argue that stability is a major factor, perhaps a necessary if not a sufficient condition, in successful child development. It will argue for the initiation of a new focus on the creation of long-term positive and stable residential placements within the out-of-home care system and show that such placements can and have contributed to the development of healthy, happy, and successful adulthoods. This report offers a bio-psycho-social perspective on child development in out-of-home care. It provides a brief overview of the multiple bio-psycho-social theoretical perspectives that inform us on the necessary role of stability in growth and development and the contribution of instability to dysfunction. This report considers stability in out-of-home care in relation to its associated outcomes and those factors believed to enhance or detract from these outcomes. It reviews the history of substitutive care provision for children and youth and the role of the “stability objective” in that history. Finally, it looks at how child welfare system priorities have influenced stability, and it offers some suggestions for ensuring more stable growth and development in child placement provision.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 194-208: A Systematic Review Exploring the
           Effectiveness of Mindfulness for Sexual Functioning in Women with Cancer

    • Authors: Samantha Banbury, Chris Chandler, Joanne Lusher
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Sexual intimacy is a basic human need that is associated with quality of life whereby its absence can significantly impact both interpersonal and personal wellbeing. This systematic review aimed to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the available literature on mindfulness treatments for sexual functioning in women diagnosed with cancer. Electronic searches including PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and registered clinical trials yielded 10 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that treatment intervention designs varied and included mixed methods, randomised clinical trials, single arm non-randomised trials and those with the absence of any control. Furthermore, both brief and longer-term mindfulness interventions were trialled across different sexual domains. Whilst inconclusive, mindfulness-based interventions appear to support sexual function and quality of life in both early- and post-cancer survivors. However, in some instances, there were outcome inconsistencies in sexual desire, arousal and orgasm. This review has identified a current shortage in research on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based treatments for supporting sexual functioning in women with cancer; and so far, no research has been conducted in palliative care. This unmet need in supporting sexual functioning in women with cancer, including palliative care, carries important implications for both psychosexual and oncological healthcare services as sexual intimacy does not end with cancer diagnosis or prognosis.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 209-223: Where Is the Research about Stepmothers'
           A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Salomé Elizabeth Scholtz, Ruan Spies
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Developments in remarriage and divorce have led to an influx of research on stepfamilies. However, previous studies show that the experiences of stepmothers are underreported. Therefore, a scoping review of the currently available academic literature (2012–2022) on stepmother experiences was conducted to identify the way forward for future research. A final sample of 11 articles indicate that stepmother research is mainly WEIRD and qualitative. Stepmothers reportedly experience ambivalent emotions which they often deal with silently, whilst navigating ambiguous stepmother roles with possibly limited support or acknowledgement under the wicked stepmother stereotype. Counselling and research are encouraged to assist this forgotten member of the stepfamily. Gaps in research and further research opportunities are identified.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psych, Vol. 5, Pages 224-233: Verification of the Japanese Version of
           Greene’s Moral Dilemma Task’s Validity and Reliability

    • Authors: Yoshiyuki Takimoto, Akira Yasumura
      First page: 224
      Abstract: The moral dilemma task developed by Greene et al., which comprises personal and impersonal moral dilemmas, is useful for clarifying people’s moral judgments. This study develops and validates a Japanese version of this questionnaire. Ten new questions were added to the Japanese version using back-translation, and its internal validity was tested. A second survey was conducted among the same participants one month after the first survey (n = 231). The intraclass correlation coefficient through retesting was found to be 0.781. Test-retest, internal consistency, and criterion-related validity were confirmed by retesting the Japanese version of the moral dilemma task. Moral judgments differed in gender, with women and men tending to be more utilitarian in situations where emotions were less and more likely to be involved, respectively. The association between age and deontological moral judgments was also observed.
      Citation: Psych
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/psych5010017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
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