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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 1066 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Psychiatry and Psychology Journal : APPJ     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 498)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aging Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 309)
An-Nafs : Jurnal Fakultas Psikologi     Open Access  
Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 99)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 366)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aprender     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Archives of Depression and Anxiety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Augmented Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavior and Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 240)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioural Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 237)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers d’Études sur la Représentation     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Art Therapy : Research, Practice, and Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
CES Psicología     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Contemporary Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  

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Clocks & Sleep
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-5175
Published by MDPI Homepage  [238 journals]
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 515-527: Pilot Sleep Behavior across Time
           during Ultra-Long-Range Flights

    • Authors: Jaime K. Devine, Jake Choynowski, Caio R. Garcia, Audrey S. Simoes, Marina R. Guelere, Bruno de Godoy, Diego S. Silva, Philipe Pacheco, Steven R. Hursh
      First page: 515
      Abstract: Fatigue risk to the pilot has been a deterrent for conducting direct flights longer than 12 h under normal conditions, but such flights were a necessity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Twenty (N = 20) pilots flying across five humanitarian missions between Brazil and China wore a sleep-tracking device (the Zulu watch), which has been validated for the estimation of sleep timing (sleep onset and offset), duration, efficiency, and sleep score (wake, interrupted, light, or deep Sleep) throughout the mission period. Pilots also reported sleep timing, duration, and subjective quality of their in-flight rest periods using a sleep diary. To our knowledge, this is the first report of commercial pilot sleep behavior during ultra-long-range operations under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. Moreover, these analyses provide an estimate of sleep score during in-flight sleep, which has not been reported previously in the literature.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3040036
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 528-535: The Impact of Chronotype on the
           Sleep and Training Responses of Elite Female Australian Footballers

    • Authors: Michele Lastella, Dean J. Miller, Manuella Quilelli, Spencer Roberts, Brad Aisbett, Dominique Condo
      First page: 528
      Abstract: The primary aims of the present study were to examine the impact of chronotype on sleep/wake behaviour, perceived exertion, and training load among professional footballers. Thirty-six elite female professional football player’s (mean ± SD: age, 25 ± 4 y; weight, 68 ± 7 kg) sleep and training behaviours were examined for 10 consecutive nights during a pre-season period using a self-report online player-management system and wrist activity monitors. All athletes completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ) on the first day of data collection. Eleven participants were morning types, seventeen participants were intermediate types, and three participants were evening types. Separate linear mixed models were conducted to assess differences in sleep, perceived exertion, and training behaviours between chronotype groups. Morning types woke up earlier (wake time: 07:19 ± 01:16 vs. 07:53 ± 01:01, p = 0.04) and reported higher ratings of perceived exertion compared to intermediate types (6.7 ± 1.1 vs. 5.9 ± 1.2, p = 0.01). No differences were observed between chronotype groups for bedtime, time in bed, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, training duration, or training load. In circumstances where professional female football players are required to train at a time opposing their natural circadian preference (e.g., morning type training in the evening), their perceived exertion during training may be higher than that of players that are training at a time that aligns with their natural circadian preference (e.g., evening type training in the evening). It is important for practitioners to monitor individual trends in training variables (e.g., rating of perceived exertion, training load) with relation to athlete chronotype and training time. Future research should examine the relationship between chronotype, training time, and rating of perceived exertion across different training durations.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3040037
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 536-546: Timing and Composition of Last Meal
           before Bedtime Affect Sleep Parameters of Night Workers

    • Authors: Luciana F. R. Nogueira, Pollyanna Pellegrino, José Cipolla-Neto, Claudia R. C. Moreno, Elaine C. Marqueze
      First page: 536
      Abstract: Night workers tend to eat irregularly, both in terms of meal times and composition. The disruption in energy metabolism caused by inappropriate eating habits can negatively affect the sleep quality of these individuals. The objectives of this study were to determine the interval between the last meal and bedtime and its relationship with both diurnal and nocturnal sleep parameters, as well as to evaluate the association of the adequacy of this meal with sleep parameters. The analyses were carried out for a usual sleep routine on a workday and a day off. This cross-sectional study was part of a controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial. The sample comprised 30 female nursing professionals who worked permanent night shifts of 12 × 36 h. Timing and composition of the last meal were obtained from food diaries, and sleep parameters were collected via actigraphy. On multiple linear regression analysis, every hour decrease in the interval between the last meal and sleep onset there was an increase of 0.39 h on diurnal sleep duration. Regarding food intake, every 1 g of fat and 1 g of carbohydrate consumed was associated with an increase in diurnal sleep onset latency of 0.13 h and 0.02 h, respectively. These findings suggest that both timing and composition of the last meal before bedtime may be potential key factors for good diurnal and nocturnal sleep among night-shift workers.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3040038
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 351-365: Clock-Modulating Activities of the
           Anti-Arrhythmic Drug Moricizine

    • Authors: Chorong Han, Marvin Wirianto, Eunju Kim, Mark J. Burish, Seung-Hee Yoo, Zheng Chen
      First page: 351
      Abstract: Dysregulated circadian functions contribute to various diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Much progress has been made on chronotherapeutic applications of drugs against cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the direct effects of various medications on the circadian system are not well characterized. We previously conducted high-throughput chemical screening for clock modulators and identified an off-patent anti-arrhythmic drug, moricizine, as a clock-period lengthening compound. In Per2:LucSV reporter fibroblast cells, we showed that under both dexamethasone and forskolin synchronization, moricizine was able to increase the circadian period length, with greater effects seen with the former. Titration studies revealed a dose-dependent effect of moricizine to lengthen the period. In contrast, flecainide, another Class I anti-arrhythmic, showed no effects on circadian reporter rhythms. Real-time qPCR analysis in fibroblast cells treated with moricizine revealed significant circadian time- and/or treatment-dependent expression changes in core clock genes, consistent with the above period-lengthening effects. Several clock-controlled cardiac channel genes also displayed altered expression patterns. Using tissue explant culture, we showed that moricizine was able to significantly prolong the period length of circadian reporter rhythms in atrial ex vivo cultures. Using wild-type C57BL/6J mice, moricizine treatment was found to promote sleep, alter circadian gene expression in the heart, and show a slight trend of increasing free-running periods. Together, these observations demonstrate novel clock-modulating activities of moricizine, particularly the period-lengthening effects on cellular oscillators, which may have clinical relevance against heart diseases.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 366-376: A Pilot Study of 24-h Motor
           

    • Authors: Lorenzo Tonetti, Federico Camilli, Sara Giovagnoli, Vincenzo Natale, Alessandra Lugaresi
      First page: 366
      Abstract: Early multiple sclerosis (MS) predictive markers of disease activity/prognosis have been proposed but are not universally accepted. Aim of this pilot prospective study is to verify whether a peculiar hyperactivity, observed at baseline (T0) in early relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients, could represent a further prognostic marker. Here we report results collected at T0 and at a 24-month follow-up (T1). Eighteen RRMS patients (11 females, median Expanded Disability Status Scale-EDSS score 1.25, range EDSS score 0–2) were monitored at T0 (mean age 32.33 ± 7.51) and T1 (median EDSS score 1.5, range EDSS score 0–2.5). Patients were grouped into two groups: responders (R, 14 patients) and non-responders (NR, 4 patients) to treatment at T1. Each patient wore an actigraph for one week to record the 24-h motor activity pattern. At T0, NR presented significantly lower motor activity than R between around 9:00 and 13:00. At T1, NR were characterized by significantly lower motor activity than R between around 12:00 and 17:00. Overall, these data suggest that through the 24-h motor activity pattern, we can fairly segregate at T0 patients who will show a therapeutic failure, possibly related to a more active disease, at T1. These patients are characterized by a reduced morning level of motor activation. Further studies on larger populations are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 377-386: No Effect of Chronotype on
           Sleepiness, Alertness, and Sustained Attention during a Single Night Shift
           

    • Authors: Andrew M. Reiter, Charli Sargent, Gregory D. Roach
      First page: 377
      Abstract: The study’s aim was to examine the effect of chronotype on cognitive performance during a single night shift. Data were collected from 72 (36f) young, healthy adults in a laboratory study. Participants had a 9 h sleep period (03:00–12:00) followed by an 8 h night shift (23:00–07:00). During the night shift, participants completed five test sessions, which included measures of subjective sleepiness, subjective alertness, and sustained attention (i.e., psychomotor vigilance task; PVT). Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was derived from saliva samples taken during the evening preceding the night shift. A tertile split of DLMO was used to determine three chronotype categories: earlier (DLMO = 20:22 ± 0:42), intermediate (DLMO = 21:31 ± 0:13), and later (DLMO = 22:54 ± 0:54). There were (a) significant main effects of test session (all p < 0.001); (b) no main effects of chronotype; and (c) no interaction effects between chronotype and test session on sleepiness, alertness, PVT response time, and PVT lapses. The results indicate that under controlled sleeping conditions, chronotype based on dim light melatonin onset did not affect nighttime performance. Differences in performance during night shift between chronotypes reported by field studies may be related to differences in the amount and/or timing of sleep before or between night shifts, rather than circadian timing.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030024
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 387-397: Habitual Sleep Duration and the
           Colonic Mucosa-Associated Gut Microbiota in Humans—A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Ritwick Agrawal, Nadim J. Ajami, Sonal Malhotra, Liang Chen, Donna L. White, Amir Sharafkhaneh, Kristi L. Hoffman, David Y. Graham, Hashem B. El-Serag, Joseph F. Petrosino, Li Jiao
      First page: 387
      Abstract: We examined the association between the colonic adherent microbiota and nocturnal sleep duration in humans. In a cross-sectional study, 63 polyp-free adults underwent a colonoscopy and donated 206 mucosal biopsies. The gut microbiota was profiled using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing targeting the V4 region. The sequence reads were processed using UPARSE and DADA2, respectively. Lifestyle factors, including sleep habits, were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. We categorized the participants into short sleepers (<6 h per night; n = 16) and normal sleepers (6–8 h per night; n = 47) based on self-reported data. Differences in bacterial biodiversity and the taxonomic relative abundance were compared between short vs. normal sleepers, followed by multivariable analysis. A false discovery rate-adjusted p value (q value) < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. The bacterial community composition differed in short and normal sleepers. The relative abundance of Sutterella was significantly lower (0.38% vs. 1.25%) and that of Pseudomonas was significantly higher (0.14% vs. 0.08%) in short sleepers than in normal sleepers (q values < 0.01). The difference was confirmed in the multivariable analysis. Nocturnal sleep duration was associated with the bacterial community composition and structure in the colonic gut microbiota in adults.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030025
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 398-402: Reply to Bracke et al. Comment on
           “Prayag et al. Light Modulation of Human Clocks, Wake, and Sleep.
           Clocks&Sleep 2019, 1, 193–208”

    • Authors: Abhishek S. Prayag, Mirjam Münch, Daniel Aeschbach, Sarah L. Chellappa, Claude Gronfier
      First page: 398
      Abstract: We thank Bracke and colleagues [...]
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030026
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 403-408: Dream Recall/Affect and the
           Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis

    • Authors: Athanasios Tselebis, Emmanouil Zoumakis, Ioannis Ilias
      First page: 403
      Abstract: In this concise review, we present an overview of research on dream recall/affect and of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, discussing caveats regarding the action of hormones of the HPA axis (mainly cortisol and its free form, cortisol-binding globulin and glucocorticoid receptors). We present results of studies regarding dream recall/affect and the HPA axis under physiological (such as waking) or pathological conditions (such as in Cushing’s syndrome or stressful situations). Finally, we try to integrate the effect of the current COVID-19 situation with dream recall/affect vis-à-vis the HPA axis.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030027
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 409-414: Use of Actigraphy for a Rat
           Behavioural Sleep Study

    • Authors: Shinichi Esaki, Meiho Nakayama, Sachie Arima, Shintaro Sato
      First page: 409
      Abstract: Previous studies of animal behavioural sleep is mainly divided into two study types, observation by video recording or counts by sensor, both of which require a complex environment and procedure. An actigraph unit is a commercially available product which can provide non-invasive monitoring human rest/activity cycles. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether actigraphy can be applied for analysing behavioural sleep in rats, since no reports have described utilization of the actigraphy unit for monitoring sleep of small animals. The actigraph unit was held on the chest of eight male rats by a loose elastic belt. The rats spent two days in a normal condition, followed by two days of sleep deprivation. Total counts measured by the actigraph could be clearly divided into two phases, sleep phase and awake phase, when the rats were kept in the normal cage. Next, the rats were moved into the sleep-deviation cage, and the total counts were significantly higher during daytime, indicating the successful induction of sleep deprivation. These results showed that the actigraphy unit monitored rest/activity cycles of rats, which will contribute to making sleep behaviour experiments easier.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030028
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 415-428: Seasonal Changes in Sleep Patterns
           in Two Saskatchewan First Nation Communities

    • Authors: Chandima P. Karunanayake, Vivian R. Ramsden, Clifford Bird, Jeremy Seeseequasis, Kathleen McMullin, Mark Fenton, Robert Skomro, Shelley Kirychuk, Donna C. Rennie, Brooke P. Russell, Niels Koehncke, Thomas Smith-Windsor, Malcolm King, Sylvia Abonyi, James A. Dosman, Punam Pahwa
      First page: 415
      Abstract: Sleep is crucial for maintaining the recovery and restoration of the body and brain. Less sleep is associated with poor mental and physical performance. Seasonal changes in sleep patterns can be observed. This paper examines seasonal effects on sleep timing, duration, and problems in two Cree First Nation communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Data were available from a community survey of 588 adults aged 18 years and older (range: 18–78 years) with 44.2% males and 55.8% females. Results are presented using descriptive statistics and a binary logistic-regression model to identify the association between seasonal changes in sleep patterns, and demographic, social, and environmental factors. The participants reported sleeping the least during the spring and summer months and sleeping the most during the fall and winter months. This was further confirmed by sleep hours and the lower proportion of recommended hours of sleep during the spring and summer, and a higher proportion of longer sleep duration during the fall and winter months. There was no significant variation in sleeping onset and wake-up times by season. Overall, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of sleep deprivation, insomnia, and excessive daytime sleepiness by season. When stratified by age group and sex, some differences existed in the prevalence of sleep problems by season. More than two-thirds (68.6%) of the participants reported that there was a change in sleep patterns across seasons, and about 26.0% reported a very or extremely marked change in sleep patterns across seasons. Changes in sleep patterns by season were related to money left at the end of the month and damage caused by dampness in the house.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030029
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 429-441: Chronobiotics KL001 and KS15 Extend
           Lifespan and Modify Circadian Rhythms of Drosophila melanogaster

    • Authors: Ilya A. Solovev, Mikhail V. Shaposhnikov, Alexey A. Moskalev
      First page: 429
      Abstract: Chronobiotics are a group of drugs, which are utilized to modify circadian rhythms targeting clock-associated molecular mechanisms. The circadian clock is known as a controller of numerous processes in connection with aging. Hypothesis: KL001 and KS15 targeting CRY, affect lifespan, locomotor activity and circadian rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed a slight (2%, p < 0.001) geroprotective effect on median lifespan (5 µM solution of KL001 in 0.1% DMSO) and a 14% increase in maximum lifespan in the same group. KS15 10 µM solution extended males’ median lifespan by 8% (p < 0.05). The statistically significant positive effects of KL001 and KS15 on lifespan were not observed in female flies. KL001 5 µM solution improved locomotor activity in young male imagoes (p < 0.05), elevated morning activity peak in aged imagoes and modified robustness of their circadian rhythms, leaving the period intact. KS15 10 µM solution decreased the locomotor activity in constant darkness and minimized the number of rhythmic flies. KL001 5 µM solution improved by 9% the mean starvation resistance in male flies (p < 0.01), while median resistance was elevated by 50% (p < 0.0001). This phenomenon may suggest the presence of the mechanism associated with improvement of fat body glucose depos’ utilization in starvation conditions which is activated by dCRY binding KL001.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030030
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 442-448: Consecutive Nights of Moderate
           Sleep Loss Does Not Affect Mood in Healthy Young Males

    • Authors: Christiana Harous, Gregory D. Roach, Thomas G. Kontou, Ashley J. Montero, Nicole Stuart, Charli Sargent
      First page: 442
      Abstract: Sleep loss causes mood disturbance in non-clinical populations under severe conditions, i.e., two days/nights of sleep deprivation or a week of sleep restriction with 4–5 h in bed each night. However, the effects of more-common types of sleep loss on mood disturbance are not yet known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine mood disturbance in healthy adults over a week with nightly time in bed controlled at 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 h. Participants (n = 115) spent nine nights in the laboratory and were given either 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 h in bed over seven consecutive nights. Mood was assessed daily using the Profile of Mood States (POMS-2). Mixed-linear effects models examined the effect of time in bed on total mood disturbance and subscales of anger-hostility, confusion-bewilderment, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, tension-anxiety, vigour-activity and friendliness. There was no effect of time in bed on total mood disturbance (F(4, 110.42) = 1.31, p = 0.271) or any of the subscales except fatigue-inertia. Fatigue-inertia was higher in the 5 h compared with the 9 h time in bed condition (p = 0.012, d = 0.75). Consecutive nights of moderate sleep loss (i.e., 5–7 h) does not affect mood but does increase fatigue in healthy males.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030031
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 449-464: The Effect of Bright Light
           Treatment on Rest–Activity Rhythms in People with Dementia: A 24-Week
           Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Eirin Kolberg, Ståle Pallesen, Gunnhild Johnsen Hjetland, Inger Hilde Nordhus, Elisabeth Flo-Groeneboom
      First page: 449
      Abstract: Bright light treatment is an effective way to influence circadian rhythms in healthy adults, but previous research with dementia patients has yielded mixed results. The present study presents a primary outcome of the DEM.LIGHT trial, a 24-week randomized controlled trial conducted at nursing homes in Bergen, Norway, investigating the effects of a bright light intervention. The intervention consisted of ceiling-mounted LED panels providing varying illuminance and correlated color temperature throughout the day, with a peak of 1000 lx, 6000 K between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. Activity was recorded using actigraphs at baseline and after 8, 16, and 24 weeks. Non-parametric indicators and extended cosine models were used to investigate rest–activity rhythms, and outcomes were analyzed with multi-level regression models. Sixty-one patients with severe dementia (median MMSE = 4) were included. After 16 weeks, the acrophase was advanced from baseline in the intervention group compared to the control group (B = −1.02, 95%; CI = −2.00, −0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups on any other rest–activity measures. When comparing parametric and non-parametric indicators of rest–activity rhythms, 25 out of 35 comparisons were significantly correlated. The present results indicate that ambient bright light treatment did not improve rest–activity rhythms for people with dementia.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030032
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 465-481: Nightmares in Children with Foetal
           Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Their Typically
           Developing Peers

    • Authors: Rabya Mughal, Siu Sing Wong, Dagmara Dimitriou, Elizabeth Halstead
      First page: 465
      Abstract: Children with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience significantly higher rates of sleep disturbances than their typically developing (TD) peers. Pre-sleep anxiety and waking emotional content is known to affect the content and frequency of nightmares, which can be distressing to children and caregivers. This is the first study to analyse nightmare frequency and content in FASD, and to assess its association with psychometric outcomes. Using online caregiver questionnaires, we assessed reports from 277 caregivers of children with ASD (n = 61), FASD (n = 112), and TD children (n = 104) using the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and the Behaviour Rating Inventory for Executive Functioning (BRIEF). Within the ASD group, 40.3% of caregivers reported their children had nightmares. Within the FASD group, 73.62% of caregivers reported their children had nightmares, and within the TD group, 21.36% of caregivers reported their children had nightmares. Correlation analysis revealed significant associations between anxiety and nightmares, maladaptive behaviour and nightmares, and executive functioning and nightmares in the TD and FASD groups, but not ASD group. This paper adds to the emerging body of work supporting the need for sleep interventions as part of clinical practice with regard to children with ASD and FASD. As a relatively niche but important area of study, this warrants much needed further research.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030033
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 482-494: The Effects of General Anaesthesia
           and Light on Behavioural Rhythms and GABAA Receptor Subunit Expression in
           the Mouse SCN

    • Authors: Janelle Chong, James Frederick Cheeseman, Matthew D. M. Pawley, Andrea Kwakowsky, Guy R. Warman
      First page: 482
      Abstract: General anaesthesia (GA) is known to affect the circadian clock. However, the mechanisms that underlie GA-induced shifting of the clock are less well understood. Activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-type A receptors (GABAAR) in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) can phase shift the clock and thus GABA and its receptors represent a putative pathway via which GA exerts its effect on the clock. Here, we investigated the concurrent effects of the inhalational anaesthetic, isoflurane, and light, on mouse behavioural locomotor rhythms and on α1, β3, and γ2 GABAAR subunit expression in the SCN of the mouse brain. Behavioural phase shifts elicited by exposure of mice to four hours of GA (2% isoflurane) and light (400 lux) (n = 60) were determined by recording running wheel activity rhythms in constant conditions (DD). Full phase response curves for the effects of GA + light on behavioural rhythms show that phase shifts persist in anaesthetized mice exposed to light. Daily variation was detected in all three GABAAR subunits in LD 12:12. The γ2 subunit expression was significantly increased following GA in DD (compared to light alone) at times of large behavioural phase delays. We conclude that the phase shifting effect of light on the mouse clock is not blocked by GA administration, and that γ2 may potentially be involved in the phase shifting effect of GA on the clock. Further analysis of GABAAR subunit expression in the SCN will be necessary to confirm its role.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030034
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 495-514: The Language of Dreams: Application
           of Linguistics-Based Approaches for the Automated Analysis of Dream
           Experiences

    • Authors: Valentina Elce, Giacomo Handjaras, Giulio Bernardi
      First page: 495
      Abstract: The study of dreams represents a crucial intersection between philosophical, psychological, neuroscientific, and clinical interests. Importantly, one of the main sources of insight into dreaming activity are the (oral or written) reports provided by dreamers upon awakening from their sleep. Classically, two main types of information are commonly extracted from dream reports: structural and semantic, content-related information. Extracted structural information is typically limited to the simple count of words or sentences in a report. Instead, content analysis usually relies on quantitative scores assigned by two or more (blind) human operators through the use of predefined coding systems. Within this review, we will show that methods borrowed from the field of linguistic analysis, such as graph analysis, dictionary-based content analysis, and distributional semantics approaches, could be used to complement and, in many cases, replace classical measures and scales for the quantitative structural and semantic assessment of dream reports. Importantly, these methods allow the direct (operator-independent) extraction of quantitative information from language data, hence enabling a fully objective and reproducible analysis of conscious experiences occurring during human sleep. Most importantly, these approaches can be partially or fully automatized and may thus be easily applied to the analysis of large datasets.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3030035
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 236-250: Nighttime Light Hurts Mammalian
           Physiology: What Diurnal Rodent Models Are Telling Us

    • Authors: Jorge Mendoza
      First page: 236
      Abstract: Natural sunlight permits organisms to synchronize their physiology to the external world. However, in current times, natural sunlight has been replaced by artificial light in both day and nighttime. While in the daytime, indoor artificial light is of lower intensity than natural sunlight, leading to a weak entrainment signal for our internal biological clock, at night the exposure to artificial light perturbs the body clock and sleep. Although electric light at night allows us “to live in darkness”, our current lifestyle facilitates nighttime exposure to light by the use, or abuse, of electronic devices (e.g., smartphones). The chronic exposure to light at nighttime has been correlated to mood alterations, metabolic dysfunctions, and poor cognition. To decipher the brain mechanisms underlying these alterations, fundamental research has been conducted using animal models, principally of nocturnal nature (e.g., mice). Nevertheless, because of the diurnal nature of human physiology, it is also important to find and propose diurnal animal models for the study of the light effects in circadian biology. The present review provides an overview of the effects of light at nighttime on physiology and behavior in diurnal mammals, including humans. Knowing how the brain reacts to artificial light exposure, using diurnal rodent models, is fundamental for the development of new strategies in human health based in circadian biology.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 251-258: Meal and Sleep Timing before and
           during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Anonymous Survey Study
           from Sweden

    • Authors: Christian Benedict, Luiz Eduardo Mateus Brandão, Ilona Merikanto, Markku Partinen, Bjørn Bjorvatn, Jonathan Cedernaes
      First page: 251
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions, such as stay-at-home-orders, have significantly altered daily routines and lifestyles. Given their importance for metabolic health, we herein compared sleep and meal timing parameters during vs. before the COVID-19 pandemic based on subjective recall, in an anonymous Swedish survey. Among 191 adults (mean age: 47 years; 77.5% females), we show that social jetlag, i.e., the mismatch in sleep midpoint between work and free days, was reduced by about 17 min during the pandemic compared with the pre-pandemic state (p < 0.001). Concomitantly, respondents’ sleep midpoint was shifted toward morning hours during workdays (p < 0.001). A later daily eating midpoint accompanied the shift in sleep timing (p = 0.001). This effect was mainly driven by a later scheduled first meal (p < 0.001). No difference in the timing of the day’s last meal was found (p = 0.814). Although our survey was limited in terms of sample size and by being cross-sectional, our results suggest that the delay in sleep timing due to the COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied by a corresponding shift in the timing of early but not late meals.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 259-273: Microsleep versus Sleep Onset
           Latency during Maintenance Wakefulness Tests: Which One Is the Best Marker
           of Sleepiness'

    • Authors: Ludivine Des Champs de Boishebert, Pierre Pradat, Hélène Bastuji, François Ricordeau, Frédéric Gormand, Pierre Le Cam, Emeric Stauffer, Thierry Petitjean, Laure Peter-Derex
      First page: 259
      Abstract: The interpretation of the Maintenance Wakefulness Test (MWT) relies on sleep onset detection. However, microsleeps (MSs), i.e., brief periods of sleep intrusion during wakefulness, may occur before sleep onset. We assessed the prevalence of MSs during the MWT and their contribution to the diagnosis of residual sleepiness in patients treated for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or hypersomnia. The MWT of 98 patients (89 OSA, 82.6% male) were analyzed for MS scoring. Polysomnography parameters and clinical data were collected. The diagnostic value for detecting sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale > 10) of sleep onset latency (SOL) and of the first MS latency (MSL) was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC, 95% CI). At least one MS was observed in 62.2% of patients. MSL was positively correlated with SOL (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001) but not with subjective scales, clinical variables, or polysomnography parameters. The use of SOL or MSL did not influence the diagnostic performance of the MWT for subjective sleepiness assessment (AUC = 0.66 95% CI (0.56, 0.77) versus 0.63 95% CI (0.51, 0.74)). MSs are frequent during MWTs performed in patients treated for sleep disorders, even in the absence of subjective sleepiness, and may represent physiological markers of the wake-to-sleep transition.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 274-288: Validation Framework for Sleep
           Stage Scoring in Wearable Sleep Trackers and Monitors with Polysomnography
           Ground Truth

    • Authors: Quyen N. T. Nguyen, Toan Le, Quyen B. T. Huynh, Arveity Setty, Toi V. Vo, Trung Q. Le
      First page: 274
      Abstract: The rapid growth of point-of-care polysomnographic alternatives has necessitated standardized evaluation and validation frameworks. The current average across participant validation methods may overestimate the agreement between wearable sleep tracker devices and polysomnography (PSG) systems because of the high base rate of sleep during the night and the interindividual difference across the sampling population. This study proposes an evaluation framework to assess the aggregating differences of the sleep architecture features and the chronologically epoch-by-epoch mismatch of the wearable sleep tracker devices and the PSG ground truth. An AASM-based sleep stage categorizing method was proposed to standardize the sleep stages scored by different types of wearable trackers. Sleep features and sleep stage architecture were extracted from the PSG and the wearable device’s hypnograms. Therefrom, a localized quantifier index was developed to characterize the local mismatch of sleep scoring. We evaluated different commonly used wearable sleep tracking devices with the data collected from 22 different subjects over 30 nights of 8-h sleeping. The proposed localization quantifiers can characterize the chronologically localized mismatches over the sleeping time. The outperformance of the proposed method over existing evaluation methods was reported. The proposed evaluation method can be utilized for the improvement of the sensor design and scoring algorithm.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3020017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 289-297: Partners and Ex-Partners in
           Dreams: A Diary Study

    • Authors: Michael Schredl, Lara C. Wood
      First page: 289
      Abstract: Romantic relationships are an important part of human life and thus, according to the continuity hypothesis of dreaming, one’s romantic partner should show up in dreams quite frequently. The present study is based on 1612 dream reports provided by 425 students. The findings confirmed the hypothesis that partner dreams are more frequent than ex-partner dreams and, thus, support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming. Moreover, interactions with ex-partners within the dream were more often negatively toned compared to dreamed interactions with the partner. Unexpectedly, we also found more positive emotions and friendliness in ex-partner dreams compared to partner dreams, indicating that partner dreams are more mundane. To conclude, dreams reflect important aspects of romantic partnerships and their break-ups and, thus, can be very helpful in psychotherapy.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 298-311: Trait Interindividual Differences
           in the Magnitude of Subjective Sleepiness from Sleep Inertia

    • Authors: Kirsie R. Lundholm, Kimberly A. Honn, Lillian Skeiky, Rachael A. Muck, Hans P. A. Van Dongen
      First page: 298
      Abstract: In shift work settings and on-call operations, workers may be at risk of sleep inertia when called to action immediately after awakening from sleep. However, individuals may differ substantially in their susceptibility to sleep inertia. We investigated this using data from a laboratory study in which 20 healthy young adults were each exposed to 36 h of total sleep deprivation, preceded by a baseline sleep period and followed by a recovery sleep period, on three separate occasions. In the week prior to each laboratory session and on the corresponding baseline night in the laboratory, participants either extended their sleep period to 12 h/day or restricted it to 6 h/day. During periods of wakefulness in the laboratory, starting right after scheduled awakening, participants completed neurobehavioral tests every 2 h. Testing included the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale to measure subjective sleepiness, for which the data were analyzed with nonlinear mixed-effects regression to quantify sleep inertia. This revealed considerable interindividual differences in the magnitude of sleep inertia, which were highly stable within individuals after both baseline and recovery sleep periods, regardless of study condition. Our results demonstrate that interindividual differences in subjective sleepiness due to sleep inertia are substantial and constitute a trait.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3020019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 312-341: Cellular Effects of Rhynchophylline
           and Relevance to Sleep Regulation

    • Authors: Maria Ballester Roig, Tanya Leduc, Cassandra Areal, Valérie Mongrain
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Uncaria rhynchophylla is a plant highly used in the traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines. It has numerous health benefits, which are often attributed to its alkaloid components. Recent studies in humans show that drugs containing Uncaria ameliorate sleep quality and increase sleep time, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Rhynchophylline (Rhy) is one of the principal alkaloids in Uncaria species. Although treatment with Rhy alone has not been tested in humans, observations in rodents show that Rhy increases sleep time. However, the mechanisms by which Rhy could modulate sleep have not been comprehensively described. In this review, we are highlighting cellular pathways that are shown to be targeted by Rhy and which are also known for their implications in the regulation of wakefulness and sleep. We conclude that Rhy can impact sleep through mechanisms involving ion channels, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, tyrosine kinase receptors, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. In modulating multiple cellular responses, Rhy impacts neuronal communication in a way that could have substantial effects on sleep phenotypes. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of action of Rhy will have implications for sleep pharmacology.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3020020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 342-350: Concordance of Chronotype
           Categorisations Based on Dim Light Melatonin Onset, the
           Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and the Munich Chronotype
           Questionnaire

    • Authors: Andrew M. Reiter, Charli Sargent, Gregory D. Roach
      First page: 342
      Abstract: Chronotype reflects circadian timing and can be determined from biological markers (e.g., dim light melatonin onset; DLMO), or questionnaires (e.g., Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire; MEQ, or Munich Chronotype Questionnaire; MCTQ). The study’s aim was to quantify concordance between chronotype categorisations based on these measures. A total of 72 (36f) young, healthy adults completed the MEQ and MCTQ and provided saliva samples hourly in dim light during the evening in a laboratory. The corrected midpoint of sleep on free days (MSFsc) was derived from MCTQ, and tertile splits were used to define early, intermediate and late DLMO-CT, MEQ-CT and MSFsc-CT chronotype categories. DLMO correlated with MEQ score (r = −0.25, p = 0.035) and MSFsc (r = 0.32, p = 0.015). For early, intermediate and late DLMO-CT categories, mean(SD) DLMO were 20:25(0:46), 21:33(0:10) and 23:03(0:53). For early, intermediate and late MEQ-CT categories, mean(SD) MEQ scores were 60.5(5.3), 51.4(2.9) and 40.8 (5.0). For early, intermediate and late MSFsc-CT categories, mean(SD) MSFsc were 03:23(0:34), 04:37(0:12) and 05:55(0:48). Low concordance of categorisations between DLMO-CT and MEQ-CT (37%), and between DLMO-CT and MSFsc-CT (37%), suggests chronotype categorisations depend on the measure used. To enable valid comparisons with previous results and reduce the likelihood of misleading conclusions, researchers should select measures and statistical techniques appropriate to the construct of interest and research question.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3020021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 1-11: Co-Sleeping between Adolescents and
           Their Pets May Not Impact Sleep Quality

    • Authors: Jessica Rosano, Tiffani Howell, Russell Conduit, Pauleen Bennett
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Pet–owner co-sleeping is increasingly common in some parts of the world. Adult owners often subjectively report benefits of co-sleeping with pets, although objective actigraphy reports conversely indicate sleep disruptions due to the pet. Because limited research is available regarding pet–owner co-sleeping in non-adult samples, the aim of this two-part study was to explore whether co-sleeping improves sleep quality in adolescents, an age group in which poor sleep patterns are well documented. In Study One, an online survey with 265 pet-owning 13-to-17-year-old participants found that over 78% co-slept with their pet. Average sleep quality scores for co-sleepers and non-co-sleepers indicated generally poor sleep, with no differences in sleep quality depending on age, gender, or co-sleeping status. Study Two consisted of two preliminary case studies, using actigraphy on dog–adolescent co-sleepers. In both cases, high sleep concordance was observed, but owners again experienced generally poor sleep quality. Future actigraphy research is needed, including larger sample sizes and a control group of non-co-sleepers, to validate the preliminary findings from this study, but our limited evidence suggests that co-sleeping with a pet may not impact sleep quality in adolescents.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 12-30: Health Behaviors of Higher Education
           Students from 7 Countries: Poorer Sleep Quality during the COVID-19
           Pandemic Predicts Higher Dietary Risk

    • Authors: Chen Du, Megan Chong Hueh Zan, Min Jung Cho, Jenifer I. Fenton, Pao Ying Hsiao, Richard Hsiao, Laura Keaver, Chang-Chi Lai, HeeSoon Lee, Mary-Jon Ludy, Wan Shen, Winnie Chee Siew Swee, Jyothi Thrivikraman, Kuo-Wei Tseng, Wei-Chin Tseng, Juman Almotwa, Clare E. Feldpausch, Sara Yi Ling Folk, Suzannah Gadd, Linyutong Wang, Wenyan Wang, Xinyi Zhang, Robin M. Tucker
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Health behaviors of higher education students can be negatively influenced by stressful events. The global COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique opportunity to characterize and compare health behaviors across multiple countries and to examine how these behaviors are shaped by the pandemic experience. Undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in universities in China, Ireland, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, the Netherlands and the United States (USA) were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Eligible students filled out an online survey comprised of validated tools for assessing sleep quality and duration, dietary risk, alcohol misuse and physical activity between late April and the end of May 2020. Health behaviors were fairly consistent across countries, and all countries reported poor sleep quality. However, during the survey period, the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the health behaviors of students in European countries and the USA more negatively than Asian countries, which could be attributed to the differences in pandemic time course and caseloads. Students who experienced a decline in sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic had higher dietary risk scores than students who did not experience a change in sleep quality (p = 0.001). Improved sleep quality was associated with less sitting time (p = 0.010). Addressing sleep issues among higher education students is a pressing concern, especially during stressful events. These results support the importance of making education and behavior-based sleep programming available for higher education students in order to benefit students’ overall health.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 31-52: Risk-Based Decision Making: A
           Systematic Scoping Review of Animal Models and a Pilot Study on the
           Effects of Sleep Deprivation in Rats

    • Authors: Cathalijn H.C. Leenaars, Stevie Van der Mierden, Ruud N.J.M.A. Joosten, Marnix A. Van der Weide, Mischa Schirris, Maurice Dematteis, Franck L.B. Meijboom, Matthijs G.P. Feenstra, André Bleich
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Animals, including humans, frequently make decisions involving risk or uncertainty. Different strategies in these decisions can be advantageous depending the circumstances. Short sleep duration seems to be associated with more risky decisions in humans. Animal models for risk-based decision making can increase mechanistic understanding, but very little data is available concerning the effects of sleep. We combined primary- and meta-research to explore the relationship between sleep and risk-based decision making in animals. Our first objective was to create an overview of the available animal models for risky decision making. We performed a systematic scoping review. Our searches in Pubmed and Psychinfo retrieved 712 references, of which 235 were included. Animal models for risk-based decision making have been described for rodents, non-human primates, birds, pigs and honey-bees. We discuss task designs and model validity. Our second objective was to apply this knowledge and perform a pilot study on the effect of sleep deprivation. We trained and tested male Wistar rats on a probability discounting task; a “safe” lever always resulted in 1 reward, a “risky” lever resulted in 4 or no rewards. Rats adapted their preferences to variations in reward probabilities (p < 0.001), but 12 h of sleep deprivation during the light phase did not clearly alter risk preference (p = 0.21).
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 53-65: Disorders of Arousal: A
           Chronobiological Perspective

    • Authors: Greta Mainieri, Giuseppe Loddo, Federica Provini
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias are characterized by motor and emotional behaviors emerging from incomplete arousals from NREM sleep and they are currently referred to as disorders of arousal (DoA). Three main clinical entities are recognized, namely confusional arousal, sleep terror and sleepwalking. DoA are largely present in pediatric populations, an age in which they are considered as transitory, unhabitual physiological events. The literature background in the last twenty years has extensively shown that DoA can persist in adulthood in predisposed individuals or even appear de novo in some cases. Even though some episodes may arise from stage 2 of sleep, most DoA occur during slow wave sleep (SWS), and particularly during the first two sleep cycles. The reasons for this timing are linked to the intrinsic structure of SWS and with the possible influence on this sleep phase of predisposing, priming and precipitating factors for DoA episodes. The objective of this paper is to review the intrinsic sleep-related features and chronobiological aspects affecting SWS, responsible for the occurrence of the majority of DoA episodes during the first part of the night.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 66-86: Preliminary Results: The Impact of
           Smartphone Use and Short-Wavelength Light during the Evening on Circadian
           Rhythm, Sleep and Alertness

    • Authors: Christopher Höhn, Sarah R. Schmid, Christina P. Plamberger, Kathrin Bothe, Monika Angerer, Georg Gruber, Belinda Pletzer, Kerstin Hoedlmoser
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Smartphone usage strongly increased in the last decade, especially before bedtime. There is growing evidence that short-wavelength light affects hormonal secretion, thermoregulation, sleep and alertness. Whether blue light filters can attenuate these negative effects is still not clear. Therefore, here, we present preliminary data of 14 male participants (21.93 ± 2.17 years), who spent three nights in the sleep laboratory, reading 90 min either on a smartphone (1) with or (2) without a blue light filter, or (3) on printed material before bedtime. Subjective sleepiness was decreased during reading on a smartphone, but no effects were present on evening objective alertness in a GO/NOGO task. Cortisol was elevated in the morning after reading on the smartphone without a filter, which resulted in a reduced cortisol awakening response. Evening melatonin and nightly vasodilation (i.e., distal-proximal skin temperature gradient) were increased after reading on printed material. Early slow wave sleep/activity and objective alertness in the morning were only reduced after reading without a filter. These results indicate that short-wavelength light affects not only circadian rhythm and evening sleepiness but causes further effects on sleep physiology and alertness in the morning. Using a blue light filter in the evening partially reduces these negative effects.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 87-97: General Anaesthesia Shifts the Murine
           Circadian Clock in a Time-Dependant Fashion

    • Authors: Nicola M. Ludin, Alma Orts-Sebastian, James F. Cheeseman, Janelle Chong, Alan F. Merry, David Cumin, Shin Yamazaki, Matthew D. M. Pawley, Guy R. Warman
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Following general anaesthesia (GA), patients frequently experience sleep disruption and fatigue, which has been hypothesized to result at least in part by GA affecting the circadian clock. Here, we provide the first comprehensive time-dependent analysis of the effects of the commonly administered inhalational anaesthetic, isoflurane, on the murine circadian clock, by analysing its effects on (a) behavioural locomotor rhythms and (b) PER2::LUC expression in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the mouse brain. Behavioural phase shifts elicited by exposure of mice (n = 80) to six hours of GA (2% isoflurane) were determined by recording wheel-running rhythms in constant conditions (DD). Phase shifts in PER2::LUC expression were determined by recording bioluminescence in organotypic SCN slices (n = 38) prior to and following GA exposure (2% isoflurane). Full phase response curves for the effects of GA on behaviour and PER2::LUC rhythms were constructed, which show that the effects of GA are highly time-dependent. Shifts in SCN PER2 expression were much larger than those of behaviour (c. 0.7 h behaviour vs. 7.5 h PER2::LUC). We discuss the implications of this work for understanding how GA affects the clock, and how it may inform the development of chronotherapeutic strategies to reduce GA-induced phase-shifting in patients.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 98-114: Prevalence of Insomnia in Two
           Saskatchewan First Nation Communities

    • Authors: James A Dosman, Chandima P Karunanayake, Mark Fenton, Vivian R Ramsden, Robert Skomro, Shelley Kirychuk, Donna C Rennie, Jeremy Seeseequasis, Clifford Bird, Kathleen McMullin, Brooke P Russell, Niels Koehncke, Thomas Smith-Windsor, Malcolm King, Sylvia Abonyi, Punam Pahwa
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Insomnia is a common problem in Canada and has been associated with increased use of health care services and economic burden. This paper examines the prevalence and risk factors for insomnia in two Cree First Nation communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Five hundred and eighty-eight adults participated in a baseline survey conducted as part of the First Nations Sleep Health Collaborative Project. The prevalence of insomnia was 19.2% among participants with an Insomnia Severity Index score of ≥15. Following the definition of nighttime insomnia symptoms, however, the prevalence of insomnia was much higher, at 32.6%. Multivariate logistic regression modeling revealed that age, physical health, depression diagnosis, chronic pain, prescription medication use for any health condition, and waking up during the night due to terrifying dreams, nightmares, or flashbacks related to traumatic events were risk factors for insomnia among participants from two Saskatchewan Cree First Nation communities.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 115-131: Light, Sleep and Performance in
           Diurnal Birds

    • Authors: Anne E. Aulsebrook, Robin D. Johnsson, John A. Lesku
      First page: 115
      Abstract: Sleep has a multitude of benefits and is generally considered necessary for optimal performance. Disruption of sleep by extended photoperiods, moonlight and artificial light could therefore impair performance in humans and non-human animals alike. Here, we review the evidence for effects of light on sleep and subsequent performance in birds. There is accumulating evidence that exposure to natural and artificial sources of light regulates and suppresses sleep in diurnal birds. Sleep also benefits avian cognitive performance, including during early development. Nevertheless, multiple studies suggest that light can prolong wakefulness in birds without impairing performance. Although there is still limited research on this topic, these results raise intriguing questions about the adaptive value of sleep. Further research into the links between light, sleep and performance, including the underlying mechanisms and consequences for fitness, could shed new light on sleep evolution and urban ecology.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 132-178: Non-Pharmacological Interventions
           to Improve Chronic Disease Risk Factors and Sleep in Shift Workers: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Meagan E Crowther, Sally A Ferguson, Grace E Vincent, Amy C Reynolds
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Shift work is associated with adverse chronic health outcomes. Addressing chronic disease risk factors including biomedical risk factors, behavioural risk factors, as well as sleep and perceived health status, affords an opportunity to improve health outcomes in shift workers. The present study aimed to conduct a systematic review, qualitative synthesis, and meta-analysis of non-pharmacological interventions targeting chronic disease risk factors, including sleep, in shift workers. A total of 8465 records were retrieved; 65 publications were eligible for inclusion in qualitative analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis were conducted for eight eligible health outcomes, including a total of thirty-nine studies. Interventions resulted in increased objective sleep duration (Hedges’ g = 0.73; CI: 0.36, 1.10, k = 16), improved objective sleep efficiency (Hedges’ g = 0.48; CI: 0.20, 0.76, k = 10) and a small increase in both subjective sleep duration (Hedges’ g = 0.11; CI: −0.04, 0.27, k = 19) and sleep quality (Hedges’ g = 0.11; CI: −0.11, 0.33, k = 21). Interventions also improved perceived health status (Hedges’ g = 0.20; CI: −0.05, 0.46, k = 8), decreased systolic (Hedges’ g = 0.26; CI: −0.54, 0.02, k = 7) and diastolic (Hedges’ g = 0.06; CI: −0.23, 0.36, k = 7) blood pressure, and reduced body mass index (Hedges’ g = −0.04; CI: −0.37, 0.29, k = 9). The current study suggests interventions may improve chronic disease risk factors and sleep in shift workers; however, this could only be objectively assessed for a limited number of risk factor endpoints. Future interventions could explore the impact of non-pharmacological interventions on a broader range of chronic disease risk factors to better characterise targets for improved health outcomes in shift workers.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 179-180: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of
           Clocks & Sleep in 2020

    • Authors: Clocks & Sleep Editorial Office Clocks & Sleep Editorial Office
      First page: 179
      Abstract: The peer review process represents the driving force of journal development, with reviewers acting as the gatekeepers who ensure that Clocks & Sleep maintains its high-quality standard of published papers [...]
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 181-188: Comment Concerning the Effects of
           Light Intensity on Melatonin Suppression in the Review “Light Modulation
           of Human Clocks, Wake, and Sleep” by A. Prayag et al.

    • Authors: Peter Bracke, Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter R. Ryckaert
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Dose-response curves for circadian phase shift and melatonin suppression in relation to white or monochromatic nighttime illumination can be scaled to melanopic weighed illumination for normally constricted pupils, which makes them easier to interpret and compare. This is helpful for a practical applications.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 189-226: Circadian Rhythms of the
           Hypothalamus: From Function to Physiology

    • Authors: Rachel Van Drunen, Kristin Eckel-Mahan
      First page: 189
      Abstract: The nearly ubiquitous expression of endogenous 24 h oscillations known as circadian rhythms regulate the timing of physiological functions in the body. These intrinsic rhythms are sensitive to external cues, known as zeitgebers, which entrain the internal biological processes to the daily environmental changes in light, temperature, and food availability. Light directly entrains the master clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which lies in the hypothalamus of the brain and is responsible for synchronizing internal rhythms. However, recent evidence underscores the importance of other hypothalamic nuclei in regulating several essential rhythmic biological functions. These extra-SCN hypothalamic nuclei also express circadian rhythms, suggesting distinct regions that oscillate either semi-autonomously or independent of SCN innervation. Concurrently, the extra-SCN hypothalamic nuclei are also sensitized to fluctuations in nutrient and hormonal signals. Thus, food intake acts as another powerful entrainer for the hypothalamic oscillators’ mediation of energy homeostasis. Ablation studies and genetic mouse models with perturbed extra-SCN hypothalamic nuclei function reveal their critical downstream involvement in an array of functions including metabolism, thermogenesis, food consumption, thirst, mood and sleep. Large epidemiological studies of individuals whose internal circadian cycle is chronically disrupted reveal that disruption of our internal clock is associated with an increased risk of obesity and several neurological diseases and disorders. In this review, we discuss the profound role of the extra-SCN hypothalamic nuclei in rhythmically regulating and coordinating body wide functions.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clocks & Sleep, Vol. 3, Pages 227-235: Effects of Exercise in Patients
           with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    • Authors: Rodrigo Torres-Castro, Luis Vasconcello-Castillo, Homero Puppo, Ignacio Cabrera-Aguilera, Matías Otto-Yáñez, Javiera Rosales-Fuentes, Jordi Vilaró
      First page: 227
      Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) constitutes a public health problem, with various systemic consequences that can increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as increase healthcare expenditure. This review discusses the rationale and effects of using general physical exercise, oropharyngeal exercises, and respiratory muscle training as an adjunctive treatment for patients with sleep apnoea. The recommended treatment for OSA is the use of continuous positive airway pressure, which is a therapy that prevents apnoea events by keeping the airways open. In the last decade, coadjuvant treatments that aim to support weight loss (including diet and physical exercise) and oropharyngeal exercises have been proposed to lower the apnoea/hypopnoea index among patients with OSA. Based on the available evidence, health professionals could decide to incorporate these therapeutic strategies to manage patients with sleep apnoea.
      Citation: Clocks & Sleep
      PubDate: 2021-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/clockssleep3010013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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