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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
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Open Mind
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2470-2986
Published by MIT Press Homepage  [39 journals]
  • Better Together: 14-Month-Old Infants Expect Agents to Cooperate

    • Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: AbstractHumans engage in cooperative activities from early on and the breadth of human cooperation is unparalleled. Human preference for cooperation might reflect cognitive and motivational mechanisms that drive engagement in cooperative activities. Here we investigate early indices of humans’ cooperative abilities and test whether 14-month-old infants expect agents to prefer cooperative over individual goal achievement. Three groups of infants saw videos of agents facing a choice between two actions that led to identical rewards but differed in the individual costs. Our results show that, in line with prior research, infants expect agents to make instrumentally rational choices and prefer the less costly of two individual action alternatives. In contrast, when one of the action alternatives is cooperative, infants expect agents to choose cooperation over individual action, even though the cooperative action demands more effort from each agent to achieve the same outcome. Finally, we do not find evidence that infants expect agents to choose the less costly alternative when both options entail cooperative action. Combined, these results indicate an ontogenetically early expectation of cooperation, and raise interesting implications and questions regarding the nature of infants’ representations of cooperative actions and their utility.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1162/opmi_a_00115
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2024)
       
  • “Now I Get It!”: Eureka Experiences During the Acquisition of
           Mathematical Concepts

    • Pages: 17 - 41
      Abstract: AbstractMany famous scientists have reported anecdotes where a new understanding occurred to them suddenly, in an unexpected flash. Do people generally experience such “Eureka” moments when learning science concepts' And if so, do these episodes truly vehicle sudden insights, or is this impression illusory' To address these questions, we developed a paradigm where participants were taught the mathematical concept of geodesic, which generalizes the common notion of straight line to straight trajectories drawn on curved surfaces. After studying lessons introducing this concept on the sphere, participants (N = 56) were tested on their understanding of geodesics on the sphere and on other surfaces. Our findings indicate that Eureka experiences are common when learning mathematics, with reports by 34 (61%) participants. Moreover, Eureka experiences proved an accurate description of participants’ learning, in two respects. First, Eureka experiences were associated with learning and generalization: the participants who reported experiencing Eurekas performed better at identifying counterintuitive geodesics on new surfaces. Second, and in line with the firstperson experience of a sudden insight, our findings suggest that the learning mechanisms responsible for Eureka experiences are inaccessible to reflective introspection. Specifically, reports of Eureka experiences and of participants’ confidence in their own understanding were associated with different profiles of performance, indicating that the mechanisms bringing about Eureka experiences and those informing reflective confidence were at least partially dissociated. Learning mathematical concepts thus appears to involve mechanisms that operate unconsciously, except when a key computational step is reached and a sudden insight breaks into consciousness.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1162/opmi_a_00116
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2024)
       
  • The Missing VP Illusion in Spanish: Assessing the Role of Language
           Statistics and Working Memory

    • Pages: 42 - 66
      Abstract: AbstractIn English, double center-embedded sentences yield a so-called “missing VP illusion”: When they are ungrammatical due to a missing verb, they are judged as equally or even more acceptable than their grammatical counterparts. The illusion is often attributed to working memory limitations. Additionally, it has been suggested that statistical differences across languages—e.g., the lower frequency of consecutive verb clusters in verb-initial languages—play a role, since languages with verb-final embedded clauses are less susceptible to the illusion than English. In two speeded acceptability experiments, we demonstrate that the illusion arises in Spanish, a verb-initial language. We also find that the strength of the illusion is modulated by the number of consecutive verbs, consistent with the involvement of language statistics. By contrast, we do not find that participants’ working memory modulates the illusion, failing to support a role of memory limitations. Our results support the generalization that cross-linguistic variation in the missing VP illusion is associated with language statistics and verb position and they demonstrate that this is the case even in languages in which word order is not a reliable processing cue.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1162/opmi_a_00118
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
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