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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
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New School Psychology Bulletin
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1931-793X - ISSN (Online) 1931-7948
Published by New School University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Where is Memory Information Stored in the Brain'

    • Authors: James Tee, Desmond P. Taylor
      Pages: 2 - 13
      Abstract: Within the scientific community, memory information in the brain is commonly believed to be stored in the synapse – a hypothesis famously attributed to psychologist Donald Hebb. However, there is a growing minority who postulate that memory is stored inside the neuron at the molecular (RNA or DNA) level – an alternative postulation known as the cell-intrinsic hypothesis, coined by psychologist Randy Gallistel. In this paper, we review a selection of key experimental evidence from both sides of the argument. We begin with Eric Kandel’s studies on sea slugs, which provided the first evidence in support of the synaptic hypothesis. Next, we touch on experiments in mice by John O’Keefe (declarative memory and the hippocampus) and Joseph LeDoux (procedural fear memory and the amygdala). Then, we introduce the synapse as the basic building block of today’s artificial intelligence neural networks. After that, we describe David Glanzman’s study on dissociating memory storage and synaptic change in sea slugs, and Susumu Tonegawa’s experiment on reactivating retrograde amnesia in mice using laser. From there, we highlight Germund Hesslow’s experiment on conditioned pauses in ferrets, and Beatrice Gelber’s experiment on conditioning in single-celled organisms without synapses (Paramecium aurelia). This is followed by a description of David Glanzman’s experiment on transplanting memory between sea slugs using RNA. Finally, we provide an overview of Brian Dias and Kerry Ressler’s experiment on DNA transfer of fear in mice from parents to offspring. We conclude with some potential implications for the wider field of psychology. Keywords: Memory, information, brain, neuron, synaptic hypothesis, cell-intrinsic hypothesis
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Mental Health and Language: Anxiety and Depression Impact Sentence Recall

    • Authors: Rodilene Gittoes, Jens Roeser
      Pages: 14 - 32
      Abstract: The present study examined how two mental health disorders (anxiety and depression) impact people’s ability to process language. Participants (N = 64) were asked to read and recall sentences. A secondary naming task was used to prompt lexical rehearsal of the second noun in the stimulus sentence that was either part of the subject (e.g., Tania and the glass moved…) or final phrase (e.g., ... above the glass and the donkey). Corrections during writing and recall mistakes were modelled in generalized mixed models. In line with the hypothesis that mental health disorders impair language processing, both anxiety and depression affected sentence recall accuracy but only anxiety impacted the execution process. Understanding the impact of mental health disorders on language processing is crucial to develop targeted support for individuals who would otherwise be systematically disadvantaged in educational, social, and professional life. Future research may benefit from separating samples dependent on symptom severity and comorbidity.  Keywords: Depression, anxiety, sentence recall, mental health, language processing 
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Worse Are Well, and the Well Are Worse: Emotion Regulation
           Difficulties and Their Relationship with Psychological Functioning During

    • Authors: Marissa Pizziferro, Ali Revill, Xiqiao Chen, Danielle Bryson, Richelle Allen
      Pages: 33 - 53
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic introduced a myriad of mental health consequences; however, it remains largely unknown why specific individuals may be more vulnerable to increases in psychological distress than others. Individuals’ capacity for emotion regulation may indicate how one experiences distress during COVID-19. The present study aims to understand which specific emotion regulation skills most impact the psychological functioning of psychotherapy clients during COVID-19. Psychotherapy clients (N = 33) completed the Brief Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-18), to measure six domains of emotion dysregulation, and the Outcome Questionnaire 30 (OQ-30.2) to measure psychological functioning during treatment. Multilevel Modeling (MLM) was conducted in R to measure the incremental effect of each DERS sub-scale on pre-and post-COVID-19 psychological functioning. As expected, clients with difficulties in emotional awareness and goal-directed behavior experienced worse psychological functioning during COVID-19. However, clients with difficulties in emotional self-efficacy, impulse control, and acceptance of negative emotions surprisingly reported deterioration of psychological functioning to a lesser degree than their counterparts with better regulation skills. Coping during a crisis is not uniform. Clinicians must understand how different emotion regulation skills play a role in navigating distress. Further, this evidence sheds light on how those who appear to be “doing worse” may have more tools to cope with circumstances out of their control. Keywords: Emotion regulation, COVID-19, psychological distress, psychotherapy, telehealth 
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
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