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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 1066 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Psychiatry and Psychology Journal : APPJ     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 498)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aging Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 308)
An-Nafs : Jurnal Fakultas Psikologi     Open Access  
Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 99)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 364)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aprender     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Archives of Depression and Anxiety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Augmented Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavior and Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioural Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 236)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers d’Études sur la Représentation     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Art Therapy : Research, Practice, and Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
CES Psicología     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Contemporary Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  

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Behavior Analyst
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.378
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0738-6729 - ISSN (Online) 2196-8918
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Cochran’s Q Test of Stimulus Overselectivity within the Verbal
           Repertoire of Children with Autism

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      Abstract: Stimulus overselectivity remains an ill-defined concept within behavior analysis, because it can be difficult to distinguish truly restrictive stimulus control from random variation. Quantitative models of bias are useful, though perhaps limited in application. Over the last 50 years, research on stimulus overselectivity has developed a pattern of assessment and intervention repeatedly marred by methodological flaws. Here we argue that a molecular view of overselectivity, under which restricted stimulus control has heretofore been examined, is fundamentally insufficient for analyzing this phenomenon. Instead, we propose the use of the term “overselectivity” to define temporally extended patterns of restrictive stimulus control that have resulted in disproportionate populations of responding that cannot be attributed to chance alone, and highlight examples of overselectivity within the verbal behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. Viewed as such, stimulus overselectivity lends itself to direct observation and measurement through the statistical analysis of single-subject data. In particular, we demonstrate the use of the Cochran Q test as a means of precisely quantifying stimulus overselectivity. We provide a tutorial on calculation, a model for interpretation, and a discussion of the implications for the use of Cochran’s Q by clinicians and researchers.
      PubDate: 2021-09-15
       
  • The Real Problem with Hypothetical Constructs

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      Abstract: A recent discussion in this journal revolved around the issue of whether postulating internal clocks is harmful or beneficial to scientific psychology, and how. I argue that this and other discussions on the topic have yet to address the real problem: The concept of a hypothetical construct is unintelligible. Psychologists agree that all entities that constitute hypothetical constructs are unobservable, importantly different from observable entities, including overt behavior and its environment. The root issue at hand here, then, is the observable-unobservable distinction. Psychologists have implicitly but erroneously taken it for granted as sufficiently unproblematic to warrant meaningful discussions based on it, when in fact it is a pernicious untenable remnant of logical positivism. All previous discussions of hypothetical constructs in psychology have overlooked arguments against this view in the philosophy of science. These arguments are sufficiently compelling to at least question, if not cease altogether, talk of observability, unobservability, and HCs in psychology as useless, even harmful.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
       
  • Correction to: Dissemination of Direct Instruction: Ponder These while
           Pursuing That

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      Abstract: A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-021-00312-z
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • The Power to Explain Variability in Intervention Effectiveness in
           Single-Case Research Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

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      Abstract: This study investigated the power of two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to explain variability in intervention effectiveness between participants in context of single-case experimental design (SCED) research. HLM is a flexible technique that allows the inclusion of participant characteristics (e.g., age, gender, and disability types) as moderators, and as such supplements visual analysis findings. First, this study empirically investigated the power to estimate intervention and moderator effects using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The results indicate that larger values for the true effects and the number of participants resulted in a higher power. The more moderators added to the model, the more participants needed to detect the effects with sufficient power (i.e., power ≥.80). When a model includes three moderators, at least 20 participants are required to capture the intervention effect and moderator effects with sufficient power. For that same condition, but only including one moderator, seven participants are sufficient. Specific recommendations for designing a SCED study with sufficient power to estimate intervention and moderator effects were provided. Second, this study introduced a newly developed user-friendly point and click Shiny tool, PowerSCED. This tool assists applied SCED researchers in designing a SCED study that has sufficient power to detect intervention and moderator effects. To end, the use of HLM with the inclusion of moderators was demonstrated using two previously published SCED studies in the journal School Psychology Quarterly.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • The Evidence is in the Design

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      Abstract: To better understand the effectiveness of Direct Instruction (DI), the empirical base related to DI’s instructional design components (explicit teaching, judicious selection and sequencing of examples) and principles (identifying big ideas, teaching generalizable strategies, providing mediated instruction, integrating skills and concepts, priming background knowledge, and providing ample review) are analyzed. Attention is given to the converging evidence supporting the design characteristics of DI, which has broad applicability across different disciplines, teaching methodologies, and perspectives.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Just How Effective is Direct Instruction'

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      Abstract: Despite overwhelming evidence in support of Direct Instruction, this research-validated curriculum has not been widely embraced by teachers or school administrators. The Direct Instruction model, developed and refined by Engelmann and colleagues over the past 50 years, has been the focus of numerous research studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Although its efficacy cannot be doubted, the significance of Direct Instruction’s impact may be misunderstood. We attempt to clarify the importance of Direct Instruction with help from the binomial effect-size display. Binomial effect-size displays allow for intuitive and informative data-based decision making by clearly conveying the real-world importance of treatment outcomes through a juxtaposition of the relative proportions of success. The limitations of analyzing effect sizes in absolute terms are discussed. Using the binomial effect-size display as a framework, we present a series of dichotomies in an attempt to answer the question: Just how effective is Direct Instruction'
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Ode to Zig (and the Bard): In Support of an Incomplete Logical-Empirical
           Model of Direct Instruction

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      Abstract: In this article, I offer my perspective on several elements of Engelmann’s Direct Instruction. I hypothesize Engelmann’s thinking about the schooling environment that arguably provoked his theoretical, philosophical, and conceptual insights into the design of Direct Instruction. I also examine the research on Direct Instruction as a national educational model, but only as an extension of Engelmann’s commitment to falsifying his own thinking. In addition, I survey the research on the design of instruction to highlight how greatly different disciplines can find common ground around “faultless communications.” Along the way, I offer examples and descriptive analyses of selected design of instruction elements of Direct Instruction. Finally, I conclude with a brief ode to Engelmann.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • What Can We Learn by Treating Perspective Taking as Problem Solving'

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      Abstract: Perspective taking has been studied extensively using a wide variety of experimental tasks. The theoretical constructs that are used to develop these tasks and interpret the results obtained from them, most notably theory of mind (ToM), have conceptual shortcomings from a behavior-analytic perspective. The behavioral approach to conceptualizing and studying this class of behavior is parsimonious and pragmatic, but the body of relevant research is currently small. The prominent relational frame theory (RFT) approach to derived perspective taking asserts that “deictic framing” is a core component of this class of behavior, but this proposal also appears to be conceptually problematic. We suggest that in many cases perspective taking is problem solving; when successful, both classes of behavior involve the emission of context-appropriate precurrent behavior that facilitates the appropriate response (i.e., the “solution”). Conceptualizing perspective taking in this way appears to have many advantages, which we explore herein.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Whatever the Kid Does Is the Truth: Introduction to the Special Section on
           Direct Instruction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Relations between Description and Experimentation in the Metacontingency
           Enterprise: An Interbehavioral Analysis

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      Abstract: Despite extensive theoretical development, there is a lack of consensus in the metacontingency enterprise on the extent to which current metacontingency constructs describe experimental happenings. The purpose of this article is to provide an interbehavioral analysis of the metacontingency enterprise that examines relations between description and experimentation in order to facilitate research on cultural selection occurring through metacontingencies. In particular, this article considers how stimulus functions of descriptions of metacontingency constructs participate in metacontingency experiments in terms of specificity, types of analysis, levels of analysis, and procedures. The extent to which experimental findings are able to be described in terms of metacontingency constructs is assessed. Prominent events and relations demonstrated by metacontingency experiments are summarized and discussed, as well as inconsistencies between relations described and relations constructed based on events observed. Recommendations for experimental and descriptive adjustments are offered. Although this analysis may or may not have any bearing on the metacontingency enterprise, it may serve as a template for conducting interbehavioral analyses of activities in other enterprises, if not more analyses of the metacontingency enterprise.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Science in the Service of Humanity: The Astonishing Contributions of
           Siegfried Engelmann

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      Abstract: A pioneering scientist and educator for more than 50 years, Siegfried (“Zig”) Engelmann was among the first to apply the scientific method to the design and delivery of instruction. He stood alone for his ability to create programs that accelerate learning in even the hardest to teach children and that most teachers can learn to use. He wrote or cowrote more than 100 curricula, covering the major subjects from preschool to high school. As a professor of education at University of Oregon and founder of the National Institute for Direct Instruction, he attracted students from around the world. No one did more to help the underdog. Millions of poor children learned when taught by teachers trained in his methods, often when nothing else worked. He never gave up on a child or blamed children for the failings of adults. He lived by his motto: “If the student hasn’t learned, the teacher hasn’t taught.” More scientific evidence validates DI’s effectiveness than any other mode of teaching. I will present an overview of Zig’s life and achievements.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • C-3s and Model Ts: The Machines behind Two Lovely Farewells

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      Abstract: B. F. Skinner’s 1976 editorial “Farewell my LOVELY,” eulogizing the passing of the cumulative record as a primary form of data analysis, borrowed its title from a 1936 E. B. White essay of the same name. In it, White, a well-known 20th century essayist and children’s book author, eulogized the Model T Ford. This article considers the parallels between the machine behind the cumulative record—the cumulative recorder—and White’s Model T. The cumulative recorder considered for comparison is the Ralph Gerbrands Company Model C-3, widely considered by scientists of the time to be the best of the cumulative recorders that proliferated between the 1950s and the 1990s. On a much more modest scale, the C-3 became as popular, visible, distinct, and important in research laboratories devoted, but not limited, to the experimental analysis of behavior as was the Model T on the roads of early 20th century America. Not only were there parallels in manufacture and marketing, but, more importantly, in reliability, durability and ease of function of these two machines that changed the respective practices and culture of behavioral psychology and the world.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • On Response Strength and the Concept of Response Classes

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      Abstract: Simon et al. (2020) argue that the concept of response strength is unnecessary and potentially harmful in that it misdirects behavior analysts away from more fruitful molar analyses. I defend the term as a useful summary of the effects of reinforcement and point particularly to its utility as an interpretive tool in making sense of complex human behavior under multiple control. Physiological data suggest that the concept is not an explanatory fiction, but strength cannot be simply equated with neural conductivity; interaction with competing behaviors must be considered as well. Decisions about appropriate scales of analysis require a clarification of terms. I suggest defining behavior solely in terms of its sensitivity to behavioral principles, irrespective of locus, magnitude, or observability. Furthermore, I suggest that the term response class be restricted to units that vary together in probability in part because of overlapping topography. In contrast, functional classes are united by common consequences; they vary together with respect to motivational variables but need not share formal properties and need not covary with acquisition and extinction contingencies.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Measuring Explicit Instruction Using Classroom Observations of
           Student–Teacher Interactions (COSTI)

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      Abstract: This article describes the development and technical adequacy of the Classroom Observations of Student Teacher Interactions (COSTI) instrument, a tool for measuring the frequency and rate of explicit instructional interactions, such as those used in Direct Instruction curricula, for teaching children basic reading and math skills. COSTI was originally developed to provide teachers with coaching feedback to improve their explicit reading instructional practices, and has been shown in multiple studies to be a reliable and valid predictor of student gains in beginning reading and math skills. This article discusses potential uses of the instrument for training and coaching across curricula with varying instructional design features, and lays out a future research agenda to further improve COSTI and related observation tools for studying explicit instructional practices and their contribution to student learning.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Faultless Communication: The Heart and Soul of DI

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      Abstract: We are in the midst of a global learning crisis. The National Center for Education Statistics (2019) reports that 65% of fourth- and 66% of eighth-grade students in the United States did not meet proficient standards for reading. A 2017 report from UNESCO reports that 6 out of 10 children worldwide do not achieve minimum proficiency in reading and mathematics. For far too many learners, instruction is riddled with confusion and ambiguity. Engelmann and Carnine's (1991) approach to improving learning is to design instruction that communicates one (and only one) logical interpretation by the learner. Called “faultless communication” this method can be used to teach learners a wide variety of concepts or skills and underpins all Direct Instruction programs. By reducing errors and misinterpretation, it maximizes learning for all students. To ensure effectiveness, the learner's performance is observed, and if necessary, the communication is continually redesigned until faultless (i.e., the learner learns). This “Theory of Instruction” is harmonious with behavior analysis and beneficial to anyone concerned with improving student learning—the heart and soul of good instruction.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Building a More Effective, Equitable, and Compassionate Educational
           System: The Role of Direct Instruction

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      Abstract: In a recent book, Anthony Biglan describes how strong social research can be used to build a compassionate and more caring society that promotes the well-being of all. This article asserts that a strong educational system needs to be part of this transformation and that widespread use of Direct Instruction (DI) could be key in the process. Analysis of the underlying theory, development, and use of DI describes the way it is based on careful developmental research. It promotes effective and efficient learning while embodying respect for students and teachers. The results of a recent large meta-analysis of research on DI’s effectiveness show it is more effective than other educational approaches, with effect sizes that surpass the effect associated with the difference in achievement of students from lower income and other homes. Alternative approaches to educational change are reviewed and it is suggested that DI is a more effective and efficient method of improving student success. Powerful actors within the educational establishment have expressed opposition to DI and have worked to hide evidence of its effectiveness. This paper identifies other social actors who could work together to counter the resistance to DI and build an educational system that promotes the well-being of all.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Behavioral Economic Approaches to Childhood Obesity Prevention Nutrition
           Policies: A Social Ecological Perspective

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      Abstract: Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern associated with the development of the leading causes of death. Dietary factors largely contribute to childhood obesity, but prevention interventions targeting these factors have reported relatively small effect sizes. One potential explanation for the ineffectiveness of prevention efforts is lack of theoretical grounding. Behavioral economic (BE) theory describes how people choose to allocate their resources and posits that some children place higher value on palatable foods (relative reinforcing value of food) and have difficulty delaying food rewards (delay discounting). These seemingly individual-level decision making processes are influenced by higher-level variables (e.g., environment/policy) as described by the social ecological model. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a theoretical review of policy-level childhood obesity prevention nutrition initiatives informed by BE. We reviewed two policy-level approaches: (1) incentives-/price manipulation-based policies (e.g., sugary drink tax, SNAP pilot) and (2) healthful choices as defaults (Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act/National School Lunch Program, advertising regulations, default items). We review current literature as well as its limitations and future directions. Exploration of BE theory applications for nutrition policies may help to inform future theoretically grounded policy-level public health interventions.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • How to Be RAD: Repeated Acquisition Design Features that Enhance Internal
           and External Validity

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      Abstract: The Repeated Acquisition Design (RAD) is a type of single-case research design (SCRD) that involves repeated and rapid measurement of irreversible discrete skills or behaviors through pre-and postintervention probes across different sets of stimuli. Researchers interested in the study of learning in animals and humans have used the RAD because of its sensitivity to detect immediate changes in rate or accuracy. Despite its strengths, critics of the RAD have cautioned against its use due to reasonable threats to internal validity like pretest effects, history, and maturation. Furthermore, many methodologists and researchers have neglected the RAD in their SCRD standards (e.g., What Works Clearinghouse [WWC], 2020; Horner et al., 2005). Unless given guidance to address threats to internal validity, researchers may avoid the design altogether or continue to use a weak version of the RAD. Therefore, we propose a set of 15 quality RAD indicators, comprising foundational elements that should be present in all RAD studies and additional features that enhance causal inference and external validity. We review contemporary RAD use and describe how the additional features strengthen the rigor of RAD studies. We end the article with suggested guidelines for interpreting effects and the strength of the evidence generated by RAD studies. We invite researchers to use these initial guidelines as a jumping off point for a more RAD future.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Applying Mixed-Effects Modeling to Behavioral Economic Demand: An
           Introduction

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      Abstract: Behavioral economic demand methodology is increasingly being used in various fields such as substance use and consumer behavior analysis. Traditional analytical techniques to fitting demand data have proven useful yet some of these approaches require preprocessing of data, ignore dependence in the data, and present statistical limitations. We term these approaches “fit to group” and “two stage” with the former interested in group or population level estimates and the latter interested in individual subject estimates. As an extension to these regression techniques, mixed-effect (or multilevel) modeling can serve as an improvement over these traditional methods. Notable benefits include providing simultaneous group (i.e., population) level estimates (with more accurate standard errors) and individual level predictions while accommodating the inclusion of “nonsystematic” response sets and covariates. These models can also accommodate complex experimental designs including repeated measures. The goal of this article is to introduce and provide a high-level overview of mixed-effects modeling techniques applied to behavioral economic demand data. We compare and contrast results from traditional techniques to that of the mixed-effects models across two datasets differing in species and experimental design. We discuss the relative benefits and drawbacks of these approaches and provide access to statistical code and data to support the analytical replicability of the comparisons.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • A Systematic Review and Quality Appraisal of Applications of Direct
           Instruction with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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      Abstract: Developed by Siegfried (“Zig”) Engelmann and colleagues, direct instruction (DI) has been recognized as an effective and replicable teaching model for decades. Although rooted in many principles of learning that behavior analysts utilize in daily practice, DI is not a common a component of behavior analytic services for learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This may be attributed to behavior analysts’ unfamiliarity with research evaluating the efficacy of DI with learners with ASD. This article synthesizes findings across studies evaluating DI with learners with ASD. The review addresses the contributions of the studies to date and identifies additional areas of research that may lead to more learners with ASD benefitting from DI.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
 
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