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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
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Online Readings in Psychology and Culture
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2307-0919
Published by Grand Valley State University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Cognitive and Behavioral Variations within the Collectivistic Cultural
           Sphere: Comparing Japanese and Koreans’ Self/Other Views and the
           Influence on Emotion Processing

    • Authors: Mariko Kikutani et al.
      Abstract: Cross-cultural psychology research often incorporates a division of East and West, contrasting people in East-Asian collectivistic and Western individualistic cultures. However, the extent of such trait should differ within the individualistic or collectivistic group, and looking into behavioral variations occurring within the individual or collectivistic cultural sphere is also very important for the cross-cultural research. To contribute to this purpose, this article compares people from Japan and South Korea based on literature review to reveal how culture influence people’s views on themselves and others, as well as communication styles. Further, the article discusses how those views and communication styles form Japanese and Korean’s emotional experiences. First, the article starts from contrasting two countries in terms of geography, history, language, and belief, to outline how these factors have shaped the two cultures. Second, the Japanese and Korean views of self and others are described, and the communication styles of the two cultures are compared. Third, emotional experiences of collectivistic individuals, including Japanese and Korean, are contrasted with those of individualistic people, mainly westerners. Finally, the cultural differences between Japanese and Korean are described.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2024 19:55:49 PST
       
  • Respectful Research: Working with Indigenous Peoples in Psychological,
           Anthropological and Cross-Cultural Sciences

    • Authors: Gesa Solveig Duden et al.
      Abstract: Indigenous peoples today face a wide range of constantly evolving political, epistemic and socio-cultural forms of contemporary colonial violence. Modern discourses and research practices both continue to promote Eurocentric narratives while marginalizing non-Western Indigenous perspectives. In our research project focusing on Maya Ch’orti cultural identities in the context of Indigenous peoples’ rights movements, we aimed to follow Indigenous Rights guidelines on how to conduct respectful, collaborative research with instead of on or about Indigenous peoples, thereby exploring forms of subjective epistemologies. In the present article, we provide a description of our endeavour and practices as well as of the challenges we faced along the way. We also discuss Indigenous research methods and their role in shaping reconciliatory spaces that can benefit from the inclusion of Indigenous peoples’ perspectives in the fields of psychological, anthropological, and cross-cultural inquiries.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2023 14:30:42 PST
       
  • Police and Cross-Cultural Psychology: The Impact of Human Values on
           Violence

    • Authors: Claudio V. Torres et al.
      Abstract: Researchers of police psychology must be well-acquainted with police work and culture both nationally and organizationally. However, most studies developed in police psychology do not fully account for the national context within which a study was done. In this article review, we discuss two social phenomena commonly studied by police psychologists: aggression and violence. Taking primarily a cross-national approach, we focus on the predictive role of individual values on aggression and violence. Schwartz’s (1992) values theory, at the individual level of analysis, was chosen due to its importance to cross-cultural psychology, as well as its implications on well-being (e.g., Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000). We discuss how certain values may promote certain attitudes and behaviors (i.e., actions) and assert that human values affect aggression and violence. We review studies that have evidenced the relationship between values and aggression in the police context include suggestions on how to include values in a research agenda about violence and aggression. We discuss possible implications for increasing police officers’ education and training, particularly reinforcing social values to guide actions. In order to foster change in aggressive and violent behaviors, it is imperative that police officers become aware of their own values. This must begin with the value of hierarchy, as well as tradition and conformity values. Finally, we pose discussion questions for researchers interested in investigating the interface between police and cross-cultural psychologies in the future, and for the use of educators to guide their in-class teaching.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Dec 2023 09:41:46 PST
       
  • Growing Old in Adopted Lands: The Nexus of Ageing and Acculturation
           Research

    • Authors: Ágnes Szabó
      Abstract: Ageing and migration are overlapping and interconnected social issues. Both ageing and acculturation research have been on the rise for decades, yet the two fields rarely intersect. Gerontological research on ageing migrants is situated outside of acculturation theory and older migrants have been largely overlooked in acculturation research. In this article, I provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on ageing in migrants, focusing on three lines of inquiry: epidemiological perspective on healthy ageing, critical approaches to understanding beliefs and values about what it means to age healthily for migrants, and research examining structural inequalities in older migrants’ ageing with a focus on cultural/acculturative processes as risk versus protective factors. Life course theory is presented as a broader framework through which theories of ageing and acculturation may be integrated to capture the nuances of ageing for those living at the intersections of cultures.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jul 2023 05:46:46 PDT
       
  • Cultural Orientations of Northerners and Southerners

    • Authors: Evert Van de Vliert
      Abstract: A growing group of psychologists recognizes that many collective mindsets and practices are functionally linked to natural habitats, which predominantly differ from north to south. Notably, cultural collectivism, power distance and aggression increase from the South Pole toward the Equator but decrease from the Equator toward the North Pole; conversely, cultural creativity, gender equality and life satisfaction decrease from the South Pole toward the Equator but increase from the Equator toward the North Pole. None of these cultural orientations varies considerably in east-west direction. Both theoretically and empirically, the most plausible explanation is that societies at higher latitudes adopt greater internal flexibility in response to greater habitat variability, consisting of daylength variability, climatic variability (cold, heat, dryness, wetness) and biotic variability in plants and animals. This variability explanation has deep historical roots as evidenced by the predictability of current geographical differences in culture on the basis of north-south differences in vertical collectivism and gender equality across mutually isolated pre-industrial societies.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Jul 2023 02:10:17 PDT
       
  • Social Psychological Studies of Latin American Cultures with Particular
           Reference to Brazil

    • Authors: Peter B. Smith et al.
      Abstract: This paper presents an English language translation of a book chapter that was originally published in Portuguese. It is reproduced here in full, by kind permission of the editors and publishers, in order to make it available to English language speakers. The paper first addresses ways of defining culture and the development of measures of cultural variation. Contrasts between the collectivism that defines East Asian culture and the collectivism of Latin America are then identified. Topics addressed include values, self-construal, life satisfaction, emotion, honour culture, social influence and the phenomenon of jeitinho. Although the text leads toward a consideration of research into Brazilian culture, it does so by way of discussing the distinctiveness of Latin American cultures more broadly. Details of comparative studies that have sampled further Latin American cultures have been added at the end.1
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2023 21:06:06 PDT
       
  • Emotion Socialization in the Indian Cultural Context

    • Authors: Tripti Kathuria et al.
      Abstract: The social cultural norms that guide parental practices regarding emotion socialization are determined by cultural meanings ascribed to emotion, emotion expression, regulation, and larger socialization goals. The majority of the empirical research on emotion socialization has been carried out in the US and in Western European countries. The current article aims at understanding emotion socialization in the Indian context interweaving broader views on parenting and socialization, socialization goals, and ancient and modern emotion concepts that shape emotion socialization in India. The heterogeneity of the Indian culture as well as modernization processes that influence these practices suggest heterogeneity of emotion socialization across contexts (e.g., rural-urban; multiple caregiver models).
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2023 07:31:27 PDT
       
  • Views on Aging – Current Trends and Future Directions for
           Cross-Cultural Research

    • Authors: Anna E. Kornadt et al.
      Abstract: The investigation of what enables societies and individuals to age well remains one of the greatest challenges of our time. Views on aging are a decisive factor in this process, and thus, improving their understanding through cross-cultural research is of utmost importance. In the current review, we address the role of socio-ecological variables and cultural values and beliefs when investigating country differences in what people think about older persons and getting old themselves. Several complexities are introduced in terms of a differentiated conceptualization of views on aging that takes life domains and normative prescriptions into account, and also in terms of a differentiated and extended view on the factors through which societal and cultural aspects and views on aging mutually influence each other. We propose that an encompassing, lifespan framework on views on aging enhances our understanding of aging well in different cultural and societal contexts.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Mar 2022 02:04:47 PST
       
  • Conspiracy Theories Through a Cross-Cultural Lens

    • Authors: Roland Imhoff
      Abstract: Conspiracy beliefs and an overarching conspiracy mentality binding them together are hot topics in psychology, not the least due to potential societal costs that are associated with them. Despite anecdotal evidence supporting the ubiquity of such beliefs across the globe, very little research has systematically explored cross-cultural differences, let alone tested theory-based hypotheses about such differences. The present paper highlights important methodological and theoretical considerations in developing a sound research program in predictors of country-level variations in conspiracy endorsement.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jan 2022 07:40:54 PST
       
  • The Rice Theory of Culture

    • Authors: Thomas Talhelm
      Abstract: The rice theory of culture is the idea that rice farming societies developed into more interdependent, tight cultures in response to the demands of the plant. Farming in general is an interdependent subsistence style, but traditional paddy rice farming was starkly different from other major crops like wheat, corn, and potatoes. Paddy rice required twice as much labor per hectare as wheat farming. Farmers responded by creating customs to share labor. Paddy rice also depended on irrigation systems to flood and drain the fields. Once farmers controlled water, they now had to coordinate how much water each farmer got, when to flood their fields, and how to divide the labor for repairing the canals. This created a tight society, where people depended on each other, and individual farmers had less freedom of movement. This article gives an overview of the theory, summarizes recent evidence of cultural differences between rice and wheat societies, and then lays out unanswered questions for future research.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jan 2022 03:10:36 PST
       
  • A Repository of Schwartz Value Scales with Instructions and an
           Introduction

    • Authors: Shalom H. Schwartz
      Abstract: This repository of value instruments includes the numerous authorized language versions of each of the four instruments developed by Schwartz to measure the basic values in his theory: The Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ40), the PVQ21 (aka the Human Values Scale of the European Social Survey [ESS21]), and the revised PVQ-RR. For each instrument, the repository includes instructions for coding and analysis and the most important references relevant to it. A short introductory essay briefly outlines the key assumptions underlying the theory and instruments, the principles that organize the values into a circle, and the translation protocol. The essay includes a table that compares the four instruments on 12 characteristics relevant for choosing the one most appropriate for use in a particular study.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Sep 2021 07:35:41 PDT
       
  • Remote Acculturation 101: A Primer on Research, Implications, and
           Illustrations from Classrooms Around the World

    • Authors: Lauren Eales et al.
      Abstract: Remote acculturation (RA) is a modern form of acculturation common among youth, which results from contact with a distant culture via the 4 Ts of globalization (trade, technology, tourism, and transnationalism). This article provides an introduction to RA by describing the what, who, how, where, and why of RA, summarizing its implications for youth development and health, and offering additional resources for student/classroom use. Utilizing our perspectives as psychology researchers and secondary school educators spanning 19 countries across Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America, we supplement research findings from our lab and others with real-world illustrations from our classrooms around the globe. We conclude that the prominent role of media in RA presents cost-effective opportunities to promote its benefits (e.g., foreign media can sharpen cultural competence) and proactively buffer its risks (e.g., media literacy for inoculation against poor health habits).
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 12:07:10 PDT
       
  • Case studies: US-Japan comparison of attachment transmission

    • Authors: Kazuko Y. Behrens et al.
      Abstract: Today, attachment research has become increasingly more quantitative and complex, utilizing extremely sophisticated statistical analyses often based on enormous synthesized datasets across the globe (Verhage et al., 2016). This marks a significant advancement in the attachment field in particular and developmental fields in general. However, this phenomenon arguably restricts the ability to visualize interactions of each parent-child dyad, on which the relationship quality is assessed. Notably, the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) are the most validated, widely-used attachment measures world-wide, known to predict attachment transmission. This paper demonstrates the qualitative presentation of attachment transmission data, comparing samples from the US and Japan. We present case studies for each main attachment category through AAI excerpts, SSP behavioral summaries, and the expected transmission process. We also compare case studies cross-culturally to confirm the universality of attachment phenomena as well as to explore any cultural differences that may affect attachment expressions.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Jul 2020 09:36:39 PDT
       
  • Culture, Language and Emotion

    • Authors: Alexandra S. Dylman et al.
      Abstract: Culture, language and emotion all influence and affect our daily lives in their own manner. Although there is a large body of research suggesting that these factors interact with each other in intricate ways, they have traditionally been studied independently of each other. Furthermore, although biculturalism and bilingualism are not new phenomena, they are now prevalent globally to the extent that research investigating culture or language cannot be complete without taking them into account. Thus, in this paper, we discuss how culture, language and emotion may mutually influence one another in a globalized world where biculturalism and bilingualism are commonplace and suggest how future research could investigate these individual factors jointly.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jul 2020 22:10:50 PDT
       
 
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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
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