A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
New School Psychology Bulletin     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Occupational Health Science     Hybrid Journal  
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Open Journal of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Neuroimaging Journal     Open Access  
Open Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Pensando Psicología     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Persona     Open Access  
Persona : Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Persona Studies     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Personnel Assessment and Decisions     Open Access  
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectives on Behavior Science     Hybrid Journal  
Perspectives On Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Perspectives Psy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Phenomenology & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Philosophical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
physiopraxis     Hybrid Journal  
PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Poiésis     Open Access  
Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Porn Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
PPmP - Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Practice Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie     Hybrid Journal  
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century     Open Access  
Professional Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psic : Revista de Psicologia da Vetor Editora     Open Access  
Psico     Open Access  
Psicoanalisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicobiettivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicoespacios     Open Access  
Psicogente     Open Access  
Psicol?gica Journal     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Prática     Open Access  
Psicologia da Educação     Open Access  
Psicologia della salute     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicología desde el Caribe     Open Access  
Psicologia di Comunità. Gruppi, ricerca-azione, modelli formativi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia e Saber Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia e Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Psicologia em Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia em Revista     Open Access  
Psicologia Ensino & Formação     Open Access  
Psicologia Hospitalar     Open Access  
Psicologia Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia para América Latina     Open Access  
Psicologia USP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad     Open Access  
Psicologia, Saúde e Doenças     Open Access  
Psicooncología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicoperspectivas     Open Access  
Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane     Full-text available via subscription  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
Psikohumaniora : Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi     Open Access  
Psisula : Prosiding Berkala Psikologi     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Psych     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PsyCh Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PSYCH up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psych. Pflege Heute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychê     Open Access  
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychiatrie et violence     Open Access  
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatrische Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356)
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis, Self and Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychoanalytic Dialogues: The International Journal of Relational Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychoanalytic Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Psychoanalytic Review The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychodynamic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychologia : Advances de la Disciplina     Open Access  
Psychologica     Open Access  
Psychologica Belgica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Psychological Perspectives: A Semiannual Journal of Jungian Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Psychological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Psychological Science and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science and Education psyedu.ru     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science In the Public Interest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Psychological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychological Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Psychologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologische Rundschau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology     Open Access  
Psychology & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychology and Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal  
Psychology and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychology in Russia: State of the Art     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology in Society     Open Access  
Psychology Learning & Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Consciousness : Theory, Research, and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Language and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Leaders and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Psychology of Men and Masculinity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Psychology of Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Psychology of Popular Media Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Psychology of Women Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychology Research and Behavior Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology, Community & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Psychology, Health & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychomusicology : Music, Mind, and Brain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
psychopraxis. neuropraxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychosomatic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychosomatic Medicine and General Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychotherapeut     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Politics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Psychotherapy in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
PsychTech & Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Psyecology - Bilingual Journal of Environmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psyke & Logos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psykhe (Santiago)     Open Access  
Quaderni di Gestalt     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderns de Psicologia     Open Access  
Qualitative Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Qualitative Research in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Quality and User Experience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quantitative Methods for Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Reading Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rehabilitation Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Religion, Brain & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Psychological Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.347
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0033-2941 - ISSN (Online) 1558-691X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Emotional Engagement and Caring Relationships: The Assessment of Emotion
           Regulation Repertoires of Nurses

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anna Maria Meneghini, Daiana Colledani, Sofia Morandini, Kalee De France, Tom Hollenstein
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      In spite of the importance of emotion regulation for nurses’ well-being, little is known about which strategies nurses habitually use, how these strategies combine in order to regulate their emotional distress, and how these are related to their caregiving orientations. The current study aimed to explore the emotion regulation repertoires that characterize health-care providers and to investigate the association between these repertoires and caregiving orientations in a sample of nurses. Firstly, a confirmatory factor analyses was run to test the suitability of the Regulation of Emotion System Survey for the assessment of six emotion regulation strategies among health-care providers. Subsequently, the latent profiles analysis was employed to explore emotion regulation repertoires. Three repertoires emerged: The Average, the Suppression Propensity and the Engagement Propensity profiles. The participants of the last two groups relied on Expressive Suppression and Engagement, respectively, more often than others. Nurses were more likely to be placed within the Engagement Propensity group when compared to the first responders, and higher levels of hyperactivation of the Caregiving System were associated with this repertoire. A greater reliance on Expressive Engagement among nurses was discussed in terms of the fact that nurses usually have a longer and more care-oriented relationships with patients than first responders.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T04:33:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221110548
       
  • Nonjudgmental Regard of Others: Investigating the Links Between
           Other-Directed Trait Mindfulness and Prejudice

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Adelheid A. M. Nicol, Kalee De France
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Although researchers predict that experiencing greater trait mindfulness should be related to less prejudiced attitudes towards others, the evidence has been inconsistent. We suggest that this is due to the narrow operationalizations of mindfulness that have been utilized thus far. Specifically, research to date has relied solely on mindfulness as it pertains to the self. We therefore examined an expanded definition of mindfulness to study the role of nonjudgmental attitudes towards others and its relation with prejudice. Using a new measure of Nonjudgmental Regard towards Others (NRO), the current study found that Ideological Acceptance, or judgments of another’s actions, ideas, and personality, and Emotion Acceptance, or acceptance of another’s emotions and emotional expressions, were independently associated with prejudiced attitudes towards numerous different outgroups such as drug users, people who are overweight, homosexuals, and people with disabilities. Furthermore, they were able to explain variance over and above the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Having a nonjudgmental regard towards others, not just the self, may be an important component of mindfulness that has not yet been explored.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T05:34:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221109096
       
  • The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Mobile Phone Addiction Among
           Mainland Chinese Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yipei Liang, Haitao Huang, Yueming Ding, Yiming Zhang, Guangli Lu, Chaoran Chen
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, the problem of mobile phone addiction (MPA) has become increasingly serious among mainland Chinese adolescents. Studies have found that self-esteem may be related to MPA, but the conclusions are inconsistent. Consequently, this meta-analysis aims to explore the real relationship between self-esteem and MPA, and analyze the moderator variables. The relevant studies used in meta-analysis were obtained by searching China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Data, Chongqing VIP Information Co., Ltd. (VIP), PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Medline and Embase. Then articles were screened and coded, and statistical analysis was carried out by Stata 16.0 software. A total of 45,765 participants from 64 articles were included in the research. Meta-analysis showed that there was a moderate negative correlation between self-esteem and MPA(r = −.25, 95%CI = −.29, −.21). Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis showed that the age and publication time can significantly moderate the relationship between self-esteem and MPA, but MPA measurement instrument, gender, region and publication type have no significant moderating effect. The current meta-analysis provided solid evidence that self-esteem was negatively correlated with MPA. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the causality between them, so as to make more specific practice and policy recommendations.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T05:48:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221109115
       
  • Dark Triad Personality and Phubbing: The Mediator Role of Fomo

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Muhammed Akat, Coşkun Arslan, Erdal Hamarta
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Phubbing among undergraduate has become an area of increasing research interest in recent years. In recent years, studies on phubbing have increased. However, no empirical study has deal with the mediating effect of fear of missing out (FoMO) on the relationship between dark triad and phubbing. The dark triad refers to three personality traits: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. Machiavellianism is characterized by prioritizing one’s own wishes and desires. Psychopathy, is a personality trait where lack of emotion and self-control is seen. Narcissism is characterized by low empathy and egocentrism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether FoMO mediator between dark triad and phubbing among undergraduates. For this purpose, structural equation modeling and bootstrapping method was used. Mediation analyses were performed using AMOS 22.00. The present study comprised 506 undergraduate (%70.7 female; %29.3 male). The age of the participants ranged between 18 and 29 (x = 22.41).The measures used included the General Scale of Phubbing, Fear of Missing Out Scale, and Dirty Dozen Scale. The results showed that FoMO mediated the relationship between dark triad and phubbing. The results of bootstrapping procedure indicated that the indirect effect of FoMO on the relationship between dark triad and phubbing was significant. In conclusion, the study suggests that FoMO is a meaningful mediator in the relationship between dark triad and phubbing. Research results are discussed in the light of the related literature and suggestions are presented for future researchers.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T12:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221109119
       
  • Ripple Effects of Abusive Supervision

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shahid Khan, Avani Thayil
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Abusive supervision (AS) is relentless in damaging employees’ personal and professional life. This study examines the underlying mechanism through which AS damages employees’ job and life satisfaction and, most importantly, the boundary conditions that help attenuate the cascading effects of AS. Using a sample of 187 employees from a large public sector organization, this study found that job tension transmits the antagonistic effects of AS to employees’ job and life satisfaction. However, these effects were low for employees who were high rather than low in the personality trait of resilience. The study contributes to the AS literature by explicating job tension as one possible underlying mechanism and resilience as a personality trait that helps diminish the deleterious effects of AS on employees’ job tension and wellbeing. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T10:57:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221109114
       
  • How Does Enlistment Motivation Shape Organizational Commitment' The
           Role of Career Identity and Organizational Support

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jie Zhou, Jianwei Zhang, Weijun Hua, Mingming Zhao
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This study, based on the integrative model of commitment and motivation and organizational support theory, examined the mechanism of intrinsic and extrinsic enlistment motivation on three facets of organizational commitment. A three-wave field questionnaire survey was conducted among 1606 Reserve Officers’ Training Corps cadets from Chinese universities. The results showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation positively predicted affective commitment, normative commitment, and continuous commitment. The positive effect of intrinsic motivation was stronger than extrinsic motivation. However, the interactive effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation negatively predicted the three aspects of organizational commitment. Career identity mediated all the direct effects above. Moreover, organizational support moderated the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on career identity. When organizational support was low, the positive effect of intrinsic motivation on career identity was stronger; whereas, when organizational support was high, the positive effect of extrinsic motivation on career identity was stronger. Furthermore, extrinsic motivation and organizational support jointly moderated the effect of intrinsic motivation on career identity and the mediating effects between intrinsic motivation and the three facets of organizational commitment. Specifically, when extrinsic motivation and organizational support were low, the direct and mediating effects above were stronger.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T05:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221109097
       
  • Are They Created Equal' A Relative Weights Analysis of the
           Contributions of Job Demands and Resources to Well-Being and Turnover
           Intention

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Corey Hoare, Christian Vandenberghe
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Building upon the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model (Demerouti et al., 2001) and the extensive research on employee turnover intention and well-being, we examined various demands and resources in relation to these outcomes. This study examined the differential relationship between job demands, and personal and job resources, and two organizational outcomes: turnover intention and emotional exhaustion. The job demands were role overload, role conflict, role ambiguity, and work-life balance. The job resources were resilience, servant leadership, relatedness, autonomy, job opportunities, pay satisfaction, and person-organization fit. An online questionnaire was administered to full-time employees via Qualtrics panel (N = 364). Job demands were positively related to emotional exhaustion, and personal and job resources were negatively related to turnover intention. Using relative weights analysis, demands and resources were found to account for different amounts of variance in the outcome variables. This study informs our understanding of and contributes to the advancement of the JD-R model to encompass various job demands and personal and job resources and their differential relationship to emotional exhaustion and turnover intention.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T07:07:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221103536
       
  • An island of sanity during COVID-19 pandemic: Does pet attachment support
           buffer employees’ stress due to job insecurity'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Min (Maggie) Wan, Thomas K. Kelemen, Yejun Zhang, Samuel H. Matthews
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing on the transactional theory of stress, the current study investigates whether employee job insecurity triggers employee behavioral strain reactions (i.e., alcohol use, marijuana use, and cigarette use) and psychological strain reactions (i.e., emotional exhaustion and depression) through stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, we integrate social support theory and expect the moderating role of pet attachment support in the above relationships. By collecting two-wave data from 187 employees with pets in the United States, we found that during the COVID-19 pandemic, stress mediated the relationships between job insecurity and predicted behavioral and psychological reactions. Moreover, pet attachment support buffered the relationships between stress and these behavioral and psychological strain reactions (all except cigarette use). Pet attachment support also alleviated the conditional indirect effects job insecurity had on the two types of strain reactions via stress. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of this study.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T08:52:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221109105
       
  • Concurrent Validity and Reliability of Representative Inner Speech
           Questionnaires

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Famira Racy, Alain Morin, Julia Hagerty
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Inner speech is frequently assessed using self-report scales, but their validity is understudied. Uttl et al. (2011) found moderate correlations, perhaps because measures tap into different dimensions of inner speech. We expand on these preliminary results by investigating reliability and concurrent validity of seven inner speech questionnaires in a larger sample. Our results indicate that inner speech questionnaires are reliable but hold moderate concurrent validity, in line with Uttl and colleagues’ (2011) results. Specifically, our results suggest that some inner speech scales may capture a general conception of inner speech, while others may assess evaluative components of negative self-talk, self-regulation, and self-reflective processes, but not emotional valence. The results hold implications around further validity investigations of inner speech measures.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T02:39:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221109109
       
  • Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Substance Use and Sexual Risk
           Behavior Among at-Risk Adolescents

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nora E. Charles, Stephanie J. Strong, Paula N. Floyd, Lauren C. Burns, Lydia Sigurdson, Christopher T. Barry
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescents often engage in behaviors such as substance use and risky sexual activity that can lead to negative health and psychological consequences for themselves and others. Accurate measurement of these behaviors in surveys is challenging given that the behaviors are often viewed as undesirable and/or are illegal, so it is important to test the psychometric properties of instruments used to assess adolescent risk behaviors. The current study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of a widely used measure of youth risk-taking behavior, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). A sample of 156 at-risk adolescents aged 16–18 years (81% male; 61% White) completed the YRBS retrospectively across intervals ranging from 3 to 12 days during their stay in a residential program at which they were under close supervision and had limited ability to engage in new risk behaviors. Participants were asked to complete the YRBS based on their “typical” (pre-program) behavior at both administrations, which were 10–14 weeks into their stay. The reliability of responses was assessed using kappa and weighted kappa analyses. Findings indicate moderate to substantial reliability for nearly all items, suggesting that at-risk youth reliably reported their engagement in health risk behaviors across multiple administrations and supporting the psychometric strength of the YRBS measure for use with this population.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T02:01:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221100459
       
  • Significance of the Ontological/Utilitarian Distinction Among Measures of
           Individualism and Collectivism

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: John A Wagner
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      A meta-analysis reported in this article compared the effects of ontological and utilitarian measures of individualism and collectivism on the findings of published research. Ontological differences in individualism and collectivism concern the degree to which either individuals or collectivities are interpreted as the primary entities comprising social reality. Reflecting these differences are measures that include subjects such as the degree of permanence and sense of collective obligation associated with interpersonal, group, or community relationships. Utilitarian distinctions in individualism and collectivism involve beliefs that either individuals or collectivities are instrumental in the pursuit of valued outcomes. Related measures include items concerning the attractiveness or consequences of working alone versus working in a group. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that ontological and utilitarian measures have produced differing findings in several notable instances, with utilitarian measures producing larger effects.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T11:02:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221105217
       
  • Occupational Class Differences in Emotional Exhaustion Among Municipal
           Employees – The Role of Employment Sector and Psychosocial Working
           Conditions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jouni Lahti, Jade Knop, Tea Lallukka, Jaakko Harkko, Anne Kouvonen
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Studies examining occupational class differences in burnout symptoms across employment sectors are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine whether occupational class is associated with emotional exhaustion, and whether there are differences in the examined associations between employment sectors. A further aim was to examine to which extent psychosocial working conditions may explain these associations. Survey data were collected in 2017 among 19–39-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (4630 women and 1267 men, response rate 51.5%). Occupational class included four classes: 1. manuals, 2. routine non-manuals, 3. semi-professionals, 4. managers and professionals. Employment sector was classified into three groups: 1. health and social care, 2. education and 3. ‘other’. Linear regression analysis and IBM SPSS 25 statistical program were used. The analytical sample included 4883 participants. The highest occupational class, i.e. managers and professionals, reported the highest emotional exhaustion. In terms of the sector, those working in education had the highest scores of emotional exhaustion. The associations between occupational class and emotional exhaustion differed somewhat between the sectors. Adjustment for job demands attenuated the differences in emotional exhaustion between occupational classes, whereas adjustment for job control and job strain widened the differences. Attention should be paid to occupations with excess mental demands, and to employees in the education sector, who showed the highest risk of emotional exhaustion.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T10:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221106393
       
  • ‘Sleepy Joe’ and ‘Donald, King of Whoppers’: Reality Monitoring
           and Verbal Deception in the 2020 U.S. Presidential Election Debates

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gary D. Bond, Lassiter F. Speller, Lauren L. Cockrell, Katelynn G. Webb, Jaci L. Sievers
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The 2020 U.S. Presidential election was a campaign that could be characterized as ‘one of the nastiest presidential campaigns in recent memory,’ partly because the general election debates were highly contentious and featured frequent interruptions and several insults and invectives between candidates. This research compared the language used in the debates to fact-checked truths and lies using a Reality Monitoring (RM) deception detection algorithm in Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) to investigate the veracity of real-life high-stakes verbal messages in the political context. We found that overall RM scores were lower and not significantly different between debate language and fact-checked lies, and RM scores were significantly higher in fact-checked truth statements, indicating that most debate language uttered was deceptive. This result supports the finding that the RM algorithm in LIWC distinguishes truth from lies and debate language in the context of politics. The 60.7% classification rate in this study may reflect a problem with the relatively short word counts of fact-checked lie and truth statements, but most probably reflects individual candidates’ deviations in RM features used in their statements. Each individual has a style that they use in communication—‘the way people talk and write have been recognized as stamps of individual identity.’ Even with a corpus of many statements from the same individual candidates, they probably regularly amplify certain features of RM and diminish other features of RM in their truthful and deceptive messages. This is a fruitful area of research that could be explored in future studies.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T04:17:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221105212
       
  • Keep Calm and Be Humble: Can Intellectual Humility Predict Test
           Anxiety'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ho Phi Huynh, Kristin N. Sramek, Katherine A. Sifuentes, Malin K. Lilley, Elia M. Bautista
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Test anxiety is common and may lead to a range of negative outcomes, including poor exam performance. Therefore, it is important to explore psychological predictors of test anxiety. In this paper, we examined whether intellectual humility can predict test anxiety. In Study 1, college students (N = 181) completed an intellectual humility measure with four subscales and two different measures of test anxiety. In Study 2 (N = 196), a community sample recruited from an online workforce completed the same measures. In both studies, we found that intellectual humility was negatively related to test anxiety, such that higher intellectual humility predicted lower test anxiety. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated a negative correlation between intellectual humility and the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale; Study 2 confirmed this negative relationship with both the Sarason and Westside test anxiety scales. We also found that this relationship was largely driven by the intellectual humility subscale of Independence of Intellect and Ego. Additionally, these results were present even when controlling for key demographic factors. These findings highlight intellectual humility’s role in predicting exam anxiety and offer a potential avenue for intellectual humility to be leveraged into interventions to decrease exam anxiety in the future.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T04:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221103524
       
  • Parenting Styles and Adolescents’ Problem Behaviors: The Mediating
           Effect of Adolescents’ Self-Control

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wen Zhang, Zhenhong Wang
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The study examined the mediating role of adolescents’ self-control on the relationship between parenting styles and problem behaviors. A parenting style questionnaire, adolescents’ self-control questionnaire, and the Youth Self-Report were administered to 611 adolescents (335 boys, and 276 girls, Mage = 13.17, SD = 0.46) to assess their parenting styles, self-control, and problem behaviors. The results indicated that paternal rejection was positively associated with externalizing problems and maternal rejection was positively associated with internalizing problems. Moreover, adolescents’ self-control played a mediating role in the relationship between paternal rejection and externalizing problems and between paternal rejection and internalizing problems. The findings showed that paternal and maternal rearing styles have different influences on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems, respectively, and adolescents’ self-control played a mediating role in these different relationships. This study has great significance for revealing the mechanism of parenting styles on adolescents’ problem behaviors.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T09:57:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221105216
       
  • Decent Work and Burnout: A Profile Study With Academic Personnel

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ana C. Dinis, Tânia Ferraro, Leonor Pais, Nuno R. dos Santos
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This research explores the relationship between Decent Work (DW) and Burnout in Portuguese and Brazilian academic personnel. We focus on identifying profiles resulting from the relationship between these variables. Seven hundred twenty-seven participants composed the sample (Portuguese = 334; Brazilian = 393), and data were collected online using the Decent Work Questionnaire (DWQ) and the Personal Burnout subscale from the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). Results of multiple linear regressions showed that two DW dimensions were significant and negatively related to Burnout: Fundamental Principles and Values at Work and Adequate Working Time and Workload. We found four profiles by performing a cluster analysis: Low Decent Work; High Decent Work; and two other profiles with DW deficit in at least one DW dimension: Low Fundamental Principles and Values at Work and Low Adequate working time and workload. Moreover, 71% of the total sample showed some decent work deficit. Differences between Burnout and the DW dimensions were analyzed through a MANOVA. In our sample, considering the broad dimensions of DW, Burnout seems to be mainly dependent on the deficit of aspects related to the quality of treatment and interpersonal relationships at work (e.g., perceptions of fairness, participation, non-discrimination) as well as the balance of the workload and the adequacy of the working hours. Interventions aiming at improvements must focus on those two dimensions.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T01:12:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221100454
       
  • The Good, the Bad and the Hijab: A Study of Implicit Associations Made by
           Practicing Muslims in Their Native Muslim Country

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mercedes Sheen, Hajar Aman Key Yekani, Timothy R. Jordan
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research indicates that wearing the hijab reduces the attractiveness of female faces perceived by practicing Muslim men and women in their native Muslim country (the United Arab Emirates). The purpose of the current research was to develop this finding to investigate whether other aspects of person perception are also affected when women wear the hijab in this Muslim country. Of particular relevance is that changes in physical attractiveness often affect the personal qualities assigned to individuals. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether such effects occur when the physical attractiveness of women is altered by wearing the hijab. To do this, we used an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to investigate how native Muslim participants in the UAE associated pleasant and unpleasant connotations with images of women either wearing the hijab or with their heads uncovered. As in previous research with native Muslim participants, female faces were again perceived as significantly less attractive when the hijab was worn. However, the accompanying IAT findings showed that these less attractive hijab-wearing images were associated more with pleasant connotations than were the matched uncovered images. These findings provide fresh insight into the effects of the hijab on perceptions of Muslim women in a Muslim country and provide support for the view that cultural clothing can influence person perception beyond physical attractiveness alone.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T06:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221103532
       
  • Positive Schemas: Replication, Associations With Negative Schemas, and the
           Dark Triad

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: John Philip Louis, Karen McDonald Louis, Amy M. Young
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of the current study was to replicate the factor structure of the 14 positive schemas identified in the earlier study by Louis et al. (2018). Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Multi-group CFA, the 14 positive schemas were found to be robust across four new non-clinical English-speaking community samples – USA (n = 396), South Africa (n = 390), Nigeria (n = 364), and India (n = 306). Further, results from CFA, and chi square tests showed that positive and negative schemas were independent but related constructs, and that they do not reflect bipolarity. Using hierarchical regression and Pearson’s correlations the negative schemas of Entitlement, Approval Seeking and Mistrust, and the positive schema of Empathic Consideration were found to be associated positively and negatively respectively with Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy of the Dark Triad scale in all four worldwide samples. Implications of this finding in Schema Therapy treatment were discussed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T06:05:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221100445
       
  • Strength-Based Parenting and Academic Motivation in Adolescents Returning
           to School After COVID-19 School Closure: Exploring the Effect of School
           Belonging and Strength Use

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gökmen Arslan, Kelly-Ann Allen, Lea Waters
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to examine whether the level of strength-based parenting a student receives during remote learning affects their levels of academic motivation once returning to school. Additionally, the study sought to explore whether school belonging mediated the association between strength-based parenting and academic motivation and whether student strength use moderated this mediating relationship. The sample comprised of secondary school students who had recently returned back to campus, following a period of COVID-19 enforced remote learning (n = 404; age range: 11 to 18 years; M = 14.75, SD = 1.59; 50.2% female, and 3% non-/other gendered or declined to answer). Strength-based parenting had a significant predictive effect on student academic motivation with school belonging mediating the association between strength-based parenting and academic motivation. The mediating effect of school belonging on the association between strength-based parenting and academic motivation was moderated by strength use during remote learning. The results of the study are discussed using a positive education lens with implications for improving skills and strategies to foster positive student functioning in times of remote learning and crisis.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T12:04:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221087915
       
  • A Longitudinal Study of the Psychological State of Teachers Before and
           During the COVID-19 Outbreak in Mexico

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nadia Yanet Cortés-Álvarez, Alicia Saldívar Garduño, Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña, Leticia Gabriela Marmolejo-Murillo, César Rubén Vuelvas-Olmos
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 outbreak significantly impacted people’s lives. Within the education system, the teaching mode drastically changed to adapt to the social distancing restrictions due to the pandemic. Consequently, teachers have been facing challenges associated with remote learning in addition to those of the pandemic. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychological state among teachers at two stages: pre-pandemic (November 2019) and during the pandemic (June-July 2020 and June-July 2021). Information regarding demographic data, depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21), and burnout syndrome (MBI-ES) was collected using validated questionnaires. Results showed a significantly higher scores as well as a higher prevalence in the DASS-21 and the MBI-ES scales, on the second measurement taken during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period and the first evaluation during the pandemic. During the second evaluation on pandemic stage, female teachers of ≥45 years of age with a college-level of education, 11 years of teaching experience, and currently teaching at preschools and primary schools were significantly associated with higher anxiety, stress, EE, and burnout scores. In addition, female teachers aged ≥45 years reported higher PD and PA scores. Finally, an association between burnout syndrome and depression was identified in the evaluations carried out during the pandemic considering both the total sample and the analysis per gender. The study shows that teachers’ mental health has been negatively affected by the pandemic. Efforts from the education system and health authorities are crucial to design and implement strategies to improve teachers’ mental health during the fight against COVID-19.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T03:02:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221100458
       
  • Effect of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention on Self-Compassionate
           Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Taro Uchida, Toru Takahashi, Fukiko Sugiyama, Tomoki Kikai, Yusuke Nitta, Hiroaki Kumano
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Self-compassion is regarded as a mediating or moderating variable in mindfulness-based interventions (MBI). However, few studies have investigated the role of self-compassion on MBI. Therefore, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine whether (1) MBI decreases depression and trait anxiety, while increasing trait mindfulness, trait self-compassion, self-compassionate behaviors (SC behaviors), and behaviors, along with improving mood; and (2) SC behaviors moderate the effect of mindful behaviors on mood in daily life. Participants were patients with depression and/or anxiety (N=19) in Japan. Of the 27 participants recruited, 19 participated in the study. Using stratified randomization, we allocated 10 participants to the intervention group, with an 8-week standard MBI, and nine to the waitlist control group. Depression, trait anxiety, trait mindfulness, and trait self-compassion were assessed using questionnaires, while SC behaviors, mindful behaviors, and mood were measured using an ecological momentary assessment—a method used to repeatedly record events and behaviors in daily life. The results revealed that depression, trait anxiety, trait mindfulness, and trait self-compassion did not significantly change. However, SC behaviors, mindful behaviors, and mood significantly improved with MBI. Moreover, the interaction between SC behaviors and mindful behaviors was significantly shown in the pre-intervention, suggesting that SC behaviors moderate the effect of mindful behaviors on mood in daily life.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:45:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221080410
       
  • Levels of Aggression Escalation in Adult/Geriatric Occupational Therapy
           Workplaces

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Michael Potegal, Leah Htet, Hannah Sartor
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Workplace aggression can escalate from verbal to physical, adding risk of physical injury to negative psychological impact. Understanding escalation is necessary to develop effective violence intervention/prevention programs, but its occurrence is not well documented. An online survey determined if and how aggression escalates in occupational therapy (OT) workplaces. Because local culture can influence workplace events we compared surveys from northeastern states with the lowest rates of homicide to southeastern states with the highest. Ninety four OTs working in southeastern or northeastern states reported details of the most recent verbal and/or physical aggressive event initiated by clients (NIOSH Type 2) or staff (NIOSH Type 3) they witnessed or experienced in the workplace within the last year. Aggressor status, motivation, actions; therapist reactions, injuries and psychological sequelae were queried in logical order. Behavior inter-correlation followed by cluster analysis determined if levels of escalation could be detected. Analyses grouped events into five escalation levels in which progressively more hostile or damaging behaviors were added at each successive level. Higher levels involved known risk factors: Younger, reactively angry clients with prior aggression histories escalated attacks to involve restraint, calls for help and physical injury. Southeastern aggressor/target interactions appeared more combative, seemingly regardless of personal risk. Remarkably, northeastern OTs reported significantly more positive and fewer negative feelings across levels of escalation. OT workplace aggression occurs frequently, can escalate to injurious levels and requires prevention/intervention. How therapists maintain positive attitudes in the face of violence deserves further study.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T10:17:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221100469
       
  • Social and Psychological Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Adolescents’
           and Young Adults’ Mental Health: A Cross-Cultural Mediation Study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Konstanze Schoeps, Alicia Tamarit, Usue De la Barrera, Laura Lacomba-Trejo, Inmaculada Montoya-Castilla, Constanza del Rosario, Fernanda Coello, Sebastián Herrera, Ángela Trujillo, Fernando Riveros Munevar, Nancy Alejandra Amador Esparza
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The ongoing pandemic has dramatically disrupted daily life, increasing the risk of developing psychiatric disorders and poor mental wellbeing. The compound effects of social, political and psychological stressors have increased psychological symptoms among adolescents and young people, with worries about COVID-19 playing a central role in the clinical course of their mental health problems caused by the pandemic. The aim of this cross-cultural study was to examine the social psychological effects of COVID-19 on adolescents’ and young people’s mental health and wellbeing in Ibero-American population. Participants involved 6,283 adolescents and young adults from five different Spanish-Speaking countries (83.7% female) aged between 12 and 30 years (M = 18.79; SD = 3.48). Participants completed the Worries about COVID-19 and its Consequences Scale (W-COV), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Descriptive analyses, multivariate ANOVAs and Pearson correlations were performed, as well as Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) testing a mediational model. The results indicate cross-cultural difference in COVID-19 related worries, emotional symptoms and life satisfaction. Results from SEM confirmed the overall indirect effects of COVID-19 cases, political response and participants’ conditions during lockdown on depression, anxiety, stress and life satisfaction mediated by COVID-19 related worries. These findings suggest that the social psychological factors underlying psychological symptoms could be partly explained by increased worries about COVID-19 and its personal, social, economic and political consequences, which may offer guidance to policy makers and health services for safeguarding youth mental well-being.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T09:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221100451
       
  • The Role of Novelty Satisfaction in Distance Physical Education During the
           COVID-19 Pandemic: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wei-Ting Hsu, Andy Lin, I-Wei Shang
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose: To better understand the role of novelty satisfaction in distance physical education (PE) during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study aimed to determine the relationships among students’ novelty satisfaction, basic psychological needs satisfaction, autonomous motivation, effort, and enjoyment and to examine the mediating effects of autonomous motivation in the relationships between novelty satisfaction and effort and enjoyment. Methods: The participants were 332 undergraduate students from 10 PE classes. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Results: Satisfaction of students’ need for novelty and the three basic needs positively predicted autonomous motivation, which in turn positively predicted effort and enjoyment. The relationships between students’ novelty satisfaction and their effort and enjoyment were mediated by autonomous motivation. Conclusion: This study provides important insights into needs satisfaction and motivational underpinnings of outcomes in distance PE during the COVID-19 pandemic. We suggest that future studies develop novelty support strategies based on our findings.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T10:36:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221092655
       
  • Mindfulness and Implementation Planning: Promoting Self-Reported and
           Behavioral Forgiveness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Whitney K. Whitaker, Laura A. Brannon
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The current research examined mindfulness and implementation planning as practices that promote interpersonal forgiveness. A unique contribution of this work includes the investigation of motives and techniques that might promote both self-reported and behavioral forgiveness. Young adults (N = 80; M = 19.2 years) completed a task in which a standardized, interpersonal transgression occurred without the participants’ knowledge. Results indicate that individuals who received training in either a mindfulness practice (i.e., mindful breathing) or implementation planning practice (i.e., developing “if-then” plan statements) reported better overall mood following the standardized transgression. Interestingly, mindful breathing appeared to be the most beneficial practice to enhance positive attitudes toward the forgiveness process and promote self-reported and behavioral forgiveness. Findings are consistent with prior research investigating the effectiveness of mindful breathing and implementation planning following an actual interpersonal transgression. Implications as well as future research directions within the context of forgiveness and relationships are discussed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T05:32:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221100450
       
  • Characteristics Associated With Loneliness and Coping Skills Utilization
           During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Clara Law, Gina M. Belli, Christina L. Boisseau
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Although stay-at-home orders and physical distancing measures are vital to managing the COVID-19 outbreak, there is concern these limitations on in-person contact may increase feelings of loneliness. The present study examined loneliness in relation to living situation, psychiatric symptoms, and coping skills utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim was to identify demographic and psychological factors that may contribute to greater feelings of loneliness. A sample of 125 adults (18 years and older) completed measures on loneliness, psychiatric symptoms, and coping skills in September 2020. Multiple regression analysis indicated living situation moderates the relationship between hours spent having remote conversations and loneliness. Remote conversation hours were associated with decreased loneliness in those living alone but was not associated with loneliness in those living with others. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that substance use and self-blame were associated with increased loneliness whereas the use of emotional support to cope with pandemic-related stress was associated with decreased loneliness. The current study highlights the importance of finding alternative ways to remain socially connected, particularly for those living alone. Increasing access to videoconferencing technology and promoting help-seeking behaviors may be a promising approach to manage loneliness during times of increased social isolation.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T06:20:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221093744
       
  • A comparison of anxiety levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Claire Voss, Phoebe Shorter, Grace Weatrowski, Jessica Mueller-Coyne, Katherine Turner
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 Pandemic upended the lives of nearly everyone worldwide, and recent studies have reported higher rates of anxiety, depression, and other mental health problems. Using a repeated crosssectional design, the current study compares anxiety levels from a representative sample of college students prior-to and during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Additionally, differences in anxiety prior to and following U.S. approval for use of the Pfizer-BioNTtech COVID-19 vaccine were also compared. Findings indicate that state-anxiety levels did not differ significantly prior to and during the Pandemic as well as before the vaccine and during and after the vaccine (M = 43.01, 44.10, 44.77, respectively). Surprisingly, trait anxiety levels were significantly higher during the Pandemic than before (p = .003), and anxiety levels trend down after the approval of the vaccine, but not significantly (M = 45.10, 48.85, 47.58, respectively). Future research should continue to investigate and compare anxiety levels during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T05:43:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221093250
       
  • Relationship Expectations, Behavior Interactions and Commitment: A Dyadic
           Study Among Dual-Earner Couples

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tal Harel, Meni Koslowsky
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Previous researchers have analyzed the links between relationship expectations and commitment in cohabiting and married couples. The present study examines a dyadic model where couple’s reported behavior interactions (RBI) are suggested as potential mediators and Work-Family Conflict (WFC) as a moderator. The association among these variables was tested by recruiting 111 (N = 222) dual-earner couples to complete questionnaires. To examine the dyadic model, we used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model on the hypothesized model. The results showed that actor’s RBI was seen as a significant mediator of the associations between relationship expectations and both partner’s commitment. The partner’s affective behavior interactions emerged as a significant mediator between the actor’s expectations-actor’s commitment link but not with the partner’s commitment. In addition, actor’s WFC significantly moderated the effect of partner’s RBI on their commitment. These findings extended our knowledge of possible factors that play a role in promoting relationship commitment among dual-earners couples in long-term relationships. Through the integration of the Investment Model this study illuminates the pathways by which relationship expectations affect commitment via RBI of married and cohabiting couples. Furthermore, the study elucidates the behavioral component of cohabiting couples in long-term relationships from a dyadic perspective. From a practical perspective, clinicians and counselors working with couples experiencing relational difficulties, may want to inquire as to their clients’ relationship expectations and behavior interactions for better understanding commitment among couples.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T10:45:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221092659
       
  • Reflective Skills, Empathy, Wellbeing, and Resilience in
           Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Trainees Participating in Mindfulness-Based
           Self-Practice/Self-Reflection

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Thomas Mösler, Sandra Poppek, Christoph Leonhard, Wilfried Collet
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Self-Practice/Self-Reflection (SP/SR) is an aspect of therapist training and professional development aimed at enhancing therapy skills, empathy, wellbeing, and resilience in the ultimate furtherance of client outcomes. For many decades, intensive SP/SR has been a required part of therapist training in many countries but relatively little is known about the effect of SP/SR. Studies have found cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) therapists trained under a Beckian CBT paradigm benefitted from more time limited Beckian SP/SR. Mindfulness-based CBT is a more recent third-wave CBT paradigm with psychological process aims similar to those of SP/SR. While training in mindfulness-based CBT often has prominent SP/SR aspects, and mindfulness practice has been shown to benefit health care providers personally and professionally, to date no evaluations have been reported specifically of effects of participation of CBT trainees in stand-alone mindfulness-based SP/SR that meets regulatory requirements for more intensive SP/SR. A study on SP/SR training meeting German requirements is reported here. Post-graduate CBT trainees (N = 95) were assigned to delayed or immediate SP/SR with those in the delayed SP/SR condition crossing-over into SP/SR training after two baseline evaluations on a variety of reflective skill, wellbeing, and resilience measures spaced six to 9 months apart before participating in 120–150 hours of stand-alone mindfulness-based SP/SR followed by a third reevaluation on all study measures. Participants assigned to the immediate SP/SR condition underwent identical SP/SR training with pre/post assessments. Results indicate participation in intensive stand-alone mindfulness-based SP/SR resulted in favorable changes in measures operationalizing all variables. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for training and professional development of CBT therapists.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T10:38:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221094482
       
  • Associations Among Adolescents’ Mindfulness, Sympathy, Cognitive
           Empathy, and Sibling Relationships

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Özge Barata, Ibrahim H. Acar, Selen Bostancı
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      In the current study, we examined the direct and indirect paths from mindfulness to adolescents’ sibling relationships through their cognitive empathy and sympathy. The sample consisted of 220 adolescents (50.9 % female) between age of 13 and 17 years (M = 15.86, SD = 0.91). Participants reported their mindfulness (acceptance and awareness), cognitive empathy and sympathy, and sibling relationships. The parallel mediation model revealed that mindful awareness and acceptance predicted kindness, involvement, and empathy within sibling relationships through sympathy. In addition, there was a significant indirect effect of mindful awareness to empathy in sibling relationships through cognitive empathy. Findings provided information regarding the importance of indirect contributions of mindfulness to sibling relationships through cognitive empathy and sympathy.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T11:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221097951
       
  • Measuring the General and Specific Domains of Self-Esteem: The Short-form
           of the State Self-Esteem Scale

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tátila Rayane de Sampaio Brito, Cicero Roberto Pereira, Francisca Ádila dos Santos, Nathália Nicácio de Freitas Nery
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Self-esteem is a crucial human nature feature for understanding the social dimensions of individuals’ self-concept. One of its characteristics is peoples’ malleability to adapt to social contexts, that is, the state self-esteem (SSE). Individuals express SES in three different factors: performance; social success; and physical appearance. Along with three studies, we present evidence of validity of the Short-Form of State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES-S) that measures contextual fluctuations in individuals’ self-esteem. In Study 1 (N = 300), we found that the structure of the SSES-S was organized into three correlated factors that exhibited convergent-discriminant validity with measures of trait self-esteem and human values. In Study 2 (N = 281), confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a bifactor measurement model better fit the description of the factorial structure of the SSES-S, which also showed incremental validity concerning trait self-esteem for predicting one criterion. In Study 3 (N = 160), we experimentally manipulated contextual information about self-achievement and showed that the SSES-S is sensitive enough to detect transient fluctuations in self-esteem, especially in the achievement factor. We discussed the limitations and scope of the SSES-S, as its specific focus on measuring undergraduate students’ state self-esteem and its implications distinguishing the general and particular domains of this construct.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T06:32:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221077909
       
  • Socio-Economic and Cultural Context in the Development of Early
           Mathematical Competencies: A Comparative Study of Specific Educational
           Contexts in Chile and Spain

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Estíbaliz Aragón, Gamal Cerda, Carlos Pérez, Manuel Aguilar, José I. Navarro
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This research presents the findings of a comparative study of mathematical competence among 130 students (M = 54.08 months; SD = 2.57) from vulnerable school contexts in Chile and the Spanish public school system. The study analyses a set of general and specific domain precursors for which evidence of socioeconomic background exists. Using multivariate regression and discriminant analysis techniques, we calculated similarities and differences between groups by comparing these precursors. Significant differences were found between the Spanish and Chilean groups (p < .05); however, no differences were observed in non-symbolic comparison and receptive vocabulary. Possible reasons for the existence and extent of these differences are discussed in terms of socio-cultural and educational contexts.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T08:14:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221097950
       
  • Juror Decision Making and Euthanasia: Exploring the Role of Jury
           Nullification, Manner of Death, and Defendant-Decedent Relationship

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jason D Scott, Daniel Bell, Brian Barry, John E Edlund
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      In cases of euthanasia, determinations of guilt may be influenced by legal and extra-legal factors. This study explores the role that nullification instructions play in juror decision making. A defendant may be viewed as less culpable if the act was done out of mercy and jury nullification may occur as a result. We anticipated that these determinations may be influenced by the manner of death and the relational distance between the defendant and the decedent. It is unknown how euthanasia is viewed when it is performed by a physician compared to a family member or friend. To answer these questions, participants acted as mock jurors in a euthanasia case. The descriptions of the case varied by the presence of nullification instructions, the manner of death, and the defendant’s relationship to the decedent. The results revealed significant effects of method of euthanasia and the type of defendant on juror verdicts. Jurors were most likely to acquit in a case that provided nullification instructions and involved a spouse using lethal injection for euthanasia. This finding suggests that different circumstances of a euthanasia case will affect jurors’ propensity to focus on personal sympathies and interpretations. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T03:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221093244
       
  • The Effectiveness of a Mindfulness Induction as a Buffer Against Stress
           Among University Students With and Without a History of Self-Injury

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Julia Petrovic, Laurianne Bastien, Jessica Mettler, Nancy L. Heath
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Stressful experiences are abundant in university and students with a history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) may be hyper-reactive to stress. While brief mindfulness inductions have been proposed as a buffer against acute stress, whether they function differently in students with a history of NSSI remains in question. This study sought to explore the impact of an online mindfulness induction on (a) two facets of state mindfulness (i.e., mind and body) and (b) state stress, following a stress induction task, in university students with versus without a history of NSSI. Participants were Canadian university students with (n = 82; Mage = 21.30 years, SD = 2.92; 87.8% female) and without (n = 82; Mage = 21.71 years, SD = 3.18; 87.8% female) a history of NSSI, matched on gender, age, and faculty, who completed baseline (T1) measures of state stress and state mindfulness. Participants were randomly assigned to complete a mindfulness induction or an active control task. All participants then underwent a stress induction, and again completed measures of state stress and state mindfulness (T2). Results from three-way mixed ANOVAs revealed that state stress increased from T1 to T2 for all participants, regardless of group or condition. Among those assigned to the control condition, state mindfulness of the body was lower at T2 for participants with a history of NSSI compared to those without such a history. However, participants with a history of NSSI who completed the mindfulness induction reported greater state mindfulness of the body at T2 than students with a history of NSSI who completed an active control task. Findings highlight the unique response of university students with a history of NSSI to a brief mindfulness induction. Implications are discussed in the context of future research and clinical applications.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:18:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221089282
       
  • Order Online or Call it in' Conceptualization and Measurement of
           Preferences for Computer versus Human Interaction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Justin Travis, Samuel Wilgus
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Technology is increasingly integrated into everyday life and consequently, traditional social exchanges between human agents have evolved to include human-computer interaction, providing scientists new directions for understanding and predicting consumer behavior. Despite progress, there are conceptual and empirical limitations in current measures applied to consumer/user preferences. This paper documents the development and validation of, the 10-item preference for computer versus human interaction (PCHI) scale across three distinct samples and incorporating items that (a) include direct comparisons between computers and humans, (b) are independent of specific contexts or technologies, and (c) capture major theoretical domains of social, consumer, and human factors psychology. Results support the hypothesized three-factor structure (efficiency, ease of use, and trust) and demonstrate the utility of this measure to predict everyday consumer decisions beyond extant measures. Additionally, the PCHI offers marketing, user experience, and other practitioners a brief instrument for developing interventions, training protocols, and modeling attitudes.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T02:19:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221097952
       
  • Development and Validation of the Secondary Victimization Scale

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Suiane M. Tavares, Carlos E. Pimentel, Tamyres T. Paiva, Cicero R. Pereira
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual violence is ubiquitous in the history of human relationships, with the victim being perceived as responsible for their own misfortune. This phenomenon is labelled secondary victimization and is manifested in blaming, minimizing the suffering, and avoiding the victim. This article presents evidence of the validity of a scale that measures individual differences in these three types of secondary victimization of rape victims. In Study 1, we developed the scale items and analyzed their content validity. In Study 2, we carried out an exploratory analysis of its factorial structure and verified the set-up of the items in three theoretically predicted factors (blaming, minimizing the suffering, and avoiding the victim), which had convergent validity with the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, and discriminant validity with the Big Five Personality Traits, in addition to having concurrent validity with the Belief in a Just World Scale (BJWS). In Study 3, we confirmed this tri-factor structure using confirmatory analysis. In Study 4, we analyzed the predictive validity of the Secondary Victimization Scale (SVS), proposing the hypothesis that secondary victimization mediates the effect of BJWS on the participants' behavior towards a rape victim. The summary of the results shows consistent evidence of the SVS’s validity.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T07:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221092652
       
  • Influence of Career Decision Ambiguity Tolerance Preference on Career
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jie Zhou
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing on the career construction and cognitive appraisal theory, this study constructs a moderated mediation model to explore the mechanism of career decision ambiguity tolerance preference (CDAT-P) on career adaptability via challenge appraisal, as well as the interactive effect of individual and organizational career management. Participants comprised 1023 Chinese university students who completed questionnaires with a three-wave design. The results show that CDAT-P positively predicts career adaptability, and challenge appraisal mediates the direct effect. Moreover, individual career management and organizational career management have an interactive effect on the direct relationship between CDAT-P and challenge appraisal and the first stage of the mediating effect. Specifically, when individual and organizational career management are high, the positive direct effect of CDAT-P on challenge appraisal and the mediating effect are stronger.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T05:50:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221092648
       
  • Exploration of a Psychological Defensive Syndrome Against Depressive
           Symptomatology in a Community Sample of Indian Women

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Parwinder Singh, Navneet Mishra
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The prevalence of depressive symptomatology in Indian women and the associated treatment gap are alarming and require interventions at a community level. Such interventions may succeed if the specific risk and protective factors are appropriately identified and addressed. Identifying such factors may suggest a Psychological Defensive Syndrome (PDS) against depressive symptomatology, and inculcating this PDS through specific interventions may help individuals manage depressive symptomatology. For evaluating the feasibility of such an idea, a two-phase research project was initiated, and the current paper presents findings of its first phase. The primary aim of the first phase was to explore the predictive relationship between depressive symptomatology and rumination, reappraisal, resilience, self-efficacy, neuroticism, and extraversion. A total of 671 women (Mage = 23.71) responded to standardized questionnaires in a semi-structured interview setting. The obtained data were subjected to correlational, regression, and path analysis. The findings support all the hypotheses; women, who reported less engagement in rumination and more in reappraisal, who scored low on neuroticism and high on extraversion, resilience and self-efficacy, showed less severe depressive symptoms than their counterparts. This pattern can be thought of as a PDS against depressive symptoms in Indian women. These results highlight the importance of addressing these factors in preventing and assuaging depressive symptomatology in Indian women.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T05:12:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221092657
       
  • Hospitalized Women Have Anxiety and Worse Mental Health Scores than Men

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ana Paula da Silva Ramos, Juliana Fernandes de Souza Ribeiro, Eduardo Tavares Lima Trajano, Marco Aurélio dos Santos Silva, Larissa Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to assess the levels of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in hospitalized men and women using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form-36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). 60 patients of both sexes were recruited from at the outpatient department of the Hospital Universitário de Vassouras (HUV). The HADS-Anxiety (HADS-A) and BAI questionnaires were used to assess anxiety; the HADS-Depression (HADS-D) questionnaire to assess levels of depression, and the SF-36 to assess the quality of life. The results indicated that hospitalized women had higher levels of anxiety when compared to men. No difference was observed in the levels of depression between men and women. Regarding quality of life, women showed more deterioration in general and mental health compared to men. Thus, the findings suggest that hospitalized women have higher levels of anxiety when compared to men and that this increase can lead to worse general and mental health. Professionals should be aware of possible psychological changes in hospitalized women as they can affect the overall quality of life.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T04:33:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221088967
       
  • Gender-Based Analysis of the Association Between Mental Health, Sleep
           Quality, Aggression, and Physical Activity Among University Students
           During the COVID-19 Outbreak

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: César Rubén Vuelvas-Olmos, Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña, Nadia Yanet Cortés-Álvarez
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      COVID-19 has spread throughout the world, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality, and negative psychological effects among general population. However, university students are particularly vulnerable in terms of mental health. The present study evaluated the association between mental health, quality of sleep, aggression, and physical activity in university students in Mexico after 1 year of dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico, including a gender-sensitive analysis. Participants (935 university students) completed an online questionnaire which collected information regarding demographic data, psychological distress (IES-R scale), depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21), aggressiveness Buss-Perry Aggressive Questionnaire, sleep quality (PSQI) and physical activity (IPAQ-S). Findings showed that female students showed significantly higher scores in psychological distress, anxiety, stress scores and sleep quality, as compared to male students. By contrast, male students showed significantly higher scores on aggressiveness than female students. In addition, on physical activity, females performed significantly higher MET-min/week on moderate and high levels. Finally, liner regression model accounted for approximately 73.5% of the variance in DASS-21 scores, with the body mass index, IES-R, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and IPAQ subscales, emerging as significant individual (positive) predictors. Therefore, the pandemic affected female and male students differently. Female students reported more psychological distress, anxiety, and stress while male students reported higher aggressiveness. The differences observed may be due to physiological differences, the response to stress, and differences in sensitivity to life events.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T01:19:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221086209
       
  • An Asymmetric Effect: Physical and Simulated Confederate’s Mere Presence
           Induce a Preference for Deontological Over Utilitarian Judgment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wenming Xu, Xinyue Yu, Jiayi Guo, Ruiming Wang
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      People may behave differently in a shared physical context due to the mere presence of others. The study examined whether individual moral judgments were subject to the confederate’s presence. Experiment 1 supported the hypothesis that the confederate’s presence, relative to the control group, increased deontological judgment, disapproving of sacrificing a person’s lifetime or interest for preserving the greater good of others. Experiment 2 investigated whether the results extend to mental space. The result revealed that simulating a positive interaction with the confederate significantly increased the preference for deontological judgments relative to the control group. However, the effect disappeared if the participants were required to simulate only the person from the scenario that did not include any additional background contexts. These results demonstrated that the confederate’s physical presence and simulated confederate’s presence always preferred deontological judgments over utilitarian judgments. The findings suggested that the asymmetric moral effect occurred in the physical realm and mental space.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-16T01:01:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221087908
       
  • The Relationships Between Grit, Burnout, and Demographic Characteristics
           in Medical Students

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Diane Lee, Kaitlyn Reasoner, Claudia Davidson, Jacquelyn S. Pennings, Donald H. Lee
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Grit, a positive psychological trait comprised of perseverance and passion, has been correlated with physician burnout but has not been extensively studied among medical students. Identification of the relationship between grit and burnout as well as between burnout and other demographics could help to identify students at risk of burnout, while informing educational strategies to increase grit in the medical occupation. For this cross-sectional study, an online, email-based survey including demographic questions, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services (Medical Personnel) Survey, and the Short Grit Scale was distributed to an entire student body of allopathic medical students via a schoolwide listserv in 2019. The response rate was 39.6% (177/444). Negative correlations were displayed between grit and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and overall burnout. Positive correlation was demonstrated between grit and personal accomplishment. Male participants had higher depersonalization than female participants and fourth year medical students had higher depersonalization than other years of training. Fourth year medical students had higher personal accomplishment than other years of training and married students had higher personal accomplishment than those who had never been married. These findings are important not only for potential identification of students at risk of burnout, but also for development of strategies to bolster grit and mitigate distressing experiences in the medical occupation. Future studies are necessary to gauge how this relationship may evolve throughout a medical career.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T05:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221087899
       
  • Self-Compassion and Happiness: Exploring the Influence of the
           Subcomponents of Self-Compassion on Happiness and Vice Versa

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Olivia Lena Pastore, Benjamin Brett, Michelle S. Fortier
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Self-compassion is a healthy conceptualization of the self and has been associated with a myriad of health benefits. There is limited research regarding the influence of the subcomponents of self-compassion on happiness and vice versa. This study investigated (1) the influence and relative strength of the relationships of the 6 subcomponents of self-compassion onto happiness, (2) the influence and relative strength of the relationships of happiness onto the 6 subcomponents of self-compassion and (3) the bi-directional relationship between total self-compassion variables and happiness across two timepoints. This study followed a pre-post design whereby 33 university students and employees undergoing a physical activity counselling (PAC) program filled out validated online questionnaires before and immediately after individualized sessions. Results revealed that there was a positive bi-directional relationship between self-compassion and happiness over time, with the stronger influence being from happiness to self-compassion. This is likely because happier individuals are kinder to themselves and strongly connected with others. Moreover, results showed that mindfulness was the strongest subcomponent of self-compassion to positively influence happiness, and happiness was the strongest negative predictor of isolation. This has practical implications in that PAC counsellors and other practitioners should try to emphasize mindfulness in their interventions to maximize feelings of happiness, and try to cultivate happiness to reduce feelings of isolation and increase total self-compassion.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T02:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221084902
       
  • Making Appropriate New Choices Through Unconscious Thought Based on New
           Goals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jiansheng Li, Lina Sun, Hao Guo, Kai Shi, Luyu Chen
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This research examines whether appropriate choices can be made based on a new goal through unconscious thought. The experimental materials are four mobile phones, one suitable for older adults and the other for younger people. The results of Experiment 1 show that when the goal was changed from judging whether a mobile phone is suitable for older adults to judging whether it is suitable for younger people, the scores of the participants in the unconscious thought group—that mobile phones are objectively suitable for older adults—were significantly higher than those for the group which thought that mobile phones are objectively suitable for young people. In Experiment 2, the immediate decision-making group was added, which ruled out the possibility that the participants had already made a choice during the information presentation process. The results of this study show that unconscious thought can make appropriate new choices based on new goals.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T01:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221086216
       
  • Moderating Role of Self-Compassion in the Relationships Between the Three
           Forms of Perfectionism with Anger, Aggression, and Hostility

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Abbas Abdollahi, Zhanna R. Gardanova, Pushpamala Ramaiah, Anna Gustina Zainal, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, Gordon J. G. Asmundson, Supat Chupradit, Shokhrukh Kh Sultonov, Olga V. Pashanova, A. Heri Iswanto
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The prevalence of aggression in adolescents is on the rise, and it could be a serious public health concern. Studies have found positive relationships between perfectionism with anger, aggression, and hostility. However, the moderating role of self-compassion in the links between perfectionism with anger, aggression, and hostility has not been studied. To better understand the relationships between the three forms of perfectionism with anger, aggression, and hostility, this study aimed to explore the moderating role of self-compassion. Participants were 380 undergraduates selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique from three universities in Iran. Participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Aggression Questionnaire Scale. The results from structural equation modelling analysis showed that other-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism positively predicted anger, aggression, and hostility. The results showed that self-oriented perfectionism significantly and positively predicted anger and hostility; but there were no observed statistically significant relationships of self-oriented perfectionism with verbal aggression and physical aggression. The findings showed that self-compassion played a moderating role in the relationships between other-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism with anger, aggression, and hostility; however, it did not play a moderating effect on self-oriented perfectionism with anger, aggression, and hostility. The findings provide a deeper understanding of the moderating role of self-compassion in the links between other-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism with anger, aggression, and hostility among undergraduates. The findings of this study could be applicable for psychologists and counselors who deal with aggressive behavior, anger, and hostility in undergraduate students to assess the three forms of perfectionism and self-compassion.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T03:17:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221087911
       
  • Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Smartphone Addiction and
           Phubbing Behavior Among College Students in China

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xinyi Lai, Chenyan Hu, Liang Ying, Huihui Xu, Chengjia Zhao, Xue Yang, Xin Yu, Guohua Zhang
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Both smartphone addiction and phubbing are emerging behavioral problems. The present study investigates potential risk and protective factors of smartphone addiction and phubbing behavior, including demographic factors, personal factors, and interpersonal factors among Chinese college students. A total of 866 college students (Mage = 21.01, SD = 1.60) completed self-reported questionnaires in classroom settings. Collected data were analyzed by using Pearson’s correlation and hierarchical linear regression analyses. The risk factors for smartphone addiction were phubbing behavior, depression, and social anxiety, while the protective factors were self-control and sense of security. In addition, the risk factors for phubbing behavior included female sex and smartphone addiction, while the protective factors included sense of security and interpersonal adaptability. Our findings help to enhance understanding of the general and specific risks and protective factors for smartphone addiction and phubbing behavior, which can benefit intervention development for related behavior prevention and reduction.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T01:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221084905
       
  • Does the Fading Affect Bias Vary by Memory Type and a Parent’s Risk of
           Physically Abusing a Child' A Replication and Extension

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: John J. Skowronski, Julie L. Crouch, Joel S. Milner
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Research described in the present article assessed (a) whether a fading affect bias (FAB) occurred in parent memories of a child as well as parent general personal memories and (b) whether either or both of these FAB effects was moderated by a parent’s risk of physically abusing a child. A FAB effect, unmoderated by parents’ abuse risk status, emerged for parents’ general personal memories. In contrast, the FAB was muted when high abuse risk parents remembered child-related events: High abuse risk parents seemed unable to “let go” of negative affect prompted by recall of negative events involving their children. This finding replicates and extends findings reported in prior research. However, this significant moderation effect occurred for only one event memory collection method. This methodological dependence is unusual: the FAB effect is typically impervious to methodological variations. Implications of these results, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T12:23:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221084901
       
  • False Memories in Individuals With Stabilized Schizophrenia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Frédérique Robin, Franck Salomé, Mohamad El Haj
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to examine the false memories in individuals with stabilized schizophrenia. Using the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) task, schizophrenia patients and matched healthy controls had to recall words from each DRM list. Following the presentation of the DRM lists, the participants performed a recognition task. Neuropsychological tests were also administered. Results demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia recalled and recognized significantly fewer studied words than the healthy participants. This failure in retrieval is likely to result from a lack of encoding strategies. Results also showed that a stabilized schizophrenic pathology neither increased nor reduced false memories. Patients and controls showed high levels of false memories. Signal detection analyses revealed that patients discarded the critical word as not having been studied, relying on a lax decision criterion (based on familiarity, best guess or chance). Although false memories fell within the normal range for both groups, in individuals with schizophrenia they probably result from deficient encoding processes. Nevertheless, correlational analyses did not show which cognitive deficits contribute to false memories in schizophrenia.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T04:17:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221083213
       
  • Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Sleep Quality in People With
           Drug Addiction and Non-Addicts and the Role of Resilience Between Them

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jingzhen He, Rufang Wang, Jun Liu, Peter Yip
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      People with drug addiction are more likely to suffer from sleep disorders than non-addicts. The roles that childhood adversity experiences and resilience play in the development of sleep disorders will be explored in this study. A total of 459 participants with drug addiction and 400 non-addicts were investigated with the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale from April 2019 to December 2020. Our results suggested that participants with drug addiction had worse sleep quality compared to non-addicts. Resilience acted as a mediator and significantly affected the relationship between ACEs and sleep quality. For all participants who experienced ACEs, individuals with high resilience reported lower PSQI score, the regulatory effect of medium and high resilience on sleep quality was better than that of low resilience. Moreover, comparing to the non-addicts who experienced mild ACEs, high resilience showed a good buffer effect on the sleep quality for people with drug addiction. And high resilience played a stronger regulatory role in females as compared to males. The results help to broaden the relevant research in the field of sleep and we should pay attention to the role of resilience in regulating sleep quality.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T06:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221076776
       
  • The Effects of Hormone Contraceptives and Menstruation on Object Memory
           and Spatial Ability in Young Women

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Christina A. Thrasher, Lily Otto, Lauren L. Harburger
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between hormone contraceptive use and menstruation on cognitive performance in young women. The object array task assessed object memory and a mental rotations test assessed spatial ability in women taking hormone contraceptives and naturally cycling women. Women taking hormone contraceptives were significantly better than naturally cycling women at identifying novel objects on an object array, but not on performance of a mental rotations task. There were also no significant differences in either task between naturally cycling women who were menstruating and those who were not menstruating during testing. The results of this study suggest that women taking hormone contraceptives outperformed naturally cycling women in recalling the identities of objects. The findings from this study help to further demonstrate the relationship between ovarian hormones and cognitive performance and add to the understanding of how hormone contraceptives affect cognition.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T04:07:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221079608
       
  • Associations of Self-Esteem With Attachment to Parents: A Meta-Analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Martin Pinquart
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The main objective of the present meta-analysis was to analyze associations between security of attachment to parents and self-esteem. Studies were included if they assessed bivariate associations between self-esteem and attachment security with mothers and/or fathers, or with both parents in general. A systematic search in the electronic databases PSYCINFO, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and PSYNDEX identified 202 studies with 81,485 participants that were included in this multilevel meta-analysis. Criteria from the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool were used for assessing the quality of the individual studies. Most studies assessed security with verbal measures (190 studies), and the mean age of participants was 16.5 years. We found a moderate positive concurrent correlation of attachment security to parents with self-esteem (r = .34; 95% confidence interval [CI], .33-.36), with associations being stronger when assessing attachment to parents in general (r = .37; CI, .35 to .40) rather than to mothers (r = .33; CI, .31 to .35) or fathers (r = .32; CI, .30 to .34) in particular. Cross-lagged effects indicate that higher initial attachment security predicts an increase in self-esteem over time (r = .19; CI, .09 to .28), while initial self-esteem predicts change in security (r = .08; CI, .02 to .14). Correlations of attachment security with self-esteem were weaker in older participants and stronger in studies with validated attachment measures. As most of the included studies have been conducted with adolescents and young adults, knowledge about associations of secure attachment to parents and self-esteem in the first years of life is still limited. Nonetheless, it is concluded that the available results support suggestions of attachment theory on the role of secure attachment for self-esteem, although causal effects could only be tested in experimental studies.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T07:35:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221079732
       
  • The Mediating Effects of Psychological Capital and Academic Self-Efficacy
           on Learning Outcomes of College Freshmen

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Po-Lin Chen, Ching-Hui Lin, I-Hui Lin, C. Owen Lo
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This study was an investigation of the relationship between past and present learning experiences of first-year college students and of how the psychological capital and academic self-efficacy they had accrued from past learning experiences were correlated with their current learning engagement. Longitudinal data were collected to examine how students’ learning experiences in high school impacted their learning in college. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and bootstrapping techniques were employed in data analysis. Results indicated that psychological capital and academic self-efficacy functioned as mediators between students’ past learning experience and present learning engagement. Overall, the findings highlight the importance of these two psychological constructs and suggest that postsecondary institutions should provide learning environments that support these factors to ensure student success.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T06:55:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221077026
       
  • 21st Century Neo-Androgyny: What Is Androgyny Anymore and Why We Should
           Still Care

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bobbi M. Woodhill, Curtis A. Samuels
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The notion of psychological androgyny as a research tool loiters on in an incapacitated state. The lack of a general theory and the belief that the biological gender differences are insignificant to non-existent has been the seeds for its de-construction. Over the decades, the testing of ideas associated with androgyny has declined. Indeed, the debates over its usefulness as a construct ended long ago. The judgment nowadays is that debating the constructs of masculinity, femininity, and androgyny as behavioral traits has been long settled, and a contemporary revisiting of androgyny is not warranted. However, from another contemporary viewpoint, if androgyny is to have any future, it needs a new theory devoid of masculinity and femininity. We present a novel theory with the potential to do just that. This article details a new de-gendered theory of psychological androgyny, neo-androgyny, as a candidate to replace traditional models that are now considered outdated and irrelevant. We present five potential factors for inclusion in a de-gendered model: social efficacy, creativity, capability, eminence, and determination. We review these factors concerning the future of androgyny theory.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T06:40:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221076759
       
  • Generalized Anxiety Mediates the Relationship Between Loneliness and Sleep
           Quality Amongst Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ian Grey, Teresa Arora, Amad Sanah
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Since the outbreak of COVID-19, restrictions to minimize its spread have had a profound effect. Government instigated restrictions, such as social isolation, have affected millions worldwide, and the downstream consequences of perceived loneliness upon mental health and sleep are largely unknown. A total of 1662 individuals participated in an online survey. Loneliness, anxiety, and sleep quality were assessed using the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorders scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Higher levels of perceived loneliness, as well as each one-unit increase in anxiety, were independent predictors of poor sleep quality, where OR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03–1.31) and 1.16 (1.11–1.21), respectively, and after adjustment. In our path analysis, we revealed significant direct effects between loneliness and sleep quality (β = 0.25, p < .001), as well as generalized anxiety and sleep quality (β = 0.28, p < .001), and generalized anxiety mediated the relationship between loneliness and sleep quality (β = 0.33, p < .001). Heightened anxiety and perceived loneliness appear to be significant drivers of poor sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic. Digital media platforms that encourage support groups for those experiencing social isolation are encouraged, along with self-help and meditative practices, which may minimize an increase of mental health and sleep disorder diagnoses post COVID-19.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T06:20:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221079723
       
  • A network perspective on abnormal child behavior in primary school
           students

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Apolline C. Till, Rémi Florquin, Marie Delhaye, Charles Kornreich, Donald R. Williams, Giovanni Briganti
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Abnormal child behavior is a complex entity including among others disorders such as ADHD, a neuropsychiatric disorder interfering with the normal development of the child, and combining many comorbidities. There are no specific tools designed to assess abnormal child behavior, although well-known ADHD screening tools such as the CTRS-R:S go beyond the disorder itself and cover the wider construct. This can be understood as the complex system of mutually influencing entities, that is why the aim of this study was to investigate the items of the CTRS-R:S as a psychological network. We analyzed a data set of 525 children in French-speaking primary schools from Belgium, and estimated a Bayesian Gaussian Graphical Model with a Bayes Factor of 30. We identified highly connected nodes from each community of the CTRS-R:S to build an additional network of communities. In the domain network, Oppositional and Cognitive skills share the strongest connection in the network. The 28-item network was overall positively connected albeit the presence of some negative connections. The spinglass algorithm identified eight domains in the CTRS-R:S network that causally influence each other. The network approach is a useful framework to investigate the domains of abnormal child behavior as well as the interplay between individual symptoms.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T12:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221077907
       
  • Videoconferencing and Appearance-Related Anxiety’s Impact on Body
           Dissatisfaction: An Australian Investigation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marni P. Stewart, Peta Stapleton
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The pandemic resulted in increased use of videoconferencing. This study investigated whether Appearance-Related Anxiety, Videoconferencing Appearance-Focused Behaviours, and Weekly Videoconferencing Time contributed to state body dissatisfaction in 191 community Australians. Results indicated moderate to strong positive correlations between the three constructs, a weak negative correlation for weekly video time, although no correlation for total week video time. The three constructs predicted state body dissatisfaction when controlling for age and gender and Appearance Related Anxiety mediated Videoconferencing Appearance-Focused Behaviours and body dissatisfaction. The impact of videoconference communication on body dissatisfaction is discussed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T05:22:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221082261
       
  • Family Unpredictability and Sense of Coherence: Relationships With Anxiety
           and Depression in Two Samples

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lisa T. Ross, Bradley Heming, Alexa Lane
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Sense of coherence (SOC) refers to beliefs about how comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful one’s life is. We investigated how SOC relates to family of origin unpredictability and psychological functioning in two samples. College students (N=172, 78% female; M=18.9 years old; 78% white/Caucasian) who recalled more family unpredictability while growing up also reported weaker SOC beliefs and poorer mental health. Furthermore, SOC mediated the negative impact of family unpredictability on anxiety but not on depression. Among adults (N=220, 47% female, 50% male, 3% gender nonconforming; M=40.2 years old; 60% Caucasian), correlations among family chaos, SOC, and psychological functioning were even stronger, overall. One mediation was detected: the relationship between family unpredictability and anxiety was partially explained by adults’ perceptions regarding the manageability of their life. This is the first study to explore the relationships among SOC, family chaos, and psychological functioning.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T04:52:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221080409
       
  • Political Ideology, Ingroup Favoritism, and Conspiratorial Thinking:
           Patriotism, Nationalism, and COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yida Zhai, Zheng Yan
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This article examined the relationship between ideology and conspiratorial thinking and the related mediating effect of ingroup favoritism in a non-Western society. We investigated patriotism and nationalism as two favorable orientations toward national ingroups. We also examined their relationship with the general conspiracy mentality and the specific conspiracy beliefs that have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results revealed that conservative ideology was associated with conspiratorial beliefs in China regardless of the specific conspiracy theories related to ingroups or outgroups, which indicates such tendencies may exist universally across cultures. Patriotism was not associated with conspiracy theories about the origin of COVID-19, whereas nationalism was negatively associated with the conspiracy theories about China (an ingroup) and positively associated with conspiracy theories about the US (an outgroup). Moreover, nationalism mediated the relationship between ideology and specific conspiracy beliefs during the pandemic. The general conspiracy mentality did not predict conspiracy theories about the origin of COVID-19. The results indicate that believing conspiracy theories is not only the result of a stable conspiracy mentality but is also influenced by ideology and intergroup relations.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T08:42:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221079727
       
  • Substance Use, Financial Stress, Employment Disruptions, and Anxiety among
           Veterans during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Denise D. Tran, Reagan E. Fitzke, Jennifer Wang, Jordan P. Davis, Eric R. Pedersen
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in financial, employment, and mental health challenges. In general, American veterans report high rates of substance use, which may be influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Those with pre-existing mental health problems, employment disruptions, or financial stress may be particularly vulnerable. We examined the relationships between pre-existing self-report screens for a probable anxiety disorder, COVID-19-related financial stress, employment disruption (e.g., lost job, reduced hours), and alcohol, cannabis, and cigarette use during the pandemic among 1230 veterans (Mage = 34.5; 89% male). Participants were recruited through various social media sites and completed an online survey 1 month prior to implementation of the nationwide physical distancing guidelines in the United States (February 2020). Six months later (August 2020), they completed a follow-up survey. Compared to veterans who screened negative for anxiety prior to the pandemic, veterans who screened positive reported consuming more drinks per week (b = 3.05), were more likely to use cannabis (OR = 6.53), and smoked more cigarettes (b = 2.06) during the first 6 months of the pandemic. Financial stress was positively associated with alcohol (b = 1.09) and cannabis use (OR = 1.90). Alcohol use was heaviest among veterans with a positive pre-existing anxiety screen and high financial stress. Moreover, veterans who experienced employment disruption due to the pandemic consumed less alcohol but were more likely to use cannabis during the pandemic. Veterans with pre-pandemic anxiety and pandemic-related financial stress may be using substances at higher rates and may benefit from intervention to mitigate negative substance use-related outcomes. Findings also enhance our understanding of veteran substance use behaviors following disruptions in employment due to the pandemic.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T08:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221080413
       
  • Development and Validation of the Counter-Empathy Scale

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jing Jie, Yang Wang
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Counter-empathy refers to an emotional response that is valence-opposite from the emotional state of another individual. Screening for counter-empathy characteristics is of great significance for social psychology, clinical psychology, and criminal psychology research. Unfortunately, until now, there has been no specific scale to measure counter-empathy, creating a main bottleneck in counter-empathy research. We developed and validated a new instrument to measure counter-empathy: the Counter-Empathy Scale (CES). We tested the CES in a survey of 1265 Chinese college students. Both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a clear two-factor structure (feeling annoyed with others’ happiness and taking pleasure in others’ pain) for the CES. The CES is internally consistent, test-retest stable, and acceptable in terms of criterion-related validity. In conclusion, the CES is a promising instrument to assess counter-empathy.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T06:51:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221076775
       
  • Accommodation Use and Academic Outcomes for College Students With
           Disabilities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Julia Blasey, Cixin Wang, Ralph Blasey
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the availability of disability support services, college students with disabilities continue to face poorer academic outcomes than their peers without disabilities. The majority of eligible college students with disabilities do not register with their campus disability service to receive accommodations or supports. Among those who do utilize disability services, findings have been mixed regarding the relation between service use and students’ academic outcomes. Further, few studies have measured the use of disability services over time. The current study used secondary data to examine the relation between accommodation use and academic outcomes of undergraduate students with disabilities (N = 1980) who registered with the campus disability service during a 4-year study period. Descriptive findings for academic and accommodation use patterns are discussed with regard to gender, race/ethnicity, and disability type. Regression analyses showed that earlier registration with the disability service and longer duration of service use predicted more positive student outcomes, as measured by cumulative GPA and time to graduation. Continued accommodation use also positively predicted within-subject changes in students’ semester GPAs across the study period. However, services appear to be under-utilized, with 25% of participants only using accommodations for a single semester across the study period. This work has implications for improving service delivery within university disability offices to ensure students with disabilities can access needed supports in college.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-19T12:23:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221078011
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health and Quality of Life. An
           Exploratory Study During the First Outbreak in Italy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Federica Cavazzoni, Rachel Pancake, Guido Veronese
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The coronavirus pandemic has been sweeping the world for more than a year. As physical health begins to stabilize in the western world, an increasing concern is related to the impact of the virus and its containment measures on people’s mental health. This work aimed to explore the effect of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, and socioeconomic status) and variables such as fear of COVID-19 and social support in predicting the quality of life and mental health of adults during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy. Through an online survey with 1087 Italian adults (M = 39.7, SD = 16.39; 74.4% women), gender and socioeconomic status emerged as crucial factors in determining differences regarding people’s responses and reactions to the pandemic. In addition, the results highlighted the importance of perceived social support and a moderate fear of COVID-19 in predicting people’s quality of life and mental health. The study suggests important guidelines for the development of interventions to support the population’s well-being and mental health.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T11:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211066259
       
  • The Relationship Among Chronotype, Hardiness, Affect, and Talent and Their
           Effects on Performance in a Military Context

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lolita M. Burrell, Collette J. Kelly, Dennis R. Kelly, Michael D. Matthews
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Individual preference for morning or evening activities (chronotype), affect, hardiness, and talent are associated with a variety of performance outcomes. This longitudinal study was designed to investigate the degree to which these variables are associated with academic, physical, and military performance. Self-reported measures of chronotype, affect, and hardiness were collected from 1149 cadets from the Class of 2016 upon entry to the United States Military Academy. Talent, a composite of academic, leadership, and physical fitness scores were drawn from cadet records. Academic, military, and physical performance measures were collected at graduation 4 years later. The results indicated that a morning orientation was associated with better physical and military performance. Higher talent scores, as well as lower levels of negative affect, were associated with better performance across all three performance measures. Hardiness was only associated with military performance. The findings suggest that a morning orientation and less negative affect may result in better performance overall within a challenging and structured military environment. Future studies of chronotype shifts may provide further insight into associated performance benefits.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T11:09:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211073659
       
  • Maternal Attribution, Perceptions of Parenting, and Behavior Management
           Strategies as Predictors of Mother–Teacher Discrepancies in Rating
           Behavior Problems of Korean Preschoolers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ju Hee Park, Jong-Hay Rha, Yoon Kyung Kim, Dongmee Lee
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to investigate mother–teacher discrepancies in reports of preschoolers’ behavior problems and to examine whether maternal attribution to behavior problems, perception of parenting, and behavior management strategies predicted the discrepancies. The mothers and teachers of 384 preschoolers aged 3–6 years from 16 preschools of Seoul, South Korea, completed the Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form. Based on their ratings, they were classified into three groups: (a) mother–teacher Agreement Group, (b) Disagreement Group with Mother only reporting at Risk (Disagreement Group-MR), and (c) Disagreement Group with Mother only reporting No Risk (Disagreement Group-MNR). The results showed marginal similarities between mothers’ and teachers’ reports of behavior problems, indicating both low correlations and differences in percentages of at-risk children. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed that maternal attribution and maternal perception of parenting difficulties predicted group membership regarding mother–teacher discrepancies. For both internalizing and externalizing problems, mothers who attributed environmental factors as primary causes of children’s behavior problems were more likely to be in the Agreement Group than the Disagreement Group-MNR. With regard to externalizing problems, the more the mothers perceived parenting difficulties, the more likely they were to belong to either of the Disagreement Groups. The outcomes suggest the importance of considering that mothers’ reports of children’s behavior and mother–teacher discrepancies partly mirror mothers’ beliefs and perceptions regarding children’s behavior and parenting. Professionals need to be aware that information from mother–teacher discrepancies can be of help in understanding mothers as well as children in practice.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T05:30:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221076761
       
  • Burned-Out Classroom Climate, Intrinsic Motivation, and Academic
           Engagement: Exploring Unresolved Issues in the Job Demand-Resource Model

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Soohyun Cho, Minyoung Lee, Sang Min Lee
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to test the multilevel mediating effect of intrinsic motivation on the relationship between burned-out classroom climate and academic engagement and theoretically investigate the unresolved issues in the Job Demands-Resources model. Data were collected from 1015 high school students from 43 classes. Multilevel structural equation modeling indicated that a high level of burned-out classroom climate was related to a low level of academic engagement. In addition, intrinsic motivation mediated the path from burned-out classroom climate to academic engagement. Practical implications to improve classroom climate and academic engagement are discussed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T12:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211054776
       
  • Acceptance and Adherence to COVID-19 Preventive Measures are Shaped
           Predominantly by Conspiracy Beliefs, Mistrust in Science and Fear – A
           Comparison of More than 20 Psychological Variables

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Matthias Hartmann, Petra Müller
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic sparked a great interest in psychological factors that determine or explain peoples' responses to the novel threatening situation and the preventive measures (e.g. wearing masks, social distancing). In this study, we focused on contaminated mindware (conspiracy and paranormal beliefs) and investigated its relationship with both acceptance of and adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures, along with other variables from the domains of emotion (trait anxiety, fear), traditional personality traits (Big 5, locus of control, optimism/pessimism) and motivation (self-control, dispositional regulatory focus). A total of 22 variables were measured in an online survey (N = 374) that took place during the second wave of COVID-19 (Nov. 2020 – March 2021) in Switzerland. Of all variables, the endorsement of specific COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs was most strongly associated with lower acceptance and adherence to the preventive measures, together with mistrust in science and a more right-wing political orientation. In contrast, fear of COVID-19 and prevention regulatory focus were positively associated with acceptance and adherence. Our results therefore highlight the importance of fighting (conspiratorial) misinformation and of increasing the perceived credibility of science in reducing the spread of the coronavirus. Moreover, when acceptance was used as predictor for adherence, agreeableness and dispositional prevention regulatory focus still explained unique variance in adherence, suggesting that such personality and motivational variables play an important role in adhering and regulating preventive behaviour independent from the attitude towards the preventive measures themselves.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T02:44:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211073656
       
  • The Least Biased d to rpb-rpb to d Conversion Formula Combinations for the
           Meta-Analysis of Studies Using the Two Independent-Groups Design

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Justy Reed
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      In a meta-analysis of ds, the utility of converting d to a point-biserial correlation (rpb), correcting rpb for study artifacts, and then converting rpb back to d depends on how accurately the d to rpb-rpb to d (dr-rd) method reproduces the original uncorrected ds. This study compared test ds (dt) converted to dr-rd ds to control ds (dc) to determine the dr-rd formula combinations with the least bias, defined as the difference between dr-rd ds and dc. dt were calculated with available conversion and rpb correction formulas at various base rates and SD ratios, whereas dc were calculated without conversion formulas at base rate .50 and SD ratio 1.00. Results showed that the lowest bias formula combinations reproduced dc at SD ratio 1.00, bias increased as SD ratio decreased, and formula combinations that produced the lowest bias values were, on average, more accurate than formula combinations that produced the next to lowest bias values. Findings provide the lowest bias dr-rd formula combinations for artifact-corrected meta-analyses of studies using the two independent-groups design.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T01:42:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211065952
       
  • A Hierarchical Personality Approach Toward a Fuller Understanding of
           Onychophagia and Compulsive Buying

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cristian Rizzo, Andrea Sestino, Giovanni Pino, Gianluigi Guido, Rajan Nataraajan, Richard J. Harnish
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeEmploying a hierarchical model of personality, prior research suggests that cardinal traits such as conscientiousness and agreeability predict central traits such as materialism and need for arousal that in turn impact surface traits such as onychophagia and compulsive buying. More research is needed to explore additional central traits and their effect on onychophagia and compulsive buying. Thus, the goal of the current research is to examine how another central trait—negative perfectionism—impacts onychophagia and compulsive buying.Design/Methodology/ApproachA survey was administered both online and face-to-face resulting in a sample of 634 subjects of which 391 were individuals with onychophagia. Through a multi-group analysis, a causal model was tested to identify personality traits and their relationship with compulsive buying.ResultsResults showed that onychophagia was affected by other obsessive-compulsive disorders—particularly trichotillomania, and excoriation disorder, which significantly increased the likelihood that the participant was a compulsive buyer.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T01:10:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211061696
       
  • Relationship between motivation instability and type of motivation level
           in University learning based on self-determination theory: A cross-lagged
           panel model

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Takatoyo Umemoto, Tsutomu Inagaki
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we used a longitudinal survey of two time-points to investigate the relationship between motivation instability and type of motivation level toward university learning using a cross-lagged panel model. We measured four types of motivation level based on self-determination theory. A total of 127 Japanese students from two universities participated in two longitudinal surveys; their data were used in the analysis. We investigated the relationship between motivation instability and motivation level by employing the cross-lagged panel model, and found that intrinsic regulation at Time 1 was positively related to the instability of motivation at Time 2, while identified regulation at Time 1 was negatively related to instability of motivation at Time 2. These results indicate that two processes may exist: one where instability of motivation increases depending on the level of motivation, and one where it decreases. Moreover, instability of motivation at Time 1 was positively related to the identified regulation and introjected regulation at Time 2, although the values of the path coefficients were very small. Finally, instability of motivation at Time 1 was positively related to the instability of motivation at Time 2. Based on the results of this study, we discuss the relationship between motivation level and instability in university learning.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T02:16:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211067389
       
  • Miranda Warning Comprehension: The Influence of Verbal Aptitude and
           Hearing Status

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Paul M. Silvasi, Daniel Bell, Jessica Contreras, Stefanie Fauchere; Gail Rothman-Marshall, Jennifer L. Ernest, John E. Edlund
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The Miranda warning was drafted in order to inform people of their rights upon arrest in an easy to understand manner. However, to understand the warning a person needs a high school level reading comprehension (which is above the level of most offenders). Among these offenders, deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) individuals are particularly prone to misinterpreting the Miranda warning due to language barriers with law enforcement and below average English literacy compared to hearing individuals. Two studies were performed. The first compared Miranda warning comprehension between hearing and DHH participants, and it was found that DHH participants showed overall lower comprehension. The second study, consisting only of DHH participants, compared the effectiveness of four different presentations of the Miranda warning: signed in American Sign Language (ASL), signed in Signed Exact English (SEE), oral presentation, and written presentation. The written presentation demonstrated the lowest comprehension scores while the other three methods showed no significant difference in comprehension. The results suggest that the Miranda warning is best administered to DHH individuals with the assistance of a certified sign language interpreter. Limitations of the sample and directions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T09:36:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211051266
       
  • Attentional Features of Mindfulness are Better Predictors of Face
           Recognition than Empathy and Compassion-Based Constructs

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kyriaki Giannou, Karen Lander, Jason R. Taylor
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research has employed measures of either empathy, compassion or mindfulness and linked better face recognition memory to higher scores of identification with all humanity and mindfulness but not empathy or compassion. Additionally, empathy, compassion and mindfulness have been suggested as concepts that intertwine, but research has not yet examined how their respective personality questionnaires map onto latent concepts. We employed these measures together to explore their factor structure and, using structural equation modelling, we investigated if the suggested latent variables predict recognition memory performance for face and non-face stimuli. Attentional notions of mindfulness described a latent factor that predicted face recognition. All self-compassion facets and the non-react mindfulness facet described a latent factor, which predicted false alarms in face recognition. Finally, empathy and compassion-based notions described one latent factor, which did not predict recognition performance. None of the latent variables predicted performance in either object or voice recognition. Collectively, findings indicate attention-based mindfulness to benefit face recognition, prompting further research into the potential of mindfulness to support the face recognition process.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T05:32:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211061698
       
  • Association Between Negative Affectivity and Craving in Substance-Related
           Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Direct and Indirect
           Relationships

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Laura Cyr, Laura Bernard, Jean-Louis Pedinielli, Christophe Cutarella, Vincent Bréjard
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundA sizeable literature highlighted that negative affectivity and craving are both known to be implicated in relapses.ObjectivesThe present study synthetized the existing litterature to determine strength of the interaction between negative affectivity and craving for substance-related disorders including illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco.MethodsWe conducted a systematic review in accordance with PRISMA guidelines followed by a meta-analysis. Online computer databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science were searched systematically and thoroughly. Jamovi 1.8.1 Current version was used to conduct meta-analysis.ResultsThirty studies were included in the review, and 14 of these, including 2257 subjects, were used for meta-analysis. The raw correlation ranged from 0.17 to 0.58, which indicated weak to moderate association between negative affects and craving. In total, approximately 90% of the selection revealed a positive correlation between negative affects and craving. Alcohol and tobacco use disorders have received the most attention. Additionally, negative affectivity was often defined as a transient state rather than a stable personality trait.ConclusionsIn both of our meta-analyses and in the narratively reported studies, we found that negative affectivity is an important component related to craving, but individual differences in craving reactivity existed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T01:22:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211061079
       
  • The Historical Significance of Titicut Follies in Psychiatric Treatment:
           An Anti-Censorship Perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Salvatore B. Durante
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Works of art and information judged as obscene can be censored or banned. This brief review evaluates the costs and benefits of censorship and the banning of artwork and information. In the history of psychology, Frederick Wiseman’s film Titicut Follies epitomizes the disadvantages of concealing art content. Despite protecting the privacy of patients, the ban of Titicut Follies delayed the reform of psychiatric treatment practices and hospitals. The decision to censor or ban artistic and scientific information can result in the loss of knowledge and potential improvements to social, political, and economic institution practices.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T12:12:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211061080
       
  • COVID-19-Related Anxiety and Cognition in Middle-Aged and Older Adults:
           Examining Sex as a Moderator

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ashley F. Curtis, Anthony Schmiedeler, Madison Musich, Maggie Connell, Mary Beth Miller, Christina S. McCrae
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Aging populations experience disproportionate risk for cognitive decline, which may be exacerbated by coronavirus (COVID-19) illness, particularly among women. This study tested sex as a moderator of associations between COVID-19 state anxiety and cognition in middle-aged/older adults. Adults aged 50+ (N = 275; 151 men/124 women) completed the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and Cognitive Failures Questionnaire online from remote locations in July/August 2020. A subset of participants (n = 62) completed an objective cognitive task (Stroop). Multiple regressions determined whether sex moderated associations between COVID-19 anxiety and cognitive outcomes. Sex was a significant moderator, such that for women (not men), greater COVID-19 anxiety was associated with more memory failures and blunders (subjective measures) and worse processing speed (objective measure). COVID-19 state anxiety is linked to everyday cognition and processing speed in women, but not men. Consistency across subjective and objective measures promotes the need for sex-specific understanding of the pandemic’s behavioral and cognitive effects in mid-to-late life.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T03:18:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211064820
       
  • Self-Control Measurement Methodologies: An Integrative Approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: June J. Pilcher, Drew M. Morris, Dylan N. Erikson
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The study of self-control occurs in many different types of experimental settings using a wide range of methodologies. In addition, measures of self-control vary in their procedures and operational definitions from simple questionnaires to complex scenarios where individuals must choose to act or not. The present summary draws on trends within the literature using widely accepted measures of self-control. The measures are organized based on established paradigms in the literature and focus on three categories: executive functioning tasks, delay of gratification tasks, and subjective-report surveys. We also include an “additional measures” category to capture measures that do not readily fit in these three categories. Finally, we discuss recent approaches to the scientific exploration of self-control and integrate the categories of measures used here within these approaches. This integration incorporates a wide range of research paradigms and provides direction for future studies.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-30T10:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211067969
       
  • Can Regulatory Fit Improve Elementary School Students’ Performance'
           Effects of Different Types of Regulatory Fit

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shuhei Miwa, Masato Nagamine, Li Tang, Yuzhi Xiao, Miki Toyama
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have demonstrated the effect of regulatory fit on Japanese elementary school students (aged 9–12 years). The hypotheses were that promotion focused students tend to show good performance related to speed when they use an eager manner; on the other hand, prevention focused students tend to show good performance related to accuracy when they use a vigilant manner. In Study 1, the class teacher assessed their student’s regulatory focus and then manipulated the students’ manner of solving a calculation task by asking the students to engage speedily so that they solve many tasks in eager manner condition, or accurately so that they can avoid making errors in the vigilant manner condition. The results indicated that students with a promotion focus tended to solve more tasks in the eager manner condition. In addition, the same result was replicated in Study 2. These combined results suggest that regulatory fit is experienced not only by adults but also by young children. Moreover, the influence of regulatory fit depended on the type of regulatory fit. It is suggested that regulatory fit theory could be applied to educational settings to efficiently enhance the performance of students.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-30T09:39:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211061073
       
  • The Mediating Role of Autobiographical Memory in the Relationship Between
           Narcissism and Rejection Sensitivity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gamze Sen, Gün Pakyürek
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Both grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic individuals perceive a threat to the self when they face real or imaginary rejection. The sensitivity to rejection may affect them differently. Thus, this research examines the role of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism in the retrieval of self-threatening memories. The study aims to test the mediating role of autobiographical memory (AM) in the relationship between rejection sensitivity (RS) and two dimensions of narcissism. A total of 369 university students (ages between 18 and 32) participated in the study. The Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was applied to the participants, triggering the memory of positive and negative autobiographical rejection. Then, the Autobiographical Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory were applied. The results showed that the autobiographical memory characteristics differ depending on the dimension of narcissism when they face rejection. This changes depending on having positive or negative content as well as recalling the sensory details especially emotional characteristics of the AM. The use of AM as a mediator in the relationship between narcissism and rejection sensitivity has provided a viewpoint beyond experimental and relational studies. The results have shed light on the role of narcissism and RS in the processing of autobiographical memories.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T07:10:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211061076
       
  • Perceived Coping Mitigates Anxiety Symptoms in the Context of COVID-19
           Stress in an Urban University Student Sample

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sasha Rudenstine, Talia Schulder, Catherine K. Ettman, Sandro Galea
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Perceived coping and its two subprocesses, trauma-focused coping (finding meaning in the details and memory of a potential trauma or stressor) and forward-focused coping (focusing on planning for the future) have been shown to be important in the context of potentially traumatic events. The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated stressors have negatively impacted population mental health, and preliminary investigations have demonstrated the importance of perceived abilities to cope during the pandemic. The current study sought to examine the potentially moderating role of each subprocess on the relationship between stress and anxiety symptoms in a low-income student sample during COVID-19 (N = 2364). We computed two hierarchical multiple linear regressions to assess for significant interactions between stress and perceived coping subprocess scores on anxiety outcomes. Our results demonstrated that both trauma-focused coping and forward-focused coping served as effect modifiers in the relationship between COVID-19related stress and anxiety. Such findings highlight the importance of interventions that incorporate both forms of coping for low-income students during a chronic stressor.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:53:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221074038
       
  • Development of a Scale to Examine Responses to Bodily Sensations

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Katherine E. Roche-Freedman, Rhonda F. Brown, Conal Monaghan, Einar Thorsteinsson, John Brown
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveIndividual differences in the perception of bodily sensations is known to be associated with affective symptomatology. However, the way people psychologically respond to everyday bodily sensations has not been examined in a systematic and balanced way. Thus, we developed the Bodily Sensations Response Scale (BSRS) to evaluate participants’ self-reported cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses to their bodily sensations. We investigated the scale’s factor structure and its psychometric properties in two studies.MethodIn Study 1, 297 participants completed the 50-item BSRS and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the responses. In Study 2 (N = 284), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the factor structure of the 32-item BSRS identified in Study 1.ResultsIn Study 1, the EFA identified a 32-item three-factor solution as the best fit for the data. Factor 1 described a defeat response to bodily sensations, Factor 2 described an acceptance response, and Factor 3 described a sensitization response. In Study 2, the three-factor solution was shown not to be parsimonious. Rather, CFA identified that the 27-item BSRS had two interpretable factors (Defeat and Acceptance) that explained participants’ psychological responses to bodily sensations. The Defeat subscale was moderately to strongly correlated with awareness of bodily sensations (i.e., Body Perception Questionnaire-Short Form scores) and depression, anxiety, and stress symptom severity (i.e., Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 scores), whereas the Acceptance subscale was unrelated or only slightly negatively correlated to awareness of bodily sensations and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms.ConclusionThe 27-item BSRS provides a psychometrically robust assessment of the way in which people psychologically respond to everyday bodily sensations. The measure can assist researchers to better understand how people psychologically process their salient bodily sensations and how this is linked to psychopathology.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:51:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221074262
       
  • Commitment is the key: A moderated mediation model linking leaders’
           resources, work engagement, and transformational leadership behavior

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hannah V. Geibel, Kathleen Otto
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aims at gaining insights into the underlying mechanisms leading from leaders’ resources to their transformational behavior. Based on the Job Demands-Resources theory, we hypothesized that leaders’ personal (self-efficacy) and job (role clarity) resources eventually enhance their performance, more specifically their transformational leadership, through fostering work engagement. Further, we proposed that the link between work engagement and transformational behavior is moderated by leaders’ affective commitment, drawing on Social Identity Theory. Data were collected from N = 216 German leaders in 2020 via an online survey. Hypotheses were tested by applying a moderated mediation model linking resources, engagement, commitment, and leadership behavior. The problem of potential endogeneity was further addressed. As predicted, both self-efficacy and role clarity enhanced leaders’ transformational behavior, mediated through work engagement. The relationship between leaders’ work engagement and performance was stronger when they felt a strong belonging and emotional attachment to their organization, that is, high affective commitment.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:50:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221074256
       
  • Exploring Working Memory, Self-Criticism, and Rumination as Factors
           Related to Self-Harm

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rachel K. Carpenter, Tracy Packiam Alloway
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The prevalence of self-harm and the relative emotional influences are well understood, but certain cognitive factors such as working memory, rumination, and self-criticism are not fully explored. The aim of the current study is to examine specific aspects of cognition to explore their influence on self-harming behaviors. Participants included 101 undergraduates from a British University. Factors were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, Ruminative Response Scale, and the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Findings indicated a greater incidence of self-harming behaviors among those who demonstrated higher depressive symptoms, but depression scores were not significantly related to self-harm. Additionally, a binary logistic regression indicated that self-criticism was associated with the presence of self-harming behavior, and a Classification and Regression Trees found that the single strongest predictor of self-harming behavior was a belief that love needs to be continually earned from others. Incorporating treatments that reduce self-criticism, such as improving self-compassion with Compassionate Mind Training, may address underlying mechanisms that trigger self-harm behavior.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221074258
       
  • Ethnicity, Race, and Gender in Engineering Education: The Nuanced
           Experiences of Male and Female Latinx Engineering Undergraduates Targeted
           by Microaggressions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kalynda C. Smith, Cristina Poleacovschi, Scott Feinstein, Stephanie Luster-Teasley
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Compared to other groups, relatively less research has specifically addressed the retention of Latinx students in STEM disciplines. These students face many negative stereotypes about their group, especially related to their academic success, yet there is limited research regarding how microaggressions, subtle or ambiguous discriminatory behaviors, targeting Latinx students in engineering education settings impact their experience in those programs. Guided by Sue’s definitions and taxonomy of microaggressions, Critical Race Theory and Latino Critical Theory, the purpose of the current study was to answer the following research questions: 1) What microaggressions do Latinx engineering undergraduates experience in an engineering education environment' and 2) How do these microaggressions impact Latinx engineering undergraduates’ academic well-being, as defined by their academic self-efficacy and academic performance'
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221075766
       
  • Experiences in Work Relationships: A Measure of Attachment Strategies at
           Work

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Seitl Martin, Miroslav Charvát, Jan Střelec, Klára Seitlová, Konstantinos Kafetsios
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Much of the burgeoning research on adult attachment in organizational settings has utilized assessment methods developed for personal or social relationships contexts. Here, we propose and test a novel framework for assessing attachment orientations in the workplace, the Experiences in Work Relationships—Individual (EWR-I), based on a conceptualization of the regulatory functions of attachment dynamics. Using data from two samples comprising early career starters and employees in the Czech Republic (N = 588 and N = 633) analyses confirmed the bifactorial structure of the new scale corresponding to “interpersonal hyperactivation” (involving emotional instability, negative emotionality, and lack of appreciation in work relationships) and a second factor termed “interpersonal deactivation” (involving distancing from others and relationships at work, mistrust and inhibition of positive emotionality). Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity against general relational assessments of adult attachment, and predictive and construct validity against measures of workplace personality, organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior further documented the nature and utility of the new scale. We argue that interpersonal hyperactivation and deactivation represent two distinct and measurable key components of attachment behavior dynamics at work.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:42:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221075249
       
  • Marital conflict, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and
           depressive symptoms among Malaysian firefighters

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alia F Majani, Siti R Ghazali, Chen Yoke Yong, Noraskin Pauzi, Faizul Adenan, Kokilah Manogaran
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Multiple exposures to life-threatening events may lead to various mental health issues and indirectly affect the marriage of those affected. Very few studies have investigated trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, and marital conflicts among firefighters, a group that faces such exposure occupationally. The present study explores the relationship between trauma exposure, PTSD, and depression in relation to marital conflicts among firefighters in Sarawak, adopting a cross-sectional research design. Different marital status reported significant PTSD and depressive symptoms. The widowed scored higher PTSD and depressive symptoms than the married and single groups. Firefighters with PTSD and depressive symptoms reported having more problems in aggression family history of distress, sexual dissatisfaction, and problem solving communication than those without. Regression analysis showed that problem solving communication (t (212) = 2.59, p = .01) and global distress scores (t (212) = 2.17, p < .05) in type of marital conflicts served as a significant predictor for depressive symptoms. The present study suggests that proper planning for treatment and intervention is needed to improve psychological well-being among firefighters and other high-risk professions following multiple exposures to traumatic events in carrying their job duty. Proper intervention programs also should be initiated for spouses of firefighters dealing with traumatized partners.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:34:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221075246
       
  • Processing Speed Predicts Mean Performance in Task-Switching but Not
           Task-Switching Cost

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bingxin Li, Xiangqian Li, Gijsbert Stoet, Martin Lages
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      In several studies, it has been suggested that task-switching performance is linked to processing speed. Here we argue that the relation between processing speed and high-level cognitive ability found in previous studies may be due to confounded measurements of processing speed and task-switching ability. In the present study, we required participants to complete an inspection time (IT) task to probe their processing speed. We employed conventional task-switching paradigms but applied a linear integrated speed-accuracy score (LISAS) which combines latency and accuracy scores to express task-switching ability. The results of regression analyses show that IT predicted average performance in task-switching paradigms. However, IT did not relate to any specific effects common in the task-switching task, which contradicts previous results. Our results suggest independent mechanisms of processing speed and tasks that require a high level of cognitive flexibility and control.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211072228
       
  • Evaluation of the Happiness Through Goal-Setting Training

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Christian Ehrlich
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes the evaluation of the Happiness through Goal-Setting Training, a multiple intervention approach which helps participants to reflect on, and modify their reasons for goal pursuit. The training is theoretically grounded in the goal-striving reasons framework. This framework captures four important reasons for goal pursuit and has received a substantial amount of empirical support for its predictive power in relation to positive psychological functioning. The four goal-striving reasons are the pursuit of goals out of pleasure, altruism, fear of self-esteem loss or necessity. The evaluation of the training, employing a before-and-after study design, is based on two data sets comprising data from a face-to-face delivery of the training (N = 41) and an online delivery of the training (N = 40). Overall, the findings from both studies, using paired sample t-tests, show that the Happiness through Goal-Setting Training significantly improves the quality of people’s reasons for goal pursuit as well as their positive psychological functioning measured through life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect and work-engagement. Thus, the Happiness through Goal-Setting Training complements the existing suite of well-being interventions by providing a happiness training that focusses specifically on improving people’s reasons for goal-pursuit.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:29:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211071007
       
  • Profiles of Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts and Aggression

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: María P. Aparicio-Flores, María Vicent, Roberto O. Freire-Andino, Ricardo Sanmartín, Carolina Gonzálvez, José Manuel García-Fernández
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, the study of perfectionistic automatic thoughts (PAT) has increased given its maladaptive nature since it is link to numerous psychological disorders. From our knowledge, no previous research has addressed the relationship between PAT and the four components of aggressive behavior (anger, hostility, verbal aggression, and physical aggression). This study had a double goal. The first aim was to identify distinct profiles of PAT in a sample of 3060 Ecuadorian undergraduates (Mage = 22.7, SD = 2.46). The second aim of this study was to determine whether or not statistically significant differences exist between these profiles, based on the four components of aggressive behavior. The Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) were used. Five profiles with different intensities in the dimensions of perfectionistic automatic thoughts were identified by Latent Class Analysis ((1) No-Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts, (2) Low Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts, (3) High Perfectionistic Demands, (4) Moderate Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts, and (5) High Perfectionistic Automatic Thoughts). The moderate and high perfectionistic automatic thoughts profiles obtained the highest mean scores for all components of aggressive behavior (i.e., the four factors that make up AQ: Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility), while the No-perfectionistic automatic thoughts and Low perfectionistic automatic thoughts profiles had the lowest mean scores. These results provide new knowledge about the prevalence of PAT in the context of Ecuador. Also, they suggest further research on the topic given the positive relationship of PAT and aggressive behavior.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:26:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211069519
       
  • Psychological Issues Among Spanish Adolescents and Young People when
           Coming out of the Closet to Their Families

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jorge-Manuel Dueñas, Fabia Morales-Vives, Natalie Galea
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Some social settings may make the process of “coming out” more difficult for gay males and lesbian females, and the decision to do so may be even more problematic for adolescents and young people. As a result, some may choose to hide their sexual orientation, leading to emotional suffering. This study aims to analyze the differences in perceived stress, life satisfaction, happiness, and psychological distress experienced by both coming out and closeted young people and teens. The sample included a total of 228 Spanish young people aged 16–23 years old (M = 19.69, SD = 1.81) who identified themselves as gay or lesbian (73.2% women). The results of this study show that people in the closet show greater psychological distress (anxiety and depressive symptomatology) and perceived stress. Although perceived stress is positively related to psychological distress in both groups, the correlation is higher in the closeted group. This suggests that perceived stress has more serious consequences on the mental health of the closeted group than of the “coming out” group. To sum up, the results show the importance of family support for gay and lesbian young people.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:25:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211069518
       
  • Can Mindfulness Improve Organizational Citizenship and Innovative
           Behaviors Through its Impact on Well-Being Among Academics'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nadia Jobbehdar Nourafkan, Cem Tanova, Korhan K. Gokmenoglu
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Mindfulness has received considerable interest due to its positive outcomes for individuals however our understanding of how it may also result in positive outcomes for organizations is not fully understood. Using data collected from university academics (N = 255) in Northern Cyprus, we examine mindfulness as a factor that leads to Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Innovative Work Behaviors (IWB). We expect that eudaimonic well-being serves as the mechanism that links mindfulness to IWB and OCB. Our results show mindfulness improves eudaimonic well-being. Eudaimonic well-being fully mediates the Mindfulness—IWB relationship and partially mediates the Mindfulness—OCB relationship. Since the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of OCB and IWB for universities, our study has important implications for university managers and policymakers.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211069517
       
  • Effect of Self-Affirmation on Smartphone Use Reduction Among Heavy Users

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shunsuke Shimoda, Mai Shimoda, Osamu Higuchi
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Recent studies have shown an association between excessive smartphone use and health problems. Along with such mounting concerns, health risk information on excessive smartphone use has been presented through various media. Such information is usually aimed at making smartphone users understand the associated health risks, thereby preventing excessive use or reducing current use. However, according to self-affirmation theory, such information may pose a threat to heavy smartphone users because it implies that they are engaging in maladaptive behavior. Therefore, to defend themselves, they may not accept the information and may not be highly motivated to reduce their usage. According to self-affirmation theory, such maladaptive defensive responses can be reduced through the affirmation of important values. We examined whether self-affirmation prior to reading health risk information increased heavy users’ motivation to reduce smartphone usage. Participants (142 undergraduate students aged 18–22 years) reported their mean daily smartphone use. They then completed a writing task that affirmed/did not affirm an important personal value. Next, they read an article on the health risks of smartphone overuse and reported their motivation to reduce smartphone use. As a result, when heavy users did not self-affirm, they were significantly less motivated to reduce use than light users. However, when heavy users self-affirmed, their motivation was significantly higher than when they did not self-affirm. This effect of self-affirmation was not shown in light users. These results suggest that health risk information combined with self-affirmation is effective in reducing smartphone usage by heavy users.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:23:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211069514
       
  • #Instacomparison: Social Comparison and Envy as Correlates of Exposure to
           Instagram and Cyberbullying Perpetration

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Laura Villanueva-Moya, M. Carmen Herrera, M. Dolores Sánchez-Hernández, Francisca Expósito
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Instagram is a popular social networking site (SNS) among adolescents that allows them to share visual content about their lives quickly and easily, increasing social connection, acceptation, and entertainment among others. Nevertheless, SNS exposure can also lead to negative counterparts such as judgments, envy, social comparison, or cyberbullying perpetration. This research aimed to analyze the possible psychosocial factors associated with Instagram use (i.e., social comparison and envy) that could lead to the perpetration of cyberbullying towards peers. The sample consisted of 254 adolescent students aged between 15 and 18 years old (Mage = 15.77, SD = 0.74). The results indicated that high connection time to Instagram, high levels of social comparison, and malicious envy were associated with an increased tendency to carry out cyberbullying perpetration’s behaviors. Likewise, the main finding showed that a high connection time to Instagram was associated with increased social comparison, which in turn was associated with malicious envy, and consequently with an increased tendency to carry out cyberbullying perpetration’s behaviors. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the psychosocial processes that might precede to perpetrate cyberbullying’s behaviors, as well as to promote the development of educational programs intend to encourage the responsible use of SNSs during adolescence.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:21:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211067390
       
  • Temporal Associations Between Depression and Hostility in the Context of a
           Divorce Intervention

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Camilla S. Øverup, Ana Cipric, Jenna M. Strizzi, Søren Sander, Gert Martin Hald
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Divorce interventions have been found to be effective in reducing negative outcomes for newly divorced people, including depression and hostility. Typically, divorce interventions cover a variety of issues that may influence people’s level of depression and hostility. However, it is unclear whether the interventions differentially affect the outcomes. That is, it may be that intervention participation leads to a reduction in depression, which is associated with a prospective reduction in hostility—or vice versa. The current study used a sample of 1,856 recently divorced Danes, who completed questionnaires at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month post-divorce. Structural equation modeling revealed that while depression and hostility were concurrently associated, there were no prospective associations, except for baseline depression predicting 3-month hostility. Moreover, the associations did not differ by gender. The results suggest that the intervention content may have influenced both depression and hostility. These findings may be useful in guiding future divorce intervention developments.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211070212
       
  • Development of the “Belief of Affective Perspective-Taking Ability
           Scale”

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yudai Suzuki, Shinji Sakamoto
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to develop the Belief of Affective Perspective-Taking Ability Scale (BAPTAS). The belief of affective perspective-taking ability is defined as the tendency of individuals to believe people are generally capable of taking others’ perspectives and imagining others’ emotions, and we developed 17 items for BAPTAS. The participants in the study comprised 151 university students, who answered the BAPTAS, Experience of Receiving Empathy Scale (ERES), perspective-taking tendency, Interpersonal Trust Scale (ITS), and UCLA loneliness scale in Japanese (ULS-J). Thus, 13 items were constructed, and the scores of BAPTAS showed a normal distribution (M = 4.52, SD = 0.97). BAPTAS is positively related to ERES, a perspective-taking tendency and ITS, and it is negatively related to ULS-J. The relations between BAPTAS and other scales correspond to our previous expectations. We discussed both the potential contribution of BAPTAS to perspective-taking and empathy research and the need to examine its validity experimentally. Our hypothesis was supported, and the validity and reliability of BAPTAS were confirmed.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:19:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221075751
       
  • Early Maladaptive Schemas and the Accuracy of Facial Emotion Recognition:
           A Preliminary Investigation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Damjana Panić, Milica Mitrović, Nikola Ćirović
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Different developmental experiences related to deep-rooted beliefs about oneself and others may significantly affect individual social emotional competencies, such as the accuracy of facial emotion recognition and detection. This study presents a preliminary examination of the relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and the accuracy of recognizing facial expressions showing basic emotions, neutral faces, and discrimination between neutral and emotional faces. The sample consisted of 138 psychology students (M = 20.33; SD = 1.33, 27 of the respondents were male). Japanese and Caucasian facial expressions of emotion and neutral faces and JACNeuF (Matsumoto & Ekman, 1988) were used as stimulus material for assessing the facial emotion recognition of seven basic emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, and surprise) and neutral faces. The Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3; Young, 2005) was administered as a measure of EMSs. The findings demonstrate that all schema domains affect the accuracy of recognizing facial expressions showing negative emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, fear, and sadness). The Dependence/Incompetence and Entitlement/Grandiosity schemas were significant predictors for detecting neutral faces and discriminating between faces with and without emotion, while the Abandonment/Instability schema additionally proved significant for recognizing neutral faces. Limitations and suggestions for future elaboration are acknowledged.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941221075248
       
  • Interpersonal Synchronization Protects Against the Antisocial Outcomes of
           Frustration

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Karol Dybowski, Barbara Raczka, Svetlana Postarnak, São Luís Castro, Susana Silva
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Prosociality improves with interpersonal synchronization—the temporal coordination of movement across individuals. We tested whether the benefits of interpersonal synchronization extend to temporary circumstances of induced frustration, where negative changes in prosociality are expected as a result. Participants performed two joint tasks—synchronization versus non-synchronization. Each task was performed twice, with high versus low induced frustration. After each joint task, prosociality was measured both with explicit tests, in which participants were aware of the test goal, and implicit ones, where they were less aware. Frustration levels per task were also reported. Results showed that increase in frustration led to decrease in implicit prosociality after the non-synchronization task, but not after synchronization, suggesting that interpersonal synchronization attenuates the antisocial outcomes of frustration. In addition, our study highlights the advantages of implicit measures of prosociality, among which the test we created (Interpersonal Trust Test) may stand as a useful resource in future experimental research.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T10:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211054771
       
  • Whose Life Do You Save' Factors Associated With Gender Differences in
           Altruism Toward Romantic Partners Versus Genetic Relatives

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Carlos Hernández Blasi
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This study explored potential gender differences in altruism in three hypothetical life-or-death situations in which a romantic partner and a relative (an offspring, a sibling, and a cousin) were involved. Specifically, 200 college students (93 men) responded to a 24-item questionnaire: 12 items focused on the three romantic partner versus relative life-or-death dilemmas; 12 items served as control items and focused on three relative versus relative life-or-death dilemmas (sibling vs. offspring; sibling vs. cousin; cousin vs. offspring). For each main dilemma, four different versions were created by varying the ages of both romantic partners and genetic relatives. Overall, the participants saved their offspring and siblings more often than their romantic partners, and their romantic partners more often than their cousins. In all three dilemmas, the proportion of women who saved their genetic relative over their romantic partner was significantly higher than the proportion of men, with the age of both romantic partners and relatives playing a role. Romantic partners were significantly saved more often when pitted against their cousins than when pitted against their siblings, and when pitted against their siblings than when pitted against their offspring. Young adult males and females exhibit minor, but significant and consistent, gender differences in their altruistic tendencies toward relatives in hypothetical critical situations in which other close non relatives, namely romantic partners, are also involved.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T06:02:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211050010
       
  • Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a DSM-V-Based Social Networking
           Site Use Disorder Test: The SNS-DT-10

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Arshiya Sangchooli, Marziyeh Hamzehzadeh, Hosein Rafiemanesh, Kamyar Ghani, Rabert Farnam, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      While the problematic use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) has been observed in some individuals, few validated and widely accepted measures are available to assess and screen for problematic use. This is an attempt at adapting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–based Internet Gaming Disorder Test-10 (IGDT-10) measure to assess SNS use disorder and problematic SNS use in the form of the SNS use disorder Test-10 (SNS-DT-10) questionnaire, and assessing its validity and reliability. The study was conducted in three phases: First, the IGDT-10 questionnaire was translated and adapted to assess SNS use disorder, and content validity was assessed. Then, a sample of 126 students from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences was used to determine internal consistency and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, retest data from 87 participants were used to estimate test–retest reliability. Item content validity indices were above .80 and scale content validity indices surpassed .83. The root mean square error of approximation for the 1-factor model was .04 and the comparative fit and Tucker–Lewis fit indices were .97 and .96, respectively, indicating appropriate construct validity. The intra-class correlation coefficient of the number of positive criteria for SNS use disorder was .81 and the Kappa coefficients for SNS use disorder and problematic SNS use were .85 and .57. Cronbach’s alpha was .79 for the entire questionnaire. Overall, the SNS-DT-10 questionnaire has appropriate content and construct validity, internal consistency, and test–retest reliability. Further validation of this questionnaire in larger and more diverse samples and comparison with professional clinical diagnostic interviews are warranted.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T05:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211065950
       
  • Anxiety and Depression: The Moderating Effects of Attention to Emotion and
           Emotional Clarity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Damla Yildirim, Jaume Vives, Sergi Ballespí
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Anxiety and depression are the most common mental health problems. They often occur together and significantly affect well-being and daily functioning. However, it is unclear to what extent the two dimensions of meta-mood knowledge play a role in their comorbidity. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the role of attention to emotion and emotional clarity in the relationship between anxiety and depression. A sample of 256 adults aged 32–66 years (M = 46.21, SD = 5.53; 82.03% women) completed questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and meta-mood knowledge. Results showed that emotional clarity buffered the relationship between anxiety and depression. In addition, all combinations of attention to emotion and emotional clarity showed a significant and positive relationship with anxiety and depression symptom severity, with one exception. Interestingly, there was no statistically significant relationship between anxiety and depression when attention to emotion was low and emotional clarity was high. This last condition was interpreted as beneficial rather than detrimental, which in turn could help promote psychological resilience to better cope with emotional difficulties. Given these findings, this study highlights the role of attention to emotion and emotional clarity in assessing anxiety and risk of comorbid depression.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T04:30:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211070764
       
  • Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Mediated the Relationship Between
           Reflective Functioning and Borderline Personality Symptoms Among
           Non-Clinical Adolescents

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yasemin Kahya, Koret Munguldar
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The literature has established the associations between reflective functioning (RF), affect regulation, and the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. We aimed to examine the mediator role of difficulties in emotion regulation on the relationship between RF and BPD symptoms in a non-clinical adolescent sample. The sample was composed of 546 Turkish adolescents with a mean age of 16.18 (SD = 1.67). Of the sample, 62.5% were adolescent girls and 37.5% of boys. In the present cross-sectional research, volunteer adolescents along with parental permission filled out Socio-Demographics Form, Reflective Functioning Questionnaire, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Borderline Personality Inventory on paper during counseling sessions at schools. Process macro was used to conduct mediation analyses. Compromised RF was related to an increase in adolescent borderline personality symptoms, both directly and indirectly via difficulties in emotion regulation. In this non-clinical adolescent sample, a lower degree of certainty, as well as a higher degree of uncertainty about the mental states, were related to a propensity to emotion dysregulation, specifically experiencing emotions less clearly, approaching emotions impulsively, and facing emotions without a modulation strategy. These associations were in turn related to an increase in borderline personality symptoms. The present research results suggest RF and emotion regulation problems as one field of early intervention for adolescents with BPD symptoms.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T12:25:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211061072
       
  • Impact of Meritocratic Beliefs of Newcomers on Creativity: A Career
           Construction Perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zhongqiu Li, Liang Liang, Caiquan Duan, Xue Zhang, Zhuo Lv
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research suggests that meritocratic beliefs impact future-oriented activities. However, relatively little attention has been given to concomitant work outcomes, such as employee creativity. This study examines how the meritocratic beliefs of newcomers relate to employee creativity. We explore a serial mediation model where the meritocratic beliefs of newcomers heighten their meaning of work and learning adaptability, which increases employee creativity. We use questionnaires to survey 212 full-time employees from 10 manufacturing enterprises in China, who had joined their companies for less than a year. The results show that positive serial indirect effects of the meritocratic beliefs of newcomers on employee creativity via increased meaning of work and learning adaptability. Overall, the results provide new insight that may advance theoretical and practical implications on the pathways in which meritocratic beliefs may enhance employee creativity.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T07:27:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211064810
       
  • Online Trolling: The Impact of Antisocial Online Content, Social Media
           Use, and Gender

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Isabella L. S. Santos, Carlos E. Pimentel, Tailson E. Mariano
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to observe the relationships between online trolling, exposure to antisocial online content, frequency of social media use, and gender, using the GAM as a theoretical framework. Four hundred twenty-nine Brazilian internet users (mean = 25.07 years; SD = 7.59; EP = 0.36), most of whom were women (71.8%), participated in the survey. Bivariate correlations indicated a positive relationship between online trolling, exposure to antisocial online content (r = 0.12; p < 0.01), Facebook use (r = 0.21; p < 0.01), Twitter Use (r = 0.12; p < 0.01), and gender (r = 0.15; p < 0.01). An explanatory model including these variables was tested, and obtained a significant model fit (GFI = 0.99; Comparative Fit-Index = 0.99; Tucker Lewis Index = 0.97; Root Mean Square Residual = 0.02; RMSEA = 0.02 CI = 0 .01–0.07 ). Were also observed indirect effects for exposure to antisocial online content through Twitter use and Facebook use on trolling (λ = 0.03; CI = 0.01–0.05; p < 0.05). It is possible to conclude that the research objectives were fulfilled, emphasizing the role of situational variables in the understanding of online trolling.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T03:47:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211055705
       
  • Are Immigrants Scapegoats' The Reciprocal Relationships Between
           Subjective Well-Being, Political Distrust, and Anti-immigrant Attitudes in
           Young Adulthood

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Liliia Korol, Alexander W. Fietzer, Pieter Bevelander, Ihor Pasichnyk
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the impact of native youth’s subjective well-being on exclusionary attitudes toward immigrants, seeking to understand the relationship between subjective well-being, political distrust, and anti-immigrant attitudes over time. Using longitudinal data, we followed three cohorts of native young adults (N = 1352; Mage = 22.72, SD = 3.1) in Sweden over a period of 2 years. The results showed that subjective well-being did not predict an increase in anti-immigrant attitudes among native youth, but anti-immigrant attitudes had a significant impact on subjective well-being. The data also found bidirectional and mutually reinforcing relationships between subjective well-being and political distrust, and between political distrust and anti-immigrant attitudes. These results highlight that improving young adults’ subjective well-being represents an important basis for preventing the development of political distrust, which in turn could reduce native youth’s susceptibility to adopt hostile attitudes toward immigrants.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T11:03:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211065951
       
  • HIV-Related Internalized Stigma and Patient Health Engagement Model in an
           Italian Cohort of People Living With HIV

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Valentina Massaroni, Valentina Delle Donne, Nicoletta Ciccarelli, Francesca Lombardi, Silvia Lamonica, Alberto Borghetti, Arturo Ciccullo, Simona Di Giambenedetto
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The care engagement of people living with HIV (PLWH) measured with the patient health engagement (PHE) model and its association with HIV-related internalized stigma are not well established. Indeed, currently there are no data yet about the engagement of PLWH measured with the PHE model. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of HIV-related internalized stigma on care engagement and mental health and to fill the lack of data on PHE model applied to PLWH. We found that the internalized stigma score was significantly higher for PLWH (n=82) in worse care engagement phase and both higher internalized stigma scores and worse engagement were associated to major depression symptoms.In conclusion, our findings describe for the first time the engagement in care of PLWH measured with PHE and highlight the importance of PLWH support to find strategies to cope stigma-related stress and optimize their care engagement.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T05:43:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211057142
       
  • Maladaptive and Adaptive Cognitions About the Self and Others:
           Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Brief Core Schemas Scales

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bruno Faustino
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      The presence of dysfunctional cognitions about how individuals see themselves and others is a hallmark of psychopathology. The Brief Core Schemas Scale (BCSS) was developed to evaluate adaptive and dysfunctional beliefs about the self and others. This study describes the first psychometric analysis of the BCSS in the Portuguese population. Participants were recruited from community (N = 320, Mage=27.31, DP = 12.75). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the BCSS factorial structure. Four-factor model revealed moderate to adequate goodness-of-fit indices (χ2/df = 717.1, (246) p = .01; SRMR = .044; RMSEA = .077; CFI/TLI < .90). Negative views of the self and others correlated positively with early maladaptive schemas, distress, and symptomatology and correlated negatively with psychological well-being. An inversed correlational pattern was found with the positive views of the self and others. Despite the model's moderate adherence to the data, results suggest that the BCSS may be an asset in the assessment of dysfunctional and adaptive cognitions about the self and others. Further analysis is required to deepen the psychometric properties of the BCSS in the Portuguese population.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T05:27:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211063602
       
  • Concerns over COVID-19 and prejudice: Pre- and during-pandemic in Italy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Stefano Passini
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      While at first the fear of COVID-19 disease spread was limited by the fact that the pandemic appeared to be confined to China, the growing emergency in Italy and the rapid escalation in positive cases and deaths have made the threat of this disease a national as well as global phenomenon. In the present research, a questionnaire was collected both before (n = 396) and during (n = 250) the outbreak of the pandemic in Italy. The aim of the research was to analyze the possible mediation of binding moral foundations on the relationship between concerns over COVID-19 and prejudice vis-à-vis immigrants. As hypothesized, the results show that concerns over COVID-19 increased greatly after the start of the Italian pandemic. Moreover, both before and during the pandemic, the relationship between concerns over COVID-19 and prejudice toward immigrants is mediated by binding moral foundations.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T02:18:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211064814
       
  • Self-Esteem Moderates the Relationship Between Secure Attachment and
           Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Preadolescence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Taylor J. Irvine, Christopher D. Aults, Meenakshi Menon
      Abstract: Psychological Reports, Ahead of Print.
      This longitudinal study examined the interactive effects of secure attachment and self-esteem on change in internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of preadolescents. 407 youth (Mage = 11.1 years) completed measures of self-esteem, secure attachment style, and peer nomination inventories tapping internalizing and externalizing problems at the beginning of the fourth and fifth grades. Results suggest that internalizing and externalizing problems may be reduced for securely attached youth with high self-esteem. Implications for future research are examined, along with a discussion on clinical applications of studies involving interaction effects.
      Citation: Psychological Reports
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T09:34:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00332941211061699
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.235.228.219
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-