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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 1023 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Psychiatry and Psychology Journal : APPJ     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 360)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aging Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 181)
An-Nafs : Jurnal Fakultas Psikologi     Open Access  
Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access  
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analogías del Comportamiento     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 249)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aprender     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archives of Depression and Anxiety     Open Access  
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Augmented Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior and Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioural Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 150)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers d’Études sur la Représentation     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Art Therapy : Research, Practice, and Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
CES Psicología     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Contemporary Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos de Psicología     Open Access  
cultura & psyché : Journal of Cultural Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture - Society - Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 23)

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Similar Journals
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Clinical Psychological Science
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
This journal is no longer being updated because:
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  • The Interplay Between Reward-Relevant Life Events and Trait Reward
           Sensitivity in Neural Responses to Reward Cues

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Iris Ka-Yi Chat, Erin E. Dunning, Corinne P. Bart, Ann L. Carroll, Mora M. Grehl, Katherine S. F. Damme, Lyn Y. Abramson, Robin Nusslock, Lauren B. Alloy
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The reward-hypersensitivity model posits that trait reward hypersensitivity should elicit hyper/hypo-approach motivation following exposure to recent life events that activate (goal striving and goal attainment) or deactivate (goal failure) the reward system, respectively. To test these hypotheses, we had 87 young adults with high trait reward (HRew) sensitivity or moderate trait reward (MRew) sensitivity report frequency of life events via the Life Event Interview. Brain activation was assessed during the functional MRI monetary-incentive-delay task. Greater exposure to goal-striving events was associated with higher nucleus accumbens (NAc) reward anticipation among HRew participants and lower orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) reward anticipation among MRew participants. Greater exposure to goal-failure events was associated with higher NAc and OFC reward anticipation only among HRew participants. This study demonstrated different neural reward anticipation (but not outcome) following reward-relevant events for HRew individuals compared with MRew individuals. Trait reward sensitivity and reward-relevant life events may jointly modulate reward-related brain function, which has implications for understanding psychopathology.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T09:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211056627
       
  • The Prognostic Utility of Personality Traits Versus Past Psychiatric
           Diagnoses: Predicting Future Mental Health and Functioning

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      Authors: Monika A. Waszczuk, Christopher J. Hopwood, Benjamin J. Luft, Leslie C. Morey, Greg Perlman, Camilo J. Ruggero, Andrew E. Skodol, Roman Kotov
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Past psychiatric diagnoses are central to patient case formulation and prognosis. Recently, alternative classification models such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) proposed to assess traits to predict clinically relevant outcomes. In the current study, we directly compared personality traits and past diagnoses as predictors of future mental health and functioning in three independent, prospective samples. Regression analyses found that personality traits significantly predicted future first onsets of psychiatric disorders (change in [∆] R2 = .06–.15), symptom chronicity (∆R2 = .03–.06), and functioning (∆R2 = .02–.07), beyond past and current psychiatric diagnoses. Conversely, past psychiatric diagnoses did not provide an incremental prediction of outcomes when personality traits and other concurrent predictors were already included in the model. Overall, personality traits predicted a variety of outcomes in diverse settings beyond diagnoses. Past diagnoses were generally not informative about future outcomes when personality was considered. Together, these findings support the added value of personality traits assessment in case formulation, consistent with the HiTOP model.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-21T09:21:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211056596
       
  • Imagery Rescripting Versus Extinction: Distinct and Combined Effects on
           Expectancy and Revaluation Learning

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      Authors: Mandy Woelk, Julie Krans, Filip Raes, Bram Vervliet, Muriel A. Hagenaars
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Anxiety disorders are effectively treated with exposure therapy, but relapse remains high. Fear may reinstate after reoccurrence of the negative event because the expectancy of the aversive outcome (unconditioned stimulus [US]) is adjusted but not its evaluation. Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is an intervention that is proposed to work through revaluation of the US. The aim of our preregistered study was to test the effects of ImRs and extinction on US expectancy and US revaluation. Day 1 (n = 106) consisted of acquisition with an aversive film clip as US. The manipulation (ImRs + extinction, extinction-only, or ImRs-only) took place on Day 2. Reinstatement of fear was tested on Day 3. Results showed expectancy learning in both extinction conditions but not in the ImRs-only condition and no enhanced revaluation learning in ImRs. The combination of ImRs and extinction slowed down extinction but did not protect against reinstatement, which pleads in favor of stand-alone interventions in clinical practice.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-21T09:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211055169
       
  • How Robust Is the p Factor' Using Multitrait-Multimethod Modeling to
           Inform the Meaning of General Factors of Youth Psychopathology

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      Authors: Ashley L. Watts, Bridget A. Makol, Isabella M. Palumbo, Andres De Los Reyes, Thomas M. Olino, Robert D. Latzman, Colin G. DeYoung, Phillip K. Wood, Kenneth J. Sher
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We used multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) modeling to examine general factors of psychopathology in three samples of youths (Ns = 2,119, 303, and 592) for whom three informants reported on the youth’s psychopathology (e.g., child, parent, teacher). Empirical support for the p-factor diminished in multi-informant models compared with mono-informant models: The correlation between externalizing and internalizing factors decreased, and the general factor in bifactor models essentially reflected externalizing. Widely used MTMM-informed approaches for modeling multi-informant data cannot distinguish between competing interpretations of the patterns of effects we observed, including that the p factor reflects, in part, evaluative consistency bias or that psychopathology manifests differently across contexts (e.g., home vs. school). Ultimately, support for the p factor may be stronger in mono-informant designs, although it does not entirely vanish in multi-informant models. Instead, the general factor of psychopathology in any given mono-informant model likely reflects a complex mix of variances, some substantive and some methodological.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-17T09:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211055170
       
  • The Benefits of Living With Close Others: A Longitudinal Examination of
           Mental Health Before and During a Global Stressor

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Natalie M. Sisson, Emily C. Willroth, Bonnie M. Le, Brett Q. Ford
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      For better or worse, the people one lives with may exert a powerful influence on one’s mental health, perhaps especially during times of stress. The COVID-19 pandemic—a large-scale stressor that prompted health recommendations to stay home to reduce disease spread—provided a unique context for examining how the people who share one’s home may shape one’s mental health. A seven-wave longitudinal study assessed mental health month to month before and during the pandemic (February through September 2020) in two diverse samples of U.S. adults (N = 656; N = 544). Preregistered analyses demonstrated that people living with close others (children and/or romantic partners) experienced better well-being before and during the pandemic’s first 6 months. These groups also experienced unique increases in ill-being during the pandemic’s onset, but parents’ ill-being also recovered more quickly. These findings highlight the crucial protective function of close relationships for mental health both generally and amid a pandemic.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-18T05:22:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211053320
       
  • Sex Moderates Reward- and Loss-Related Neural Correlates of
           Triarchic-Model Traits and Antisocial Behavior

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      Authors: Sarah J. Brislin, Alexander S. Weigard, Jillian E. Hardee, Lora M. Cope, Meghan E. Martz, Robert A. Zucker, Mary M. Heitzeg
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Abnormalities in responses to reward and loss are implicated in the etiology of antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. Although there is evidence for sex differences in neural response to reward and loss, it remains unclear how sex differences may moderate links between these neural responses and the phenotypic expression of antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. This study examined sex differences in associations of neural response to reward and loss with antisocial personality symptoms and psychopathic traits. Functional neuroimaging data were collected during a monetary incentive delay task from 158 participants. Among males, during loss anticipation, activation in the left nucleus accumbens was negatively associated with antisocial behavior. Among females, during loss feedback, activation in the left nucleus accumbens and left amygdala was negatively associated with antisocial behavior. These results suggest that phenotypic sex differences in psychopathic traits and antisocial behavior may in part be attributable to different etiological pathways.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-15T10:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211054780
       
  • Straight to the Source: e-Communities for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and the
           Emerging Case for Harm Reduction in the Treatment of Nonsuicidal
           Self-Injury

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Emma G. Preston, Amy E. West
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent phenomenon, yet no sufficiently effective treatment approach exists, leading researchers to consider how a reconceptualization of NSSI phenomenology may be necessary to optimize treatment. Multiple novel reconceptualizations seem to converge on the idea that NSSI provides certain benefits (e.g., affect regulation) that lead to nonlinear recovery processes in which cessation is not always possible. NSSI e-communities have also become increasingly studied given their popularity among those who self-injure, and they often contain harm-reduction content (e.g., wound care, safe cutting practices). The United Kingdom has approved harm reduction for NSSI treatment; however, its implementation remains uncommon. The current article integrates these novel and growing lines of research and theory and presents converging evidence for the inclusion of harm reduction in NSSI treatment approaches. Future directions and ethical considerations are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-05T07:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049367
       
  • Effect Sizes Reported in Highly Cited Emotion Research Compared With
           Larger Studies and Meta-Analyses Addressing the Same Questions

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      Authors: Ioana A. Cristea, Raluca Georgescu, John P. A. Ioannidis
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We assessed whether the most highly cited studies in emotion research reported larger effect sizes compared with meta-analyses and the largest studies on the same question. We screened all reports with at least 1,000 citations and identified matching meta-analyses for 40 highly cited observational studies and 25 highly cited experimental studies. Highly cited observational studies had effects greater on average by 1.42-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.09, 1.87]) compared with meta-analyses and 1.99-fold (95% CI = [1.33, 2.99]) compared with largest studies on the same questions. Highly cited experimental studies had increases of 1.29-fold (95% CI = [1.01, 1.63]) compared with meta-analyses and 2.02-fold (95% CI = [1.60, 2.57]) compared with the largest studies. There was substantial between-topics heterogeneity, more prominently for observational studies. Highly cited studies often did not have the largest weight in meta-analyses (12 of 65 topics, 18%) but were frequently the earliest ones published on the topic (31 of 65 topics, 48%). Highly cited studies may offer, on average, exaggerated estimates of effects in both observational and experimental designs.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T10:23:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049366
       
  • Mental Health and Prenatal Bonding in Pregnant Women During the COVID-19
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alyssa R. Morris, Darby E. Saxbe
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We compared 572 pregnant women (319 first-time mothers) surveyed in spring 2020, during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdowns in the United States, with 99 pregnant women (all first-time mothers) surveyed before the pandemic (2014–2020). Compared with the prepandemic sample, women assessed during the pandemic showed elevated depression, anxiety, and stress and weaker prenatal bonding to their infants. These findings remained significant when restricting the pandemic sample to first-time mothers only and held after controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and pregnancy stage. Average levels of depression and anxiety within the pandemic group exceeded clinically significant thresholds, and women who estimated that the pandemic had more negatively affected their social relationships reported higher distress. However, pandemic-related changes to social contact outside the household were inconsistently associated with mental health and with some positive outcomes (fewer depressive symptoms, stronger prenatal bonding). Given that prenatal stress may compromise maternal and child well-being, the pandemic may have long-term implications for population health.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T10:23:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049430
       
  • Rumination Derails Reinforcement Learning With Possible Implications for
           Ineffective Behavior

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      Authors: Peter Hitchcock, Evan Forman, Nina Rothstein, Fengqing Zhang, John Kounios, Yael Niv, Chris Sims
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      How does rumination affect reinforcement learning—the ubiquitous process by which people adjust behavior after error to behave more effectively in the future' In a within-subjects design (N = 49), we tested whether experimentally manipulated rumination disrupts reinforcement learning in a multidimensional learning task previously shown to rely on selective attention. Rumination impaired performance, yet unexpectedly, this impairment could not be attributed to decreased attentional breadth (quantified using a decay parameter in a computational model). Instead, trait rumination (between subjects) was associated with higher decay rates (implying narrower attention) but not with impaired performance. Our task-performance results accord with the possibility that state rumination promotes stress-generating behavior in part by disrupting reinforcement learning. The trait-rumination finding accords with the predictions of a prominent model of trait rumination (the attentional-scope model). More work is needed to understand the specific mechanisms by which state rumination disrupts reinforcement learning.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T05:21:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211051324
       
  • Evidence From the Trauma-Film Paradigm That Traumatic and Nontraumatic
           Memories Are Statistically Equivalent on Coherence

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      Authors: Andrea Taylor, Rachel Zajac, Melanie K. T. Takarangi, Maryanne Garry
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      There is contention in the scientific literature about the coherence of people’s memories for trauma: Sometimes, traumatic memories are rated as less coherent than nontraumatic memories; other times, they “look” very similar. But several methodological challenges invite counter-explanations that hinder the interpretation of these findings. We set out to address these challenges by adopting a trauma-film-paradigm approach to examine the coherence of traumatic and nontraumatic memories. We developed a new set of materials for the trauma-film paradigm and then used these materials to examine the relative coherence of traumatic and various nontraumatic memories. We found that traumatic memories were not only fairly coherent but also statistically equivalent to their nontraumatic counterparts. Our hope is that scientists use these materials in experiments that complement the existing autobiographical-memory literature and allow for a greater understanding of the relation between memory and dysfunction.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-26T04:52:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211053312
       
  • Education, Financial Stress, and Trajectory of Mental Health During the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Yanping Jiang, Samuele Zilioli, Rhonda N. Balzarini, Giulia Zoppolat, Richard B. Slatcher
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In this preregistered study, we examined educational disparities in the trajectory of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether such educational disparities would be mediated by financial stress associated with the pandemic. Data were drawn from the Love in the Time of COVID project (N = 2,204; four waves collected between March and June 2020). Results suggested educational disparities in eudaimonic well-being, negative affect, and psychological distress and showed significant associations between lower education and worse mental-health outcomes at baseline. However, education did not amplify mental-health disparities over time and exhibited no associations with the rates of change in mental health. Financial stress mediated the associations between education and mental health at baseline, and there were no temporal variations in the mediation effect. These results highlight persistent educational disparities in mental health, and such educational disparities may be partially explained by financial stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T11:13:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049374
       
  • COVID-19 Stress and the Health of Black Americans in the Rural South

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      Authors: Olutosin Adesogan, Justin A. Lavner, Sierra E. Carter, Steven R. H. Beach
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Black Americans have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. To better understand changes in and predictors of their mental and physical health, in the current study, we used three waves of data (two prepandemic and a third during summer 2020) from 329 Black men and women in the rural South. Results indicated that health worsened after the onset of the pandemic, including increased depressive symptoms and sleep problems and decreased self-reported general health. Greater exposure to COVID-19-related stressors was significantly associated with poorer health. Prepandemic stressors (financial strain, racial discrimination, chronic stress) and prepandemic resources (marital quality, general support from family and friends) were significantly associated with exposure to COVID-19-related stressors and with health during the pandemic. Findings underscore how the pandemic posed the greatest threats to Black Americans with more prepandemic psychosocial risks and highlight the need for multifaceted interventions that address current and historical stressors among this population.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T11:13:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049379
       
  • A Sobering Look at Treatment Effectiveness of Military-Related
           Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

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      Authors: Ofir Levi, Ariel Ben Yehuda, Daniel S. Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Approximately two thirds of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain with the disorder following treatment. Pinpointing the per-symptom effectiveness of treatments in real-world clinical settings can highlight relevant domains for treatment augmentation and development. Baseline and posttreatment assessments of PTSD and depression were performed in 709 veterans with PTSD. PTSD remission was 39.4%. Treatment was least effective for intrusion symptoms and had no effect on flashbacks or on poor recall of traumatic features. Of veterans who remitted, 72.8% still met diagnostic criteria for at least one cluster. Poor clinical effectiveness was noted for depression; only 4.1% of the patients remitted following treatment. Treatments for veterans with PTSD show limited overall effectiveness in real-world settings. Enhancing treatment response may require enhancing provider fidelity and patient compliance with extant treatments or the development of new treatments that specifically target the symptoms of PTSD that do not respond well to extant treatments.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T11:11:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211051314
       
  • Answering Questions About the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology
           (HiTOP): Analogies to Whales and Sharks Miss the Boat

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      Authors: Colin G. DeYoung, Roman Kotov, Robert F. Krueger, David C. Cicero, Christopher C. Conway, Nicholas R. Eaton, Miriam K. Forbes, Michael N. Hallquist, Katherine G. Jonas, Robert D. Latzman, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Camilo J. Ruggero, Leonard J. Simms, Irwin D. Waldman, Monika A. Waszczuk, Thomas A. Widiger, Aidan G. C. Wright
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In this commentary, we discuss questions and misconceptions about the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) raised by Haeffel et al. We explain what the system classifies and why it is descriptive and atheoretical, and we highlight benefits and limitations of this approach. We clarify why the system is organized according to patterns of covariation or comorbidity among signs and symptoms of psychopathology, and we discuss how it is designed to be falsifiable and revised in a manner that is responsive to data. We refer to the body of evidence for HiTOP’s external validity and for its scientific and clinical utility. We further describe how the system is currently used in clinics. In sum, many of Haeffel et al.’s concerns about HiTOP are unwarranted, and for those concerns that reflect real current limitations of HiTOP, our consortium is working to address them, with the aim of creating a nosology that is comprehensive and useful to both scientists and clinicians.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T11:09:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049390
       
  • Examining Linear and Nonlinear Associations Between Negative Emotional
           Reactivity to Daily Events and Depression Among Adolescents

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      Authors: Angela C. Santee, Lisa R. Starr
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research supports competing hypotheses about the link between negative emotional (NE) reactivity to daily events (e.g., hassles and uplifts) and depression. Some have suggested that depression is associated with blunted reactivity, and others have suggested that depression is associated with heightened reactivity. In this study, we tested linear and nonlinear associations, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, between NE reactivity and depression among a sample of 232 adolescents. Participants completed lab-based assessments of depression then rated their experience of emotions, daily hassles, and uplifts three times per day for 7 days. Interviews were readministered 1.5 years later. Results show a significant U-shaped relationship between NE reactivity to hassles and depression symptoms cross-sectionally, which suggests that depression is more severe at the extremes of NE reactivity. NE reactivity to daily uplifts showed significant linear associations, but not quadratic associations, with depression such that heightened reactivity to uplifts was associated with more severe depression symptoms concurrently and predicted worsening of depression longitudinally.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T02:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211045684
       
  • Climate Change and Children’s Mental Health: A Developmental
           Perspective

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      Authors: Francis Vergunst, Helen L. Berry
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Climate change is a major global public-health challenge that will have wide-ranging impacts on human psychological health and well-being. Children and adolescents are at particular risk because of their rapidly developing brain, vulnerability to disease, and limited capacity to avoid or adapt to threats and impacts. They are also more likely to worry about climate change than any other age group. Drawing on a developmental life-course perspective, we show that climate-change-related threats can additively, interactively, and cumulatively increase psychopathology risk from conception onward; that these effects are already occurring; and that they constitute an important threat to healthy human development worldwide. We then argue that monitoring, measuring, and mitigating these risks is a matter of social justice and a crucial long-term investment in developmental and mental health sciences. We conclude with a discussion of conceptual and measurement challenges and outline research priorities going forward.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T07:56:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211040787
       
  • Psychopathy and Moral-Dilemma Judgment: An Analysis Using the Four-Factor
           Model of Psychopathy and the CNI Model of Moral Decision-Making

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      Authors: Dillon M. Luke, Craig S. Neumann, Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      A major question in clinical and moral psychology concerns the nature of the commonly presumed association between psychopathy and moral judgment. In the current preregistered study (N = 443), we aimed to address this question by examining the relation between psychopathy and responses to moral dilemmas pitting consequences for the greater good against adherence to moral norms. To provide more nuanced insights, we measured four distinct facets of psychopathy and used the CNI model to quantify sensitivity to consequences (C), sensitivity to moral norms (N), and general preference for inaction over action (I) in responses to moral dilemmas. Psychopathy was associated with a weaker sensitivity to moral norms, which showed unique links to the interpersonal and affective facets of psychopathy. Psychopathy did not show reliable associations with either sensitivity to consequences or general preference for inaction over action. Implications of these findings for clinical and moral psychology are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-08T08:14:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211043862
       
  • The Impact of Moral-Injury Cognitions on Psychological Outcomes in
           Refugees: An Experimental Investigation

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      Authors: Joel Hoffman, Angela Nickerson
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Moral-injury cognitions (beliefs regarding moral violations) represent a potential mechanism that may underlie the association between potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and psychological symptoms in refugees. We implemented a novel experimental paradigm (i.e., the simulation of a PMIE using mental imagery) to investigate the impact of moral-injury cognitions on psychological outcomes in 71 Arabic-speaking refugees. A latent class analysis of preexisting moral-injury beliefs yielded three classes characterized by (a) high moral-injury beliefs about violations by others (49.3%), (b) high moral-injury beliefs about violations by others and by oneself (25.5%), and (c) low moral-injury beliefs (25.5%). Investigation of group differences revealed that the moral-injury classes reported greater negative emotional responses following the simulated PMIE. Furthermore, the association between moral-injury classes and psychological outcomes was moderated by situation-specific blame appraisals of the simulated PMIE. These findings have important implications for psychological interventions for refugees.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T06:31:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211039516
       
  • Well-Being and Cognition Are Coupled During Development: A Preregistered
           Longitudinal Study of 1,136 Children and Adolescents

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      Authors: Delia Fuhrmann, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Rogier A. Kievit
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Well-being and cognition are linked in adulthood, but how the two domains interact during development is currently unclear. Using a complex systems approach, we preregistered and modeled the relationship between well-being and cognition in a prospective cohort of 1,136 children between the ages of 6 to 7 years and 15 years. We found bidirectional interactions between well-being and cognition that unfold dynamically over time. Higher externalizing symptoms in childhood predicted fewer gains in planning over time (standardized estimate [β] = −0.14, p = .019), whereas higher childhood vocabulary predicted smaller increases in loneliness over time (β = −0.34, p ≤ .001). These interactions were characterized by modifiable risk and resilience factors: Relationships to parents, friendship quality, socioeconomic status, and puberty onset were all linked to both cognitive and well-being outcomes. Thus, cognition and well-being are inextricably intertwined during development and may be malleable to social and biological factors.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T09:08:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211030211
       
  • A Novel Measure of Real-Time Perseverative Thought

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      Authors: Elizabeth C. Wade, Rivka T. Cohen, Paddy Loftus, Ayelet Meron Ruscio
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Perseverative thinking (PT), or repetitive negative thinking, has historically been measured using global self-report scales. New methods of assessment are needed to advance understanding of this inherently temporal process. We developed an intensive longitudinal method for assessing PT. A mixed sample of 77 individuals ranging widely in trait PT, including persons with PT-related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, major depression) and persons without psychopathology, used a joystick to provide continuous ratings of thought valence and intensity following exposure to scenarios of differing valence. Joystick responses were robustly predicted by trait PT, clinical status, and stimulus valence. Higher trait perseverators exhibited more extreme joystick values overall, greater stability in values following threatening and ambiguous stimuli, weaker stability in values following positive stimuli, and greater inertia in values following ambiguous stimuli. The joystick method is a promising measure with the potential to shed new light on the dynamics and precipitants of perseverative thinking.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T02:52:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211038017
       
  • Adolescents’ Online Coping: When Less Is More but None Is Worse

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      Authors: Kathryn L. Modecki, Megan Duvenage, Bep Uink, Bonnie L. Barber, Caroline L. Donovan
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Mobile technologies are omnipresent across adolescent life and require better characterization of their potential benefits. Adolescents also experience high rates of daily stress so that investigating youths’ technology use in relation to their stress response is of practical importance. We employed experience sampling data from a subset of 115 youths (n = 1,241 time points) who reported on their technology-based coping and assessed how these related to emotion change throughout the day and controlled for important covariates. Models testing for the benefits of moderate use (relative to no or heavy use; i.e., Goldilocks effect) showed a clear pattern of positive effects of moderate coping online, particularly in relation to support seeking and self-distraction. Moderate online coping was adaptive and often fostered declines in negative emotion.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-19T08:39:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211028983
       
  • A Person-Centered Analysis of Craving in Smoking-Cue-Exposure Research

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      Authors: Michael A. Sayette, Madeline E. Goodwin, Kasey G. Creswell, Hannah J. Esmacher, John D. Dimoff
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Smoking-cue-exposure research offers a powerful method to examine craving, test new interventions, and identify at-risk smokers. Meta-analyses consistently show smoking-cue exposure increases craving levels. By focusing on mean levels, however, investigators fail to consider person-centered analyses addressing the percentage of smokers responding to cue exposure with increased urge. We conducted preregistered analyses of the percentages of 672 nicotine-deprived daily smokers (pooled from seven studies) who reported target levels of urge before and during smoking-cue exposure. Sixty-nine percent of smokers increased their ratings during cue exposure. Note that 31% of nonresponders reported a maximal urge before cue exposure, which precluded their classification as a responder using traditional cue-reactivity analyses and suggests that traditional analyses underreport cue-reactivity effects. An alternative, peak-provoked-craving analysis revealed the effectiveness of cue exposure to generate potent urges (more than three quarters of the sample reported at least 70% of scale maximum). Further research integrating person-centered analyses into the craving literature promises to advance addiction theory and research.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-10T07:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211032646
       
  • Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Are Associated With Heightened Avoidance of
           Low-Probability, High-Aversion Threats: A Preliminary Test of the
           Improbable-Catastrophe Hypothesis

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      Authors: Christopher Hunt, Nikki Degeneffe, Johanna Bixby, Shmuel Lissek
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Although symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may vary markedly, they often involve a fear of consequences that are both catastrophic and highly improbable (e.g., contracting HIV from a doorknob). Accordingly, a heightened sensitivity to what we refer to as improbable catastrophes may represent an underlying feature of OCD, yet this possibility awaits experimental validation. To fill this gap, 78 undergraduates with wide-ranging levels of OCD symptom severity completed a fear-conditioning paradigm designed to elicit varying degrees of perceived threat probability/aversiveness to test whether OCD symptoms predict heightened reactivity to unlikely, high-aversion threats. Consistent with predictions, participants with higher OCD symptoms were more avoidant of low-probability, high-aversion threats and also exhibited greater threat expectancy and physiological reactivity to more improbable threats in general. These findings implicate excessive avoidance of improbable catastrophes and heightened reactivity to unlikely threats more generally as underlying features of OCD.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-10T07:16:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211034861
       
  • Issues in Estimating Interpretable Lower Order Factors in Second-Order
           Hierarchical Models: Commentary on Clark et al. (2021)

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      Authors: Tyler M. Moore, Benjamin B. Lahey
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In a previous issue of Clinical Psychological Science, Clark and colleagues asserted that lower order factors in second-order models are comparable with specific factors in bifactor models when residualized on the general factor. Modeling simulated data demonstrated that residualized lower order factors are correlated with bifactor-specific factors only to the extent that factor loadings are proportional. Modeling actual data with violations of proportionality showed that specific and residualized lower order factors are not always highly correlated and have differential correlations with criterion variables even when both models fit acceptably. Because proportionality constraints limit only second-order models, bifactor models should be the first option for hierarchical modeling.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-09T03:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211035114
       
  • Audiovisual Temporal Processing in Children and Adolescents With
           Schizophrenia and Children and Adolescents With Autism: Evidence From
           Simultaneity-Judgment Tasks and Eye-Tracking Data

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      Authors: Han-yu Zhou, Xi-long Cui, Bin-rang Yang, Li-juan Shi, Xue-rong Luo, Eric F. C. Cheung, Simon S. Y. Lui, Raymond C. K. Chan
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Impaired audiovisual temporal integration, manifested as an abnormally widened temporal-binding window (TBW) for integrating sensory information, is found in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and contributes to aberrant perceptual experiences and impaired social communication. We conducted two experiments using age-comparable samples of participants with early-onset SCZ and participants with ASD. Sophisticated paradigms, including a unisensory temporal-order-judgment task (TOJ), an audiovisual-simultaneity-judgment task (SJ), and an eye-tracking task were used. Results showed generalized deficits in temporal processing in SCZ ranging from unisensory to multisensory modalities and from nonspeech to speech stimuli. In contrast, the widened TBW in ASD mainly affected speech stimuli processing. Applying the eye-tracking task with ecologically valid linguistic stimuli, we found that both participants with SCZ and participants with ASD exhibited reduced sensitivity of detecting audiovisual speech asynchrony. This impaired audiovisual speech integration correlated with negative symptoms. Although both ASD and SCZ have impaired multisensory temporal integration, ASD impairs speech-related processing, and SCZ is associated with generalized deficits.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-30T01:59:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211031543
       
  • Mechanisms of Mental-Health Disparities Among Minoritized Groups: How Well
           Are the Top Journals in Clinical Psychology Representing This Work'

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      Authors: Leah M. Adams, Adam Bryant Miller
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      It has been known for decades that mental-health disparities exist among minoritized groups, including race, ethnicity, sexual identities, gender identity and expression, ability, and others. Theories and frameworks that incorporate stressors unique to the experiences of minoritized groups, such as the biopsychosocial model of racism and minority-stress model, offer testable mechanisms that may help explain, in part, mental-health disparities. However, research addressing mechanisms of these disparities is still scarce and is not well represented in top clinical psychology journals. In this review, we critically examine the extent to which top-tier clinical psychology journals publish work examining mechanisms of mental-health disparities among minoritized populations. We found that very few studies that address mechanisms of mental-health disparities have been published in top clinical psychology journals. We examine potential reasons for this and discuss recommendations for future research.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T02:54:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211026979
       
  • A Connectome-Wide Functional Signature of Trait Anger

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      Authors: M. Justin Kim, Maxwell L. Elliott, Annchen R. Knodt, Ahmad R. Hariri
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Past research on the brain correlates of trait anger has been limited by small sample sizes, a focus on relatively few regions of interest, and poor test–retest reliability of functional brain measures. To address these limitations, we conducted a data-driven analysis of variability in connectome-wide functional connectivity in a sample of 1,048 young adult volunteers. Multidimensional matrix regression analysis showed that self-reported trait anger maps onto variability in the whole-brain functional connectivity patterns of three brain regions that serve action-related functions: bilateral supplementary motor areas and the right lateral frontal pole. We then demonstrate that trait anger modulates the functional connectivity of these regions with canonical brain networks supporting somatomotor, affective, self-referential, and visual information processes. Our findings offer novel neuroimaging evidence for interpreting trait anger as a greater propensity to provoked action, which supports ongoing efforts to understand its utility as a potential transdiagnostic marker for disordered states characterized by aggressive behavior.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-26T05:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211030240
       
  • Inefficient Attentional Control Explains Verbal-Memory Deficits Among
           Military Veterans With Posttraumatic Reexperiencing Symptoms

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      Authors: Craig A. Marquardt, Victor J. Pokorny, Seth G. Disner, Nathaniel W. Nelson, Kathryn A. McGuire, Scott R. Sponheim
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), verbal learning and memory are areas of weakness compared with other cognitive domains (e.g., visuospatial memory). In this study, previously deployed military veterans completed clinical assessments of word memory and vocabulary (n = 243) and a laboratory task measuring encoding, free recall, repetition priming, and recognition of words (n = 147). Impaired verbal memory was selectively related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD but was not associated with other symptom groupings or blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Implicit priming of response times following word repetition was also unrelated to clinical symptoms. Instead, slowed response times during encoding explained associations between reexperiencing and memory performance. These findings are consistent with alterations in attentional control explaining PTSD-related verbal-memory deficits. Such findings have implications for understanding trauma-focused psychotherapy and recovery, which may depend on efficient attentional processing of words to alter posttraumatic reexperiencing symptoms.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T03:23:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211025018
       
  • How the Discrepancy Between Prior Expectations and New Information
           Influences Expectation Updating in Depression—The Greater, the
           Better'

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      Authors: Tobias Kube, Lukas Kirchner, Gunnar Lemmer, Julia Anna Glombiewski
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research on expectation updating in relation to psychopathology used to treat expectation-confirming information and expectation-disconfirming information as binary concepts. Here, we varied the extent to which new information deviates from prior expectations and examined its influence on expectation adjustment in both a false-feedback task (Study 1; N = 379) and a social-interaction task (Study 2; N = 292). Unlike traditional learning models, we hypothesized a tipping point in which the discrepancy between expectation and outcome becomes so large that new information is perceived as lacking credibility, thus entailing little updating of expectations. Consistent with the hypothesized tipping point, new information was deemed most valid if it was moderately positive. Moreover, descriptively, expectation update was largest for moderate expectation violations, but this effect was small (Study 2) or even nonsignificant (Study 1). The findings question the assumption of traditional learning models that the larger the prediction error, the larger the update.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-29T07:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211024644
       
  • A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) Primer for Mental
           Health Researchers

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      Authors: Christopher C. Conway, Miriam K. Forbes, Susan C. South
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Mental health research is at an important crossroads as the field seeks more reliable and valid phenotypes to study. Dimensional approaches to quantifying mental illness operate outside the confines of traditional categorical diagnoses, and they are gaining traction as a way to advance research on the causes and consequences of mental illness. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a leading dimensional research paradigm that synthesizes decades of data on the major dimensions of psychological disorders. In this article, we demonstrate how to use the HiTOP model to formulate and test research questions through a series of tutorials. To boost accessibility, data and annotated code for each tutorial are included at OSF (https://osf.io/8myzw). After presenting the tutorials, we outline how investigators can use these ideas and tools to generate new insights in their own substantive research programs.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T10:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211017834
       
  • High Predictive Accuracy of Negative Schizotypy With Acoustic Measures

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      Authors: Alex S. Cohen, Christopher R. Cox, Tovah Cowan, Michael D. Masucci, Thanh P. Le, Anna R. Docherty, Jeffrey S. Bedwell
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Negative schizotypal traits potentially can be digitally phenotyped using objective vocal analysis. Prior attempts have shown mixed success in this regard, potentially because acoustic analysis has relied on small, constrained feature sets. We employed machine learning to (a) optimize and cross-validate predictive models of self-reported negative schizotypy using a large acoustic feature set, (b) evaluate model performance as a function of sex and speaking task, (c) understand potential mechanisms underlying negative schizotypal traits by evaluating the key acoustic features within these models, and (d) examine model performance in its convergence with clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning. Accuracy was good (> 80%) and was improved by considering speaking task and sex. However, the features identified as most predictive of negative schizotypal traits were generally not considered critical to their conceptual definitions. Implications for validating and implementing digital phenotyping to understand and quantify negative schizotypy are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T07:14:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211017835
       
  • Sibling Alcohol Use Disorder Is Associated With Increased Risk for Suicide
           Attempt

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      Authors: Mallory E. Stephenson, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jessica E. Salvatore, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S. Kendler, Kristina Sundquist, Alexis C. Edwards
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The association between having a sibling diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and risk for suicide attempt may be attributable to shared genetic liability between AUD and suicidal behavior, effects of environmental exposure to a sibling’s AUD, or both. To distinguish between these alternatives, we conducted a series of Cox regression models using data derived from Swedish population-based registers with national coverage. Among full sibling pairs (656,807 males and 607,096 females), we found that, even after we accounted for the proband’s AUD status, the proband’s risk for suicide attempt was significantly elevated when the proband’s sibling was affected by AUD. Furthermore, the proband’s risk for suicide attempt was consistently higher when the sibling’s AUD registration had occurred more recently. Our findings provide evidence for exposure to sibling AUD as an environmental risk factor for suicide attempt and suggest that clinical outreach may be warranted following a sibling’s diagnosis with AUD.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T07:13:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211025041
       
  • The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Computational Linguistics in Suicide
           Prevention

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      Authors: Yaakov Ophir, Refael Tikochinski, Anat Brunstein Klomek, Roi Reichart
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Suicide, a leading cause of death, is a complex and a hard-to-predict human tragedy. In this article, we introduce a comprehensive outlook on the emerging movement to integrate computational linguistics (CL) in suicide prevention research and practice. Focusing mainly on the state-of-the-art deep neural network models, in this “travel guide” article, we describe, in a relatively plain language, how CL methodologies could facilitate early detection of suicide risk. Major potential contributions of CL methodologies (e.g., word embeddings, interpretational frameworks) for deepening that theoretical understanding of suicide behaviors and promoting the personalized approach in psychological assessment are presented as well. We also discuss principal ethical and methodological obstacles in CL suicide prevention, such as the difficulty to maintain people’s privacy/safety or interpret the “black box” of prediction algorithms. Ethical guidelines and practical methodological recommendations addressing these obstacles are provided for future researchers and clinicians.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T03:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211022013
       
  • An Electrocortical Measure Associated With Metarepresentation Mediates the
           Relationship Between Autism Symptoms and Theory of Mind

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      Authors: Erin J. Libsack, Elizabeth Trimber, Kathryn M. Hauschild, Greg Hajcak, James C. McPartland, Matthew D. Lerner
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Impairments in theory of mind (ToM)—long considered common among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)—are in fact highly heterogeneous across this population. Although such heterogeneity should be reflected in differential recruitment of neural mechanisms during ToM reasoning, no research has yet uncovered a mechanism that explains these individual differences. In this study, 78 (48 with ASD) adolescents viewed ToM vignettes and made mental-state inferences about characters’ behavior while participant electrophysiology was concurrently recorded. Two candidate event-related-potentials (ERPs)—the late positive complex (LPC) and the late slow wave (LSW)—were successfully elicited. LPC scores correlated positively with ToM accuracy and negatively with ASD symptom severity. Note that the LPC partially mediated the relationship between ASD symptoms and ToM accuracy, which suggests that this ERP component, thought to represent cognitive metarepresentation, may help explain differences in ToM performance in some individuals with ASD.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T02:48:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211021975
       
  • Antagonism in Daily Life: An Exploratory Ecological Momentary Assessment
           Study

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      Authors: Colin E. Vize, Whitney R. Ringwald, Elizabeth A. Edershile, Aidan G. C. Wright
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Interpersonal antagonism is one of the major domains of maladaptive personality. Structure-based investigations of antagonism have generally been consistent in highlighting the more specific antagonistic traits (e.g., manipulativeness, callousness) that underlie the broader domain. However, less work has attempted to merge structural and functional accounts of antagonism to assess how specific antagonistic traits manifest in daily life. This exploratory study examined how antagonism and its specific features relate to outcomes assessed using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods. Across four independent EMA samples (N range = 297–396; total N = 1,365; observations per outcome = 5,419–17,735), we investigated how antagonistic traits related to theoretically relevant, EMA-based outcomes (e.g., affect, empathy, coldness-warmth in interpersonal interactions). Results showed robust findings across samples and operationalizations of antagonism (e.g., antagonism’s relation with negative affect), along with more mixed results (e.g., antagonism’s RELATION with different measures of empathy). We discuss future research directions for structural and functional accounts of antagonism.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T08:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211013507
       
  • Does Training Parents in Reinforcement Skills or Relationship Skills
           Enhance Individual Youths’ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety'
           Outcome, Specificity, and Mediation

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      Authors: Wendy K. Silverman, Yasmin Rey, Carla E. Marin, James Jaccard, Jeremy W. Pettit
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We conducted a dismantling design treatment study comparing individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), CBT targeting parents’ reinforcement skills (CBT + Reinf), and CBT targeting parents’ relationship skills (CBT+ Relat) in 341 youths with primary anxiety diagnoses. At posttreatment, youths in CBT with parent involvement had lower anxiety than youths in CBT. At 12-month follow-up, youths in CBT + Relat maintained lower anxiety relative to CBT. At posttreatment, negative reinforcement was significantly lower in CBT + Reinf than CBT + Relat and CBT; negative reinforcement partially mediated anxiety reduction in youths. Reducing parental negative reinforcement in CBT + Reinf was associated with lower parental psychological control, which also partially mediated anxiety reduction in youths. Some of these mediational dynamics continued through follow-up. Targeting concrete behavioral parenting skills, especially negative reinforcement, produced treatment specificity and partial mediation relative to less concrete targeting and enhanced CBT. Findings highlight complexities in identifying mechanisms through which targeting of parenting skills produces anxiety reduction in youths and suggest avenues for future research.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T09:14:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211016402
       
  • A Critical Review of Case Studies on Dissociative Amnesia

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      Authors: Ivan Mangiulli, Henry Otgaar, Marko Jelicic, Harald Merckelbach
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Dissociative amnesia, defined as an inability to remember important autobiographical experiences, usually of a stressful nature, is a controversial phenomenon. We systematically reviewed 128 case studies of dissociative amnesia reported in 60 articles that appeared in peer-reviewed journals in English over the past 20 years (2000–2020). Our aim was to examine to what extent these cases met core features of dissociative amnesia. All cases were about reports of autobiographical memory loss, but the evidence offered in support of a dissociative amnesia interpretation was often weak and plagued by an ambiguous heterogeneity with respect to nature, etiology, and differential diagnoses of alleged memory loss. Most case studies failed to rule out plausible alternative explanations of dissociative amnesia, such as ordinary forgetting and malingering. We encourage clinicians and researchers to more critically investigate alleged cases of dissociative amnesia and provide criteria for how a dissociative amnesia case ideally would look like.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T08:38:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211018194
       
  • Emotion and Emotion Preferences in Daily Life: The Role of Anxiety

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      Authors: W. Michael Vanderlind, Jonas Everaert, Camila Caballero, Emily M. Cohodes, Dylan G. Gee
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      People vary in their emotion preferences (i.e., desired emotional states). No study, however, has examined the nature of emotion preferences in anxiety. In the current study, we used a 14-day ecological momentary assessment paradigm to investigate the daily dynamics of emotion preferences and state emotion as they relate to individual differences in trait anxiety and anxiety symptom severity. Individuals with higher levels of trait anxiety and with more severe anxiety symptoms reported greater preferences for state anxiety compared with their low-anxiety counterparts. Relations between anxiety preferences and subsequent anxiety vary as a function of trait anxiety and symptom severity, and different associations are observed between the two measures of anxiety. The current findings suggest that aberrant emotion preferences may contribute to emotion dysfunction in anxiety and highlight emotion preferences as a novel treatment target for interventions that aim to improve emotion functioning among people with elevated levels of anxiety.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T03:43:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211009500
       
  • A Dual-Mode Social-Information-Processing Model to Explain Individual
           Differences in Children’s Aggressive Behavior

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      Authors: Rogier E. J. Verhoef, Anouk van Dijk, Bram O. de Castro
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Children differ considerably in the social-information-processing (SIP) patterns underlying their aggressive behavior. To clarify these individual differences, we propose a dual-mode SIP model that predicts which processing steps children will take, which children will take them, and under which circumstances, and how this may lead to aggression. This dual-mode SIP model distinguishes between an automatic and reflective processing mode. The automatic mode is characterized by fast automatic processing and impulsive behavioral responses, whereas the reflective mode is characterized by deliberate processing and controlled behavioral responses. Whether children use the automatic or reflective processing mode is moderated by their level of arousal, which depends on an interplay between child-specific factors (i.e., emotional dispositions, motivational dispositions, and executive functioning) and dynamic factors (i.e., internal state and type of situation). The dual-mode SIP model provides new insights into children’s unique SIP styles and provides possibilities to tailor treatment to children’s individual needs.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T03:42:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211016396
       
  • Mental Health and Social Contact During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An
           Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

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      Authors: Eiko I. Fried, Faidra Papanikolaou, Sacha Epskamp
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      For many students, the COVID-19 pandemic caused once-in-a-lifetime disruptions of daily life. In March 2020, during the beginning of the outbreak in the Netherlands, we used ecological momentary assessment to follow 80 undergraduate students four times per day for 14 days to assess mental health, social contact, and COVID-19-related variables. Despite rapidly increasing rates of infections and deaths, we observed decreases in anxiety, loneliness, and COVID-19-related concerns, especially in the first few days. Other mental health variables, such as stress levels, remained stable, whereas depressive symptoms increased. Despite social-distancing measures implemented by the Dutch government halfway through our study, students showed no changes in the frequency of in-person social activities. Dynamic network models identified potential vicious cycles between mental health variables and being alone, which predicted concerns about COVID-19 and was followed by further mental health problems. Findings and implications are discussed in detail.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T02:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211017839
       
  • Maternal Depression, Child Temperament, and Early-Life Stress Predict
           Never-Depressed Preadolescents’ Functional Connectivity During a
           Negative-Mood Induction

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      Authors: Pan Liu, Matthew R. J. Vandermeer, Ola Mohamed Ali, Andrew R. Daoust, Marc F. Joanisse, Deanna M. Barch, Elizabeth P. Hayden
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the development of depression can inform etiology and prevention/intervention. Maternal depression and maladaptive patterns of temperament (e.g., low positive emotionality [PE] or high negative emotionality, especially sadness) are known to predict depression. Although it is unclear how these risks cause depression, altered functional connectivity (FC) during negative-emotion processing may play an important role. We investigated whether maternal depression and age-3 emotionality predicted FC during negative mood reactivity in never-depressed preadolescents and whether these relationships were augmented by early-life stress. Maternal depression predicted decreased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)–amygdala and mPFC–insula FC but increased mPFC–posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) FC. PE predicted increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex–amygdala FC, whereas sadness predicted increased PCC-based FC in insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Sadness was more strongly associated with PCC–insula and PCC–ACC FC as early stress increased. Findings indicate that early depression risks may be mediated by FC underlying negative-emotion processing.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T09:31:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211016419
       
  • Digital Technologies for Emotion-Regulation Assessment and Intervention: A
           Conceptual Review

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      Authors: Alexandra H. Bettis, Taylor A. Burke, Jacqueline Nesi, Richard T. Liu
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The ability to regulate emotions in response to stress is central to healthy development. Whereas early research in emotion regulation predominantly employed static, self-report measurement, the past decade has seen a shift in focus toward understanding the dynamic nature of regulation processes. This is reflected in recent refinements in the definition of emotion regulation that emphasize the importance of the ability to flexibly adapt regulation efforts across contexts. The latest proliferation of digital technologies employed in mental health research offers the opportunity to capture the state- and context-sensitive nature of emotion regulation. In this conceptual review, we examine the use of digital technologies (ecological momentary assessment; wearable and smartphone technology, physical activity, acoustic data, visual data, and geo-location; smart-home technology; virtual reality; social media) in the assessment of emotion regulation and describe their application to interventions. We also discuss challenges and ethical considerations and outline areas for future research.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T03:48:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211011982
       
  • A Prospective Study of Mental Health, Well-Being, and Substance Use During
           the Initial COVID-19 Pandemic Surge

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      Authors: Katherine C. Haydon, Jessica E. Salvatore
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically altered everyday life worldwide, and some individuals may be at increased risk for pandemic-related distress. In a U.S. community sample (N = 236, 64% female; 78% White; mean age = 30.3 years) assessed before COVID-19 and during the initial surge, we examined, prospectively, whether pandemic disruptions and a history of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) were associated with changes in depressive symptoms, stress, sleep, relationship satisfaction, and substance use over time and with concurrent anxiety and peritraumatic distress. Negative pandemic-related events were associated with significantly higher depressive symptoms and stress and lower satisfaction over time as well as higher concurrent anxiety and peritraumatic distress. ACEs were associated with more negative pandemic-related events, which, in turn, associated with higher peripandemic depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety, and peritraumatic distress. Findings underscore that COVID-19 disruptions are associated with greater distress and that childhood trauma is a key axis of differential risk.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T03:11:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211013499
       
  • Differentiating Kinds of Systemic Stressors With Relation to
           Psychotic-Like Experiences in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: The
           Stimulation, Discrepancy, and Deprivation Model of Psychosis

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      Authors: Teresa Vargas, Katherine S. F. Damme, K. Juston Osborne, Vijay A. Mittal
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Conceptualizations that distinguish systems-level stress exposures are lacking; the stimulation (lack of safety and high attentional demands), discrepancy (social exclusion and lack of belonging), and deprivation (SDD; lack of environmental enrichment) theory of psychosis and stressors occurring at the systems level has not been directly tested. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on 3,207 youths, and associations with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) were explored. Although model fit was suboptimal, five factors were defined, and four were consistent with the SDD theory and related to PLEs. Objective and subjective or self-report exposures for deprivation showed significantly stronger PLE associations compared with discrepancy and objective stimulation factors. Objective and subjective or self-report measures converged overall, although self-report stimulation exhibited a significantly stronger association with PLEs compared with objective stimulation. Considering distinct systems-level exposures could help clarify putative mechanisms and psychosis vulnerability. The preliminary approach potentially informs health policy efforts aimed at psychopathology prevention and intervention.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T05:06:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211016415
       
  • Decoupling of Obsessions and Compulsions During Cognitive Behavioral
           Therapy for Youths With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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      Authors: Bunmi O. Olatunji, David Cole, Joseph F. McGuire, Sophie C. Schneider, Brent J. Small, Tanya K. Murphy, Sabine Wilhelm, Daniel A. Geller, Eric A. Storch
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Although exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), it is unclear whether the decoupling of obsessions and compulsions is associated with treatment response. Accordingly, the present study examined change in the association between obsessions and compulsions during ERP for OCD as well as the association between decoupling of obsessions and compulsions and treatment outcome. The sample consisted of 140 youths with OCD who received 10 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy with an emphasis on ERP. The findings show that the correlation and covariance of obsessions and compulsions increased during treatment. However, for participants that did not show improvement, the association between obsessions and compulsions strengthened over the course of treatment. In contrast, the association between obsessions and compulsions weakened over the course of ERP for treatment responders. These findings highlight the importance of the relationship between obsessions and compulsions in the treatment of OCD.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T04:47:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211013771
       
  • Filthiness of Immorality: Manipulating Disgust and Moral Rigidity Through
           Noninvasive Brain Stimulation as a Promising Therapeutic Tool for
           Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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      Authors: Giuseppe Salvo, Samantha Provenzano, Maria Di Bello, Francesca D’Olimpio, Cristina Ottaviani, Francesco Mancini
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The study was designed to test the hypothesis that indirect inhibition of the insula via cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would decrease disgust and moral rigidity in 36 healthy individuals undergoing 15 min of tDCS over the temporal lobe. To obtain a comprehensive assessment of disgust, we used subjective (affect rating), physiological (heart rate variability [HRV]), and implicit measures (word-fragment completion), and moral judgment was assessed by asking participants to rate the deontological and altruistic moral wrongness of a revised version of the moral foundations vignettes. We found anodal and cathodal stimulations to, respectively, enhance and decrease self-reported disgust, deontological morality, and HRV. Note that these effects were stronger in individuals with higher levels of obsessive compulsive (OC) traits. Because disgust and sensitivity to deontological guilt are among the most impairing features in OC disorder, it is auspicious that cathodal tDCS could be implemented to reduce such symptoms.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T10:39:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211009508
       
  • Inferences Training Affects Memory, Rumination, and Mood

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      Authors: Baruch Perlman, Nilly Mor, Yael Wisney Jacobinski, Adi Doron Zakon, Noa Avirbach, Paula Hertel
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Making negative inferences for negative events, ruminating about them, and retrieving negative aspects of memories have all been associated with depression. However, the causal mechanisms that link negative inferences to negative mood and the interplay between inferences, rumination, and memory have not been explored. In the current study, we used a cognitive-bias modification (CBM) procedure to train causal inferences and assessed training effects on ruminative thinking, memory, and negative mood among people with varying levels of depression. Training had immediate effects on negative mood and rumination but not after recall of a negative autobiographical memory. Note that training affected memory: Participants falsely recalled inferences presented during the training in a training-congruent manner. Moreover, among participants with high levels of depression, training also affected causal inferences they made for an autobiographical memory retrieved after training. Our findings shed light on negative cognitive cycles that may contribute to depression.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T10:38:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211009886
       
  • Placebo Effects: A New Theory

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      Authors: Tao Liu
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Placebo effects have increasingly aroused scientific and public interest for their clinical and research values. However, underlying mechanisms of this mind–body phenomenon are not yet fully understood. In this article, I propose a new model according to which context-based placebo effects source from positive treatment beliefs but are directly caused by benefit expectations. By virtue of mediating belief-expectation transformation, placebo administration triggers, and thus has a pivotal role in, subsequent therapeutic responses.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T10:18:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211009799
       
  • Is a High Association Between Repetitive Negative Thinking and Negative
           Affect Predictive of Depressive Symptoms' A Clustering Approach for
           Experience-Sampling Data

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      Authors: Mina Stefanovic, Tabea Rosenkranz, Thomas Ehring, Edward R. Watkins, Keisuke Takano
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      A reciprocal relationship between repetitive negative thinking (RNT) and negative affect (NA) has been found in various types of psychopathology. Recent studies have suggested that the magnitude of this association can vary across time and individuals, which may inform future psychopathology. Here, we explored how these dynamics and interplays are manifested in student and general populations using a statistical clustering algorithm. Across three experience-sampling data sets, our clustering analyses consistently identified two groups of individuals; one group had a higher bidirectional association between RNT and NA (and also higher inertia) than the other group. Furthermore, a prospective analysis revealed that the group with the higher bidirectional association is at risk of developing depressive symptoms during the 3-month follow-up period if they had experienced high levels of NA over the experience-sampling phase. These findings suggest that the dysfunctional affective and cognitive dynamics would be a promising target of preventive intervention.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T09:15:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211009495
       
  • Folk Classification and Factor Rotations: Whales, Sharks, and the Problems
           With the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)

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      Authors: Gerald J. Haeffel, Bertus F. Jeronimus, Bonnie N. Kaiser, Lesley Jo Weaver, Peter D. Soyster, Aaron J. Fisher, Ivan Vargas, Jason T. Goodson, Wei Lu
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) uses factor analysis to group self-reported symptoms of mental illness (i.e., like goes with like). It is hailed as a significant improvement over other diagnostic taxonomies. However, the purported advantages and fundamental assumptions of HiTOP have received little, if any, scientific scrutiny. We critically evaluated five fundamental claims about HiTOP. We conclude that HiTOP does not demonstrate a high degree of verisimilitude and has the potential to hinder progress on understanding the etiology of psychopathology. It does not lend itself to theory building or taxonomic evolution, and it cannot account for multifinality, equifinality, or developmental and etiological processes. In its current form, HiTOP is not ready to use in clinical settings and may result in algorithmic bias against underrepresented groups. We recommend a bifurcation strategy moving forward in which the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is used in clinical settings while researchers focus on developing a falsifiable theory-based classification system.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T06:38:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211002500
       
  • Barriers to Building More Effective Treatments: Negative Interactions
           Among Smoking-Intervention Components

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      Authors: Timothy B. Baker, Daniel M. Bolt, Stevens S. Smith
      First page: 995
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Meaningfully improved mental and behavioral health treatment is an unrealized dream. Across three factorial experiments, inferential tests in prior studies showed a pattern of negative interactions, suggesting that better clinical outcomes may be obtained when participants receive fewer rather than more intervention components. Furthermore, relatively few significant main effects were found in these experiments. Modeling suggested that negative interactions among components may account for these patterns. In this article, we evaluate factors that may contribute to such declining benefit: increased attentional or effort burden; components that produce their effects via the same capacity-limited mechanisms, making their effects subadditive; and a tipping-point phenomenon in which people near a hypothesized tipping point for change will benefit markedly from weak intervention and people far from the tipping point will benefit little from even strong intervention. New research should explore factors that cause negative interactions among components and constrain the development of more effective treatments.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T09:09:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702621994551
       
  • The Half-Empty/Full Glass in Mental Health: A Reference-Dependent
           Computational Model of Evaluation in Psychopathology

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      Authors: Francesco Rigoli, Cristina Martinelli, Giovanni Pezzulo
      First page: 1021
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Evaluation (the process attributing value to outcomes) underlies “hot” aspects of cognition, such as emotion, affect, and motivation. In several psychopathologies, such as depression and addiction, impairments in evaluation are critical. Contemporary theories highlight the reference-dependent nature of evaluation, whereby outcomes are evaluated relative to their context. Surprisingly, reference-dependent evaluation remains to be explored in the context of psychopathology. We offer a computational theory of how impaired reference-dependent evaluation might underlie mental illness. The theory proposes that evaluation derives from comparing an outcome against a reference point parameter and by weighting any discrepancy by an uncertainty parameter. Maladaptive evaluation is proposed to occur when these parameters do not reflect the true context statistics. Depending on which parameter is altered, different forms of maladaptive evaluation emerge, each associated with specific clinical conditions. This model highlights how the concept of reference-dependent evaluation can elucidate several clinical conditions, including perfectionism, depression, and addiction.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-05T07:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702621998344
       
  • Dynamic Attention Regulation for Prospective Goals in Schizophrenia

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      Authors: Tao Chen, Lu-lu Liu, Ji-fang Cui, Xiao-jing Qin, Ming-yuan Gan, Shu-ping Tan, Ya Wang, Muireann Irish
      First page: 1035
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Whether patients with schizophrenia are impaired in flexibly regulating attention in accordance with fluctuations in cognitive demand to achieve optimal task performance remains unclear. To address this issue, 47 patients with schizophrenia and 47 matched control participants were recruited to complete a time-based prospective memory task. Every 2-min block before the target time was divided into four 30-s intervals, after which the time check and intraindividual response time variability (IIRTV) across these intervals were calculated. Patients with schizophrenia displayed significantly higher IIRTV across all four time intervals and checked time less frequently during the last 30-s interval relative to control subjects. Moreover, the reduced change in time-checking frequency and IIRTV between the first and the last 30-s intervals was related to poorer time-based prospective memory performance in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings provide initial evidence that an inefficient capacity to dynamically allocate attentional resources during an ongoing task hinders dual-task performance in schizophrenia.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T10:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211004543
       
  • Neurocognitive Heterogeneity in Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of
           Self-Referential Processing and Childhood Maltreatment

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      Authors: Anat Talmon, Matthew Luke Dixon, Philippe R. Goldin, Richard G. Heimberg, James J. Gross
      First page: 1045
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negative self-beliefs and altered brain activation in the default-mode network (DMN). However, the extent to which there is neurocognitive heterogeneity in SAD remains unclear. We had two independent samples of patients perform a self-referential encoding task and complete self-reports of childhood maltreatment, subjective well-being, and emotion regulation. In the replication sample, we also measured DMN activation using functional MRI. We used k-means clustering, which revealed two distinct subgroups of patients with SAD in the discovery sample. Cluster 1 demonstrated higher levels of negative self-referential trait endorsement, lower levels of positive self-referential trait endorsement, and significantly higher levels of childhood emotional maltreatment, lower subjective well-being, and altered emotion-regulation-strategy use. A similar pattern was observed in the replication sample, which further demonstrated higher DMN activation during negative trait judgments in Cluster 1. Participants in the SAD clusters, from both the discovery and replication samples, were significantly distinct from samples of control participants. These findings reveal neurocognitive heterogeneity in SAD and its relationship to emotional maltreatment.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T10:22:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211004452
       
  • Longitudinal Coupling of Depression in Parent–Adolescent Dyads: Within-
           and Between-Dyads Effects Over Time

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      Authors: Julianne M. Griffith, Jami F. Young, Benjamin L. Hankin
      First page: 1059
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In the present work, we evaluated reciprocal, within-dyads associations between parents’ and adolescents’ depressive symptoms across two independent samples (N = 327 and N = 435 dyads; approximately 85% biological mothers) assessed every 3 months for 2 years (Study 1) to 3 years (Study 2). Results of random intercept cross-lagged panel models converged to support positive contemporaneous patterns of cofluctuation in parental and adolescent depression such that within-persons deviations in parental depression were associated with same-direction within-persons deviations in adolescent depression at the same time point. In contrast, within-persons fluctuations in parental depression did not prospectively predict within-persons fluctuations in adolescent depression, or vice versa, across the follow-up period. Results held across boys and girls, as well as dyads with and without a parental history of depressive disorder. Overall, findings advance knowledge by demonstrating that after accounting for between-persons/dyads variance, parental and adolescent depression demonstrate contemporaneous cofluctuations but do not demonstrate within-dyads reciprocity over time.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T07:03:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702621998313
       
  • Suicide Ideation and Thwarted Interpersonal Needs Among Psychiatric
           Inpatients: A Network Approach

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      Authors: Sarah L. Brown, Andrew J. Marshall, Sean M. Mitchell, Jared F. Roush, Gregory H. Mumma, Danielle R. Jahn, Jessica D. Ribeiro, Thomas E. Joiner, Kelly C. Cukrowicz
      First page: 1080
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We aimed to demonstrate the utility of an item-level network analysis approach to suicide risk by testing the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) among 402 psychiatric inpatients. We hypothesized that specific thwarted belongingness (TB) or perceived burdensomeness (PB; Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire items) facets would positively relate to passive or active suicide ideation and that these facets would positively relate to each other and form distinct clusters. We also tested TB and PB facets central to the networks as predictors of suicide ideation compared with the full TB and PB subscales. Face-valid items congruent with latent constructs proposed by the IPTS (i.e., feelings of burden on society, feeling that one does not belong) were the only two facets uniquely predictive of passive and active suicide ideation. Facets of TB and PB did not form distinct clusters. Item-level network analysis may have important conceptual, assessment, predictive, and clinical implications for understanding suicide risk.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T07:37:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211000670
       
  • Substance Use and Sexual-Minority Status: Examining the Mediating Roles of
           Stress and Emotion Dysregulation in Young Adult Women

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      Authors: Connor J. McCabe, Alison E. Hipwell, Kate Keenan, Stephanie D. Stepp, Tammy Chung, Kevin M. King
      First page: 1095
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual-minority women (SMW) report higher rates of substance use and disorder across the life span and greater levels of minority stress in adolescence and young adulthood. Minority stress mediation models propose that higher levels of social stressors may increase emotion dysregulation, which in turn increases the propensity toward substance misuse. Few studies, however, have prospectively examined the impact of stressors and emotion dysregulation among SMW on early and escalating substance use. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether emotion dysregulation and social stress mediated the association between sexual-minority status and developing substance use (ages 17–22) in a sample of 2,201 heterosexual and 246 SMW participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results supported serial mediation processes of marijuana-use risk: SMW reported higher levels of social stress in late adolescence, which in turn predicted greater emotion dysregulation that was associated with greater marijuana use by young adulthood.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T01:16:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702621999359
       
  • Extending Expectancy Theory to Food Intake: Effect of a Simulated
           Fast-Food Restaurant on Highly and Minimally Processed Food Expectancies

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      Authors: Jenna R. Cummings, Lindzey V. Hoover, Meredith I. Turner, Kalei Glozier, Jessica Zhao, Ashley N. Gearhardt
      First page: 1115
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Unhealthy diets are widespread and linked to a number of detrimental clinical outcomes. The current preregistered experiment extended expectancy theory into the study of food intake; specifically, we tested whether a fast-food restaurant affects food expectancies, or the emotions one expects to feel while eating highly processed foods (e.g., pizza) and minimally processed foods (e.g., carrots). Participants (N = 200, mean age = 18.79 years) entered a simulated fast-food restaurant or a neutral space, completed questionnaires, and engaged in a bogus taste test. The simulated fast-food restaurant increased positive highly processed food expectancies (d = 0.29). Palatable eating coping motives scores did not moderate the effect; however, this clinically relevant pattern of eating behavior was associated with greater positive highly processed food expectancies. In addition, there was an indirect effect of the fast-food restaurant on ad libitum food intake through positive highly processed food expectancies. Reducing positive highly processed food expectancies may improve diet, which may broadly affect health.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T09:51:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211004582
       
  • Selectively Interfering With Intrusive but Not Voluntary Memories of a
           Trauma Film: Accounting for the Role of Associative Memory

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      Authors: Alex Lau-Zhu, Richard N. Henson, Emily A. Holmes
      First page: 1128
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Intrusive memories of a traumatic event can be reduced by a subsequent interference procedure, seemingly sparing voluntary memory for that event. This selective-interference effect has potential therapeutic benefits (e.g., for emotional disorders) and legal importance (e.g., for witness testimony). However, the measurements of intrusive memory and voluntary memory typically differ in the role of associations between a cue and the emotional memory “hotspots.” To test this, we asked participants to watch a traumatic film followed by either an interference procedure (reminder plus Tetris) or control procedure (reminder only). Measurement of intrusions (using a laboratory task) and voluntary memory (recognition for film stills) were crossed with the presence or absence of associative cues. The reminder-plus-Tetris group exhibited fewer intrusions despite comparable recognition memory, replicating the results of prior studies. Note that this selective interference did not appear to depend on associative cues. This involuntary versus voluntary memory dissociation for emotional material further supports separate-trace memory theories and has applied advantages.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T10:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702621998315
       
  • Characterizing Typologies of Polytraumatization: A Replication and
           Extension Study Examining Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology
           in an Urban Population

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      Authors: Yara Mekawi, Eva Kuzyk, H. Drew Dixon, Brooke McKenna, Luisa Camacho, Ana Martinez de Andino, Jennifer Stevens, Vasiliki Michopolous, Abigail Powers
      First page: 1144
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      A person-centered approach to examining trauma has uncovered typologies of polytraumatization that are differentially associated with psychopathology. However, previous research is limited by narrow conceptualizations of trauma, limited distal outcomes, and underrepresentation of racially marginalized groups. To address these gaps, we used latent profile analysis to uncover distinct polytraumatization typologies and examine four symptom-based (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, aggression, and substance abuse) and two behavior-based (self-harm, jail counts) outcomes in a sample of adults with low socioeconomic resources (N = 7,426, 94% African American). The models were indicated by 19 traumatic experiences (e.g., accident, sexual assault, witnessing/experiencing violence). The best fitting model uncovered five classes: minimal trauma, physical abuse, violence exposure, sexual abuse, and polytrauma. Classes characterized by significant and varied trauma were higher on both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, whereas those characterized by specific types of trauma were higher on only one type of psychopathology. Implications for the assessment and treatment of trauma-related disorders are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T12:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211000723
       
  • Mindfulness-Based Trauma Recovery for Refugees (MBTR-R): Randomized
           Waitlist-Control Evidence of Efficacy and Safety

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      Authors: Anna Aizik-Reebs, Kim Yuval, Yuval Hadash, Solomon Gebreyohans Gebremariam, Amit Bernstein
      First page: 1164
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Refugees and asylum seekers often suffer from trauma- and stress-related mental health problems. We thus developed mindfulness-based trauma recovery for refugees (MBTR-R)—a 9-week, mindfulness-based, trauma-sensitive, and socioculturally adapted group intervention for refugees and asylum seekers. We conducted a randomized waitlist-control study to test its efficacy and safety among a community sample of 158 Eritrean asylum seekers (46.2% female) with severe trauma history and chronic postmigration stress. Relative to the waitlist-control group, MBTR-R participants demonstrated significantly reduced rates and symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and multimorbidity at postintervention and 5-week follow-up. Therapeutic effects were not dependent on key demographics, trauma history severity, or postmigration living difficulties. Finally, there was no evidence of adverse effects or lasting clinically significant deterioration in monitored outcomes. The brief intervention format, group-based delivery, and limited attrition indicate that MBTR-R may be a feasible, acceptable, readily implemented, and scalable mental health intervention for refugees and asylum seekers.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-05T10:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702621998641
       
  • Defining and Measuring Meditation-Related Adverse Effects in
           Mindfulness-Based Programs

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      Authors: Willoughby B. Britton, Jared R. Lindahl, David J. Cooper, Nicholas K. Canby, Roman Palitsky
      First page: 1185
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Research on the adverse effects of mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) has been sparse and hindered by methodological imprecision. The 44-item Meditation Experiences Interview (MedEx-I) was used by an independent assessor to measure meditation-related side effects (MRSEs) following three variants of an 8-week program of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (n = 96). Each item was queried for occurrence, causal link to mindfulness meditation practice, duration, valence, and impact on functioning. Eighty-three percent of the MBP sample reported at least one MRSE. Meditation-related adverse effects with negative valences or negative impacts on functioning occurred in 58% and 37% of the sample, respectively. Lasting bad effects occurred in 6% to 14% of the sample and were associated with signs of dysregulated arousal (hyperarousal and dissociation). Meditation practice in MBPs is associated with transient distress and negative impacts at similar rates to other psychological treatments.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T04:46:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702621996340
       
  • Polygenic Score for Smoking Is Associated With Externalizing
           Psychopathology and Disinhibited Personality Traits but Not Internalizing
           Psychopathology in Adolescence

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      Authors: Brian M. Hicks, D. Angus Clark, Joseph D. Deak, Mengzhen Liu, C. Emily Durbin, Jonathan D. Schaefer, Sylia Wilson, William G. Iacono, Matt McGue, Scott I. Vrieze
      First page: 1205
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We examined whether a polygenic score (PGS) for smoking measured genetic risk for general behavioral disinhibition by estimating its associations with externalizing and internalizing psychopathology and related personality traits at multiple time points in adolescence (ages 11, 14, and 17 years; N = 3,225). The smoking PGS had strong associations with the stable variance across time for all the externalizing measures (mean standardized β = 0.27), agreeableness (β = −0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [−0.28, −0.16]), and conscientiousness (β = −0.19, 95% CI = [−0.24, −0.13]) but was not significantly associated with internalizing measures (mean β = 0.06) or extraversion (β = 0.01, 95% CI = [−0.05, 0.07]). After controlling for smoking at age 17 years, the associations with externalizing, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness remained statistically significant. The smoking PGS measures genetic influences that contribute to a spectrum of phenotypes related to behavioral disinhibition, including externalizing psychopathology and normal-range personality traits related to behavioral control but not internalizing psychopathology.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T10:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211002117
       
  • When Goal Pursuit Gets Hairy: A Longitudinal Goal Study Examining the Role
           of Controlled Motivation and Action Crises in Predicting Changes in Hair
           Cortisol, Perceived Stress, Health, and Depression Symptoms

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      Authors: Anne Catherine Holding, Emily Moore, Amanda Moore, Jérémie Verner-Filion, Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, Richard Koestner
      First page: 1214
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The action crisis is a critical phase in goal striving during which the goal pursuer feels conflicted about persevering with the goal or initiating disengagement. Recent research suggests that goal motivation, specifically controlled motivation (i.e., pursuing a goal out of obligation and pressure), increases the likelihood of experiencing action crises. In turn, action crises in goal pursuit have been linked to increases in depression symptoms and cortisol. In the present 8-month longitudinal study, we tracked university students’ personal goals to examine whether the pursuit of controlled goals and the experience of action crises was associated with increasing levels of hair cortisol, perceived stress, poor health, and depression symptoms (N = 156). Structural equation modeling suggested that experiencing action crises in goal pursuit was associated with increases in markers of stress, depression, and ill-being. This effect was partially explained by controlled goal motivation. The clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T09:25:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702621995214
       
 
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