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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Psychiatry and Psychology Journal : APPJ     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Journal of Professional Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 365)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aging Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 191)
An-Nafs : Jurnal Fakultas Psikologi     Open Access  
Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access  
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analogías del Comportamiento     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 84)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 269)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aprender     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Archives of Depression and Anxiety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Augmented Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior and Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioural Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Art Therapy : Research, Practice, and Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
CES Psicología     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Contemporary Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos de Psicología     Open Access  
cultura & psyché : Journal of Cultural Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Culture - Society - Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Clinical Psychological Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.281
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Acknowledgment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 383 - 384
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 383-384, March 2022.

      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T01:03:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221083964
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Adults’ Memory for a Maltreatment-Related Childhood Experience:
           Interview Protocols

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Deborah Goldfarb, Gail S. Goodman, Yan Wang, Ronald P. Fisher, Daisy Vidales, Lauren C. Gonzalves, Yuerui Wu, Dana Hartman, Jianjian Qin, Mitchell L. Eisen
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Adults’ claims of decades-old child maltreatment raise questions about how to obtain accurate memories about childhood events. In this study, adults who experienced a documented child maltreatment medical examination when they were 3 to 16 years old (Time 1) were interviewed 2 decades later (Time 2). The adults (N = 115) were randomly assigned to one of three interview-protocol conditions: a standard forensic interview, the cognitive interview (CI) with mental reinstatement, or the CI with mental- and physical-context reinstatement. The CI increased accuracy by dampening reports of potentially schematic but nonexperienced information. Younger age at Time 1 was associated with memories that were less complete but not more inaccurate. A greater number of Time 2 posttraumatic-stress-disorder symptoms predicted both correct and incorrect (omissions and commissions, respectively) answers to specific questions and incorrect answers to misleading questions; commission errors were associated with Time 1 physical-abuse status. Theoretical implications and clinical and legal applications are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T06:51:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221081877
       
  • The Development and Internal Evaluation of a Predictive Model to Identify
           for Whom Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Offers Superior Relapse
           Prevention for Recurrent Depression Versus Maintenance Antidepressant
           Medication

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zachary D. Cohen, Robert J. DeRubeis, Rachel Hayes, Edward R. Watkins, Glyn Lewis, Richard Byng, Sarah Byford, Catherine Crane, Willem Kuyken, Tim Dalgleish, Susanne Schweizer
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Depression is highly recurrent, even following successful pharmacological and/or psychological intervention. We aimed to develop clinical prediction models to inform adults with recurrent depression choosing between antidepressant medication (ADM) maintenance or switching to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Using previously published data (N = 424), we constructed prognostic models using elastic-net regression that combined demographic, clinical, and psychological factors to predict relapse at 24 months under ADM or MBCT. Only the ADM model (discrimination performance: area under the curve [AUC] = .68) predicted relapse better than baseline depression severity (AUC = .54; one-tailed DeLong’s test: z = 2.8, p = .003). Individuals with the poorest ADM prognoses who switched to MBCT had better outcomes compared with individuals who maintained ADM (48% vs. 70% relapse, respectively; superior survival times, z = −2.7, p = .008). For individuals with moderate to good ADM prognoses, both treatments resulted in similar likelihood of relapse. If replicated, the results suggest that predictive modeling can inform clinical decision-making around relapse prevention in recurrent depression.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T06:50:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221076832
       
  • Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Sexual Decision-Making Among Men Who
           Have Sex With Men: Alcohol’s Influences on Self-Control Processes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Stephen A. Maisto, Jeffrey S. Simons, Tibor P. Palfai, Dezarie Moskal, Alan Z. Sheinfil, Kelli D. Tahaney
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      This experiment tested mechanisms linking alcohol intoxication and analogue determinants of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) in a sample of 257 men who have sex with men (MSM). The two mechanisms tested were implicit approach biases toward CAI stimuli and executive working memory. Participants were randomly assigned to three conditions (water control, placebo, or alcohol) and, following beverage administration, completed a working memory task, an approach-avoidance task of sexual versus condom stimuli, and two video role-play vignettes of high-risk sexual scenarios. Sexual arousal and CAI intentions were assessed by self-report, and behavioral skills and risk exposure were derived from participants’ role-play behavior. Estimation of four path models showed that the hypothesized mechanisms were supported for the CAI intention outcome, but the findings for the skills and risk-exposure outcome were mixed. Implications for development and enhancement of HIV prevention interventions are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T07:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221079780
       
  • Maturing Out: Between- and Within-Persons Changes in Social-Network
           Drinking, Drinking Identity, and Hazardous Drinking Following College
           Graduation

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      Authors: Kristen P. Lindgren, Scott A. Baldwin, Kirsten P. Peterson, Jason J. Ramirez, Bethany A. Teachman, Ethan Kross, Reinout W. Wiers, Clayton Neighbors
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Many college students reduce hazardous drinking (HD) following graduation without treatment. Identifying cognitive mechanisms facilitating this “natural” reduction in HD during this transition is crucial. We evaluated drinking identity as a potential mechanism and tested whether within-persons changes in one’s social network’s drinking were linked to within-persons changes in drinking identity and subsequent within-persons changes in HD. A sample of 422 undergraduates reporting HD was followed from 6 months before graduation until 2 years after graduation. Their drinking, drinking identity, and social networks were assessed online. Within-persons changes in drinking identity did not mediate the relationship between within-persons changes in social-network drinking and personal HD, although significant positive between-persons associations among all constructs were found. Instead, there was some evidence that within-persons changes in drinking identity followed changes in HD, which suggests that drinking identity may function as a marker versus mechanism of “natural” HD reduction during transition out of college.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T07:07:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221082957
       
  • Connectivity Patterns Evoked by Fearful Faces Demonstrate Reduced
           Flexibility Across a Shared Dimension of Adolescent Anxiety and Depression
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nicholas A. Hubbard, Randy P. Auerbach, Viviana Siless, Nicole Lo, Isabelle R. Frosch, Danielle E. Clark, Robert Jones, Rebecca Kremens, Megan Pinaire, Flavia Vaz-DeSouza, Satrajit S. Ghosh, Aude Henin, Stefan G. Hofmann, Diego A. Pizzagalli, Isabelle M. Rosso, Anastasia Yendiki, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, John D. E. Gabrieli
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescents experiencing anxiety or depression exhibit cognitive biases favoring the processing of negative emotional information. It remains unknown whether common neurobiological processes underlie these biases across anxiety and depression. Here, brain imaging was acquired from typical, anxious, and depressed adolescents during an emotional-interference task. Functional connectivity patterns were assessed while adolescents were cued to attend to or ignore faces. Results revealed a shared dimension of anxious and depressive symptoms was associated with reduced changes in connectivity patterns between conditions in which adolescents needed to ignore or attend to fearful faces. These findings were exclusive to fearful faces and observed only for functional connections with a primary face-representation area (fusiform gyrus). Results suggested a failure to flexibly adapt communication patterns with sensory-representation areas in the presence of negative emotional information, which may reflect a common neurobiological mechanism explaining biases favoring such information shared among adolescent anxiety and depression.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T06:54:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221079628
       
  • Does Objectively Measured Social-Media or Smartphone Use Predict
           Depression, Anxiety, or Social Isolation Among Young Adults'

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      Authors: Craig J. R. Sewall, Tina R. Goldstein, Aidan G. C. Wright, Daniel Rosen
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Despite a plethora of research, the link between digital-technology use and psychological distress among young adults remains inconclusive. Findings in this area are typically undermined by methodological limitations related to measurement, study design, and statistical analysis. Addressing these limitations, we examined the prospective, within-persons associations between three aspects of objectively measured digital-technology use (duration and frequency of smartphone use, duration of social-media use) and three aspects of psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and social isolation) among a sample of young adults (N = 384). Across 81 different model specifications, we found that most within-persons prospective effects between digital-technology use and psychological distress were statistically nonsignificant, and all were very small—even the largest effects were unlikely to register a meaningful impact on a person’s psychological distress. In post hoc subgroup analyses, we found scant evidence for the claim that digital-technology use is more harmful for women and/or younger people.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T05:33:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221078309
       
  • Systemic Challenges in Internship Training for Health-Service-Psychology:
           A Call to Action From Trainee Stakeholders

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: R. Palitsky, D. M. Kaplan, M. A. Brodt, M. R. Anderson, A. Athey, J. A. Coffino, A. Egbert, E. S. Hallowell, G. T. Han, M.-A. Hartmann, C. Herbitter, M. Herrera Legon, C. D. Hughes, N. C. Jao, M. T. Kassel, T.-A. P. Le, H. F. Levin-Aspenson, G. López, M. R. Maroney, M. Medrano, S. J. Reznik, M. L. Rogers, B. Stevenson
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The challenges observed in health-service-psychology (HSP) training during COVID-19 revealed systemic and philosophical issues that preexisted the pandemic but became more visible during the global health crisis. In a position article written by 23 trainees across different sites and training specializations, we use lessons learned from COVID-19 as a touchstone for a call to action in HSP training. Historically, trainee voices have been conspicuously absent from literature about clinical training. We describe long-standing dilemmas in HSP training that were exacerbated by the pandemic and will continue to require resolution after the pandemic has subsided. We make recommendations for systems-level changes that would advance equity and sustainability in HSP training. This article advances the conversation about HSP training by including the perspective of trainees as essential stakeholders.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T05:28:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211072232
       
  • Optimal Well-Being After Psychopathology: Prevalence and Correlates

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      Authors: Andrew R. Devendorf, Ruba Rum, Todd B. Kashdan, Jonathan Rottenberg
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Optimal functioning after psychopathology is understudied. We report the prevalence of optimal well-being (OWB) following recovery after depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance use disorders. Using a national Canadian sample (N = 23,491), we operationalized OWB as absence of 12-month psychopathology, coupled with scoring above the 25th national percentile on psychological well-being and below the 25th percentile on disability measures. Compared with 24.1% of participants without a history of psychopathology, 9.8% of participants with a lifetime history of psychopathology met OWB. Adults with a history of substance use disorders (10.2%) and depression (7.1%) were the most likely to report OWB. Persons with anxiety (5.7%), suicidal ideation (5.0%), bipolar I (3.3%), and bipolar II (3.2%) were less likely to report OWB. Having a lifetime history of just one disorder increased the odds of OWB by a factor of 4.2 relative to having a lifetime history of multiple disorders. Although psychopathology substantially reduces the probability of OWB, many individuals with psychopathology attain OWB.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T10:11:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221078872
       
  • Covariate Selection for Estimating Individual Treatment Effects in
           Psychotherapy Research: A Simulation Study and Empirical Example

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      Authors: Robin Anno Wester, Julian Rubel, Axel Mayer
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Estimating individual treatment effects (ITEs) is crucial to personalized psychotherapy. It depends on identifying all covariates that interact with treatment, a challenging task considering the many patient characteristics hypothesized to influence treatment outcome. The goal of this study was to compare different covariate-selection strategies and their consequences on estimating ITEs. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to compare stepwise regression with and without cross-validation and shrinkage methods. The study was designed to mimic the setting of psychotherapy studies. No single covariate-selection strategy dominated all others across all factor-level combinations and on all performance measures. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator showed the most accurate out-of-sample predictions, identified the highest number of true treatment-covariate interactions, and estimated ITEs with the highest precision across the most conditions. Domain backward stepwise regression and backward stepwise regression using Bayesian information criterion were least biased in estimating variance of ITEs across the most conditions.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T06:41:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211071043
       
  • Gray-Matter Morphometry of Internalizing-Symptom Dimensions During
           Adolescence

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      Authors: Harry R. Smolker, Hannah R. Snyder, Benjamin L. Hankin, Marie T. Banich
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the neuroanatomical correlates of internalizing psychopathology during adolescence may shed light on neurodevelopmental processes that make this a critical period for the trajectory of mental illness. However, few studies have simultaneously examined co-occurring and dissociable features of internalizing psychopathology during this formative developmental stage. In the current study, we identify the neuroanatomical correlates of four dimensions of internalizing psychopathology symptoms in adolescents: a common internalizing dimension capturing covariance in symptoms across internalizing disorders, as well as low-positive-affect-specific, anxious-arousal-specific, and anxious-apprehension-specific residuals. Our results suggest that these dimensions are associated with neuroanatomy across much of the brain, including prefrontal and limbic regions implicated in case-control studies and regions supporting visual processing. It is noteworthy that results differed between males and females in regions that are sexually dimorphic in adulthood, and the direction of the effects was largely opposite what has been observed in adults and children.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T06:41:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211071091
       
  • Affect-Dynamic Signatures of Psychosis Risk Across Multiple Time Scales
           and Contexts

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      Authors: Lilian Y. Li, Jason Schiffman, Elizabeth A. Martin
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      There is a critical need for identifying time-sensitive and cost-effective markers of psychosis risk early in the illness course. One solution may lie in affect dynamics, or the fluctuations of affect across time, which have been demonstrated to predict transitions in psychopathology. Across three studies, the current research is the first to comprehensively investigate affect dynamics in relation to subthreshold positive symptoms (perceptual aberration and magical ideation) and negative symptoms (social anhedonia) of the psychosis spectrum. Across multiple time scales and contexts, we modeled affect dynamics from inexpensive laboratory paradigms and social-media text. Findings provided strong evidence for positive symptoms linked to heightened magnitude and frequency of affective fluctuations in response to emotional materials. Alternatively, negative symptoms showed modest association with heightened persistence of baseline states. These affect-dynamic signatures of psychosis risk provide insight on the distinct developmental pathways to psychosis and could facilitate current risk-detection approaches.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T06:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211070794
       
  • Changes in Maternal Depression and Children’s Behavior Problems:
           Investigating the Role of COVID-19-Related Stressors, Hair Cortisol, and
           Dehydroepiandrosterone

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      Authors: Stacey N. Doan, Madeleine Ding, Anna Beth Burniston, Patricia A. Smiley, Chong Man Chow, Cindy H. Liu
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Few studies have used longitudinal approaches to consider the cumulative impact of COVID-19-related stressors (CRSs) on the psychological adjustment of mothers and children. In the current study, we tracked changes in maternal depressive symptoms and children’s behavioral problems from approximately 2 years before the pandemic (T1) to May through August 2020 (T2). Second, we explored maternal hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone as predictors of change in maternal depressive symptoms. Mothers (N = 120) reported on maternal and child psychological adjustment at both time points. Hair hormone data were collected in the lab at T1. Results suggest increases in children’s internalizing symptoms from T1 to T2 and that higher levels of CRSs were associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms. Maternal and child adjustment were correlated. Maternal hair cortisol, but not dehydroepiandrosterone, was associated with significant increases in depressive symptoms. Findings underscore the importance of considering the family system and cumulative risk exposure on maternal and child mental health.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T05:30:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221076845
       
  • A Comparison of Mental-Health Outcomes in the United States and Italy at
           Different Levels of Cumulative COVID-19 Prevalence

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      Authors: Anthony D. Mancini, Gabriele Prati
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      How does the prevalence of COVID-19 affect people’s mental health' In a preregistered study (N = 857), we sought to answer this question by comparing demographically matched samples in four regions in the United States and Italy with different levels of cumulative COVID-19 prevalence. No main effect of prevalence emerged. Rather, prevalence region had opposite effects, depending on the country. New York City participants (high prevalence) reported more general distress, posttraumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and COVID-19 worry than San Francisco (low prevalence). Conversely, Campania participants (low prevalence) reported more general distress, PTSD symptoms, and COVID-19 worry than Lombardy (high prevalence). Consistent with these patterns, we found that COVID-19 worry was more strongly linked with general distress and PTSD symptoms in New York City than San Francisco, whereas COVID-19 worry was more strongly linked with PTSD in Campania than Lombardy. In exploratory analyses, media exposure predicted and mapped on to geographic variation in mental-health outcomes.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T10:33:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026221074678
       
  • Alcohol’s Effects During Uncertain and Uncontrollable Stressors in
           the Laboratory

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      Authors: Daniel E. Bradford, Jack M. Shireman, Sarah J. Sant’Ana, Gaylen E. Fronk, Susan E. Schneck, John J. Curtin
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Alcohol’s effects on reactivity to stressors depend on the nature of the stressor and the reactivity being assessed. Research that identifies characteristics of stressors that modulate reactivity and clarifies the neurobehavioral, cognitive, and affective components of this reactivity may help prevent, reduce, or treat the negative impacts of acute and chronic alcohol use and have implications for other psychopathology involving maladaptive reactivity to stressors. We used a novel, multimeasure, cued, electric-shock-stressor paradigm in a greater-university community sample of adult recreational drinkers to test the effects of alcohol (n = 64), compared with no alcohol (n = 64), on reactivity to stressors that vary in both their perceived certainty and controllability. Preregistered analyses suggested alcohol significantly dampened subjective anxiety (self-report) and defensive reactivity (startle potentiation) more during uncertain stressors than during certain stressors regardless of controllability, which suggests that stressor uncertainty—but not uncontrollability—may be sufficient to enhance alcohol’s dampening of stress reactivity and thus negative reinforcement potential.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T06:56:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211061355
       
  • The Effect of COVID-19 Lockdowns on Maternal Mental Health and Parenting
           Practices Moderated by Urban Green Space

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      Authors: Marigen Narea, Kenzo Asahi, Alejandra Abufhele, Amanda Telias, Damián Gildemeister, Samanta Alarcón
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Stress generates difficulties in parenting, which affects child development. We aimed to understand the impact of COVID-19 lockdowns on maternal mental health and parenting practices. We also explored to what extent green space is a protective factor in the aforementioned relationship. We explored heterogeneous lockdown effects using longitudinal georeferenced data for 985 families (mothers and 24- to 30-month-olds) and exploiting localized lockdowns in Chile. Controlling for observed and unobserved fixed characteristics, on average, we did not find an association between lockdown duration and maternal mental health or parenting practices. However, the previous nonsignificant association is heterogeneous across access to green space. Although lockdown duration increased dysfunctional interactions with children for mothers with little access to green space, we did not see the previous effect on mothers who live close to green space. Mothers who do not comply with the lockdown mandate are the ones who drive this heterogeneous effect.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T02:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211068871
       
  • Which Anxious Adolescents Were Most Affected by the COVID-19 Pandemic'

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      Authors: Santiago Morales, Selin Zeytinoglu, Nicole E. Lorenzo, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Kathryn A. Degnan, Alisa N. Almas, Daniel S. Pine, Nathan A. Fox
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Although the COVID-19 pandemic caused significant stress and anxiety among many people, individuals’ experiences varied. We examined whether specific forms of anxiety predicted distinct trajectories of anxiety, perceived stress, and COVID-related worries during 3 early months of the pandemic. In a longitudinal study (N = 291), adolescents’ (n = 194) social anxiety and generalized anxiety levels were assessed via parent reports and self-reports and clinical diagnostic interviews. Later, when these adolescents were young adults (n = 164), anxiety, stress, and COVID-related worries were assessed thrice during the pandemic. Prepandemic generalized anxiety predicted higher initial levels and maintenance of anxiety, stress, and COVID-related worries during the pandemic. In contrast, prepandemic social anxiety predicted lower initial levels of anxiety, stress, and COVID-related worries, but this initial effect on anxiety and stress was offset over time by social anxiety’s positive effect on the slope. Our results highlight the importance of understanding how prepandemic factors influence individuals’ experiences during the pandemic.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T02:33:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211059524
       
  • Continuities and Discontinuities in the Cognitive Mechanisms Associated
           With Clinical and Nonclinical Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

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      Authors: Peter Moseley, Ben Alderson-Day, Stephanie Common, Guy Dodgson, Rebecca Lee, Kaja Mitrenga, Jamie Moffatt, Charles Fernyhough
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are typically associated with schizophrenia but also occur in individuals without any need for care (nonclinical voice hearers [NCVHs]). Cognitive models of AVHs posit potential biases in source monitoring, top-down processes, or a failure to inhibit intrusive memories. However, research across clinical/nonclinical groups is limited, and the extent to which there may be continuity in cognitive mechanism across groups, as predicted by the psychosis-continuum hypothesis, is unclear. We report two studies in which voice hearers with psychosis (n = 31) and NCVH participants reporting regular spiritual voices (n = 26) completed a battery of cognitive tasks. Compared with non-voice-hearing groups (ns = 33 and 28), voice hearers with psychosis showed atypical performance on signal detection, dichotic listening, and memory-inhibition tasks but intact performance on the source-monitoring task. NCVH participants, however, showed only atypical signal detection, which suggests differences between clinical and nonclinical voice hearers potentially related to attentional control and inhibition. These findings suggest that at the level of cognition, continuum models of hallucinations may need to take into account continuity but also discontinuity between clinical and nonclinical groups.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T01:02:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211059802
       
  • Parental Mentalizing During a Pandemic: Use of Mental-State Language on
           Parenting Social Media Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Tal Yatziv, Almog Simchon, Nicholas Manco, Michael Gilead, Helena J. V. Rutherford
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has been a demanding caregiving context for parents, particularly during lockdowns. In this study, we examined parental mentalization, parents’ proclivity to consider their own and their child’s mental states, during the pandemic, as manifested in mental-state language (MSL) on parenting social media. Parenting-related posts on Reddit from two time periods in the pandemic in 2020, March to April (lockdown) and July to August (postlockdown), were compared with time-matched control periods in 2019. MSL and self–other references were measured using text-analysis methods. Parental mentalization content decreased during the pandemic: Posts referred less to mental activities and to other people during the COVID-19 pandemic and showed decreased affective MSL, cognitive MSL, and self-references specifically during lockdown. Father-specific subreddits exhibited strongest declines in mentalization content, whereas mother-specific subreddits exhibited smaller changes. Implications on understanding associations between caregiving contexts and parental mentalization, gender differences, and the value of using social-media data to study parenting and mentalizing are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T07:52:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211062612
       
  • An Epidemiologic, Longitudinal, and Discordant-Twin Study of the
           Association Between Gambling Disorder and Suicidal Behaviors

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      Authors: Wendy S. Slutske, Christal N. Davis, Michael T. Lynskey, Andrew C. Heath, Nicholas G. Martin
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Gambling disorder is associated with suicidal behaviors, but it is not clear whether the association is due to common etiologic factors or to gambling disorder being causally related to suicidality. This question was examined from the perspective of epidemiologic, longitudinal, and discordant-twin studies. The results suggested that the causes of the association with disordered gambling differed for suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt and differed for men and women. The association of suicidal thoughts with disordered gambling was noncausally explained by common genetic influences among women but not men. Conversely, there was evidence consistent with a potentially causal influence of disordered gambling on suicide attempt among men but not women, which might have been related to gambling-related financial problems. The use of monetary data to identify individuals experiencing financial harms associated with their gambling may represent a more practicable target for screening, intervention, and prevention and may reduce gambling-related financial crises, thereby warding off a potential gambling-related suicide attempt.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T06:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211062599
       
  • Moral Injury, Traumatic Stress, and Threats to Core Human Needs in
           Health-Care Workers: The COVID-19 Pandemic as a Dehumanizing Experience

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      Authors: Sarah L. Hagerty, Leanne M. Williams
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The pandemic has threatened core human needs. The pandemic provides a context to study psychological injury as it relates to unmet basic human needs and traumatic stressors, including moral incongruence. We surveyed 1,122 health-care workers from across the United States between May 2020 and August 2020. Using a mixed-methods design, we examined moral injury and unmet basic human needs in relation to traumatic stress and suicidality. Nearly one third of respondents reported elevated symptoms of psychological trauma, and the prevalence of suicidal ideation among health-care workers in our sample was roughly 3 times higher than in the general population. Moral injury and loneliness predict greater symptoms of traumatic stress and suicidality. We conclude that dehumanization is a driving force behind the psychological injury resulting from moral incongruence in the context of the pandemic. The pandemic most frequently threatened basic human motivations at the foundational level of safety and security relative to other higher order needs.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T06:08:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211057554
       
  • Negative Affectivity and Disinhibition as Moderators of an Interpersonal
           Pathway to Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder

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      Authors: Timothy A. Allen, Michael N. Hallquist, Aidan G. C. Wright, Alexandre Y. Dombrovski
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In this longitudinal study, we examined whether personality traits moderate the link between interpersonal dysfunction and suicidal behavior in a high-risk sample of 458 individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Participants were assessed annually for up to 30 years (mean number of follow-ups = 7.82). Using multilevel structural equation modeling, we examined (a) longitudinal, within-persons relationships among interpersonal dysfunction, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts and (b) moderation of these relationships by negative affectivity and disinhibition. Negative affectivity predicted a stronger within-persons coupling between interpersonal dysfunction and suicidal ideation. Disinhibition predicted a stronger coupling between ideation and suicide attempts. Assessing negative affectivity and disinhibition in a treatment setting may guide clinician vigilance toward people at highest risk for interpersonally triggered suicidal behaviors.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T07:40:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211056686
       
  • HiTOP Is Not an Improvement Over the DSM

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      Authors: Gerald J. Haeffel, Bertus F. Jeronimus, Aaron J. Fisher, Bonnie N. Kaiser, Lesley Jo Weaver, Ivan Vargas, Jason T. Goodson, Peter D. Soyster, Wei Lu
      First page: 285
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In their response to our article (both in this issue), DeYoung and colleagues did not sufficiently address three fundamental flaws with the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). First, HiTOP was created using a simple-structure factor-analytic approach, which does not adequately represent the dimensional space of the symptoms of psychopathology. Consequently, HiTOP is not the empirical structure of psychopathology. Second, factor analysis and dimensional ratings do not fix the problems inherent to descriptive (folk) classification; self-reported symptoms are still the basis on which clinical judgments about people are made. Finally, HiTOP is not ready to use in real-world clinical settings. There is currently no empirical evidence demonstrating that clinicians who use HiTOP have better clinical outcomes than those who use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). In sum, HiTOP is a factor-analytic variation of the DSM that does not get the field closer to a more valid and useful taxonomy.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T06:14:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211068873
       
  • The Interplay Between Reward-Relevant Life Events and Trait Reward
           Sensitivity in Neural Responses to Reward Cues

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      Authors: Iris Ka-Yi Chat, Erin E. Dunning, Corinne P. Bart, Ann L. Carroll, Mora M. Grehl, Katherine S. F. Damme, Lyn Y. Abramson, Robin Nusslock, Lauren B. Alloy
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The reward-hypersensitivity model posits that trait reward hypersensitivity should elicit hyper/hypo-approach motivation following exposure to recent life events that activate (goal striving and goal attainment) or deactivate (goal failure) the reward system, respectively. To test these hypotheses, we had 87 young adults with high trait reward (HRew) sensitivity or moderate trait reward (MRew) sensitivity report frequency of life events via the Life Event Interview. Brain activation was assessed during the functional MRI monetary-incentive-delay task. Greater exposure to goal-striving events was associated with higher nucleus accumbens (NAc) reward anticipation among HRew participants and lower orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) reward anticipation among MRew participants. Greater exposure to goal-failure events was associated with higher NAc and OFC reward anticipation only among HRew participants. This study demonstrated different neural reward anticipation (but not outcome) following reward-relevant events for HRew individuals compared with MRew individuals. Trait reward sensitivity and reward-relevant life events may jointly modulate reward-related brain function, which has implications for understanding psychopathology.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T09:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211056627
       
  • The Prognostic Utility of Personality Traits Versus Past Psychiatric
           Diagnoses: Predicting Future Mental Health and Functioning

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      Authors: Monika A. Waszczuk, Christopher J. Hopwood, Benjamin J. Luft, Leslie C. Morey, Greg Perlman, Camilo J. Ruggero, Andrew E. Skodol, Roman Kotov
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Past psychiatric diagnoses are central to patient case formulation and prognosis. Recently, alternative classification models such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) proposed to assess traits to predict clinically relevant outcomes. In the current study, we directly compared personality traits and past diagnoses as predictors of future mental health and functioning in three independent, prospective samples. Regression analyses found that personality traits significantly predicted future first onsets of psychiatric disorders (change in [∆] R2 = .06–.15), symptom chronicity (∆R2 = .03–.06), and functioning (∆R2 = .02–.07), beyond past and current psychiatric diagnoses. Conversely, past psychiatric diagnoses did not provide an incremental prediction of outcomes when personality traits and other concurrent predictors were already included in the model. Overall, personality traits predicted a variety of outcomes in diverse settings beyond diagnoses. Past diagnoses were generally not informative about future outcomes when personality was considered. Together, these findings support the added value of personality traits assessment in case formulation, consistent with the HiTOP model.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-21T09:21:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211056596
       
  • Imagery Rescripting Versus Extinction: Distinct and Combined Effects on
           Expectancy and Revaluation Learning

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      Authors: Mandy Woelk, Julie Krans, Filip Raes, Bram Vervliet, Muriel A. Hagenaars
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Anxiety disorders are effectively treated with exposure therapy, but relapse remains high. Fear may reinstate after reoccurrence of the negative event because the expectancy of the aversive outcome (unconditioned stimulus [US]) is adjusted but not its evaluation. Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is an intervention that is proposed to work through revaluation of the US. The aim of our preregistered study was to test the effects of ImRs and extinction on US expectancy and US revaluation. Day 1 (n = 106) consisted of acquisition with an aversive film clip as US. The manipulation (ImRs + extinction, extinction-only, or ImRs-only) took place on Day 2. Reinstatement of fear was tested on Day 3. Results showed expectancy learning in both extinction conditions but not in the ImRs-only condition and no enhanced revaluation learning in ImRs. The combination of ImRs and extinction slowed down extinction but did not protect against reinstatement, which pleads in favor of stand-alone interventions in clinical practice.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-21T09:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211055169
       
  • How Robust Is the p Factor' Using Multitrait-Multimethod Modeling to
           Inform the Meaning of General Factors of Youth Psychopathology

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      Authors: Ashley L. Watts, Bridget A. Makol, Isabella M. Palumbo, Andres De Los Reyes, Thomas M. Olino, Robert D. Latzman, Colin G. DeYoung, Phillip K. Wood, Kenneth J. Sher
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We used multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) modeling to examine general factors of psychopathology in three samples of youths (Ns = 2,119, 303, and 592) for whom three informants reported on the youth’s psychopathology (e.g., child, parent, teacher). Empirical support for the p-factor diminished in multi-informant models compared with mono-informant models: The correlation between externalizing and internalizing factors decreased, and the general factor in bifactor models essentially reflected externalizing. Widely used MTMM-informed approaches for modeling multi-informant data cannot distinguish between competing interpretations of the patterns of effects we observed, including that the p factor reflects, in part, evaluative consistency bias or that psychopathology manifests differently across contexts (e.g., home vs. school). Ultimately, support for the p factor may be stronger in mono-informant designs, although it does not entirely vanish in multi-informant models. Instead, the general factor of psychopathology in any given mono-informant model likely reflects a complex mix of variances, some substantive and some methodological.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-17T09:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211055170
       
  • The Benefits of Living With Close Others: A Longitudinal Examination of
           Mental Health Before and During a Global Stressor

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      Authors: Natalie M. Sisson, Emily C. Willroth, Bonnie M. Le, Brett Q. Ford
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      For better or worse, the people one lives with may exert a powerful influence on one’s mental health, perhaps especially during times of stress. The COVID-19 pandemic—a large-scale stressor that prompted health recommendations to stay home to reduce disease spread—provided a unique context for examining how the people who share one’s home may shape one’s mental health. A seven-wave longitudinal study assessed mental health month to month before and during the pandemic (February through September 2020) in two diverse samples of U.S. adults (N = 656; N = 544). Preregistered analyses demonstrated that people living with close others (children and/or romantic partners) experienced better well-being before and during the pandemic’s first 6 months. These groups also experienced unique increases in ill-being during the pandemic’s onset, but parents’ ill-being also recovered more quickly. These findings highlight the crucial protective function of close relationships for mental health both generally and amid a pandemic.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-18T05:22:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211053320
       
  • Sex Moderates Reward- and Loss-Related Neural Correlates of
           Triarchic-Model Traits and Antisocial Behavior

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      Authors: Sarah J. Brislin, Alexander S. Weigard, Jillian E. Hardee, Lora M. Cope, Meghan E. Martz, Robert A. Zucker, Mary M. Heitzeg
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Abnormalities in responses to reward and loss are implicated in the etiology of antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. Although there is evidence for sex differences in neural response to reward and loss, it remains unclear how sex differences may moderate links between these neural responses and the phenotypic expression of antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. This study examined sex differences in associations of neural response to reward and loss with antisocial personality symptoms and psychopathic traits. Functional neuroimaging data were collected during a monetary incentive delay task from 158 participants. Among males, during loss anticipation, activation in the left nucleus accumbens was negatively associated with antisocial behavior. Among females, during loss feedback, activation in the left nucleus accumbens and left amygdala was negatively associated with antisocial behavior. These results suggest that phenotypic sex differences in psychopathic traits and antisocial behavior may in part be attributable to different etiological pathways.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-15T10:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211054780
       
  • Straight to the Source: e-Communities for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and the
           Emerging Case for Harm Reduction in the Treatment of Nonsuicidal
           Self-Injury

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      Authors: Emma G. Preston, Amy E. West
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent phenomenon, yet no sufficiently effective treatment approach exists, leading researchers to consider how a reconceptualization of NSSI phenomenology may be necessary to optimize treatment. Multiple novel reconceptualizations seem to converge on the idea that NSSI provides certain benefits (e.g., affect regulation) that lead to nonlinear recovery processes in which cessation is not always possible. NSSI e-communities have also become increasingly studied given their popularity among those who self-injure, and they often contain harm-reduction content (e.g., wound care, safe cutting practices). The United Kingdom has approved harm reduction for NSSI treatment; however, its implementation remains uncommon. The current article integrates these novel and growing lines of research and theory and presents converging evidence for the inclusion of harm reduction in NSSI treatment approaches. Future directions and ethical considerations are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-05T07:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049367
       
  • Effect Sizes Reported in Highly Cited Emotion Research Compared With
           Larger Studies and Meta-Analyses Addressing the Same Questions

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      Authors: Ioana A. Cristea, Raluca Georgescu, John P. A. Ioannidis
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We assessed whether the most highly cited studies in emotion research reported larger effect sizes compared with meta-analyses and the largest studies on the same question. We screened all reports with at least 1,000 citations and identified matching meta-analyses for 40 highly cited observational studies and 25 highly cited experimental studies. Highly cited observational studies had effects greater on average by 1.42-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.09, 1.87]) compared with meta-analyses and 1.99-fold (95% CI = [1.33, 2.99]) compared with largest studies on the same questions. Highly cited experimental studies had increases of 1.29-fold (95% CI = [1.01, 1.63]) compared with meta-analyses and 2.02-fold (95% CI = [1.60, 2.57]) compared with the largest studies. There was substantial between-topics heterogeneity, more prominently for observational studies. Highly cited studies often did not have the largest weight in meta-analyses (12 of 65 topics, 18%) but were frequently the earliest ones published on the topic (31 of 65 topics, 48%). Highly cited studies may offer, on average, exaggerated estimates of effects in both observational and experimental designs.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T10:23:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049366
       
  • Mental Health and Prenatal Bonding in Pregnant Women During the COVID-19
           

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      Authors: Alyssa R. Morris, Darby E. Saxbe
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We compared 572 pregnant women (319 first-time mothers) surveyed in spring 2020, during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdowns in the United States, with 99 pregnant women (all first-time mothers) surveyed before the pandemic (2014–2020). Compared with the prepandemic sample, women assessed during the pandemic showed elevated depression, anxiety, and stress and weaker prenatal bonding to their infants. These findings remained significant when restricting the pandemic sample to first-time mothers only and held after controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and pregnancy stage. Average levels of depression and anxiety within the pandemic group exceeded clinically significant thresholds, and women who estimated that the pandemic had more negatively affected their social relationships reported higher distress. However, pandemic-related changes to social contact outside the household were inconsistently associated with mental health and with some positive outcomes (fewer depressive symptoms, stronger prenatal bonding). Given that prenatal stress may compromise maternal and child well-being, the pandemic may have long-term implications for population health.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T10:23:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049430
       
  • Rumination Derails Reinforcement Learning With Possible Implications for
           Ineffective Behavior

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      Authors: Peter Hitchcock, Evan Forman, Nina Rothstein, Fengqing Zhang, John Kounios, Yael Niv, Chris Sims
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      How does rumination affect reinforcement learning—the ubiquitous process by which people adjust behavior after error to behave more effectively in the future' In a within-subjects design (N = 49), we tested whether experimentally manipulated rumination disrupts reinforcement learning in a multidimensional learning task previously shown to rely on selective attention. Rumination impaired performance, yet unexpectedly, this impairment could not be attributed to decreased attentional breadth (quantified using a decay parameter in a computational model). Instead, trait rumination (between subjects) was associated with higher decay rates (implying narrower attention) but not with impaired performance. Our task-performance results accord with the possibility that state rumination promotes stress-generating behavior in part by disrupting reinforcement learning. The trait-rumination finding accords with the predictions of a prominent model of trait rumination (the attentional-scope model). More work is needed to understand the specific mechanisms by which state rumination disrupts reinforcement learning.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T05:21:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211051324
       
  • Education, Financial Stress, and Trajectory of Mental Health During the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Yanping Jiang, Samuele Zilioli, Rhonda N. Balzarini, Giulia Zoppolat, Richard B. Slatcher
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In this preregistered study, we examined educational disparities in the trajectory of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether such educational disparities would be mediated by financial stress associated with the pandemic. Data were drawn from the Love in the Time of COVID project (N = 2,204; four waves collected between March and June 2020). Results suggested educational disparities in eudaimonic well-being, negative affect, and psychological distress and showed significant associations between lower education and worse mental-health outcomes at baseline. However, education did not amplify mental-health disparities over time and exhibited no associations with the rates of change in mental health. Financial stress mediated the associations between education and mental health at baseline, and there were no temporal variations in the mediation effect. These results highlight persistent educational disparities in mental health, and such educational disparities may be partially explained by financial stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T11:13:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049374
       
  • COVID-19 Stress and the Health of Black Americans in the Rural South

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      Authors: Olutosin Adesogan, Justin A. Lavner, Sierra E. Carter, Steven R. H. Beach
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Black Americans have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. To better understand changes in and predictors of their mental and physical health, in the current study, we used three waves of data (two prepandemic and a third during summer 2020) from 329 Black men and women in the rural South. Results indicated that health worsened after the onset of the pandemic, including increased depressive symptoms and sleep problems and decreased self-reported general health. Greater exposure to COVID-19-related stressors was significantly associated with poorer health. Prepandemic stressors (financial strain, racial discrimination, chronic stress) and prepandemic resources (marital quality, general support from family and friends) were significantly associated with exposure to COVID-19-related stressors and with health during the pandemic. Findings underscore how the pandemic posed the greatest threats to Black Americans with more prepandemic psychosocial risks and highlight the need for multifaceted interventions that address current and historical stressors among this population.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T11:13:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049379
       
  • A Sobering Look at Treatment Effectiveness of Military-Related
           Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

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      Authors: Ofir Levi, Ariel Ben Yehuda, Daniel S. Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Approximately two thirds of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain with the disorder following treatment. Pinpointing the per-symptom effectiveness of treatments in real-world clinical settings can highlight relevant domains for treatment augmentation and development. Baseline and posttreatment assessments of PTSD and depression were performed in 709 veterans with PTSD. PTSD remission was 39.4%. Treatment was least effective for intrusion symptoms and had no effect on flashbacks or on poor recall of traumatic features. Of veterans who remitted, 72.8% still met diagnostic criteria for at least one cluster. Poor clinical effectiveness was noted for depression; only 4.1% of the patients remitted following treatment. Treatments for veterans with PTSD show limited overall effectiveness in real-world settings. Enhancing treatment response may require enhancing provider fidelity and patient compliance with extant treatments or the development of new treatments that specifically target the symptoms of PTSD that do not respond well to extant treatments.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T11:11:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211051314
       
  • Examining Linear and Nonlinear Associations Between Negative Emotional
           Reactivity to Daily Events and Depression Among Adolescents

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      Authors: Angela C. Santee, Lisa R. Starr
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research supports competing hypotheses about the link between negative emotional (NE) reactivity to daily events (e.g., hassles and uplifts) and depression. Some have suggested that depression is associated with blunted reactivity, and others have suggested that depression is associated with heightened reactivity. In this study, we tested linear and nonlinear associations, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, between NE reactivity and depression among a sample of 232 adolescents. Participants completed lab-based assessments of depression then rated their experience of emotions, daily hassles, and uplifts three times per day for 7 days. Interviews were readministered 1.5 years later. Results show a significant U-shaped relationship between NE reactivity to hassles and depression symptoms cross-sectionally, which suggests that depression is more severe at the extremes of NE reactivity. NE reactivity to daily uplifts showed significant linear associations, but not quadratic associations, with depression such that heightened reactivity to uplifts was associated with more severe depression symptoms concurrently and predicted worsening of depression longitudinally.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T02:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211045684
       
  • Climate Change and Children’s Mental Health: A Developmental
           Perspective

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      Authors: Francis Vergunst, Helen L. Berry
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Climate change is a major global public-health challenge that will have wide-ranging impacts on human psychological health and well-being. Children and adolescents are at particular risk because of their rapidly developing brain, vulnerability to disease, and limited capacity to avoid or adapt to threats and impacts. They are also more likely to worry about climate change than any other age group. Drawing on a developmental life-course perspective, we show that climate-change-related threats can additively, interactively, and cumulatively increase psychopathology risk from conception onward; that these effects are already occurring; and that they constitute an important threat to healthy human development worldwide. We then argue that monitoring, measuring, and mitigating these risks is a matter of social justice and a crucial long-term investment in developmental and mental health sciences. We conclude with a discussion of conceptual and measurement challenges and outline research priorities going forward.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T07:56:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211040787
       
  • The Impact of Moral-Injury Cognitions on Psychological Outcomes in
           Refugees: An Experimental Investigation

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      Authors: Joel Hoffman, Angela Nickerson
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Moral-injury cognitions (beliefs regarding moral violations) represent a potential mechanism that may underlie the association between potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and psychological symptoms in refugees. We implemented a novel experimental paradigm (i.e., the simulation of a PMIE using mental imagery) to investigate the impact of moral-injury cognitions on psychological outcomes in 71 Arabic-speaking refugees. A latent class analysis of preexisting moral-injury beliefs yielded three classes characterized by (a) high moral-injury beliefs about violations by others (49.3%), (b) high moral-injury beliefs about violations by others and by oneself (25.5%), and (c) low moral-injury beliefs (25.5%). Investigation of group differences revealed that the moral-injury classes reported greater negative emotional responses following the simulated PMIE. Furthermore, the association between moral-injury classes and psychological outcomes was moderated by situation-specific blame appraisals of the simulated PMIE. These findings have important implications for psychological interventions for refugees.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T06:31:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211039516
       
  • A Critical Review of Case Studies on Dissociative Amnesia

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      Authors: Ivan Mangiulli, Henry Otgaar, Marko Jelicic, Harald Merckelbach
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Dissociative amnesia, defined as an inability to remember important autobiographical experiences, usually of a stressful nature, is a controversial phenomenon. We systematically reviewed 128 case studies of dissociative amnesia reported in 60 articles that appeared in peer-reviewed journals in English over the past 20 years (2000–2020). Our aim was to examine to what extent these cases met core features of dissociative amnesia. All cases were about reports of autobiographical memory loss, but the evidence offered in support of a dissociative amnesia interpretation was often weak and plagued by an ambiguous heterogeneity with respect to nature, etiology, and differential diagnoses of alleged memory loss. Most case studies failed to rule out plausible alternative explanations of dissociative amnesia, such as ordinary forgetting and malingering. We encourage clinicians and researchers to more critically investigate alleged cases of dissociative amnesia and provide criteria for how a dissociative amnesia case ideally would look like.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T08:38:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211018194
       
  • The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Computational Linguistics in Suicide
           Prevention

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      Authors: Yaakov Ophir, Refael Tikochinski, Anat Brunstein Klomek, Roi Reichart
      First page: 212
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Suicide, a leading cause of death, is a complex and a hard-to-predict human tragedy. In this article, we introduce a comprehensive outlook on the emerging movement to integrate computational linguistics (CL) in suicide prevention research and practice. Focusing mainly on the state-of-the-art deep neural network models, in this “travel guide” article, we describe, in a relatively plain language, how CL methodologies could facilitate early detection of suicide risk. Major potential contributions of CL methodologies (e.g., word embeddings, interpretational frameworks) for deepening that theoretical understanding of suicide behaviors and promoting the personalized approach in psychological assessment are presented as well. We also discuss principal ethical and methodological obstacles in CL suicide prevention, such as the difficulty to maintain people’s privacy/safety or interpret the “black box” of prediction algorithms. Ethical guidelines and practical methodological recommendations addressing these obstacles are provided for future researchers and clinicians.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T03:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211022013
       
  • A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) Primer for Mental
           Health Researchers

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      Authors: Christopher C. Conway, Miriam K. Forbes, Susan C. South
      First page: 236
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Mental health research is at an important crossroads as the field seeks more reliable and valid phenotypes to study. Dimensional approaches to quantifying mental illness operate outside the confines of traditional categorical diagnoses, and they are gaining traction as a way to advance research on the causes and consequences of mental illness. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a leading dimensional research paradigm that synthesizes decades of data on the major dimensions of psychological disorders. In this article, we demonstrate how to use the HiTOP model to formulate and test research questions through a series of tutorials. To boost accessibility, data and annotated code for each tutorial are included at OSF (https://osf.io/8myzw). After presenting the tutorials, we outline how investigators can use these ideas and tools to generate new insights in their own substantive research programs.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T10:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211017834
       
  • Folk Classification and Factor Rotations: Whales, Sharks, and the Problems
           With the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)

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      Authors: Gerald J. Haeffel, Bertus F. Jeronimus, Bonnie N. Kaiser, Lesley Jo Weaver, Peter D. Soyster, Aaron J. Fisher, Ivan Vargas, Jason T. Goodson, Wei Lu
      First page: 259
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) uses factor analysis to group self-reported symptoms of mental illness (i.e., like goes with like). It is hailed as a significant improvement over other diagnostic taxonomies. However, the purported advantages and fundamental assumptions of HiTOP have received little, if any, scientific scrutiny. We critically evaluated five fundamental claims about HiTOP. We conclude that HiTOP does not demonstrate a high degree of verisimilitude and has the potential to hinder progress on understanding the etiology of psychopathology. It does not lend itself to theory building or taxonomic evolution, and it cannot account for multifinality, equifinality, or developmental and etiological processes. In its current form, HiTOP is not ready to use in clinical settings and may result in algorithmic bias against underrepresented groups. We recommend a bifurcation strategy moving forward in which the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is used in clinical settings while researchers focus on developing a falsifiable theory-based classification system.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T06:38:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211002500
       
  • Answering Questions About the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology
           (HiTOP): Analogies to Whales and Sharks Miss the Boat

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      Authors: Colin G. DeYoung, Roman Kotov, Robert F. Krueger, David C. Cicero, Christopher C. Conway, Nicholas R. Eaton, Miriam K. Forbes, Michael N. Hallquist, Katherine G. Jonas, Robert D. Latzman, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Camilo J. Ruggero, Leonard J. Simms, Irwin D. Waldman, Monika A. Waszczuk, Thomas A. Widiger, Aidan G. C. Wright
      First page: 279
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In this commentary, we discuss questions and misconceptions about the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) raised by Haeffel et al. We explain what the system classifies and why it is descriptive and atheoretical, and we highlight benefits and limitations of this approach. We clarify why the system is organized according to patterns of covariation or comorbidity among signs and symptoms of psychopathology, and we discuss how it is designed to be falsifiable and revised in a manner that is responsive to data. We refer to the body of evidence for HiTOP’s external validity and for its scientific and clinical utility. We further describe how the system is currently used in clinics. In sum, many of Haeffel et al.’s concerns about HiTOP are unwarranted, and for those concerns that reflect real current limitations of HiTOP, our consortium is working to address them, with the aim of creating a nosology that is comprehensive and useful to both scientists and clinicians.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T11:09:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211049390
       
  • Differentiating Kinds of Systemic Stressors With Relation to
           Psychotic-Like Experiences in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: The
           Stimulation, Discrepancy, and Deprivation Model of Psychosis

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      Authors: Teresa Vargas, Katherine S. F. Damme, K. Juston Osborne, Vijay A. Mittal
      First page: 291
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Conceptualizations that distinguish systems-level stress exposures are lacking; the stimulation (lack of safety and high attentional demands), discrepancy (social exclusion and lack of belonging), and deprivation (SDD; lack of environmental enrichment) theory of psychosis and stressors occurring at the systems level has not been directly tested. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on 3,207 youths, and associations with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) were explored. Although model fit was suboptimal, five factors were defined, and four were consistent with the SDD theory and related to PLEs. Objective and subjective or self-report exposures for deprivation showed significantly stronger PLE associations compared with discrepancy and objective stimulation factors. Objective and subjective or self-report measures converged overall, although self-report stimulation exhibited a significantly stronger association with PLEs compared with objective stimulation. Considering distinct systems-level exposures could help clarify putative mechanisms and psychosis vulnerability. The preliminary approach potentially informs health policy efforts aimed at psychopathology prevention and intervention.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T05:06:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211016415
       
  • High Predictive Accuracy of Negative Schizotypy With Acoustic Measures

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      Authors: Alex S. Cohen, Christopher R. Cox, Tovah Cowan, Michael D. Masucci, Thanh P. Le, Anna R. Docherty, Jeffrey S. Bedwell
      First page: 310
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Negative schizotypal traits potentially can be digitally phenotyped using objective vocal analysis. Prior attempts have shown mixed success in this regard, potentially because acoustic analysis has relied on small, constrained feature sets. We employed machine learning to (a) optimize and cross-validate predictive models of self-reported negative schizotypy using a large acoustic feature set, (b) evaluate model performance as a function of sex and speaking task, (c) understand potential mechanisms underlying negative schizotypal traits by evaluating the key acoustic features within these models, and (d) examine model performance in its convergence with clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning. Accuracy was good (> 80%) and was improved by considering speaking task and sex. However, the features identified as most predictive of negative schizotypal traits were generally not considered critical to their conceptual definitions. Implications for validating and implementing digital phenotyping to understand and quantify negative schizotypy are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T07:14:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211017835
       
  • An Electrocortical Measure Associated With Metarepresentation Mediates the
           Relationship Between Autism Symptoms and Theory of Mind

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      Authors: Erin J. Libsack, Elizabeth Trimber, Kathryn M. Hauschild, Greg Hajcak, James C. McPartland, Matthew D. Lerner
      First page: 324
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Impairments in theory of mind (ToM)—long considered common among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)—are in fact highly heterogeneous across this population. Although such heterogeneity should be reflected in differential recruitment of neural mechanisms during ToM reasoning, no research has yet uncovered a mechanism that explains these individual differences. In this study, 78 (48 with ASD) adolescents viewed ToM vignettes and made mental-state inferences about characters’ behavior while participant electrophysiology was concurrently recorded. Two candidate event-related-potentials (ERPs)—the late positive complex (LPC) and the late slow wave (LSW)—were successfully elicited. LPC scores correlated positively with ToM accuracy and negatively with ASD symptom severity. Note that the LPC partially mediated the relationship between ASD symptoms and ToM accuracy, which suggests that this ERP component, thought to represent cognitive metarepresentation, may help explain differences in ToM performance in some individuals with ASD.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T02:48:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211021975
       
  • Mental Health and Social Contact During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An
           Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

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      Authors: Eiko I. Fried, Faidra Papanikolaou, Sacha Epskamp
      First page: 340
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      For many students, the COVID-19 pandemic caused once-in-a-lifetime disruptions of daily life. In March 2020, during the beginning of the outbreak in the Netherlands, we used ecological momentary assessment to follow 80 undergraduate students four times per day for 14 days to assess mental health, social contact, and COVID-19-related variables. Despite rapidly increasing rates of infections and deaths, we observed decreases in anxiety, loneliness, and COVID-19-related concerns, especially in the first few days. Other mental health variables, such as stress levels, remained stable, whereas depressive symptoms increased. Despite social-distancing measures implemented by the Dutch government halfway through our study, students showed no changes in the frequency of in-person social activities. Dynamic network models identified potential vicious cycles between mental health variables and being alone, which predicted concerns about COVID-19 and was followed by further mental health problems. Findings and implications are discussed in detail.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T02:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211017839
       
  • Does Training Parents in Reinforcement Skills or Relationship Skills
           Enhance Individual Youths’ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety'
           Outcome, Specificity, and Mediation

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      Authors: Wendy K. Silverman, Yasmin Rey, Carla E. Marin, James Jaccard, Jeremy W. Pettit
      First page: 355
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We conducted a dismantling design treatment study comparing individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), CBT targeting parents’ reinforcement skills (CBT + Reinf), and CBT targeting parents’ relationship skills (CBT+ Relat) in 341 youths with primary anxiety diagnoses. At posttreatment, youths in CBT with parent involvement had lower anxiety than youths in CBT. At 12-month follow-up, youths in CBT + Relat maintained lower anxiety relative to CBT. At posttreatment, negative reinforcement was significantly lower in CBT + Reinf than CBT + Relat and CBT; negative reinforcement partially mediated anxiety reduction in youths. Reducing parental negative reinforcement in CBT + Reinf was associated with lower parental psychological control, which also partially mediated anxiety reduction in youths. Some of these mediational dynamics continued through follow-up. Targeting concrete behavioral parenting skills, especially negative reinforcement, produced treatment specificity and partial mediation relative to less concrete targeting and enhanced CBT. Findings highlight complexities in identifying mechanisms through which targeting of parenting skills produces anxiety reduction in youths and suggest avenues for future research.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T09:14:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211016402
       
  • Sibling Alcohol Use Disorder Is Associated With Increased Risk for Suicide
           Attempt

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      Authors: Mallory E. Stephenson, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jessica E. Salvatore, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S. Kendler, Kristina Sundquist, Alexis C. Edwards
      First page: 374
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The association between having a sibling diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and risk for suicide attempt may be attributable to shared genetic liability between AUD and suicidal behavior, effects of environmental exposure to a sibling’s AUD, or both. To distinguish between these alternatives, we conducted a series of Cox regression models using data derived from Swedish population-based registers with national coverage. Among full sibling pairs (656,807 males and 607,096 females), we found that, even after we accounted for the proband’s AUD status, the proband’s risk for suicide attempt was significantly elevated when the proband’s sibling was affected by AUD. Furthermore, the proband’s risk for suicide attempt was consistently higher when the sibling’s AUD registration had occurred more recently. Our findings provide evidence for exposure to sibling AUD as an environmental risk factor for suicide attempt and suggest that clinical outreach may be warranted following a sibling’s diagnosis with AUD.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T07:13:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211025041
       
  • Mechanisms of Mental-Health Disparities Among Minoritized Groups: How Well
           Are the Top Journals in Clinical Psychology Representing This Work'

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      Authors: Leah M. Adams, Adam Bryant Miller
      First page: 387
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      It has been known for decades that mental-health disparities exist among minoritized groups, including race, ethnicity, sexual identities, gender identity and expression, ability, and others. Theories and frameworks that incorporate stressors unique to the experiences of minoritized groups, such as the biopsychosocial model of racism and minority-stress model, offer testable mechanisms that may help explain, in part, mental-health disparities. However, research addressing mechanisms of these disparities is still scarce and is not well represented in top clinical psychology journals. In this review, we critically examine the extent to which top-tier clinical psychology journals publish work examining mechanisms of mental-health disparities among minoritized populations. We found that very few studies that address mechanisms of mental-health disparities have been published in top clinical psychology journals. We examine potential reasons for this and discuss recommendations for future research.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T02:54:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211026979
       
  • Evidence From the Trauma-Film Paradigm That Traumatic and Nontraumatic
           Memories Are Statistically Equivalent on Coherence

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      Authors: Andrea Taylor, Rachel Zajac, Melanie K. T. Takarangi, Maryanne Garry
      First page: 417
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      There is contention in the scientific literature about the coherence of people’s memories for trauma: Sometimes, traumatic memories are rated as less coherent than nontraumatic memories; other times, they “look” very similar. But several methodological challenges invite counter-explanations that hinder the interpretation of these findings. We set out to address these challenges by adopting a trauma-film-paradigm approach to examine the coherence of traumatic and nontraumatic memories. We developed a new set of materials for the trauma-film paradigm and then used these materials to examine the relative coherence of traumatic and various nontraumatic memories. We found that traumatic memories were not only fairly coherent but also statistically equivalent to their nontraumatic counterparts. Our hope is that scientists use these materials in experiments that complement the existing autobiographical-memory literature and allow for a greater understanding of the relation between memory and dysfunction.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-26T04:52:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211053312
       
  • How the Discrepancy Between Prior Expectations and New Information
           Influences Expectation Updating in Depression—The Greater, the
           Better'

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      Authors: Tobias Kube, Lukas Kirchner, Gunnar Lemmer, Julia Anna Glombiewski
      First page: 430
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research on expectation updating in relation to psychopathology used to treat expectation-confirming information and expectation-disconfirming information as binary concepts. Here, we varied the extent to which new information deviates from prior expectations and examined its influence on expectation adjustment in both a false-feedback task (Study 1; N = 379) and a social-interaction task (Study 2; N = 292). Unlike traditional learning models, we hypothesized a tipping point in which the discrepancy between expectation and outcome becomes so large that new information is perceived as lacking credibility, thus entailing little updating of expectations. Consistent with the hypothesized tipping point, new information was deemed most valid if it was moderately positive. Moreover, descriptively, expectation update was largest for moderate expectation violations, but this effect was small (Study 2) or even nonsignificant (Study 1). The findings question the assumption of traditional learning models that the larger the prediction error, the larger the update.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-29T07:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211024644
       
  • Well-Being and Cognition Are Coupled During Development: A Preregistered
           Longitudinal Study of 1,136 Children and Adolescents

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      Authors: Delia Fuhrmann, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Rogier A. Kievit
      First page: 450
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Well-being and cognition are linked in adulthood, but how the two domains interact during development is currently unclear. Using a complex systems approach, we preregistered and modeled the relationship between well-being and cognition in a prospective cohort of 1,136 children between the ages of 6 to 7 years and 15 years. We found bidirectional interactions between well-being and cognition that unfold dynamically over time. Higher externalizing symptoms in childhood predicted fewer gains in planning over time (standardized estimate [β] = −0.14, p = .019), whereas higher childhood vocabulary predicted smaller increases in loneliness over time (β = −0.34, p ≤ .001). These interactions were characterized by modifiable risk and resilience factors: Relationships to parents, friendship quality, socioeconomic status, and puberty onset were all linked to both cognitive and well-being outcomes. Thus, cognition and well-being are inextricably intertwined during development and may be malleable to social and biological factors.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T09:08:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211030211
       
  • Adolescents’ Online Coping: When Less Is More but None Is Worse

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      Authors: Kathryn L. Modecki, Megan Duvenage, Bep Uink, Bonnie L. Barber, Caroline L. Donovan
      First page: 467
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Mobile technologies are omnipresent across adolescent life and require better characterization of their potential benefits. Adolescents also experience high rates of daily stress so that investigating youths’ technology use in relation to their stress response is of practical importance. We employed experience sampling data from a subset of 115 youths (n = 1,241 time points) who reported on their technology-based coping and assessed how these related to emotion change throughout the day and controlled for important covariates. Models testing for the benefits of moderate use (relative to no or heavy use; i.e., Goldilocks effect) showed a clear pattern of positive effects of moderate coping online, particularly in relation to support seeking and self-distraction. Moderate online coping was adaptive and often fostered declines in negative emotion.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-19T08:39:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211028983
       
  • Audiovisual Temporal Processing in Children and Adolescents With
           Schizophrenia and Children and Adolescents With Autism: Evidence From
           Simultaneity-Judgment Tasks and Eye-Tracking Data

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      Authors: Han-yu Zhou, Xi-long Cui, Bin-rang Yang, Li-juan Shi, Xue-rong Luo, Eric F. C. Cheung, Simon S. Y. Lui, Raymond C. K. Chan
      First page: 482
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Impaired audiovisual temporal integration, manifested as an abnormally widened temporal-binding window (TBW) for integrating sensory information, is found in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and contributes to aberrant perceptual experiences and impaired social communication. We conducted two experiments using age-comparable samples of participants with early-onset SCZ and participants with ASD. Sophisticated paradigms, including a unisensory temporal-order-judgment task (TOJ), an audiovisual-simultaneity-judgment task (SJ), and an eye-tracking task were used. Results showed generalized deficits in temporal processing in SCZ ranging from unisensory to multisensory modalities and from nonspeech to speech stimuli. In contrast, the widened TBW in ASD mainly affected speech stimuli processing. Applying the eye-tracking task with ecologically valid linguistic stimuli, we found that both participants with SCZ and participants with ASD exhibited reduced sensitivity of detecting audiovisual speech asynchrony. This impaired audiovisual speech integration correlated with negative symptoms. Although both ASD and SCZ have impaired multisensory temporal integration, ASD impairs speech-related processing, and SCZ is associated with generalized deficits.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-30T01:59:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211031543
       
  • Inefficient Attentional Control Explains Verbal-Memory Deficits Among
           Military Veterans With Posttraumatic Reexperiencing Symptoms

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      Authors: Craig A. Marquardt, Victor J. Pokorny, Seth G. Disner, Nathaniel W. Nelson, Kathryn A. McGuire, Scott R. Sponheim
      First page: 499
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), verbal learning and memory are areas of weakness compared with other cognitive domains (e.g., visuospatial memory). In this study, previously deployed military veterans completed clinical assessments of word memory and vocabulary (n = 243) and a laboratory task measuring encoding, free recall, repetition priming, and recognition of words (n = 147). Impaired verbal memory was selectively related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD but was not associated with other symptom groupings or blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Implicit priming of response times following word repetition was also unrelated to clinical symptoms. Instead, slowed response times during encoding explained associations between reexperiencing and memory performance. These findings are consistent with alterations in attentional control explaining PTSD-related verbal-memory deficits. Such findings have implications for understanding trauma-focused psychotherapy and recovery, which may depend on efficient attentional processing of words to alter posttraumatic reexperiencing symptoms.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T03:23:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211025018
       
  • Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Are Associated With Heightened Avoidance of
           Low-Probability, High-Aversion Threats: A Preliminary Test of the
           Improbable-Catastrophe Hypothesis

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      Authors: Christopher Hunt, Nikki Degeneffe, Johanna Bixby, Shmuel Lissek
      First page: 514
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Although symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may vary markedly, they often involve a fear of consequences that are both catastrophic and highly improbable (e.g., contracting HIV from a doorknob). Accordingly, a heightened sensitivity to what we refer to as improbable catastrophes may represent an underlying feature of OCD, yet this possibility awaits experimental validation. To fill this gap, 78 undergraduates with wide-ranging levels of OCD symptom severity completed a fear-conditioning paradigm designed to elicit varying degrees of perceived threat probability/aversiveness to test whether OCD symptoms predict heightened reactivity to unlikely, high-aversion threats. Consistent with predictions, participants with higher OCD symptoms were more avoidant of low-probability, high-aversion threats and also exhibited greater threat expectancy and physiological reactivity to more improbable threats in general. These findings implicate excessive avoidance of improbable catastrophes and heightened reactivity to unlikely threats more generally as underlying features of OCD.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-10T07:16:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211034861
       
  • A Novel Measure of Real-Time Perseverative Thought

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      Authors: Elizabeth C. Wade, Rivka T. Cohen, Paddy Loftus, Ayelet Meron Ruscio
      First page: 534
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Perseverative thinking (PT), or repetitive negative thinking, has historically been measured using global self-report scales. New methods of assessment are needed to advance understanding of this inherently temporal process. We developed an intensive longitudinal method for assessing PT. A mixed sample of 77 individuals ranging widely in trait PT, including persons with PT-related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, major depression) and persons without psychopathology, used a joystick to provide continuous ratings of thought valence and intensity following exposure to scenarios of differing valence. Joystick responses were robustly predicted by trait PT, clinical status, and stimulus valence. Higher trait perseverators exhibited more extreme joystick values overall, greater stability in values following threatening and ambiguous stimuli, weaker stability in values following positive stimuli, and greater inertia in values following ambiguous stimuli. The joystick method is a promising measure with the potential to shed new light on the dynamics and precipitants of perseverative thinking.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T02:52:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211038017
       
  • Psychopathy and Moral-Dilemma Judgment: An Analysis Using the Four-Factor
           Model of Psychopathy and the CNI Model of Moral Decision-Making

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      Authors: Dillon M. Luke, Craig S. Neumann, Bertram Gawronski
      First page: 553
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      A major question in clinical and moral psychology concerns the nature of the commonly presumed association between psychopathy and moral judgment. In the current preregistered study (N = 443), we aimed to address this question by examining the relation between psychopathy and responses to moral dilemmas pitting consequences for the greater good against adherence to moral norms. To provide more nuanced insights, we measured four distinct facets of psychopathy and used the CNI model to quantify sensitivity to consequences (C), sensitivity to moral norms (N), and general preference for inaction over action (I) in responses to moral dilemmas. Psychopathy was associated with a weaker sensitivity to moral norms, which showed unique links to the interpersonal and affective facets of psychopathy. Psychopathy did not show reliable associations with either sensitivity to consequences or general preference for inaction over action. Implications of these findings for clinical and moral psychology are discussed.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-08T08:14:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211043862
       
  • A Person-Centered Analysis of Craving in Smoking-Cue-Exposure Research

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      Authors: Michael A. Sayette, Madeline E. Goodwin, Kasey G. Creswell, Hannah J. Esmacher, John D. Dimoff
      First page: 570
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Smoking-cue-exposure research offers a powerful method to examine craving, test new interventions, and identify at-risk smokers. Meta-analyses consistently show smoking-cue exposure increases craving levels. By focusing on mean levels, however, investigators fail to consider person-centered analyses addressing the percentage of smokers responding to cue exposure with increased urge. We conducted preregistered analyses of the percentages of 672 nicotine-deprived daily smokers (pooled from seven studies) who reported target levels of urge before and during smoking-cue exposure. Sixty-nine percent of smokers increased their ratings during cue exposure. Note that 31% of nonresponders reported a maximal urge before cue exposure, which precluded their classification as a responder using traditional cue-reactivity analyses and suggests that traditional analyses underreport cue-reactivity effects. An alternative, peak-provoked-craving analysis revealed the effectiveness of cue exposure to generate potent urges (more than three quarters of the sample reported at least 70% of scale maximum). Further research integrating person-centered analyses into the craving literature promises to advance addiction theory and research.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-10T07:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211032646
       
  • A Connectome-Wide Functional Signature of Trait Anger

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      Authors: M. Justin Kim, Maxwell L. Elliott, Annchen R. Knodt, Ahmad R. Hariri
      First page: 584
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Past research on the brain correlates of trait anger has been limited by small sample sizes, a focus on relatively few regions of interest, and poor test–retest reliability of functional brain measures. To address these limitations, we conducted a data-driven analysis of variability in connectome-wide functional connectivity in a sample of 1,048 young adult volunteers. Multidimensional matrix regression analysis showed that self-reported trait anger maps onto variability in the whole-brain functional connectivity patterns of three brain regions that serve action-related functions: bilateral supplementary motor areas and the right lateral frontal pole. We then demonstrate that trait anger modulates the functional connectivity of these regions with canonical brain networks supporting somatomotor, affective, self-referential, and visual information processes. Our findings offer novel neuroimaging evidence for interpreting trait anger as a greater propensity to provoked action, which supports ongoing efforts to understand its utility as a potential transdiagnostic marker for disordered states characterized by aggressive behavior.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-26T05:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211030240
       
  • Issues in Estimating Interpretable Lower Order Factors in Second-Order
           Hierarchical Models: Commentary on Clark et al. (2021)

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      Authors: Tyler M. Moore, Benjamin B. Lahey
      First page: 593
      Abstract: Clinical Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In a previous issue of Clinical Psychological Science, Clark and colleagues asserted that lower order factors in second-order models are comparable with specific factors in bifactor models when residualized on the general factor. Modeling simulated data demonstrated that residualized lower order factors are correlated with bifactor-specific factors only to the extent that factor loadings are proportional. Modeling actual data with violations of proportionality showed that specific and residualized lower order factors are not always highly correlated and have differential correlations with criterion variables even when both models fit acceptably. Because proportionality constraints limit only second-order models, bifactor models should be the first option for hierarchical modeling.
      Citation: Clinical Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-09T03:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21677026211035114
       
 
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