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Frontiers in Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.043
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 47  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1664-1078
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • What does it mean to follow' A critique of the followership literature and
           a conceptual model of the emergence of downward following

    • Authors: Nicolas Bastardoz, Sofie Adriaensen
      Abstract: What does it mean to follow' In this paper, we systematically review the followership literature for the period 2017–2021. Our review shows that the followership literature suffers from three major issues that limit its validity. The followership field is dominated by a role-based approach equating direct reports with followers; empirical studies fail to study actual following behaviors, and there are no studies of downward following, which we define as any behavior or effort aimed at achieving a shared goal, carried out by an individual in a position of formal power who is influenced by one or more individuals in a position of inferior authority. Our manuscript builds on the process approach to study what it means to follow. We argue that the followership field needs to study actual followership behaviors at the micro “interaction episodes” and rely on quantitative behavioral coding. We then propose a conceptual, multi-level model that details antecedents and boundary conditions of the emergence of downward following. We conclude by discussing the organizational implications of our approach and model.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Ice Cream: new virtual reality tool for the assessment of executive
           functions in children and adolescents: a normative study

    • Authors: Manuel Antonio Fernandez, Fidel Rebon-Ortiz, Miguel Saura-Carrasco, Gema Climent, Unai Diaz-Orueta
      Abstract: This study focuses on the obtention of normative data for participants between 8 and 16 years old who were administered the Ice Cream test, a virtual reality tool designed to evaluate executive functions. The normative sample comprised n = 821 participants (49% female), with an age range of 8 to 16 years old, recruited across nine different testing sites in Spain. Experienced evaluators in psychological assessment, recruited and trained by the developer of the test, administered the test to the recruited sample. An empirical analysis of Ice Cream identified three factors, namely planning, learning and flexibility. Descriptive normative groups by age and gender were initially provided. A homoscedasticity analysis by gender showed no statistically significant differences between male and female participants. Cluster analysis by age suggested the creation of different age groups, respectively, 8 to 11 and 12 to 16 in Planning and Flexibility, and 8 to 9 and 10 to 16 in Learning, and subsequently, descriptive data for the established age groups per factor are shown. A confirmatory factor analysis showed the suitability of the 3 factors established as measured of three differentiated executive functions. Complementary data on the validity and reliability, and internal consistency of the scales are provided. Obtained normative data are relevant for evaluating executive functions in children and adolescents in a more ecological way. Further studies are needed to determine sensitivity and specificity of Ice Cream VR test to measure executive functions in different clinical populations.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Mobile phone addiction and mental health: the roles of sleep quality and
           perceived social support

    • Authors: Lin-Lin Yang, Chen Guo, Geng-Yin Li, Kai-Peng Gan, Jin-Huan Luo
      Abstract: As a global phenomenon, mobile phone addiction has become an increasingly common issue among Chinese university students. Although previous research explored the link between mobile phone addiction and mental health, the possible mechanism underlying the above association is unclear. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 585 participants from two universities in Kunming, southwest China, from October 2021 to January 2022. Our results suggested that mobile phone addiction was negatively associated with mental health, and sleep quality partially mediated the relationship between mobile phone addiction and mental health. Furthermore, perceived social support positively moderated the direct effect of sleep quality on mental health, as well as the indirect effect of mobile phone addiction on mental health. These findings provide a new insight into the underlying mechanism by which mobile phone addiction affects university students’ mental health. The results emphasize a necessary task for administrators, health workers, and family members to attach importance to the overuse of mobile phones among university students.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Bear in mind: the role of personal background in semantic animal fluency
           – The SMART-MR study|Objectives|Method|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Annelot P. Smit, Magdalena Beran, Emma L. Twait, Mirjam I. Geerlings, Jet M. J. Vonk
      Abstract: ObjectivesSemantic fluency is a prominent neuropsychological task, typically administered within the category ‘animals’. With the increasing development of novel item-level metrics of semantic fluency, a concern around the validity of item-level analyses could be that personal background factors (e.g., hobbies like birdwatching or fishing) may disproportionally influence performance. We analyzed animal fluency performance at the item level and investigated the prevalence of individuals with abundant knowledge in specific classes of animals (e.g., birds, fish, insects) and the relationship of such knowledge with personal background factors and other cognitive tasks (episodic memory and executive functioning).MethodParticipants included 736 Dutch middle-aged to older adults from the SMART-MR cohort (mean age 58 ± 9.4 years, 18% women). Individuals were asked to name as many animals as possible for 2 min. Number of people with abundant animal class knowledge was calculated for the ability to recall a series of minimum ≥5 and up to ≥15 animals within a specific class with at most one interruption by an animal from another class. Subsequent analyses to investigate relationships of abundant class knowledge with sociodemographic characteristics (t-tests and chi-square tests) and cognitive performance (linear regressions) were performed for a cut-off of ≥10 animals within a specific class (90th percentile), with a sensitivity analysis for ≥7 animals (67th percentile).ResultsA total of 416 (56.2%) participants recalled a series of ≥5 animals from a specific class, 245 (33.3%) participants recalled ≥7, 78 (10.6%) participants recalled ≥10, and 8 (1.1%) participants recalled ≥15. Those who recalled a series of at least 10 animals within a class were older, more often men, and more often retired than those who did not. Moreover, they had a higher total score on animal fluency, letter fluency (i.e., executive functioning), and episodic memory tasks compared to those who did not.DiscussionOur results suggest that the benefit of abundant animal class knowledge gained by personal background does not disproportionally influence animal fluency performance as individuals with such knowledge also performed better on other cognitive tasks unrelated to abundant knowledge of animal classes.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • The effect of study-abroad experience on lexical translation among
           interpreting students

    • Authors: Ruiyuan Wang, Jing Han, Bruno Di Biase, Mark Antoniou
      Abstract: This study investigates the impact of study-abroad experience (SAE) on lexical translation among 50 Chinese (L1)-English (L2) interpreting students. Participants were divided into two groups based on their experience abroad. Both groups consisted of 25 unbalanced L2 learners who were matched in age, working memory, length of interpreting training, and L2 proficiency. Bidirectional word translation recognition tasks, from L1 to L2 and L2 to L1, highlighted several key findings: (1) both groups were significantly more accurate and faster from L2 to L1 than in the reverse direction; (2) the study abroad (SA) group was more inclined to respond quickly at the risk of making errors, whereas the non-study abroad (NSA) group tended to be more cautious, prioritising accuracy over speed; (3) the SA group were more balanced and consistent in their performance across lexical translations in both directions than the NSA group. These results emphasise the potent effect of SAE in resolving bilinguals’ language competition, especially in streamlining language switching, a cognitive process critical for interpreting students engaging daily with dual languages.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Early childhood education language environments: considerations for
           research and practice

    • Authors: Jennifer Finders, Ella Wilson, Robert Duncan
      Abstract: The importance of developing early language and literacy skills is acknowledged by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as a global human rights issue. Indeed, research suggests that language abilities are foundational for a host of cognitive, behavioral, and social–emotional outcomes. Therefore, it is critical to provide experiences that foster language acquisition across early learning settings. Central to these efforts is incorporating assessments of language environments into research and practice to drive quality improvement. Yet, several barriers may be preventing language environment assessments from becoming widely integrated into early education. In this brief, we review evidence on the types of experiences that promote language development, describe characteristics of language environment assessments, and outline practical and philosophical considerations to assist with decision-making. Further, we offer recommendations for future research that may contribute knowledge regarding strategies to assess and support language development. In addressing both areas, we highlight the potential for early childhood language environments to advance equity.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Cognitive reappraisal and empathy chain-mediate the association between
           relative deprivation and prosocial behavior in

    • Authors: Yanfeng Xu, Sishi Chen, Xiaojie Su, Delin Yu
      Abstract: BackgroundRelative deprivation is one of the factors that influences the development of personality and behavior. However, it is still unclear whether and how relative deprivation decreases the prosocial behavior in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the association between relative deprivation and adolescent prosocial behavior and the role of emotion regulation strategies and empathy in modifying this association.MethodsThe present study included 609 secondary school students (M = 15.42 years, SD = 0.653) in Fujian Province, China. All participants completed the Relative Deprivation Questionnaire, Emotion Regulation Scale, the Basic Empathy Scale, and Prosocial Behavior Scale. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 25.0 and Mplus 7.4.ResultsRelative deprivation was negatively correlated with cognitive reappraisal, but positively correlated with expressive suppression. Cognitive reappraisal was positively correlated with empathy and prosocial behavior, but expressive suppression was not. Empathy was positively correlated with prosocial behavior. Relative deprivation decreased prosocial behavior through (a) cognitive reappraisal, (b) empathy, and (c) chain mediation of cognitive reappraisal and empathy. No significant mediating effect of expressive suppression was found.ConclusionThe results indicate that relative deprivation decreases adolescent prosocial behavior, and that cognitive reappraisal and empathy are the potential psychological mechanisms that affect the association between relative deprivation and adolescent prosocial behavior.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Modern homophobia among heterosexual Romanian adults: the roles of sexual
           orientation beliefs, religiosity, perceived social roles, and social media

    • Authors: Georgiana Lăzărescu, Adina Karner-Hutuleac, Alexandra Maftei
      Abstract: The present study aimed to examine some potential predictors of homophobia against lesbians and gay individuals. Our sample comprised 722 heterosexual participants aged 18–74, mostly women (self-reported gender; 224 men and 498 women) with various educational backgrounds (i.e., High School, Bachelor’s, and Master’s degrees). Participants filled in self-reported scales measuring sexual orientation beliefs (incremental vs. entity views), religiosity, social media use, and perceived gender-transcendent social roles. Correlation analyses and multiple regression models were computed separately for men and women. For all participants, homophobia against lesbians (HAL) was negatively associated with participants’ age, religiosity, and gender-transcendent social roles and positively with incremental views about sexuality. However, only in the case of women was HAL positively related to social media use. Next, for both men and women, homophobia against gay individuals (HAG) was negatively related to age, religiosity, and gender-transcendent social roles. However, only in the case of women, HAG was positively related to social media use online and incremental views about sexuality. In the case of men, the most significant predictor of HAL was the perceived gender-transcendent social roles and HAG – perceived gender-linked social roles. For women, perceived gender-linked social roles were the most significant predictor of both HAL and HAG. Results are discussed regarding their use for interventions aimed at reducing homophobia among heterosexual individuals.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • The association between working memory, teacher-student relationship, and
           academic performance in primary school

    • Authors: Simona Sankalaite, Mariëtte Huizinga, Petra Warreyn, Jolien Dewandeleer, Dieter Baeyens
      Abstract: IntroductionEarly relationships with teachers play an important role in children’s development and significantly influence students’ cognitive and academic performance. Studies suggest that working memory (WM) is a strong predictor of academic achievement, especially of reading and arithmetic outcomes. The associations between teacher-student relationship (TSR) quality, children’s WM skills and their academic performance have been reported in numerous observational studies. However, the potentially bidirectional and temporal nature of the relationships between these constructs is understudied.MethodsThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between primary school children’s WM and TSR by applying a cross-lagged design and measuring these constructs at three time points throughout the academic year. More exploratively, this study investigated how WM and TSR bidirectionally relate to children’s academic performance.ResultsThe findings of this study revealed a temporal relationship between WM and TSR: between WM-related problems in the classroom at baseline and conflict at 3-month follow-up, and between closeness at 3-month follow-up and WM-related problems in the classroom at 5-month follow-up. Moreover, the findings showed a bidirectional relationship between arithmetic performance and WM-related problematic behaviour.DiscussionThis study highlights that relationships between the teacher and students play an important role in supporting students’ cognitive and academic development. Importantly, this study suggests that children with WM problems may benefit from interventions that focus on improving their relationships with teachers. Additionally, the findings propose that interventions targeting WM may also have positive effects on children’s academic performance.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Psychometric properties of the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale in a
           sample of Chilean public school teachers

    • Authors: José Luis Gálvez-Nieto, Sonia Salvo-Garrido, Sergio Domínguez-Lara, Karina Polanco-Levicán, Manuel Mieres-Chacaltana
      Abstract: The Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) has demonstrated suitable levels of reliability and validity for its use on the teacher population in several countries, and it is the most used scale to assess teachers’ beliefs in their efficacy. However, few psychometric studies exist on its applicability to elementary teachers in public schools. This study analyzed the psychometric properties of the TSES in teachers who work in elementary education. The sample comprised 1,406 Chilean teachers, mainly women (77.2%), from various Chilean public and subsidized schools. The results obtained from three confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the model that best fit the data was bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (B-ESEM) for 24 items, one general factor, and three residual factors. The results of the factorial invariance analysis indicate that the TSES remains stable up to the strict level of invariance for the variable sex. These results imply that the TSES can be used on Chilean teachers. The results are discussed based on the theoretical and empirical evidence available.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Taking the unreal seriously: enriching cognitive science with the notion
           of fictionality

    • Authors: Pierre Gander, Kata Szita, Andreas Falck, William Hedley Thompson
      Abstract: Fictionality and fictional experiences are ubiquitous in people’s everyday lives in the forms of movies, novels, video games, pretense and role playing, and digital technology use. Despite this ubiquity, though, the field of cognitive science has traditionally been dominated by a focus on the real world. Based on the limited understanding from previous research on questions regarding fictional information and the cognitive processes for distinguishing reality from fiction, we argue for the need for a comprehensive and systematic account that reflects on related phenomena, such as narrative comprehension or imagination embedded into general theories of cognition. This is important as incorporating cognitive processing of fictional events into memory theory reshapes the conceptual map of human memory. In this paper, we highlight future challenges for the cognitive studies of fictionality on conceptual, neurological, and computational levels. Taking on these challenges requires an interdisciplinary approach between fields like developmental psychology, philosophy, and the study of narrative comprehension. Our aim is to build on such interdisciplinarity and provide conclusions on the ways in which new theoretical frameworks of fiction cognition can aid understanding human behaviors in a wide range of aspects of people’s daily lives, media consumption habits, and digital encounters. Our account also has the potential to inform technological innovations related to training intelligent digital systems to distinguish fact and fiction in the source material.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Digital intervention in improving the outcomes of mental health among
           LGBTQ+ youth: a systematic review

    • Authors: Yanni Liu, Ying Cheng Wu, Hongpeng Fu, Wu Yuan Guo, Xukang Wang
      Abstract: LGBTQ+ youth experience mental health disparities and higher rates of mental disorders due to barriers to accessing care, including insufficient services and the anticipated stigma of revealing their identities. This systematic review incorporated 15 empirical studies on digital interventions’ impact on LGBTQ+ youth mental health, examining their potential to address these inequities. This study innovatively categorized existing digital interventions into four streams: Structured Formal (telehealth, online programs), Structured Informal (serious games), Unstructured Formal (mobile applications), and Unstructured Informal (social media). We found that S&F and U&F effectively reduced symptoms. U&F showed potential but required enhancement, while U&I fostered resilience but posed risks. Further integration of emerging technologies like virtual reality may strengthen these interventions. This review identifies the characteristics of effective digital health interventions and evaluates the overall potential of digital technologies in improving LGBTQ+ youth mental health, uniquely contributing insights on digital solutions advancing LGBTQ+ youth mental healthcare.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • The moderating effects of sex, age, and education on the outcome of
           combined cognitive training and transcranial electrical stimulation in
           older adults|Clinical Trial Registration

    • Authors: Christine Krebs, Jessica Peter, Esther Brill, Stefan Klöppel, Anna-Katharine Brem
      Abstract: Computerized cognitive training (CCT) has been shown to improve cognition in older adults via targeted exercises for single or multiple cognitive domains. Combining CCT with non-invasive brain stimulation is thought to be even more effective due to synergistic effects in the targeted brain areas and networks. However, little is known about the moderating effects of sex, age, and education on cognitive outcomes. Here, we investigated these factors in a randomized, double-blind study in which we administered CCT either combined with transcranial direct (tDCS), alternating (tACS) current stimulation or sham stimulation. 59 healthy older participants (mean age 71.7 ± 6.1) received either tDCS (2 mA), tACS (5 Hz), or sham stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the first 20 min of a CCT (10 sessions, 50 min, twice weekly). Before and after the complete cognitive intervention, a neuropsychological assessment was performed, and the test scores were summarized in a composite score. Our results showed a significant three-way interaction between age, years of education, and stimulation technique (F(6,52) = 5.53, p = 0.007), indicating that the oldest participants with more years of education particularly benefitted from tDCS compared to the sham group, while in the tACS group the youngest participants with less years of education benefit more from the stimulation. These results emphasize the importance of further investigating and taking into account sex, age, and education as moderating factors in the development of individualized stimulation protocols.Clinical Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03475446.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Intuitive thinking predicts false memory formation due to a decrease in
           inhibitory efficiency

    • Authors: Giorgio Gronchi, Stefania Righi, Gioele Gavazzi, Fiorenza Giganti, Maria Pia Viggiano
      Abstract: False memory formation is usually studied using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM), in which individuals incorrectly remember words that were not originally presented. In this paper, we systematically investigated how two modes of thinking (analytical vs. intuitive) can influence the tendency to create false memories. The increased propensity of intuitive thinkers to generate more false memories can be explained by one or both of the following hypotheses: a decrease in the inhibition of the lure words that come to mind, or an increased reliance on the familiarity heuristic to determine if the word has been previously studied. In two studies, we conducted tests of both recognition and recall using the DRM paradigm. Our observations indicate that a decrease in inhibitory efficiency plays a larger role in false memory formation compared to the use of the familiarity heuristic.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Maternal positive coparenting and adolescent ego-identity: the chain
           mediating role of fathers’ marital satisfaction and adolescent peer

    • Authors: Wanghua Ji, Rui Ming Lan, Peng Ma, Hongpo Zhang, Lijun Fan
      Abstract: IntroductionBased on the ecological systems theory and the family systems theory, this study explores the mechanisms underlying the effects of maternal positive coparenting on adolescent ego-identity.MethodsThis study employed the Maternal Positive Coparenting Scale to assess mothers, the Father Marital Satisfaction Scale to examine fathers, and the Adolescent Peer Relationship Scale, along with the Ego-Identity Scale, to evaluate adolescents. This comprehensive approach involved investigating 522 families, encompassing both parents and adolescents.ResultsThe results obtained indicate a significant positive correlation between maternal positive coparenting and adolescent ego-identity. Peer relationships mediated the relationship between maternal positive coparenting and adolescent ego-identity. Father marital satisfaction mediated the relationship between maternal positive coparenting and adolescent ego-identity insignificantly. Paternal marital satisfaction and adolescent peer relationship have a chain mediating role between maternal positive coparenting and adolescent ego-identity. The study contributes by offering insights from the perspectives of family and peer relationships for further enhancing the development of adolescent ego-identity.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: The roles of social media in education: affective, behavioral,
           and cognitive dimensions

    • Authors: Hung Phu Bui, Mark Bedoya Ulla, Veronico N. Tarrayo, Chien Thang Pham
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • The impact of verbal encouragement during the repeated agility speed
           training on internal intensity, mood state, and physical enjoyment in
           youth soccer players|Objective|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Okba Selmi, Hilmi Jelleli, Souheir Bouali, Bilel Aydi, Omar Hindawi, Antonella Muscella, Anissa Bouassida, Katja Weiss, Beat Knechtle
      Abstract: ObjectiveVerbal encouragement (VE) can be used by coaches to boost morale and commitment during training exercises. This investigation aimed to study the impacts of VE given by coaches on the physiological aspects, players' internal intensity, mood, and perceived enjoyment of youth soccer players during repeated agility speed training (RAS).MethodsA total of 17 male youth soccer players (mean ± SD; age: 13.8 ± 0.4 years; body mass: 59.1 ± 6.7 kg; height: 170.0 ± 6.2 cm; training experience: 5.1 ± 0.7 years) participated, in a randomized order, in two experimental training sessions that consisted of a RAS (i.e., the Illinois course) either with VE (RAS-E) or without VE (RAS-NE), with a 7-day interval between the testing sessions. Heart rate (HR) was registered throughout the exercise. The rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate concentration [La], and perceived enjoyment were measured after each training session. The mood state was recorded before and after each protocol.ResultsHR mean (Cohen's coefficient d = 0.45, small), %HRmax (d = 0.37, small), HR peak (d = 0.66, moderate), [La] (d = 0.56, small), and the PACES score (d = 2.8, very large) were higher in RAS-E compared to RAS-NE (all, P < 0.001). Compared to the RAS-E trial, the RAS-NE trial showed higher fatigue (P < 0.01), tension (P < 0.05), anger (0.05), total mood score (P < 0.001), and lower vigor (P < 0.001).ConclusionCoaches may use VE during RAS to improve psychophysiological responses, mood state, and perceived enjoyment in youth soccer players.
      PubDate: 2023-09-21T00:00:00Z
  • Backward masking implicates cortico-cortical recurrent processes in convex
           figure context effects and cortico-thalamic recurrent processes in
           resolving figure-ground ambiguity|Introduction|Methods|Results and

    • Authors: Mary A. Peterson, Elizabeth Salvagio Campbell
      Abstract: IntroductionPrevious experiments purportedly showed that image-based factors like convexity were sufficient for figure assignment. Recently, however, we found that the probability of perceiving a figure on the convex side of a central border was only slightly higher than chance for two-region displays and increased with the number of display regions; this increase was observed only when the concave regions were homogeneously colored. These convex figure context effects (CEs) revealed that figure assignment in these classic displays entails more than a response to local convexity. A Bayesian observer replicated the convex figure CEs using both a convexity object prior and a new, homogeneous background prior and made the novel prediction that the classic displays in which both the convex and concave regions were homogeneous were ambiguous during perceptual organization.MethodsHere, we report three experiments investigating the proposed ambiguity and examining how the convex figure CEs unfold over time with an emphasis on whether they entail recurrent processing. Displays were shown for 100 ms followed by pattern masks after ISIs of 0, 50, or 100 ms. The masking conditions were designed to add noise to recurrent processing and therefore to delay the outcome of processes in which they play a role. In Exp. 1, participants viewed two- and eight-region displays with homogeneous convex regions (homo-convex displays; the putatively ambiguous displays). In Exp. 2, participants viewed putatively unambiguous hetero-convex displays. In Exp. 3, displays and masks were presented to different eyes, thereby delaying mask interference in the thalamus for up to 100 ms.Results and discussionThe results of Exps. 1 and 2 are consistent with the interpretation that recurrent processing is involved in generating the convex figure CEs and resolving the ambiguity of homo-convex displays. The results of Exp. 3 suggested that corticofugal recurrent processing is involved in resolving the ambiguity of homo-convex displays and that cortico-cortical recurrent processes play a role in generating convex figure CEs and these two types of recurrent processes operate in parallel. Our results add to evidence that perceptual organization evolves dynamically and reveal that stimuli that seem unambiguous can be ambiguous during perceptual organization.
      PubDate: 2023-09-21T00:00:00Z
  • Stable organization of the early lexical-semantic network in 18- and
           24-month-old preterm and full-term infants: an eye-tracker

    • Authors: Anett Ragó, Zsuzsanna Varga, Miklos Szabo
      Abstract: IntroductionAn organized mental lexicon determines new information acquisition by orienting attention during language processing. Adult-like lexical-semantic knowledge organization has already been demonstrated in 24-month-olds. However, the outcomes of earlier studies have been contradictory in terms of the organizational capacities of 18-month-olds, thus our aim was to examine lexical-semantic organization in this younger age group. In prematurely born infants, audiovisual integration deficits have been found alongside disruptions in language perception. By including late preterm infants with corrected ages in our study, we aimed to test whether maturational differences influence lexical-semantic organization when vocabulary is growing rapidly.MethodsWe tested 47 late preterm and full-term 18- and 24-month-old infants by means of an infant-adapted target-absent task using a slightly modified version of the original visual world paradigm for eye tracker.ResultsWe found a longer fixation duration for the lexical and semantic distractors compared to the neutral pictures. Neither language proficiency nor age affected the looking time results. We found a dissociation by age between taxonomic and associative semantic relations. Maturational differences were detectable in the initial processing of taxonomic relations, as processing in the preterm group was slightly delayed and qualitatively different in the first half of the looking time. The size and composition of the expressive vocabulary differed only by age.DiscussionIn general, our study demonstrated a stable lexical-semantic organization between 18 and 24 months of age, regardless of maturational differences.
      PubDate: 2023-09-21T00:00:00Z
  • Phenomenology yesterday, today, and tomorrow: a proposed phenomenological
           response to the double challenges of contemporary recovery-oriented
           person-centered mental health care

    • Authors: Guilherme Messas, Giovanni Stanghellini, K. W. M. (Bill Fulford
      Abstract: This paper argues that a dialectical synthesis of phenomenology’s traditional twin roles in psychiatry (one science-centered, the other individual-centered) is needed to support the recovery-oriented practice that is at the heart of contemporary person-centered mental health care. The paper is in two main sections. Section I illustrates the different ways in which phenomenology’s two roles have played out over three significant periods of the history of phenomenology in 20th century psychiatry: with the introduction of phenomenology in Karl Jaspers’ General Psychopathology in 1913; with the development a few years later of structural phenomenological psychopathology; and in the period of post-War humanism. Section II is concerned with the role of phenomenology in contemporary mental health. There has been a turn to phenomenology in the current period, we argue, in response to what amounts to an uncoupling of academic psychiatry from front-line clinical care. Corresponding with the two roles of phenomenology, this uncoupling has both scientific aspects and clinical aspects. The latter, we suggest, is most fully expressed in a new model of “recovery,” defined, not by the values of professionals as experts-by-training, but by the values of patients and carers as experts-by-experience, specifically, by what is important to the quality of life of the individual concerned in the situation in question. We illustrate the importance of recovery, so defined, and the challenges raised by it for both the evidence-base and the values-base of clinical decision-making, with brief clinical vignettes. It is to these challenges we argue, that phenomenology through a synthesis of its twin roles is uniquely equipped to respond. Noting, however, the many barriers to such a synthesis, we argue that in the current state of development of the field, it is by way of a dialectical synthesis of phenomenology’s roles that we should proceed. From such a dialectic, a genuine synthesis of roles may ultimately emerge. We conclude with a note on the wider significance of these developments, arguing that contrary to 20th century stereotypes, they show psychiatry to be leading the way for healthcare as a whole, in developing the resources for 21st century person-centered clinical care.
      PubDate: 2023-09-21T00:00:00Z
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