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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
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Depression Research and Treatment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.816
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 19  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-1321 - ISSN (Online) 2090-133X
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Profanity as a Self-Defense Mechanism and an Outlet for Emotional
           Catharsis in Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    • Abstract: Background. Swearing is an increasing trend among men and women worldwide. Earlier studies on the positive aspects of profanity mostly relate to pain management and the release of negative emotions. The uniqueness of the current study is its analysis for a possible constructive role of profanity in stress, anxiety, and depression. Method. The current survey involved 253 conveniently selected participants from Pakistan. The study analyzed the role of profanity in connection to stress, anxiety, and depression. Profanity Scale and the Urdu version of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale were used along with a structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and -test were implied to obtain results. Results. The study revealed that the usage of profane language had significantly inverse correlations with stress (;), anxiety (;), and depression (;). Higher profaners also revealed significantly lower levels of depression (, vs. ,;; Cohen’s ) and stress (, vs. ,;; Cohen’s ) as compared to lower profaners. Profanity had no significant correlations with age (;) and education (;). Men projected significantly higher levels of profanity as compared to women. Conclusion. The current study viewed profanity similar to the self-defense mechanisms and emphasized on its cathartic role in stress, anxiety, and depression.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 May 2023 03:35:01 +000
  • Measuring the Impact of Social Media on Young People’s Mental Health:
           Development and Validation of the Social Media-Induced Tendency Scale

    • Abstract: Social media use has been linked to adverse health outcomes such as depression. To facilitate interventions, understanding the varied causes of depression is necessary. The authors developed a social media-induced depression tendency (SMIDT) scale for use with young people and aimed to validate it for young people in Nigeria. The study was conducted in three parts using an online survey (Google Forms) with purposive sampling targeting young people. Study 1 was an exploratory study that developed the SMIDT scale with 361 young people aged 16 to 26 years (). A concise measure of SMIDT was obtained. In study 2, confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the SMIDT with young people aged 17 to 25 years (). Construct, discriminant, and concurrent validities were established, and three factors were identified (sensitivity/attention seeking, worthlessness, and escapism/reality avoidance), which explained 55.87% of the variance. Study 3 tested the predictive validity of the scale. The results showed that the 15-item SMIDT scale had high internal consistency and satisfactory validity. The SMIDT scale can enable the assessment of factors associated with social media-induced depression tendency. The three factors identified in the scale provide insight into the factors contributing to depression associated with social media use. The SMIDT scale has the potential to help identify at-risk individuals and in-developing interventions to prevent or reduce social media-induced depression tendencies. However, this study only focused on young people in Nigeria. Additional studies using the SMIDT scale are required to assess its generalizability and applicability in evaluating other factors, such as quality of life among young people. Moreover, while social media use has been associated with adverse health outcomes, it is crucial to recognize that it can also positively affect mental health. Further research is necessary to explore the complex relationships between social media use and mental health outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2023 01:20:01 +000
  • Network Structure of Comorbidity Patterns in U.S. Adults with Depression:
           A National Study Based on Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor
           Surveillance System

    • Abstract: Background. People with depression are at increased risk for comorbidities; however, the clustering of comorbidity patterns in these patients is still unclear. Objective. The aim of the study was to identify latent comorbidity patterns and explore the comorbidity network structure that included 12 chronic conditions in adults diagnosed with depressive disorder. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the 2017 behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS) covering all 50 American states. A sample of 89,209 U.S. participants, 29,079 men and 60,063 women aged 18 years or older, was considered using exploratory graphical analysis (EGA), a statistical graphical model that includes algorithms for grouping and factoring variables in a multivariate system of network relationships. Results. The EGA findings show that the network presents 3 latent comorbidity patterns, i.e., that comorbidities are grouped into 3 factors. The first group was composed of 7 comorbidities (obesity, cancer, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, arthritis, kidney disease, and diabetes). The second pattern of latent comorbidity included the diagnosis of asthma and respiratory diseases. The last factor grouped 3 conditions (heart attack, coronary heart disease, and stroke). Hypertension reported higher measures of network centrality. Conclusion. Associations between chronic conditions were reported; furthermore, they were grouped into 3 latent dimensions of comorbidity and reported network factor loadings. The implementation of care and treatment guidelines and protocols for patients with depressive symptomatology and multimorbidity is suggested.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Apr 2023 14:50:01 +000
  • Comparison of the Quality of Life and Depression in the Elderly with and
           without a History of COVID-19 Infection in Shiraz, Iran

    • Abstract: Background. COVID-19 causes many physical and mental complications. The elderly, as one of the vulnerable groups, were more exposed to the problems caused by this pandemic. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life and depression in the elderly with and without a history of COVID-19 infection. Method. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on 404 elderly people (202 from the affected group and 202 from the nonaffected group) aged over 60 years old in Shiraz city. The elderly participants were selected based on simple random sampling from the elderly list. In order to collect information, the quality of life questionnaire of the World Health Organization and Beck’s depression questionnaire were used. Data analysis was done through SPSS software version 22 using statistical tests of chi-square, -test, analysis of variance, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. An alpha level under 0.05 was considered the significant level. Results. The average score of depression in the elderly with a history of COVID-19 () was significantly higher than that of the elderly without a history of COVID-19 () (). The average score of the quality of life in the elderly with a history of COVID-19 () was significantly lower than that of the elderly without a history of COVID-19 () ().Conclusion. Elderly people with a history of COVID-19 had more depression and lower quality of life compared to people without a history of COVID-19. It is suggested that planners and health policymakers should pay special attention to the use of effective psychological interventions in order to reduce the problems of the elderly.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Mar 2023 07:05:00 +000
  • High School Students’ Depression Literacy about Interventions and
           Prevention: A Survey in Tehran

    • Abstract: Background. Given the high prevalence of depressive disorders in the present world and the lack of adequate awareness about prevention and appropriate interventions, increasing mental health literacy is vital for promoting mental health to reduce depression and its consequences. Methods. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, participants were recruited among the second high school students in the 2018-2019 academic year. The sample size was 2038, and samples were selected by multistage cluster sampling from different areas of Tehran. Demographic variables like age, gender, level of education, and parents’ characteristics and mental health literacy questions in treatment and prevention areas were evaluated. Results. Analyses showed that of high school students, 83% considered getting help from psychiatrists and 80% considered learning stress management as the best preventive measures, while as the best treatment measures, 79.5% considered counseling the best place to refer for visiting a professional and 45% selected general counseling centers. Conclusion. The study results showed that high school students have a positive attitude toward preventing and treating depressive disorders, getting help from specialists, and useful measures for depressed people. But they did not know enough about preventive measures, including learning effective coping skills, reading self-help books, and continuing to take psychiatric medications. Planning and providing the necessary training are important, especially for high school students.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Mar 2023 09:05:00 +000
  • Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression among
           Pregnant Women Attending Tertiary Care Hospitals in South India

    • Abstract: Background. Antenatal depression (AND) is a common mood disorder that affects both the mother and the child. Objective. The current study is aimed at identifying the prevalence of antenatal depression and the risk factors associated with it in South Indian pregnant women. Materials and Methods. The current study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital where pregnancy and postnatal care are offered. In the study, 314 pregnant women who visited the antenatal clinic for their prenatal checkups were included. To diagnose possible depression, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used. The chi-square test was applied to determine the association between antenatal depression and various socioeconomic, obstetric, and medical factors. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant confounding variables. Results. Of the total 314 women, 69 (21.98%) were suffering from possible depression with the mean EPDS score being . Women of younger age had greater risks for depression than older women (; 95% CI: 0.56-7.20). Maternal age (,) and the presence of health issues during the current pregnancy (,) were the factors significantly associated with antenatal depression. Conclusions. Clinical efforts should focus on screening antenatal depression, early identification, and effective care, thus preventing progression to postpartum depression and its detrimental effects.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Nov 2022 12:35:02 +000
  • Determinants of Pregnancy-Related Anxiety among Women Attending Antenatal
           Checkup at Public Health Institutions in Debre Markos Town, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Pregnancy-related anxiety has been associated with many pregnancy adverse outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, postpartum depression, and resulting in long-term sequels on the child’s emotional, cognitive, and behavioral development. This study is aimed at assessing the magnitude of pregnancy-related anxiety and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal checkup at Debre Markos town public health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 pregnant women at Debre Markos town, Northwest Ethiopia, from February 1st to March 30th, 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected sing a structured, pretested, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. The collected data were entered with Epi-data version 4.6 and then exported to SPSS version 23. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify significantly associated variables with pregnancy-related anxiety. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) at a value of ≤0.05 was used to claim statistical association. Result. In this study, a total of 408 pregnant women participated, giving a 96.4% response rate. The prevalence of pregnancy-related anxiety was found to be 43.9% (95% CI: 39.5, 49.2). Having no formal education (; 95% CI: 1.32, 8.58), primigravida (; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.24), intimate partner violence (; 95% CI: 1.47, 5.64), and poor social support (; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.56) was significantly associated with pregnancy-related anxiety. Conclusion. In this study, the prevalence of pregnancy-related anxiety was found to be high when compared to other study findings. The regional educational department should give emphasis for gender pedagogies which pay attention to the specific learning needs of girls. In addition, interventions on violence against women and social support for the women may reduce the problem.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Aug 2022 04:35:02 +000
  • Virtual versus Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Depression:
           Meta-Analytic Test of a Noninferiority Hypothesis and Men’s Mental
           Health Inequities

    • Abstract: Global rates of depression have increased significantly since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear how the recent shift of many mental health services to virtual platforms has impacted service users, especially for the male population which are significantly more likely to complete suicide than women. This paper presents the findings of a rapid meta-analytic research synthesis of 17 randomized controlled trials on the relative efficacy of virtual versus traditional face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in mitigating symptoms of depression. Participants’ aggregated depression scores were compared upon completion of the therapy (posttest) and longest follow-up measurement. The results supported the noninferiority hypothesis indicating that the two modes of CBT delivery are equally efficacious, but the results proved to be significantly heterogeneous indicating the presence of moderating effects. Indirect suggestive evidence was found to support moderation by gender; that is, depressed males may benefit more from virtual CBT. Perhaps, this field’s most telling descriptive finding was that boys/men have been grossly underrepresented in its trials. Future trials ought to oversample those who have been at this field’s margins to advance the next generation of knowledge, allowing us to best serve people of all genders, those who live in poverty, Indigenous, Black, and other Peoples of Colour, as well as any others at risk of being marginalized or oppressed in contemporary mental health care systems.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jun 2022 02:05:01 +000
  • Prevalence and Associated Factors of Poststroke Depression among
           Outpatient Stroke Patients Who Have a Follow-Up at the Outpatient
           Neurology Clinic of Zewditu Memorial Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Poststroke depression is the most common and burdensome poststroke psychiatric complication. Studies showed discrepancies in reporting frequencies and risk factors for poststroke depression. Updated local data are relevant for efficient strategies of poststroke depression screening and prevention. Objectives. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of poststroke depression among outpatient stroke patients from the outpatient neurology clinic of Zewditu Memorial Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 249 stroke patients. Data was collected through structured questionnaire using interviews and a review of medical charts. PHQ-9 depression questionnaire was used to diagnose poststroke depression. Descriptive analysis was used to see the nature of the characteristics of interests. Bivariate analysis was used to sort out variables at values less than 0.05 for multivariate logistic regression. Significance level was obtained using an odds ratio with 95% CI and value < 0.05. Results. Point prevalence for poststroke depression was 27.5 percent. Female gender, unemployment, low social support level, diabetes mellitus, and poststroke period under 2 years were statistically significant and independent predictors for poststroke depression. Conclusions. The point prevalence estimate of poststroke depression was comparable with other studies. Low social support levels increased the odds for poststroke depression by more than eight folds. It appeared that external factors are more important in the pathogenesis of poststroke depression in the African population. Detection and prevention programs should consider disparities of poststroke depression incidence and risk factors.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Mar 2022 08:50:05 +000
  • Effectiveness of Positive Psychotherapy on Depression and Alexithymia in
           Women Applying for a Divorce

    • Abstract: Background. The new therapeutic approach of positive psychotherapy has successfully treated severe mental disorders such as depression and mood disorders. However, existing research has not sufficiently measured the usefulness of this treatment in reducing depression and alexithymia. Objectives. This study thus examined the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy in reducing these two conditions in a specific population: Iranian women applying for the divorce. Methods. A total of 40 participants aged 20-40 with a high score in the Beck Depression Inventory and Toronto Alexithymia Questionnaire were recruited from women referred to a psychology clinic for divorce-related problems. The pretest, posttest, and follow-up were conducted with all participants, who were randomly placed in two groups: the experimental and control groups, which each consisted of 20 people. We provided eight positive psychotherapy sessions for only the experimental group. Results. After MANCOVA was conducted, the results showed that positive psychotherapy significantly decreased alexithymia and depression in the test population.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Feb 2022 11:35:00 +000
  • The Association between Late Third-Trimester Oxytocin Level and
           Early-Onset Postpartum Depression Symptoms among Jordanian Mothers: A
           Cross-sectional Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. Oxytocin has been suggested to play a vital role in modulating maternal behavior and stress-related disorders. However, the relationship between antenatal oxytocin and postpartum depression is not well established. We aim to investigate the association between serum oxytocin level in the late third-trimester and early-onset postpartum depression symptoms. Materials and Methods. A total of 172 healthy pregnant women participated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. The serum oxytocin level was measured between 34 and 37 weeks. A validated Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess symptoms of depression four to six weeks postpartum. Participants who scored more than 12 on the EPDS were considered having depressive symptoms. Independent sample -test and Pearson were used to examine differences in depression scores. The level of significance was set at .Results. 30.8% of the participants experienced depressive symptoms. There was no association between EPDS scores and oxytocin level ,. The association also did not exist even among women with a lifetime history of depression ,. Participants with low education, low income, previous history of depression, positive family history of depression, positive family issues, and absent emotional family support have scored significantly higher on EPDS scores than their counterparts. The strongest association was with previous lifetime history of depression ,.Conclusions. Postpartum depression is a major public health problem in Jordan. Late trimester serum oxytocin level has no association with early-onset postpartum depression.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Feb 2022 07:35:01 +000
  • Student Burnout and PTSD Symptoms: The Role of Existential Anxiety and
           Academic Fears on Students during the COVID 19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: It is well known that student burnout is a serious mental health problem, caused by chronic stress related to the educational area. However, in the COVID 19 pandemic, young people have to struggle with additional threats that affect their overall functioning and perception of the world. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of existential anxiety and academic fears on the relationship between academic burnout and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings confirmed that academic burnout, existential anxiety, and academic fear were significantly associated with higher posttraumatic symptoms. Existential anxiety and academic fear played a mediating role in the association between academic burnout and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. In conclusion, it is considered that student burnout and anxiety indicators are important risk factors for the trauma experienced by students and may increase its symptoms.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jan 2022 08:50:01 +000
  • A Mixed-Methods Study to Develop a Resilience Scale for Thai Elderly with
           Chronic Diseases and Depression

    • Abstract: This study was an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design to develop a resilience scale for Thai elderly with chronic diseases and depression. The qualitative findings from the focus group discussion with 6 participants were used to develop a resilience scale, and the scale was then tested on 310 samples to check the reliability and validity of the scale. The qualitative results showed that resilience was defined in 3 themes: My Characteristics, My Abilities, and My Dependencies, which were composed of 9 different categories. The results of the quantitative examination showed that all 21 items of the resilience scale had a good corrected item-total correlation and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.85 indicated that the scale was internally consistent and highly reliable. The construct validity of the resilience scale was tested by confirmatory factor analysis and revealed that the resilience model was consistent with the empirical data based on the goodness-of-fit index (,,,). All the results show that the resilience scale has excellent and appropriate psychological properties. Health-care workers can use the resilience scale to assess the elderly and develop a resilience-promoting program specifically for the elderly with chronic diseases and depression to improve the well-being of the elderly.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jan 2022 08:05:01 +000
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