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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
New School Psychology Bulletin     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Occupational Health Science     Hybrid Journal  
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Open Journal of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Neuroimaging Journal     Open Access  
Open Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Pensando Psicología     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Persona     Open Access  
Persona : Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Persona Studies     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Personnel Assessment and Decisions     Open Access  
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectives on Behavior Science     Hybrid Journal  
Perspectives On Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Perspectives Psy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Philosophical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
physiopraxis     Hybrid Journal  
PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Poiésis     Open Access  
Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Porn Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
PPmP - Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Practice Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie     Hybrid Journal  
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century     Open Access  
Professional Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psic : Revista de Psicologia da Vetor Editora     Open Access  
Psico     Open Access  
Psicoanalisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicobiettivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicoespacios     Open Access  
Psicogente     Open Access  
Psicol?gica Journal     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Prática     Open Access  
Psicologia da Educação     Open Access  
Psicologia della salute     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicología desde el Caribe     Open Access  
Psicologia di Comunità. Gruppi, ricerca-azione, modelli formativi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia e Saber Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia e Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Psicologia em Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia em Revista     Open Access  
Psicologia Ensino & Formação     Open Access  
Psicologia Hospitalar     Open Access  
Psicologia Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia para América Latina     Open Access  
Psicologia USP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad     Open Access  
Psicologia, Saúde e Doenças     Open Access  
Psicooncología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicoperspectivas     Open Access  
Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane     Full-text available via subscription  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
Psikohumaniora : Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi     Open Access  
Psisula : Prosiding Berkala Psikologi     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Psych     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PsyCh Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PSYCH up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psych. Pflege Heute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychê     Open Access  
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychiatrie et violence     Open Access  
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatrische Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 357)
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis, Self and Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychoanalytic Dialogues: The International Journal of Relational Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychoanalytic Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Psychoanalytic Review The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychodynamic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychologia : Advances de la Disciplina     Open Access  
Psychologica     Open Access  
Psychologica Belgica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Psychological Perspectives: A Semiannual Journal of Jungian Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Psychological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 184)
Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250)
Psychological Science and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science and Education psyedu.ru     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science In the Public Interest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Psychological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychological Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Psychologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologische Rundschau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology     Open Access  
Psychology & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychology and Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal  
Psychology and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychology in Russia: State of the Art     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology in Society     Open Access  
Psychology Learning & Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Consciousness : Theory, Research, and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Language and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Leaders and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Psychology of Men and Masculinity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Psychology of Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Psychology of Popular Media Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Psychology of Women Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychology Research and Behavior Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology, Community & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Psychology, Health & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychomusicology : Music, Mind, and Brain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
psychopraxis. neuropraxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychosomatic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychosomatic Medicine and General Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychotherapeut     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Politics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Psychotherapy in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
PsychTech & Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Psyecology - Bilingual Journal of Environmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psyke & Logos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psykhe (Santiago)     Open Access  
Quaderni di Gestalt     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderns de Psicologia     Open Access  
Qualitative Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Qualitative Research in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Quality and User Experience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quantitative Methods for Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Reading Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rehabilitation Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Religion, Brain & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 1754-470X
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [353 journals]
  • How can psychotherapists improve their practice with service users from
           minoritised ethnicities' An application of the
           Declarative-Procedural-Reflective (DPR) model of clinical skill
           development

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Churchard; Alasdair
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Many white psychotherapists may lack the skills required to work effectively with service users from minoritised ethnicities. This article proposes that the nature of this skills deficit can be understood through applying the Declarative-Procedural-Reflective (DPR) model of therapist skill development. The DPR model has been used in a range of psychotherapeutic contexts, and it provides a systematic account of how therapists from all modalities develop and can improve their skills. Adapting this model to white therapists’ skills in working with service users from minoritised ethnicities allows the identification of specific areas of skills deficit, and therefore clear recommendations as to how to address those deficits. The application of the DPR model to this context suggests that there are clear areas of skills deficit in terms of knowledge base, the practical skills of carrying out therapy, and the ability of therapists to reflect on their work with service users from minoritised ethnicities. I conclude by making a number of suggestions as to how those deficits could be addressed, both by individual therapists and at a systemic level.Key learning aims
      (1) To explore why some white psychotherapists find it more difficult to work effectively with service users from minoritised ethnicities.
      (2) To conceptualise difficulties in working with service users from minoritised ethnicities as an issue of clinical skill, knowledge and attitude development, where therapists’ skills can be improved if specific deficits are appropriately addressed.
      (3) To use the structure of the DPR model to better understand how deficits in therapists’ skills, knowledge and reflective ability may have an impact on their work with service users from minoritised ethnicities. This allows the identification of specific areas of deficit, and therefore clear recommendations as to how to address those deficits.
      (4) This is primarily addressed at CBT therapists, but the points raised in this article apply to all schools of therapy.
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X21000386
       
  • Further development of the intolerance of uncertainty model of GAD: a case
           series

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chigwedere; Craig, Moran, Judy
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Intolerance of uncertainty (IoU) is important in the development and maintenance of worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; Dugas et al., 1997). However, it remains unclear why some people respond so negatively to uncertainty and have poor clinical outcomes. We adapted the IoU model to include the influence of developmental and/or attachment factors, and their possible importance to intolerability of uncertainty and associated hypothetical worries. Seven consecutive GAD referrals for CBT were naturalistically treated with the novel approach. All participants completed the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7; Spitzer et al., 2006), the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990), as well as a novel 10-item Premonition Bias Questionnaire (PBQ; C. Chigwedere et al., unpublished). From pre- to post-treatment, results for both GAD (p=.001) and worry (p=.005) improved significantly. Clinically significant change or a post-treatment score within the normal population range were observed for both the GAD-7 and PSWQ. The change in believability of worry, measured on the PBQ was also significant from pre- to post-treatment (p=.008). Overall, the novel approach may be an alternative approach to treating GAD, with some potential, both as an adjunctive or standalone treatment. However, this is a small case series and the presented novel approach requires empirical support and evaluation in larger experimental studies.
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X21000374
       
  • Critical issues in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with gender and
           sexual minorities (GSMs)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Carvalho; Sérgio A., Castilho, Paula, Seabra, Daniel, Salvador, Céu, Rijo, Daniel, Carona, Carlos
      First page: 3
      Abstract: In a cisheteronormative culture, gender and sexual minorities (GSMs) may experience additional challenges that get in the way of a meaningful life. It is crucial that clinicians are mindful of these challenges and cognizant about the specificities of clinical work with GSMs. This article points out how societal structure interferes with mental health, and clarifies what clinicians must take into account when using affirmative cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions. Knowledge of up-to-date terminology and use of affirmative language are the first steps that contribute to clients’ experience of respect, which is paramount for the development of a good therapeutic relationship. Considering a conceptual framework of minority stress to understand vulnerability in GSM, specificities in formulation and key psychological processes are discussed. Moreover, guidelines and practical tools for intervention are presented within a CBT approach. Some reflections on therapists’ own personal biases are encouraged, in order to increase the efficacy of interventions.Key learning aimsAfter reading this article you will be able to:
      (1) Recognize the uniqueness of gender and sexual minorities (GSM) stressors in broad and specific contexts, and their impact on mental health.
      (2) Identify the underlying key processes and specificities in therapeutic work with GSMs, from a CBT perspective.
      (3) Recognize the importance of a culturally sensitive approach in affirmative CBT interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X21000398
       
  • Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services outcomes for
           people with learning disabilities: national data 2012–2013 to
           2019–2020

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dagnan; Dave, Rodhouse, Caroline, Thwaites, Richard, Hatton, Chris
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Primary care interventions for people with common mental health problems in England are primarily delivered through Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. One of the priorities for IAPT services is to reduce inequalities in access and outcomes for potentially disadvantaged populations. This paper uses national data from the years 2012–2013 to 2019–2020 to present a comparison of service process and therapy outcomes for people with learning disabilities. Annual data for people with learning disabilities, people with other recorded disabilities and people with no recorded disabilities were extracted from a publicly available, national data source. Data are presented graphically with relative risk calculated for each variable and year, and show a broadly similar pattern of waiting time access for people with learning disabilities and people with no disabilities, and a broadly similar proportion of people with learning disabilities and people with no disabilities who finish treatment. However, people with learning disabilities have poorer clinical outcomes than people with no disabilities. We discuss adaptations to IAPT processes and therapy provision that may further support people with learning disabilities’ access to IAPT services.Key learning aims
      (1) To describe how IAPT services record disabilities, and in particular record whether a person identifies themselves as having a learning disability.1
      (2) To explore the differences in processes and therapy outcomes for people with learning disabilities compared with people with no disabilities and people with other disabilities.
      (3) To understand adaptations to IAPT processes and therapies that may make IAPT services more accessible to people with learning disabilities.
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X21000404
       
  • The effects of an exposure therapy training program for pre-professionals
           in an intensive exposure-based summer camp

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: McCarty; Ryan J., Cooke, Danielle L., Lazaroe, Lacie M., Guzick, Andrew G., Guastello, Andrea D., Budd, Sierra M., Downing, Seth T., Ordway, Ashley R., Mathews, Carol A., McNamara, Joseph P. H.
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Although exposure therapy (ET) is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder, many clinicians report not utilizing it. The present study targeted common utilization barriers by evaluating an intensive ET training experience in a relatively inexperienced sample of pre-professionals. Thirty-two individuals at the undergraduate or college graduate level without formal clinical experience participated as camp counsellors in a 5day exposure-based therapeutic summer camp for youth with anxiety disorders and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Participants were trained in ET through a progressive cascading model and answered questionnaires before and after camp. Repeated measure MANOVA revealed significantly increased feelings of self-efficacy conducting exposures, and significantly decreased feelings of disgust sensitivity and contamination-related disgust from pre-camp to post-camp. A subset of individuals providing data 1 month after the camp maintained a significant gain in ET self-efficacy. Regression analyses revealed that contamination-related disgust, but not disgust sensitivity, significantly predicted post-camp ET self-efficacy. These findings suggest that individuals early into their post-secondary education can learn ET, and the progressive cascading model holds promise in its utility across experience levels and warrants further investigation. Disgust may also play a role in feelings of competency conducting ET. Implications on dissemination and implementation efforts are also discussed.Key learning aims
      (1) How can training of CBT techniques such as exposure occur prior to graduate education'
      (2) Can self-efficacy in conducting exposures meaningfully increase in an experiential training of pre-professionals'
      (3) How does an individual’s tolerance of disgust impact feelings of competence conducting exposures'
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000010
       
  • Thanks to Reviewers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      First page: 6
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000022
       
  • A trans-diagnostic cognitive behavioural conceptualisation of the positive
           and negative roles of social media use in adolescents’ mental health and
           wellbeing

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tibber; Marc S., Silver, Emma
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Whilst research into the association between social media and mental health is growing, clinical interest in the field has been dominated by a lack of theoretical integration and a focus on pathological patterns of use. Here we present a trans-diagnostic cognitive behavioural conceptualisation of the positive and negative roles of social media use in adolescence, with a focus on how it interacts with common mental health difficulties. Drawing on clinical experience and an integration of relevant theory/literature, the model proposes that particular patterns of social media use be judged as helpful/unhelpful to the extent that they help/hinder the adolescent from satisfying core needs, particularly those relating to acceptance and belonging. Furthermore, it introduces several key interacting processes, including purposeful/habitual modes of engagement, approach/avoidance behaviours, as well as the potential for social media to exacerbate/ameliorate cognitive biases. The purpose of the model is to act as an aide for therapists to collaboratively formulate the role of social media in young people’s lives, with a view to informing treatment, and ultimately, supporting the development of interventions to help young people use social media in the service of their needs and values.Key learning aims
      (1) To gain an understanding of a trans-diagnostic conceptualisation of social media use and its interaction with common mental health difficulties in adolescence.
      (2) To gain an understanding of relevant research and theory underpinning the conceptualisation.
      (3) To gain an understanding of core processes and dimensions of social media use, and their interaction with common mental health difficulties in this age group, for the purpose of assessment and formulation.
      (4) To stimulate ideas about how to include adolescent service users’ online world(s) in treatment (where indicated), both with respect to potential risks to ameliorate and benefits to capitalise upon.
      (5) To stimulate and provide a framework for clinically relevant research in the field and the development of interventions to support young people to flourish online.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000034
       
  • Interpreter-mediated CBT – a practical implementation guide for working
           with spoken language interpreters

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Costa; Beverley
      First page: 8
      Abstract: In the UK, over three-quarters of a million people cannot speak English well enough to access cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in English. If they are to receive an equitable service, they need to be able to access (spoken language) interpreter-mediated therapy. This means that CBT therapists may need support, through training and supervision, to feel confident and positive about incorporating an interpreter into the therapeutic relationship. The requirement for CBT therapists to be able to work effectively with an interpreter is currently acknowledged in the new BABCP minimum training standards and core curriculum, which are recommended for adoption (BABCP, 2021). Understandably, therapists can feel anxious about working with a third person in the room, but when these anxieties are honestly addressed and explored, creative solutions can be found. Therapy is usually conducted in a dyad. A triadic relationship requires attention to the systems at play inside and outside of the therapy room. With careful preparation and planning, interpreter-mediated therapy can be an effective and positive experience for the patient. After an introductory section, the paper is divided into six implementation sections: preparing for interpreter-mediated therapy; meta communication; boundaries; managing three-way relationships; working with interpreters remotely; and support needs of interpreters. Using a case example approach, interpreter-mediated therapeutic situations, which illustrate challenges and solutions, and examples of good practice, are explored. The paper offers practical guidance and illustrations which can form the basis of a training programme which teaches CBT therapists how to form a collaborative working relationship with an interpreter, how a therapist can stay active and maintain their clinical authority in a session in which they do not understand what is being said, and how CBT therapists can ensure that the therapy session remains safe and effective for all three of the participants in the interpreter-mediated encounter.Key learning aims
      (1) To help CBT therapists feel more confident and positive about working with spoken language interpreters.
      (2) To prepare CBT therapists to create a more accessible service for those patients who do not speak sufficient English to engage in therapy without support.
      (3) To provide CBT therapists with key principles for managing the pulls and pushes in a triadic relationship when you do not understand the language(s) spoken in the room.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X2200006X
       
  • Boosting exposure and response prevention with imagery-based techniques: a
           case study tackling sexual obsessions in an adolescent

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lau-Zhu; A., Farrington, A., Bissessar, C.
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Sexual obsessions are common in adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), but how to address these obsessions in a developmentally sensitive manner remains under-explored. This report presents the case of an adolescent who experienced unwanted sexual imagery, undergoing conventional exposure and response prevention, which was subsequently augmented with imagery-based techniques. This approach was associated with remission in symptoms of OCD and marked improvements in symptoms of anxiety and depression. The imagery-based approach was well received and valued as key to treatment success by the adolescent. This raises the tantalising possibility that working directly with images can fuel treatment innovation in tackling sexual (and non-sexual) obsessions in youth OCD.Key learning aims
      (1) Sexual obsessions are common in adolescent obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).
      (2) Little guidance is available on how to conduct exposure and response prevention sensitively for sexual obsessions in adolescent OCD.
      (3) Imagery-based techniques can be used effectively for reducing sexual obsessions.
      (4) Imagery-based techniques delivered by videoconferencing can be acceptable for young people.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000058
       
  • Use of a low frustration tolerance exercise for trainee therapists in a
           SP/SR framework

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      Authors: Collard; James, Clarke, Michael
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Application of a self-practice self-reflection (SP/SR) framework to clinical training programmes for those learning cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) have demonstrated positive outcomes. These programmes have typically resulted in reports of enhanced learning, improved clinical skills, heightened empathy, improved interpersonal skills, increased self-awareness, and self-development for those undertaking such training. However, the utility of specific activities within this framework for enhancing trainees’ learning still requires exploration. This study sought to explore the use of a low frustration tolerance (LFT) exercise to enhance trainee’s learning around issues relating to frustration and discomfort tolerance. It also further explored the possible application of SP/SR as a form of competency-based assessment. The study was based on 41 student trainees that engaged in a self-directed LFT exercise. Written reflections on these exercises were then thematically analysed. From a competency basis, the exercise provided an approach for observing the trainee’s competency with formulation skills, intervention planning, and self-reflective capacity. Participants reported both personal and professional development outcomes from the exercise. These included a ‘deepened’ understanding of cognitive behavioural principles related to their experiences, both in terms of principles relating to maintenance of dysfunction and to creating change. Increased self-awareness and learning outcomes relating to the development of interpersonal skills were also commonly reported by trainees.Key learning aims
      (1) To understand the usefulness of a behavioural experiment [a low frustration tolerance (LFT) exercise] for training within a SP/SR framework.
      (2) To examine the potential for using SP/SR as a form of competency-based training.
      (3) To demonstrate the benefits of experiential learning through SP/SR in training CBT.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000071
       
  • The cloverleaf model of cognitive behaviour therapy as experiential
           learning: implications for case formulation, therapeutic practice and
           practitioner development

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      Authors: Grimmer; Andrew
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy for a wide variety of psychological problems. While the exact working mechanisms of CBT remain unknown, its mode of action might usefully be conceptualised as facilitated experiential learning. An adapted ‘cloverleaf’ version of Borton’s ‘what, so what, now what’ learning model is presented to elaborate some of the potential benefits of taking an experiential learning perspective on CBT. These include conceptualising the maintenance of client problems as inhibited experiential learning and the CBT therapeutic process as the cultivation of more effective experiential learning. An experiential learning perspective might also provide an accessible way for trainee and early-career CBT therapists to understand more clearly the learning methodology that underlies CBT’s distinctive approach to psychotherapy. The model is also intended to create an overarching conceptual bridge between reflective practice, the therapist’s experiential learning in the client role, and the client’s experience of CBT as facilitated experiential learning.Key learning aims
      (1) To introduce a modified ‘cloverleaf’ experiential learning process model that can be applied to the conceptualisation of client difficulties, CBT therapeutic processes, and practitioner development.
      (2) To demonstrate how the model can be used to develop cross-sectional and descriptive maintenance formulations of client problems and client wellbeing.
      (3) To show how the model can be used as a conceptual and practical tool to help formulate both the therapeutic process and challenges and obstacles to that process.
      (4) To help practitioners make links between the process of personal and professional development and client change processes.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000046
       
  • Specific fear of vomiting (SPOV) in early parenthood: assessment and
           treatment considerations with two illustrative cases

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      Authors: Orme; Kimberly, Challacombe, Fiona L., Roxborough, Alexa
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV) can be a severe and debilitating anxiety disorder and affects women in the childbearing years. The perinatal period and early parenthood is a time of increased risk for the onset or exacerbation of anxiety problems, which can have an impact on both the woman and the developing child. There are particular issues pertinent to the physical experience of pregnancy and tasks of early caregiving that women with SPOV may find difficult or distressing to confront, but these are not well documented. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) focused on exposure to vomit cues and processing distressing early memories of vomiting is an effective treatment for SPOV. This paper describes the successful CBT treatment of two young mothers with SPOV, outlining the challenges faced by parents at this time and the need to take this into account in treatment, using illustrative case material.Key learning aims
      (1) To understand how specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV) affects women in early parenthood.
      (2) To know how to target and update traumatic early memories of vomiting with imagery rescripting.
      (3) To know how to design and carry out effective behavioural experiments for perinatal SPOV.
      (4) To understand how to take mother, baby, and the mother–infant relationship into account in SPOV treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000101
       
  • A cognitive behavioural therapy smartphone app for adolescent depression
           and anxiety: co-design of ClearlyMe

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      Authors: Li; S.H., Achilles, M.R., Spanos, S., Habak, S., Werner-Seidler, A., O’Dea, B.
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Adolescence is associated with heightened vulnerability to symptoms of depression and anxiety. In-person and computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are effective treatment options, yet uptake and engagement remain low. Smartphone delivery of CBT offers an alternative, highly accessible method of delivering CBT. However, there is no freely available CBT smartphone application (app) specifically designed to reduce depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. The aim of this study was to design a new CBT smartphone app (ClearlyMe) that targets depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. We engaged in a rigorous co-design process with adolescents (n=36), parents (n=15), and mental health professionals (n=32). Co-design involved: (1) discovery of users’ needs, views and preferences by conducting focus groups, (2) defining app features through ideation workshops and user consultations, (3) designing therapeutic CBT content and visual features, and (4) testing prototypes. Users were involved at every step and the process was iterative, with findings carried forward to ensure continued refinement of concepts and features. We found a preference for vibrant, cheerful colours and illustrations and non-endorsement of gamification and chatbots, which contrasted with findings from other studies. Preferences were largely consistent between the three user groups. However, adolescents preferred an app that could be used autonomously without professional support, whereas mental health professionals desired a product for use as a therapy adjunct to support CBT skill development. The importance of co-design, and particularly the inclusion of all stakeholders throughout the entire co-design process, is discussed in relation to the design of ClearlyMe.Key learning aims
      (1) To understand the co-design process that underpins the development of a new CBT smartphone app for youth with elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety.
      (2) To understand adolescent, parent and mental health professionals’ key preferences regarding the features and functionality of a CBT smartphone app for adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety.
      (3) To understand how ClearlyMe has been designed as both a therapy adjunct and stand-alone program, and how it can be incorporated into day-to-day clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000095
       
  • Patients’ and therapists’ experiences of CBT videoconferencing
           in anxiety disorders

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      Authors: Song; Li-Ling, Foster, Chloe
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) videoconferencing has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders and an equal alternative to face-to-face CBT. However, qualitative patient and therapist experiences of CBT videoconferencing have been less researched. Due to COVID-19, mental health services have shifted to remote therapy methods; thus, understanding patient and therapist experiences are crucial to better inform service policies and best practices. The current study focused on patient and therapist experiences of CBT videoconferencing at the Centre for Anxiety Disorders and Trauma (CADAT). Researchers used qualitative content analysis to explore patients’ (n = 54) and therapists’ (n = 15) responses to an online survey. Results yielded four themes: behavioural experiments work well if the problem lends itself to videoconferencing, overall practicalities but some home environment implications, privacy and technical issues, high telepresence and the negative impact on the therapeutic alliance, and COVID-19 influences attitude positively. The findings have clinical implications for CBT videoconferencing, including a need for specific training in assessment and intervention for therapists using videoconferencing.Key learning aimsReaders of this paper will be able to:
      (1) Describe patient and therapist qualitative experiences of CBT videoconferencing.
      (2) Identify areas to consider when delivering CBT videoconferencing in anxiety disorders.
      (3) Understand therapist training needs for CBT videoconferencing in anxiety disorders.
      (4) Inform own service protocols and best practices for the delivery of CBT videoconferencing.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000083
       
  • Best practices for CBT treatment of taboo and unacceptable thoughts in OCD

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      Authors: Williams; Monnica T., Whittal, Maureen L., La Torre, Joseph
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Although general cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can help alleviate distress associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), strategies tailored to targeting specific cognitions, feelings, and behaviours associated with OCD such as exposure and ritual prevention (Ex/RP) and cognitive therapy (CT) have been shown to be a significantly more effective form of treatment. Treatment of individuals with unacceptable/taboo obsessions requires its own specific guidelines due to the stigmatizing and often misunderstood nature of accompanying thoughts and behaviours. In this article, OCD expert practitioners describe best practices surrounding two of the longest standing evidence-based treatment paradigms for OCD, CT and Ex/RP, tailored specifically to unacceptable and taboo obsessions, so that clients may experience the best possible outcomes that are sustained once treatment ends. In addition, CT specifically targets obsessions while Ex/RP addresses compulsions, allowing the two to be highly effective when combined together. A wide range of clinical recommendations on clinical competencies is offered, including essential knowledge, psychoeducation, designing fear hierarchies and exposures, instructing the client through behavioural experiments, and relapse prevention skills.Key learning aims
      (1) To learn about the theoretical underpinnings of specialized approaches to treating taboo/unacceptable thoughts subtype of OCD with gold-standard CBT treatments, cognitive therapy (CT) and exposure and ritual prevention (Ex/RP).
      (2) To learn about recognizing and identifying commonly missed covert cognitive symptoms in OCD such as rumination and mental compulsions.
      (3) To learn how to assess commonly unrecognized behavioural symptoms in OCD such as concealment, reassurance seeking, searching on online forums, etc.
      (4) To gain a nuanced understanding of the phenomenology of the taboo/unacceptable thoughts OCD subtype and the cycles that maintain symptoms and impairment.
      (5) To learn about in-session techniques such as thought experiments, worksheets, fear hierarchies, and different types of exposures.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000113
       
  • Cultural adaptation of cognitive behaviour therapy for depression: a
           qualitative study exploring views of patients and practitioners from India
           

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      Authors: Jameel; Sayma, Munivenkatappa, Manjula, Arumugham, Shyam Sundar, Thennarasu, K
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, culture can influence engagement and treatment efficacy of CBT. Several attempts have been made in Asian countries to develop a culturally adapted CBT for depression. However, research in the Indian context documenting the views on cultural influence of CBT is limited. The present study is an attempt to explore the views of patients and therapists in India by following an evidence-based approach that focuses on three areas for adaptation: (1) awareness of relevant cultural issues and preparation for therapy; (2) assessment and engagement; and (3) adjustments in therapy techniques. Semi-structured interviews with three consultant clinical psychologists/therapists, a focused group discussion with six clinical psychologists, and two patients undergoing CBT for depression were conducted. The data were analysed using a thematic framework analysis by identifying emerging themes and categories. The results highlight therapists’ experiences, problems faced, and recommendations in all three areas of adaptation. The findings highlight the need for adaptation with understanding and acknowledging the culture differences and clinical presentation. Culturally sensitive assessment and formulation with minor adaptation in clinical practice was recommended. Therapists emphasised the use of proverbs, local stories and simplified terminologies in therapy. The findings will aid in providing culturally sensitive treatment to patients with depression in India.Key learning aims
      (1) To understand the views of Indian patients and therapists based on their experience of CBT.
      (2) To understand the need for cultural adaptation of CBT in India.
      (3) To understand the adaptations by therapists while using CBT in clinical practice.
      (4) To gain perspective on how CBT can be culturally adapted to meet the needs of the Indian population.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000137
       
  • Delivery of a trauma-focused CBT group for heterogeneous single-incident
           traumas in adult primary care: a follow-on case study

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      Authors: Skilbeck; Lilian, Spanton, Christopher
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Group therapy for adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a subject of debate over the past few years. A recent update on five international clinical practice guidelines on the use of group-therapy for PTSD in adults ranged from moderate support (e.g. the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies) to no recommendation (e.g. the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, NICE). However, a unanimous recommendation was that practitioners collaborated with their clients and weighed up the guidelines and client preferences to make the appropriate decisions. The current case study was guided by these recommendations. A minority of clients presenting to the service expressed a preference for group therapy for their PTSD symptoms. The current study follows on from a previous shared-trauma therapy group. It illustrates how the service took the NICE guidelines fully into account alongside the clients’ needs and preferences to deliver a NICE-compliant heterogenous trauma-focused CBT group. Twenty-four clients presenting with PTSD from different single-incident traumas opted for group therapy. Clients attended one of three 8-session trauma-focused CBT groups depending on preference (e.g. date/time, location). The groups were conducted face-to-face on a weekly basis. Seventeen clients completed treatment. Eleven clients no longer showed clinically important symptoms of PTSD as assessed on the PCL-5 and interview. This was sustained at 3-month follow-up. Four other clients showed reliable change. Two clients showed minimal improvement. This study is discussed with reference to opportunities, challenges and recommendations for clinical practice and research.Key learning aimsIt is hoped that the reader of this case study will increase their understanding of the following:
      (1) Delivery of a trauma-focused CBT group for heterogeneous single-incident traumas.
      (2) Taking full consideration of the NICE guidelines alongside the clients’ needs and preferences.
      (3) Guiding the focus of therapy on processing the trauma memory and its aftermath.
      (4) Effective use of group processes to facilitate outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000149
       
  • Evaluating user experiences of SHaRON: an online CBT-based peer support
           platform

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      Authors: Browne; Natasha L., Carragher, Nick O., O’Toole, Annette, Pimm, John, Ryder, Joanne, Thew, Graham R.
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Online peer support platforms have been shown to provide a supportive space that can enhance social connectedness and personal empowerment. Some studies have analysed forum messages, showing that users describe a range of advantages, and some disadvantages to their use. However, the direct examination of users’ experiences of such platforms is rare and may be particularly informative for enhancing their helpfulness. This study aimed to understand users’ experiences of the Support, Hope and Recovery Online Network (SHaRON), an online cognitive behavioural therapy-based peer support platform for adults with mild to moderate anxiety or depression. Platform users (n = 88) completed a survey on their use of different platform features, feelings about using the platform, and overall experience. Responses were analysed descriptively and using thematic analysis. Results indicated that most features were generally well used, with the exception of private messaging. Many participants described feeling well supported and finding the information and resources helpful; the majority of recent users (81%) rated it as helpful overall. However, some participants described feeling uncomfortable about posting messages, and others did not find the platform helpful and gave suggestions for improvements. Around half had not used the platform in the past 3 months, for different reasons including feeling better or forgetting about it. Some described that simply knowing it was there was helpful, even without regular use. The findings highlight what is arguably a broader range of user experiences than observed in previous studies, which may have important implications for the enhancement of SHaRON and other platforms.Key learning aims
      (1) To understand what an online peer support platform is and how this can be used to support users’ mental health.
      (2) To learn how users described their experience of the SHaRON platform.
      (3) To understand the benefits that online peer support may provide.
      (4) To consider what users found helpful and unhelpful, and how this might inform the further development of these platforms.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000150
       
  • Being an anti-racist clinician

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      Authors: Williams; Monnica T., Faber, Sonya C., Duniya, Caroline
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Racism is a pervasive problem in Western society, leading to mental and physical unwellness in people from racialized groups. Psychology began as a racist discipline and still is. As such, most clinical training and curricula do not operate from an anti-racist framework. Although most therapists have seen clients with stress and trauma due to racialization, very few were taught how to assess or treat it. Furthermore, clinicians and researchers can cause harm when they rely on White-dominant cultural norms that do not serve people of colour well. This paper discusses how clinicians can recognize and embrace an anti-racism approach in practice, research, and life in general. Included is a discussion of recent research on racial microaggressions, the difference between being a racial justice ally and racial justice saviour, and new research on what racial allyship entails. Ultimately, the anti-racist clinician will achieve a level of competency that promotes safety and prevents harm coming to those they desire to help, and they will be an active force in bringing change to those systems that propagate emotional harm in the form of racism.Key learning aims
      (1) Knowledge of how racism manifests in therapy, psychology and society.
      (2) Understanding the difference between racial justice allyship versus saviourship.
      (3) Increased awareness of microaggressions in therapy.
      (4) Appreciation of the importance of combatting systemic racism.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000162
       
  • Comparing the effectiveness and predictors of cognitive behavioural
           therapy-enhanced between patients with various eating disorder diagnoses:
           a naturalistic study

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      Authors: Melisse; Bernou, Dekker, Jack, van den Berg, Elske, de Jonge, Margo, van Furth, Eric F., Peen, Jaap, de Beurs, Edwin
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Cognitive behaviour therapy-enhanced (CBT-E) is an effective treatment for non-underweight patients with eating disorders. Its efficacy and effectiveness is investigated mostly among transdiagnostic samples and remains unknown for binge eating disorder. The aim of the present study was to assess several treatment outcome predictors and to compare effectiveness of CBT-E among adult out-patients with bulimia nervosa (n=370), binge eating disorder (n=113), and those with a restrictive food pattern diagnosed with other specified feeding and eating disorders (n=139). Effectiveness of CBT-E was assessed in routine clinical practice in a specialised eating disorders centre. Eating disorder pathology was measured with the EDEQ pre- and post-treatment, and at 20 weeks follow-up. Linear mixed model analyses with fixed effect were performed to compare treatment outcome among the eating disorder groups. Several predictors of treatment completion and outcome were examined with a regression analysis. No predictors for drop-out were found, except the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa. Eating disorder pathology decreased among all groups with effect sizes between 1.43 and 1.70 on the EDE-Q total score. There were no differences in remission rates between the three groups at end of treatment or at follow-up. Eating disorder severity at baseline affected treatment response. The results can be generalised to other specialised treatment centres. No subgroup of patients differentially benefited from CBT-E supporting the transdiagnostic perspective for the treatment of eating disorders. Longer-term follow-up data are necessary to measure persistence of treatment benefits.Key learning aims
      (1) What is the effectiveness of CBT-E among patients suffering from binge eating disorder'
      (2) Does any subgroup of patients suffering from an eating disorder differentially benefit from CBT-E'
      (3) What factors predict treatment response'
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000174
       
  • A remote cognitive behavioural therapy approach to treating hoarding
           disorder in an older adult

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      Authors: Malone; Aoife, McCormack, David, McCullough, Emma
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Hoarding disorder (HD) is characterised by excessive acquisition and distress associated with discarding objects, resulting in significant clutter. At present, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) represents the strongest evidence base for treating HD, although some limitations exist. Little research has examined the effectiveness of remote-CBT interventions for HD in older adults. This case study focuses on Mary, an older female adult presenting with clinically significant hoarding behaviours which severely impact her daily functioning and quality of life. Assessment and intervention followed a structured CBT approach. Despite the complicating factor of COVID-19, Mary responded well to a remote-CBT intervention, with progress indicators suggesting modest improvements in personal, social and occupational functioning. These findings support the use of remote-CBT for HD in both reducing frequency and intensity of hoarding behaviours and improving wellbeing.Key learning aims
      (1) Hoarding disorder (HD) is a poorly understood disorder that can significantly impact an individual’s personal, social and occupational functioning.
      (2) According to a cognitive behavioural model, HD emanates from information-processing deficits, emotional attachment difficulties, behavioural avoidance and maladaptive beliefs about objects and the self (Frost and Hartl, 1996).
      (3) Observations from this case study suggest the acceptability and effectiveness of a remote cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for HD, with outcomes appearing congruous with those produced by face-to-face intervention.
      (4) While research attests to the effectiveness of a CBT intervention for HD, an augmented account of the mechanisms through which these outcomes are achieved is required.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000204
       
  • Better than expected: client and clinician experiences of
           videoconferencing therapy (VT) during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Dowling; Daniel, Martland, Natasha, King, Sophie, Nguyen, Jen, Neely, Elizabeth, Ball, Jack, Grant, Nina, Dom, Gabriele, McNulty, Nicholas
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Videoconferencing therapy (VT) has been an emerging medium of psychological therapy, and during the COVID-19 pandemic there has been substantial growth in its usage as a result of home working. However, there is a paucity of research into client and clinician perceptions of VT. This study sought to assess client and staff experiences of VT. This mixed methods study produced both quantitative and qualitative data. Seven clients who had previously received VT and 11 psychotherapists who had previously delivered VT were recruited from two NHS sites. Clients and psychotherapists took part in qualitative interviews which were analysed using thematic analysis. Quantitative surveys were developed based on themes generated from the interviews and were completed by 172 clients and 117 psychotherapists. These were analysed using simple percentages. VT often exceeded client and psychotherapist expectations and overall experiences of VT were generally positive, although there were mixed findings regarding the therapeutic alliance. Several barriers to VT were cited, such as IT issues, and challenges identified in conducting behavioural experiments, and potential exclusion of certain populations were also cited. The medium of VT was received well by both clients and clinicians, with advantages around convenience seemingly outweighing losses in quality of therapeutic relationship. Future research should focus on overcoming barriers to accessing VT in populations prone to digital exclusion. NHS services not currently employing VT may wish to reconsider their stance, expanding choice of therapy delivery and improving accessibility.Key learning aims
      (1) To gain insight into client and clinician experiences of VT during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      (2) To assess the acceptability and feasibility of VT within two NHS short-term psychological support services.
      (3) To identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of VT within two NHS short-term psychological support services.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000125
       
  • The effectiveness of remote therapy in two London IAPT services

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      Authors: Nguyen; Jen, McNulty, Nicholas, Grant, Nina, Martland, Natasha, Dowling, Daniel, King, Sophie, Neely, Lizzie, Ball, Jack, Dom, Gabriele
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic increased population levels of depression and anxiety, and infection control measures obliged services to provide psychological therapies remotely. Evidence for the routine provision of psychological therapy via telephone and video-conferencing is limited. This study compared therapy outcomes for 5360 clients in two London Improving Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) services before and after homeworking produced a compete shift to remotely delivered therapy. Despite the psychological impacts of pandemic restrictions, and the use of a novel therapy modality in video-conferencing, recovery rates and net score change improved in both services, significantly in one. There was no significant worsening of outcomes for any demographic group or presenting disorder. The findings suggest that for those able to access it, therapy provided by telephone and video is a clinically effective option for IAPT services.Key learning aims
      (1) To assess the clinical effectiveness of delivering IAPT therapies remotely.
      (2) To gain insight into the impacts of remote therapy on different client groups, including ethnicity, gender, age and presenting problem.
      (3) To assess the impact of remote therapy on access to IAPT services.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000198
       
  • What about the therapist' – a quantitative exploration of the
           pathways from a therapist’s professional life to their personal
           well-being

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      Authors: Altaf; Sidrah
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Occupational stress has been identified as one of the biggest contributors to therapists’ poor mental well-being; however, these ‘wear and tear’ effects are not universal. This study aimed to distinguish between these experiences, by exploring potential avenues through which a therapist’s professional life may impact their well-being. Previous research has highlighted four avenues: self-doubt, developmental depletion, developmental growth, and years of experience. A sample of 65 cognitive behavioural therapists were recruited from four Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services and a cognitive behavioural therapy training course at Buckinghamshire New University. A quantitative cross-sectional survey design was employed. Each participant completed a questionnaire consisting of subscales of the ‘Development of Psychotherapist Common Core Questionnaire’ to measure potential avenues (Orlinsky et al., 1999a), and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale to measure mental well-being (Tennant et al., 2007). A multiple regression and post-hoc mediation analyses were conducted. The multiple regression analysis found three significant direct pathways predicting well-being: self-doubt, developmental depletion, and developmental growth. The post-hoc mediation analyses found two significant indirect pathways between self-doubt and well-being mediated by developmental experience (growth and depletion). Years of experience had a non-significant direct and indirect pathway predicting well-being. The results suggested that therapists experiencing more growth, less depletion and less self-doubt experienced more positive mental well-being than those experiencing depletion and self-doubt, and less growth. When therapists experience high self-doubt, whether they also experience depletion or growth, they experience poor mental well-being. The implications for practice and future avenues of research are discussed.Key learning aims
      (1) To understand the potential impact of therapists’ professional lives on their well-being.
      (2) To understand the role of developmental experience and self-doubt.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X2200023X
       
  • Understanding why people with OCD do what they do, and why other people
           get involved: supporting people with OCD and loved ones to move from
           safety-seeking behaviours to approach-supporting behaviours

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      Authors: Philpot; Nicola, Thwaites, Richard, Freeston, Mark
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The distress inherent in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can often lead to partners, family members and friends becoming entangled with the OCD in terms of being drawn into performing certain behaviours to try and reduce the distress of their loved one. In the past this has often been referred to somewhat pejoratively as collusion, or more neutrally as accommodation. In this paper we emphasise that this is usually a natural human response to seeing a loved one in distress and wanting to help. This paper provides detailed clinical guidance on how to understand this involvement and how to include others in the treatment of OCD along with practical tips and hints around potential blocks that may require troubleshooting. It also details the relatively recently introduced concept of approach-supporting behaviours, and provides guidance on how to distinguish these from safety-seeking behaviours. The ‘special case’ of reassurance seeking is also discussed.Key learning aims
      (1) To illustrate the importance of understanding the person’s OCD beliefs ‘from the inside’ including the internal logic that leads to specific behaviours.
      (2) To understand the ways that key individuals in the lives of people with OCD can become entangled with the OCD (through the best of intentions) and to provide practical clinical guidance for CBT therapists around how to engage and work with these individuals in the lives of people with OCD.
      (3) To explain and delineate the idea of approach-supporting behaviours, distinguishing these from safety-seeking behaviours.
      (4) To distinguish the interpersonal component of reassurance from the neutralisation component and provide guidance on how we can help family members to replace reassurance with something that is equally or more supportive whilst not maintaining the OCD.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000186
       
  • The acceptability of cognitive behaviour therapy in Indonesian community
           health care

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      Authors: Bouman; Theo K., Lommen, Miriam J.J., Setiyawati, Diana
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is considered to be the most empirically supported treatment in the Western world. However, many authors emphasize the need for cultural adaptations of CBT for patients in a non-Western context. Before considering such adaptations, it is important to investigate the reasons and the degree to which this type of treatment should be adapted. One important factor is the acceptability of CBT by local health care consumers in non-Western countries, for which there is only very limited empirical evidence. This explorative study aimed to investigate the acceptability of CBT’s principles and specific interventions in Indonesia. Lectures and video clips were developed, demonstrating various mainstream CBT principles and procedures. These were presented to 32 out-patients and mental health volunteers from various Indonesian community health centres (Puskesmas), who were asked to rate to what extent they considered the presented materials to be acceptable in accordance with their personal, family, cultural and religious values. Acceptance in all four value domains was rated as very high for the general features of CBT, as well as for the content of the video clips. There were no significant differences in acceptability between the value domains. The presented study suggests that mainstream CBT applications, which are slightly culturally adapted in terms of language, therapist–patient interaction and presentation, might resonate well with consumers in community health centres in Indonesia.Key learning aims
      (1) Adapting CBT to non-Western patients should be based on empirical evidence.
      (2) The potential need for adaptation of CBT might depend on the acceptability of unadapted CBT.
      (3) Acceptability is assumed to be related to patients’ values.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000228
       
  • The effective delivery of digital CBT: a service evaluation exploring the
           

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      Authors: Porter; Catherine M., Galloghly, Emily, Burbach, Frank R.
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Despite its impressive evidence base, there is a widening access gap to receiving cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Video conferencing therapy (VCT) offers an effective solution for logistical barriers to treatment, which has been salient throughout the Coronavirus pandemic. However, research concerning the delivery of CBT via VCT for children and young people (CYP) is in its infancy, and clinical outcome data are limited. The aim of this service evaluation was to explore the effectiveness of a VCT CBT intervention for CYP referred from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the UK. A total of 989 records of CYP who had completed CBT via VCT in 2020 with Healios, a digital mental health company commissioned by the National Health Service (NHS), were examined to determine changes in anxiety, depression and progress towards personalised goals. Routine outcome measures (ROMs) were completed at baseline and endpoint, as well as session by session. Feedback was collected from CYP and their families at the end of treatment. There was a significant reduction in symptoms of anxiety and depression and significant progress towards goals, with pre- to post-effect sizes (Cohen’s d) demonstrating medium to large effects (d=.45 to d=−1.39). Reliable improvement ranged from 31 to 80%, clinical improvement ranged from 33 to 50%, and 25% clinically and reliably improved on at least one measure; 92% reported that they would recommend Healios. This service evaluation demonstrates that Healios’ CBT delivered via VCT is effective for CYP receiving it as part of routine mental health care.Key learning aims
      (1) To consider whether CBT can be effectively delivered in routine care via VCT.
      (2) To explore whether CBT delivered in routine care via VCT is acceptable to children, young people and their families.
      (3) To reflect on the benefits of VCT and the collection of a variety of ROMs via digital platforms.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000216
       
  • Development and application of criteria to evaluate written CBT self-help
           interventions adopted by Improving Access to Psychological Therapies
           services

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      Authors: Farrand; Paul, Dawes, Adam, Doughty, Michelle, Phull, Sundeep, Saines, Sally, Winter, Simon, Roth, Anthony
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Guided CBT self-help represents a low-intensity intervention to deliver evidence-based psychological therapy within the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme. Best practice guidance highlighting characteristics associated with CBT self-help is available to help services reach decisions regarding which interventions to adopt. However, at present a single process to evaluate written CBT self-help interventions informed by guidance is lacking. This study reports on the development of a standardised criteria-driven process that can be used to determine the extent written CBT self-help interventions are consistent with guidance regarding the fundamental characteristics of low-intensity CBT and high-quality written patient information. Following development, the process was piloted on 51 IAPT services, with 23 interventions identified as representing free-to-use written CBT self-help interventions. Overall, inter-rater reliability was acceptable. Following application of the criteria framework, 14 (61%) were considered suitable to be recommended for use within the IAPT programme. This pilot supports the development and potential utility of an independent criteria-driven process to appraise the suitability of written workbook-based CBT self-help interventions for use within the IAPT programme.Key learning aims
      (1) To recognise the range of written low-intensity CBT self-help interventions currently used within IAPT services.
      (2) To identify separate criteria associated with high-quality written CBT self-help interventions.
      (3) To use identified criteria to develop a framework to evaluate written workbook based low-intensity CBT self-help interventions for use within the IAPT programme.
      (4) To evaluate inter-rater reliability of the criteria framework to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of written workbook based low-intensity CBT self-help interventions used within IAPT services.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000241
       
  • IAPT CBT treatment for PTSD following COVID-19-related intensive care
           admission – a case study

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      Authors: Skilbeck; Lilian, Byrne, Suzanne
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The current case study was conducted as part of the National Health Services and Health Education England implemented IAPT top-up training in trauma-focused cognitive therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There has been an increase in the number of clients presenting to IAPT with COVID-19 intensive care unit PTSD since the pandemic. However, there are no current unitary guidelines for psychological therapy for this population. Treatment of PTSD using individual trauma-focused cognitive therapy has been shown to be effective for ICU-PTSD. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence treatment guidelines recommend adapting existing protocols. This study describes how these recommendations were used in the treatment of COVID-19 ICU-PTSD in a 46-year-old male. It illustrates the use of trauma-focused cognitive therapy for PTSD and how ICU trauma memories including hallucinations were conceptualised. It also illustrates how the challenges of co-morbid panic attacks, long COVID and remote working were managed. The client attended 16 individual, 60- to 90-minute video sessions of trauma-focused cognitive therapy, conducted weekly via Microsoft Teams over a period of five months. The treatment plan was conducted in collaboration with the client’s general practitioner, physiotherapists, cardiopulmonary specialists, and his family. Treatment included a timeline, written narrative and imaginal reliving. It also applied stimulus discrimination, behavioural experiments and site visit. At the end of treatment, the client no longer showed clinically important symptoms of PTSD as assessed on the PCL-5 and interview. This was sustained at 3-month follow-up.Key learning aims.It is hoped that the reader will increase their understanding of the following:
      (1) Delivery of trauma-focused cognitive therapy for ICU-PTSD.
      (2) Cognitive conceptualisation of the trauma memory including hallucinations.
      (3) Management of co-morbid symptoms.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000289
       
  • Sex and gender in treatment response to dialectical behaviour therapy:
           current knowledge, gaps, and future directions

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      Authors: Penta; S., Correia, S., Schneider, M.A., Holshausen, K., Nicholson, A.A., Haefner, S.A., Mutschler, C., Ferdossifard, A., Boylan, K., Hewitt, J., Roth, S.L., Wilson, R., Hatchard, T.
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition characterized by emotion dysregulation, interpersonal impairment, and high suicidality. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is the most widely studied psychotherapeutic treatment for BPD. To date, the vast majority of DBT research has focused on cisgender women, with a notable lack of systematic investigation of sex and/or gender differences in treatment response. In order to encourage effective, equitable treatment of BPD, further investigation into treatment targets in this population is critical. Here, we employed a systematic strategy to delineate gaps in the DBT literature pertaining to sex and gender differences and propose directions for future research. Findings demonstrate a significant discrepancy in measurement of sex and gender, particularly among gender-diverse individuals. Exploring DBT treatment response across the full spectrum of genders will facilitate the provision of more tailored, impactful care to all individuals who suffer from BPD.Key learning aims
      (1) To date, DBT treatment literature has focused almost exclusively on cisgender women, with only two of 253 DBT studies in current literature accounting for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals.
      (2) Recognize how gender minority stress may impact the prevalence of BPD among TGD individuals.
      (3) Learn how future research initiatives can be employed to rectify this gap in the DBT literature.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000253
       
  • Transdiagnostic internet-delivered therapy among post-secondary students:
           exploring student use and preferences for booster lessons post-treatment

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      Authors: Patterson; T., Peynenburg, V., Hadjistavropoulos, H.D.
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is effective for treating anxiety and depression among post-secondary students, although outcomes are modest. Booster lessons have been proposed for maintaining and improving outcomes but have not been investigated following ICBT for students. This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine student (N = 146) use of a self-guided booster lesson offered 1 month after a 5-week ICBT course, whereby the booster lesson provided a review of ICBT skills and suggestions for maintaining motivation and problem solving. A survey about the booster was administered shortly after the booster to understand student preferences for the booster lessons, reasons for completing/not completing the booster, and satisfaction with the booster. Approximately one-third of students (n = 47) utilized the booster lesson. Completing a greater number of lessons during the main ICBT course was associated with uptake of the booster. The booster survey was completed by 20 of the 47 (∼43%) students who completed the booster lesson and 42 of the 99 who did not (∼42%). Students varied in perceptions of the ideal timing of the booster (1–2 weeks to 3–6 months) and approximately 60% expressed preference for completing the booster independently. Among non-completers of the booster, academic-related time constraints were the primary barrier to booster completion. Among those who completed the booster, the booster lesson was perceived as worthwhile, satisfaction was high, and the length was perceived as appropriate. Future research should examine if flexible delivery of booster lessons in terms of timelines and therapist support would increase booster uptake.Key learning aimsAs a result of reading this paper, readers should:
      (1) Understand the uptake of a self-guided booster lesson in internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) among post-secondary students.
      (2) Understand students’ preferences for the content, timing, and therapist support for booster lessons.
      (3) Understand the need for alternative delivery methods of booster lessons to reach students who might benefit the most from a booster.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000265
       
  • ‘It was like the unicorn of the therapeutic world’: CBT trainee
           experiences of acquiring skills in guided discovery

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      Authors: Roscoe; Jason, Bates, Elizabeth A., Blackley, Rhiannon
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Training as a cognitive behavioural therapist involves a considerable role transition for mental health professionals where they are expected to demonstrate competence in a range of new skills that emphasise collaboration and Socratic dialogue. This can be in stark contrast to the more didactic style that trainees are familiar with prior to embarking on their training. Guided discovery (GD) is an integral part of formulation and treatment, yet little is known at present about the experiences of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) trainees when learning this new skill; specifically, how they assimilate this with existing ways of working and the challenges this might involve. This research is a preliminary attempt to understand factors that help and hinder GD skill acquisition. Eighteen trainee CBT practitioners completed an online questionnaire with the subsequent data analysed using a grounded theory methodology. Three themes were identified: ‘Competing Selves’, ‘Style’ and ‘Active Engagement and Learning’. These themes were used to develop a preliminary model of factors that enable or inhibit skills in GD. The impact of previous professional roles appears to influence the acquisition of confidence and skill in GD. This paper discusses the implications of the findings for CBT trainers, supervisors and trainees.Key learning aimsAs a result of reading this paper, readers should:
      (1) Understand how trainee cognitive behavioural therapists respond to learning how to use guided discovery.
      (2) Identify potential barriers to acquiring and improving skills in guided discovery.
      (3) Recognise training strategies that might assist trainees in becoming more proficient in guided discovery.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X22000277
       
 
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