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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 1007 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Occupational Health Science     Hybrid Journal  
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Open Journal of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Neuroimaging Journal     Open Access  
Open Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Pensando Psicología     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Persona     Open Access  
Persona : Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Persona Studies     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Personnel Assessment and Decisions     Open Access  
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectives on Behavior Science     Hybrid Journal  
Perspectives On Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Perspectives Psy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Phenomenology & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Philosophical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
physiopraxis     Hybrid Journal  
PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Porn Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
PPmP - Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Practice Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie     Hybrid Journal  
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century     Open Access  
Professional Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psic : Revista de Psicologia da Vetor Editora     Open Access  
Psico     Open Access  
Psicoanalisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicobiettivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicoespacios     Open Access  
Psicogente     Open Access  
Psicol?gica Journal     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Prática     Open Access  
Psicologia da Educação     Open Access  
Psicologia della salute     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicología desde el Caribe     Open Access  
Psicologia di Comunità. Gruppi, ricerca-azione, modelli formativi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia e Saber Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia e Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Psicologia em Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia em Revista     Open Access  
Psicologia Ensino & Formação     Open Access  
Psicologia Hospitalar     Open Access  
Psicologia Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia para América Latina     Open Access  
Psicologia USP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad     Open Access  
Psicologia, Saúde e Doenças     Open Access  
Psicooncología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicoperspectivas     Open Access  
Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane     Full-text available via subscription  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
Psikohumaniora : Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi     Open Access  
Psisula : Prosiding Berkala Psikologi     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Psych     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PsyCh Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PSYCH up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psych. Pflege Heute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychê     Open Access  
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychiatrie et violence     Open Access  
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatrische Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 354)
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis, Self and Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychoanalytic Dialogues: The International Journal of Relational Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychoanalytic Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Psychoanalytic Review The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychodynamic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychologia : Advances de la Disciplina     Open Access  
Psychologica     Open Access  
Psychologica Belgica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 193)
Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Psychological Perspectives: A Semiannual Journal of Jungian Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Psychological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 175)
Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237)
Psychological Science and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science and Education psyedu.ru     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science In the Public Interest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Psychological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychological Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Psychologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologische Rundschau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology     Open Access  
Psychology & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychology and Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal  
Psychology and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychology in Russia: State of the Art     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology in Society     Open Access  
Psychology Learning & Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Consciousness : Theory, Research, and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Language and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Leaders and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Psychology of Men and Masculinity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Psychology of Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Psychology of Popular Media Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Psychology of Women Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychology Research and Behavior Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology, Community & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Psychology, Health & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychomusicology : Music, Mind, and Brain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
psychopraxis. neuropraxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychosomatic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychosomatic Medicine and General Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychotherapeut     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Politics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Psychotherapy in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
PsychTech & Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psyecology - Bilingual Journal of Environmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psyke & Logos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psykhe (Santiago)     Open Access  
Quaderni di Gestalt     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderns de Psicologia     Open Access  
Qualitative Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Qualitative Research in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Quality and User Experience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quantitative Methods for Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Reading Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rehabilitation Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Religion, Brain & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Psychotherapy : Psychopathology, Process and Outcome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reverso     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.75
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1069-9384 - ISSN (Online) 1531-5320
Published by Psychonomic Society Publications Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Expectation-based blindness: Predictions about object categories gate
           awareness of focally attended objects

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      Abstract: Abstract Selective attention gates access to conscious awareness, resulting in surprising failures to notice clearly visible but unattended objects (‘inattentional blindness’). Here, we demonstrate that expectations can have a similar effect, even for fully attended objects (‘expectation-based blindness’). In three experiments, participants (N = 613) were presented with rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams at fixation and had to identify a target object indicated by a cue. Target category was repeated for the first 19 trials but unexpectedly changed on trial 20. The probability of correct target reports on this surprise trial was substantially lower than on preceding and subsequent trials. This impairment was present for switches between target letters and digits, and also for changes between human and animal face images. In contrast, no drop in accuracy was observed for novel target objects from the same category as previous targets. These results demonstrate that predictions about object categories affect visual awareness. Objects that are task relevant and focally attended often fail to get noticed when their category changes unexpectedly.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
       
  • Peripheral vision in real-world tasks: A systematic review

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      Abstract: Abstract Peripheral vision is fundamental for many real-world tasks, including walking, driving, and aviation. Nonetheless, there has been no effort to connect these applied literatures to research in peripheral vision in basic vision science or sports science. To close this gap, we analyzed 60 relevant papers, chosen according to objective criteria. Applied research, with its real-world time constraints, complex stimuli, and performance measures, reveals new functions of peripheral vision. Peripheral vision is used to monitor the environment (e.g., road edges, traffic signs, or malfunctioning lights), in ways that differ from basic research. Applied research uncovers new actions that one can perform solely with peripheral vision (e.g., steering a car, climbing stairs). An important use of peripheral vision is that it helps compare the position of one’s body/vehicle to objects in the world. In addition, many real-world tasks require multitasking, and the fact that peripheral vision provides degraded but useful information means that tradeoffs are common in deciding whether to use peripheral vision or move one’s eyes. These tradeoffs are strongly influenced by factors like expertise, age, distraction, emotional state, task importance, and what the observer already knows. These tradeoffs make it hard to infer from eye movements alone what information is gathered from peripheral vision and what tasks we can do without it. Finally, we recommend three ways in which basic, sport, and applied science can benefit each other’s methodology, furthering our understanding of peripheral vision more generally.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
       
  • Long-term priors constrain category learning in the context of short-term
           statistical regularities

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      Abstract: Abstract Cognitive systems face a constant tension of maintaining existing representations that have been fine-tuned to long-term input regularities and adapting representations to meet the needs of short-term input that may deviate from long-term norms. Systems must balance the stability of long-term representations with plasticity to accommodate novel contexts. We investigated the interaction between perceptual biases or priors acquired across the long-term and sensitivity to statistical regularities introduced in the short-term. Participants were first passively exposed to short-term acoustic regularities and then learned categories in a supervised training task that either conflicted or aligned with long-term perceptual priors. We found that the long-term priors had robust and pervasive impact on categorization behavior. In contrast, behavior was not influenced by the nature of the short-term passive exposure. These results demonstrate that perceptual priors place strong constraints on the course of learning and that short-term passive exposure to acoustic regularities has limited impact on directing subsequent category learning.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Articulatory suppression during instruction encoding impedes performance
           in choice reaction time tasks

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      Abstract: Abstract Theories of instruction following assume that language contributes to our ability to understand and implement instructions. The two experiments reported here investigated that assumption. Participants (total N = 96) were required to learn a series of novel tasks, with each task consisting of six arbitrary stimulus-response rules. All tasks were preceded by an instruction phase (a visual depiction of the correct stimulus-response rules for each task), during which participants performed a verbal distractor task (articulatory suppression), a non-verbal distractor task (foot tapping) or no distractor task. Additionally, the duration of the instruction phase was varied so that it was either long (60 s) or short (30 s in Experiment 1, or 10 s in Experiment 2). In both experiments participants made more errors when they had performed articulatory suppression during the instruction interval, compared to the foot tapping and no distractor task conditions. Furthermore, Experiment 2 found that this detrimental effect of articulatory suppression was especially pronounced with a very short instruction duration. These findings demonstrate that language plays a crucial role in the encoding of novel task instructions, especially when instructions are encoded under time pressure.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Sub-cortical areas process physical size but not numerical value

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      Abstract: Abstract A robust finding in the numerical cognition literature is that the physical size and the numerical value of two to-be-compared digits interact, resulting in a size congruity effect (SiCE). The current study focuses on the possible role of prestriate areas in a digit comparison Stroop-like task. In the visual pathway, prestriate areas refer to regions from the retina up to the primary visual cortex (V1). I hypothesized that processing of physical size, but not numerical value, begins already in prestriate areas. This is because physical size is a basic visual feature while the numerical value of a symbol is a learned convention that should be retrieved from long-term memory. Adult participants compared the size or the numerical value of two digits. Without participants’ awareness, I projected the digits either to the same eye, or each digit to a different eye. The latter type of presentation prevents prestriate areas from taking part in comparing the digits. Therefore, slower a response time under this condition hints at the involvement of prestriate areas. Evidence confirmed the initial hypothesis, demonstrating slower performance when the stimuli are segregated between the eyes but only for physical size comparisons. This finding suggests that at least the initial processing of physical size, when relevant, is done before, and by different neural substrate than numerical value. The implications of the study and future directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Symbolic number comparison and number priming do not rely on the same
           mechanism

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      Abstract: Abstract In elementary symbolic number processing, the comparison distance effect (in a comparison task, the task is more difficult with smaller numerical distance between the values) and the priming distance effect (in a number processing task, actual number is easier to process with a numerically close previous number) are two essential phenomena. While a dominant model, the approximate number system model, assumes that the two effects rely on the same mechanism, some other models, such as the discrete semantic system model, assume that the two effects are rooted in different generators. In a correlational study, here we investigate the relation of the two effects. Critically, the reliability of the effects is considered; therefore, a possible null result cannot be attributed to the attenuation of low reliability. The results showed no strong correlation between the two effects, even though appropriate reliabilities were provided. These results confirm the models of elementary number processing that assume distinct mechanisms behind number comparison and number priming.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Aesthetic preferences for causality in biological movements arise from
           visual processes

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      Abstract: Abstract “People watching” is a ubiquitous component of human activities. An important aspect of such activities is the aesthetic experience that arises naturally from seeing how elegant people move their bodies in performing different actions. What makes some body movements look better than others' We examine how the human visual system gives rise to aesthetic experience from observing actions, using “creatures” generated by spatially scrambling locations of a point-light walker’s joints. Observers rated how aesthetically pleasing and lifelike creatures were when the trajectories of joints were generated either from an upright walker (thus exhibiting gravitational acceleration) or an inverted walker (thus defying gravity), and were either congruent to the direction of global body displacements or incongruent (as in the moonwalk). Observers gave both higher aesthetic and animacy ratings for creatures with upright compared to inverted trajectories, and congruent compared to incongruent movements. Moreover, after controlling for animacy, aesthetic preferences for causally plausible movements (those in accord with gravity and body displacement) persisted. This systematicity in aesthetic impressions, even in the absence of explicit recognition of the moving agents, suggests an important role of automatic perceptual mechanisms in determining aesthetic experiences.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Theoretical false positive psychology

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      Abstract: Abstract A fundamental goal of scientific research is to generate true positives (i.e., authentic discoveries). Statistically, a true positive is a significant finding for which the underlying effect size (δ) is greater than 0, whereas a false positive is a significant finding for which δ equals 0. However, the null hypothesis of no difference (δ = 0) may never be strictly true because innumerable nuisance factors can introduce small effects for theoretically uninteresting reasons. If δ never equals zero, then with sufficient power, every experiment would yield a significant result. Yet running studies with higher power by increasing sample size (N) is one of the most widely agreed upon reforms to increase replicability. Moreover, and perhaps not surprisingly, the idea that psychology should attach greater value to small effect sizes is gaining currency. Increasing N without limit makes sense for purely measurement-focused research, where the magnitude of δ itself is of interest, but it makes less sense for theory-focused research, where the truth status of the theory under investigation is of interest. Increasing power to enhance replicability will increase true positives at the level of the effect size (statistical true positives) while increasing false positives at the level of theory (theoretical false positives). With too much power, the cumulative foundation of psychological science would consist largely of nuisance effects masquerading as theoretically important discoveries. Positive predictive value at the level of theory is maximized by using an optimal N, one that is neither too small nor too large.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • The verb–self link: An implicit association test study

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      Abstract: Abstract Agency is defined as the ability to assign and pursue goals. Given people’s focus on achieving their own goals, agency has been found to be strongly linked to the self. In two studies (N = 168), we examined whether this self–agency link is visible from a linguistic perspective. As the preferred grammatical category to convey agency is verbs, we hypothesize that, in the Implicit Association Test (IAT), verbs (vs. nouns) would be associated more strongly with the self (vs. others). Our results confirmed this hypothesis. Participants exhibited particularly fast responses when reading self-related stimuli (e.g., “me” or “my”) and verb stimuli (e.g., “deflect” or “contemplate”) both necessitated pressing an identical rather than different response keys in the IAT (d = .25). The finding connects two streams of literature—on the link between agency and verbs and on the link between self and agency—suggesting a triad between self, agency, and verbs. We argue that this verb–self link (1) opens up new perspectives for understanding linguistic expressions of agency and (2) expands our understanding of how word choice impacts socio-cognitive processing.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Prior exposure increases judged truth even during periods of mind
           wandering

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      Abstract: Abstract Much of our day is spent mind-wandering—periods of inattention characterized by a lack of awareness of external stimuli and information. Whether we are paying attention or not, information surrounds us constantly—some true and some false. The proliferation of false information in news and social media highlights the critical need to understand the psychological mechanisms underlying our beliefs about what is true. People often rely on heuristics to judge the truth of information. For example, repeated information is more likely to be judged as true than new information (i.e., the illusory truth effect). However, despite the prevalence of mind wandering in our daily lives, current research on the contributing factors to the illusory truth effect have largely ignored periods of inattention as experimentally informative. Here, we aim to address this gap in our knowledge, investigating whether mind wandering during initial exposure to information has an effect on later belief in the truth of that information. That is, does the illusory truth effect occur even when people report not paying attention to the information at hand. Across three studies we demonstrate that even during periods of mind wandering, the repetition of information increases truth judgments. Further, our results suggest that the severity of mind wandering moderated truth ratings, such that greater levels of mind wandering decreased truth judgements for previously presented information.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • A vigilance decrement comes along with an executive control decrement:
           Testing the resource-control theory

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      Abstract: Abstract A decrease in vigilance over time is often observed when performing prolonged tasks, a phenomenon known as “vigilance decrement.” The present study aimed at testing some of the critical predictions of the resource-control theory about the vigilance decrement. Specifically, the theory predicts that the vigilance decrement is mainly due to a drop in executive control, which fails to keep attentional resources on the external task, thus devoting a larger number of resources to mind-wandering across time-on-task. Datasets gathered from a large sample size (N = 617) who completed the Attentional Networks Test for Interactions and Vigilance—executive and arousal components in Luna, Roca, Martín-Arévalo, and Lupiáñez (2021b, Behavior Research Methods, 53[3], 1124–1147) were reanalyzed to test whether executive control decreases across time in a vigilance task and whether the vigilance decrement comes along with the decrement in executive control. Vigilance was examined as two dissociated components: executive vigilance, as the ability to detect infrequent critical signals, and arousal vigilance, as the maintenance of a fast reaction to stimuli. The executive control decrement was evidenced by a linear increase in the interference effect for mean reaction time, errors, and the inverse efficiency score. Critically, interindividual differences showed that the decrease in the executive—but not in the arousal—component of vigilance was modulated by the change in executive control across time-on-task, thus supporting the predictions of the resource-control theory. Nevertheless, given the small effect sizes observed in our large sample size, the present outcomes suggest further consideration of the role of executive control in resource-control theory.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • The item-specific proportion congruency effect transfers to non-category
           members based on broad visual similarity

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      Abstract: Abstract The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect—that Stroop effects are reduced for items that are more likely to be incongruent than congruent—indicates that humans have the remarkable capacity to resolve conflict when it is associated with statistical regularities in the environment. It has been demonstrated that an ISPC signal induced by mostly congruent and mostly incongruent inducer items transfers to a set of distinct but visually similar transfer items that are equally likely to be congruent and incongruent; however, it is unclear what the ISPC signal is associated with to allow its transfer. To investigate this issue, an animal Stroop task was used to evaluate whether the ISPC signal would transfer to animal pictures that were different but visually similar same-category members (e.g., retrievers to retrievers, Experiment 1), visually dissimilar same-category members with broadly similar features (e.g., retrievers to bulldogs, Experiment 2), and visually dissimilar different-category members with broadly similar features (e.g., retrievers to house cats, Experiment 3). It was revealed that an ISPC effect was observed for the transfer items of each experiment, suggesting that these conflict signals can be linked based on broad feature similarity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
       
  • The distorted body: The perception of the relative proportions of the body
           is preserved in Parkinson’s disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Given humans’ ubiquitous visual experience of their own body, one reasonable assumption is that one’s perceptions of the lengths of their body parts should be accurate. However, recent research has shown that large systematic distortions of the length of body parts are present in healthy younger adults. These distortions appear to be linked to tactile sensitivity such that individuals overestimate the length of body parts of low tactile sensitivity to a greater extent than body parts of high tactile sensitivity. There are certain conditions featuring reduced tactile sensitivity, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and healthy older ageing. However, the effect of these circumstances on individuals’ perceptions of the lengths of their body parts remains unknown. In this study, participants visually estimated the length of their body parts using their hand as a metric. We show that despite the reductions in tactile sensitivity, and potential alterations in the cortical presentation of body parts that may occur in PD and healthy older ageing, individuals with mild-moderate PD and older adults of comparable age experience body size distortions comparable to healthy younger controls. These findings demonstrate that the ability to perceive the length of one’s body parts is well preserved in mild-moderate PD.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • Statistical learning in visual search reflects distractor rarity, not only
           attentional suppression

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      Abstract: Abstract In visual search tasks, salient distractors may capture attention involuntarily, but interference can be reduced when the salient distractor appears more frequently on one out of several possible positions. The reduction was attributed to attentional suppression of the high-probability position. However, all previous studies on this topic compared performance on the high-probability position to the remaining positions, which had a low probability of containing the distractor. Therefore, it is not clear whether the difference resulted from reduced interference on the high-probability position or from increased interference on the low-probability positions. To decide between these alternatives, we compared high-probability and low-probability with equal-probability positions. Consistent with attentional suppression, interference was reduced on the high-probability position compared with equal-probability positions. However, there was also an increase in interference on low-probability positions compared with equal-probability positions. The increase is in line with previous reports of boosted interference when distractors are rare. Our results show that the experimental design used in previous research is insufficient to separate effects of attentional suppression and those of distractor rarity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • The time window of reconsolidation: A replication

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      Abstract: Abstract Reconsolidation is a process by which a consolidated memory that has been destabilized by reactivation is updated, strengthened, or weakened by the restabilization of the trace. A critical assumption of the reconsolidation theory is that reconsolidation is a time-dependent process. Hupbach, Gomez, Hardt, and Nadel (2007, Learning & Memory, 14, 47–53) conducted a set of experiments demonstrating that memory updating is only found when the reconsolidation process has time to complete. This finding strengthens reconsolidation theory and poses a challenge to other accounts of memory updating (e.g., context and interference accounts). Because this finding is so critical to the reconsolidation theory, we attempted to directly replicate these experiments, which showed memory updating in a 3-day paradigm (when reconsolidation has time to complete), but not in a 2-day paradigm (when reconsolidation does not have time to complete). We replicated these results, thereby bolstering the reconsolidation theory of memory updating.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
       
  • Measuring task structure with transitional response times: Task
           representations are more than task sets

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      Abstract: Abstract The structure of task representations is widely studied with task-switching procedures in which the experimenter compares performance across predetermined categories of trial transitions (viz., switch costs). This approach has been productive, but relies on experimental assumptions about the relationships among stimulus-response mappings that define a set. Here, we develop a novel method of evaluating structure without relying on such assumptions. Participants responded to centrally presented stimuli and we computed the transitional response times (RTs; changes in RT as a function of specific response sequences) for each response combination. Conventional task-switch analyses revealed costs when the response switched from the left-side to the right or vice versa, but this switch cost was not affected by whether the stimuli belonged to a single category or to two distinct categories. In contrast, the transitional RT analysis provided fine-grained information about relationships among responses and how these relationships were affected by stimulus and response manipulations. Specifically, tasks containing a single stimulus category produced response chains in which neighboring responses had lower transitional RTs, while these chains were broken when two stimulus categories were used. We propose that the transitional RT approach offers a more detailed picture of the underlying task representation that reveals structure not detectable by conventional switch cost measures and does not require a priori assumptions about task organization.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
       
  • Pupil size variations reveal covert shifts of attention induced by numbers

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      Abstract: The pupil light response is more than a pure reflexive mechanism that reacts to the amount of light entering the eye. The pupil size may also react to the luminance of objects lying in the visual periphery, revealing the locus of covert attention. In the present study, we took advantage of this response to study the spatial coding of abstract concepts with no physical counterpart: numbers. The participants’ gaze was maintained fixed in the middle of a screen whose left and right parts were dark or bright, and variations in pupil size were recorded during an auditory number comparison task. The results showed that small numbers accentuated pupil dilation when the darker part of the screen was on the left, while large numbers accentuated pupil dilation when the darker part of the screen was on the right. This finding provides direct evidence for covert attention shifts on a left-to-right oriented mental spatial representation of numbers. From a more general perspective, it shows that the pupillary response to light is subject to modulation from spatial attention mechanisms operating on mental contents.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
       
  • Gaze-cued shifts of attention and microsaccades are sustained for whole
           bodies but are transient for body parts

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      Abstract: Abstract Gaze direction is an evolutionarily important mechanism in daily social interactions. It reflects a person’s internal cognitive state, spatial locus of interest, and predicts future actions. Studies have used static head images presented foveally and simple synthetic tasks to find that gaze orients attention and facilitates target detection at the cued location in a sustained manner. Little is known about how people’s natural gaze behavior, including eyes, head, and body movements, jointly orient covert attention, microsaccades, and facilitate performance in more ecological dynamic scenes. Participants completed a target person detection task with videos of real scenes. The videos showed people looking toward (valid cue) or away from a target (invalid cue) location. We digitally manipulated the individuals in the videos directing gaze to create three conditions: whole-intact (head and body movements), floating heads (only head movements), and headless bodies (only body movements). We assessed their impact on participants’ behavioral performance and microsaccades during the task. We show that, in isolation, an individual’s head or body orienting toward the target-person direction led to facilitation in detection that is transient in time (200 ms). In contrast, only the whole-intact condition led to sustained facilitation (500 ms). Furthermore, observers executed microsaccades more frequently towards the cued direction for valid trials, but this bias was sustained in time only with the joint presence of head and body parts. Together, the results differ from previous findings with foveally presented static heads. In more real-world scenarios and tasks, sustained attention requires the presence of the whole-intact body of the individuals dynamically directing their gaze.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • A tradeoff between musical tension perception and declarative memory

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      Abstract: Abstract Successful formation of long-term declarative memory is influenced, among other things, by attention, emotion, and deviation from expectations. A unique form of expectation can be elicited through musical tension, evoked by the prolongation of certain musical progressions. We examined the effect that musical tension exerts on the formation of declarative memory, by composing three original music pieces that contained tension segments, achieved by delays in release from dominant to tonic harmonies. Music-evoked tension was validated using music information retrieval (MIR) analysis, as well as skin conductance response (SCR) measures. Indeed, tension-evoking musical excerpts were associated with heightened SCR, corroborated by increased subjective ratings of tension, as compared to neutral excerpts. In the main experiment, 50 participants listened to the three musical pieces while they were presented with unique images that were randomly assigned to four conditions: tension, tension-release, neutral music, and silence. One day later, their memory for the images was examined using a recognition test. We found that memory performance was enhanced for images presented during both neutral and tense music compared to silence. Moreover, we observed a tradeoff effect between post-experiment tension perception and memory, such that individuals who perceived musical tension as such displayed reduced memory performance for images encoded during musical tension, whereas tense music benefited memory for those with lower musical tension perception. Understanding the interrelations between musical components, which exert powerful and fundamental responses in humans, and cognitive faculties, may provide insights as to the basic features of memory formation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • Do first and last letters carry more weight in the mechanism behind word
           familiarity'

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      Abstract: Abstract Previous research has suggested a role of letter location information in familiarity-detection that occurs with word stimuli, but no studies have yet investigated whether certain letter positions are weighted more heavily in the feature-based mechanism behind word familiarity-detection. Based on psycholinguistic research suggesting that first and last letters are weighted more heavily than interior letters when it comes to reading words, we investigated whether first and last letters carry more weight in the mechanism behind word familiarity that results from feature familiarization in a list-learning paradigm. In two experiments, participants studied word fragments (e.g., RA_ _ _ _OP) and later rated the familiarity of complete words (e.g., RAINDROP). We varied whether the first and last or only interior letters were present at study. Participants consistently rated test words whose fragments went unidentified at study as more familiar when the first and last letters had been studied than when only interior letters had been studied. This suggests that first and last letters contribute more strongly to the word familiarity signal than interior letters.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
 
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