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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 1007 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted by number of followers
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 357)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 354)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 275)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 255)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 180)
Psychological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 173)
Journal of Applied Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 168)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 148)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146)
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 144)
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 94)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : General     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 90)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Educational Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception and Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Abnormal Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Clinical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Neuropsychologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Neuropsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Perspectives On Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Applied     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Neuropsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Counseling Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Applied Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Traumatic Stress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Motivation and Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal for the Psychology of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Environmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Personality Disorders     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Neuropsychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
European Journal of Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Philosophical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Research in Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Experimental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Psychotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Individual Differences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Psychological Trauma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Legal and Criminological Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Psychosomatic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
International Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Media Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Personality Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Ethics & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanistic Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Family Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
History of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Multivariate Behavioral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mathematical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Psychotherapy Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Review The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
European Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Psychological Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pediatric Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Professional Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Imagination, Cognition and Personality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Group Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Forum of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
New Ideas in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Nonverbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Group Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructivist Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Phenomenological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Trauma Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalytic Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Analytical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Black Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Japanese Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Comparative Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forum Psychotherapeutische Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Neuropsychobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Russian & East European Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forum der Psychoanalyse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psicologia USP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Measurement Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Estudios de Psicología     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia : Teoria e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Mentálhigiéné es Pszichoszomatika     Full-text available via subscription  
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle     Full-text available via subscription  

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Similar Journals
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Memory & Cognition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.379
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 47  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0090-502X - ISSN (Online) 1532-5946
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Universality without uniformity – infants’ reactions to unresponsive
           partners in urban Germany and rural Ecuador

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      Abstract: Previous studies based on non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) samples provide initial evidence that the still-face effect is universal. Based on the assumption that – independent of their cultural niches – infants share some fundamental expectations of social interactions, we put forth the assumption that a universal response exists for when a social interaction is interrupted. At the same time, we hypothesized that the size of the effect depends on the typicality of the interaction that precedes the adult partners’ interruption. To test these hypotheses, we conducted the Still-Face Paradigm (SFP) with infants (3- and 4.5-month-olds) from two cultural milieus, namely Münster (urban Germany) and the Kichwa ethnic group from the northern Andes region (rural Ecuador), as these contexts presumably offer different ways of construing the self that are associated with different parenting styles, namely distal and proximal parenting. Furthermore, we developed a paradigm that comes much closer to the average expected environment of Kichwa infants, the “No-Touch Paradigm” (NTP). Overall, the results support our initial hypothesis that the still-face effect is universal. Moreover, infants from both cultural milieus responded to the no-touch condition with a change in negative affect. At the same time, some of the infants’ responses were accentuated in a culture-specific way: Kichwa infants had a stronger response to an interruption of proximal interaction patterns during the NTP. While our findings underline infants’ universal predisposition for face-to-face interaction, they also suggest that cultural differences in internalized interactions do influence infant behavior and experience and, in turn, development.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Cognitive processes in imaginative moral shifts: How judgments of morally
           unacceptable actions change

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      Abstract: How do people come to consider a morally unacceptable action, such as “a passenger in an airplane does not want to sit next to a Muslim passenger and so he tells the stewardess the passenger must be moved to another seat”, to be less unacceptable' We propose they tend to imagine counterfactual alternatives about how things could have been different that transform the unacceptable action to be less unacceptable. Five experiments identify the cognitive processes underlying this imaginative moral shift: an action is judged less unacceptable when people imagine circumstances in which it would have been moral. The effect occurs for immediate counterfactuals and reflective ones, but is greater when participants create an immediate counterfactual first, and diminished when they create a reflective one first. The effect also occurs for unreasonable actions. We discuss the implications for alternative theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes underlying moral judgments.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Boundary conditions for observing cognitive load effects in visual working
           memory

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      Abstract: Abstract When holding information in working memory, the proportion of time occupied by a concurrent task determines memory performance. This effect, the cognitive load effect, has been replicated many times. Recent work has referred to it as a law of cognition (Barrouillet, Portrat, & Camos, Psychological review, 118(2), 175-192, 2011) and a Priority-A Benchmark of working memory (Oberauer et al., Psychological bulletin, 144(9), 885-958, 2018), making it an important effect for all models of working memory to explain. Despite this, some recent work has demonstrated conditions under which this law does not apply, bringing into question its generalizability. The present work investigates the boundary conditions of the cognitive load effect in visual working memory. We show that only under specific circumstances is cognitive load crucial to visual working memory performance. Moreover, the data indicate that the theoretical underpinnings assumed to underlie the cognitive load effect, maintenance in the face of continued forgetting, may be incorrect, at least in visual working memory. We propose that cognitive load effects may reflect enrichment of the memory representation in low cognitive load task situations, not mitigation of ongoing forgetting.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • The effect of facial occlusion on facial impressions of trustworthiness
           and dominance

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      Abstract: Abstract Recognizing the role that facial appearance plays in guiding social interactions, here we investigated how occlusions of the bottom-face region affect facial impressions of trustworthiness and dominance. Previous studies suggesting that different facial features impact inferences on these traits sustain the hypothesis that wearing a face mask will differently affect each trait inference. And specifically, that trustworthiness impressions will be more disrupted by this type of face occlusion than dominance impressions. In two studies, we addressed this possibility by occluding the bottom face region of faces that were previously shown to convey different levels of dominance and trustworthiness, and tested differences in the ability to discriminate between these trait levels across occlusion conditions. In Study 1 faces were occluded by a mask, and in Study 2 by a square image. In both studies, results showed that although facial occlusions generally reduced participants’ confidence on their trait judgments, the ability to discriminate facial trustworthiness was more strongly affected than the ability to discriminate facial dominance. Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Prior episodic learning and the efficacy of retrieval practice

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      Abstract: Abstract In three experiments we investigated how the level of study-based, episodic knowledge influences the efficacy of subsequent retrieval practice (testing) as a learning event. Possibilities are that the efficacy of a test, relative to a restudy control, decreases, increases, or is independent of the degree of prior study-based learning. The degree of study-based learning was manipulated by varying the number of item repetitions in the initial study phase between one and eight. Predictions of the dual-memory model of test-enhanced learning for the case of one study-phase repetition were used as a reference. Results support the hypothesis that the advantage of testing over restudy is independent of the degree of prior episodic learning, and they suggest that educators can apply cued-recall testing with the expectation that its efficacy is similar across varying levels of prior content learning. Implications for testing effect theory are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Individual Differences in Disqualifying Monitoring Underlie False
           Recognition of Associative and Conjunction Lures

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      Abstract: Abstract The current study leveraged experimental and individual differences methodology to examine whether false memories across different list-learning tasks arise from a common cause. Participants completed multiple false memory (associative and conjunction lure), working memory (operation and reading span), and source monitoring (verbal and picture) tasks. Memory discriminability in the associative and conjunction tasks loaded onto a single (general) factor and were unaffected by warnings provided at encoding. Consistent with previous research, source-monitoring ability fully mediated the relation between working memory and false memories. Moreover, individuals with higher source monitoring-ability were better able to recall contextual information from encoding to correctly reject lures. These results suggest that there are stable individual differences in false remembering across tasks. The commonality across tasks may be due, at least in part, to the ability to effectively use disqualifying monitoring processes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Memory and Proactive Interference for spatially distributed items

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      Abstract: Abstract Our ability to briefly retain information is often limited. Proactive Interference (PI) might contribute to these limitations (e.g., when items in recognition tests are difficult to reject after having appeared recently). In visual Working Memory (WM), spatial information might protect WM against PI, especially if encoding items together with their spatial locations makes item-location combinations less confusable than simple items without a spatial component. Here, I ask (1) if PI is observed for spatially distributed items, (2) if it arises among simple items or among item-location combinations, and (3) if spatial information affects PI at all. I show that, contrary to views that spatial information protects against PI, PI is reliably observed for spatially distributed items except when it is weak. PI mostly reflects items that appear recently or frequently as memory items, while occurrences as test items play a smaller role, presumably because their temporal context is easier to encode. Through mathematical modeling, I then show that interference occurs among simple items rather than item-location combinations. Finally, to understand the effects of spatial information, I separate the effects of (a) the presence and (b) the predictiveness of spatial information on memory and its susceptibility to PI. Memory is impaired when items are spatially distributed, but, depending on the analysis, unaffected by the predictiveness of spatial information. In contrast, the susceptibility to PI is unaffected by either manipulation. Visual memory is thus impaired by PI for spatially distributed items due to interference from recent memory items (rather than test items or item-location combinations).
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Adaptation following errors: Error awareness predicts future performance

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      Abstract: Abstract The ability to detect an error in performance is critical to ongoing and future goal-directed behaviour. Diminished awareness of errors has been associated with a loss of insight and poor functional recovery in several clinical disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, addiction, schizophrenia). Despite the clear imperative to understand and remediate such deficits, error awareness and its instantiation in corrective behaviour remains to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the relationship between error awareness and future performance in order to determine whether conscious recognition of errors facilitates adaptive behaviour. Fifty-one healthy participants completed a motor Go/No-Go error awareness task that afforded the opportunity to learn from errors. A mixed-effects model was specified wherein awareness of an error was used to predict inhibitory performance on the following No-Go trial. The model revealed a significant predictive effect of error awareness on future performance, such that aware errors were more frequently followed by correct inhibitory performance. Notably, improvement in performance accuracy was not due to a temporary increase in conservatism of responding, but appeared to be a context-specific adaptation. These results highlight the adaptive role of error awareness and the relationship between error awareness and learning from errors that has the potential to contribute to clinical symptomatology.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • The impact of cognitive load on prospective and retrospective time
           estimates at long durations: An investigation using a visual and memory
           search paradigm

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      Abstract: Abstract As human beings, we are bound by time. It is essential for daily functioning, and yet our ability to keep track of time is influenced by a myriad of factors (Block & Zakay, 1997, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4[2], 184–197). First and foremost, time estimation has been found to depend on whether participants estimate the time prospectively or retrospectively (Hicks et al., 1976, The American Journal of Psychology, 89[4], 719–730). However, there is a paucity of research investigating differences between these two conditions in tasks over two minutes (Tobin et al., 2010, PLOS ONE, 5[2], Article e9271). Moreover, estimates have also been shown to be influenced by cognitive load. We thus investigated participants’ ability to keep track of time during a visual and memory search task and manipulated its difficulty and duration. Two hundred and ninety-two participants performed the task for 8 or 58 minutes. Participants in the prospective time judgment condition were forewarned of an impending time estimate, whereas participants in the retrospective condition were not. Cognitive load was manipulated and assessed by altering the task’s difficulty. The results revealed a higher overestimation of time in the prospective condition compared with the retrospective condition. However, this was found in the 8-minute task only. Overall, participants significantly overestimated the duration of the 8-minute task and underestimated the 58-minute task. Finally, cognitive load had no effect on participants’ time estimates. Thus, the well-known cross-over interaction between cognitive load and estimation paradigm (Block et al., 2010, Acta Psychologica, 134[3], 330–343) did not extend to a longer duration in this experiment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Revisiting the influence of offloading memory on free recall

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      Abstract: Abstract Relying on external memory aids is a common memory strategy that has long allowed us to “remember” vast amounts of information more reliably than with our internal memory alone. However, recent work has provided evidence consistent with the idea that offloading memory demands encourages a reduced engagement in intentional or top-down memory strategies/efforts, leading to lower memory performance in general. Evidence for this view comes from results demonstrating a reduced primacy effect but intact recency and isolation effects when individuals could offload memory demands (but had to unexpectedly rely on their internal memory at test). In the present investigation, we attempt a replication of these critical results, given some inconsistencies in the findings between studies. In addition, we extend the examination of offloading’s impact on memory via examining individual differences in reliance on the external store (when available) and different strategies for the use of that store. Results of the replication are generally consistent with previous research. An individual differences analysis yielded results consistent with the notion that increased reliance on an external store can compromise internal/biological memory in the absence of that store. Finally, a verbal model of offloading memory demands within a framework of effort and study time allocation is presented. Together, the results both reinforce extant research and extend it in new directions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Patterns of choice adaptation in dynamic risky environments

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      Abstract: Abstract An important aspect of making good decisions is the ability to adapt to changes in the values of available choice options, and research suggests that we are poor at changing behavior and adapting our choices successfully. The current paper contributes to clarifying the role of memory on learning and successful adaptation to changing decision environments. We test two aspects of changing decision environments: the direction of change and the type of feedback. The direction of change refers to how options become more or less rewarding compared to other options, over time. Feedback refers to whether full or partial information about decision outcomes is received. Results from behavioral experiments revealed a robust effect of the direction of change: risk that becomes more rewarding over time is harder to detect than risk that becomes less rewarding over time; even with full feedback. We rely on three distinct computational models to interpret the role of memory on learning and adaptation. The distributions of individual model parameters were analyzed in relation to participants’ ability to successfully adapt to the changing conditions of the various decision environments. Consistent across the three models and two distinct data sets, results revealed the importance of recency as an individual memory component for choice adaptation. Individuals relying more on recent experiences were more successful at adapting to change, regardless of its direction. We explain the value and limitations of these findings as well as opportunities for future research.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Learning new words: Memory reactivation as a mechanism for strengthening
           and updating a novel word’s meaning

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      Abstract: Abstract In the present study we explored the postlearning changes in a novel word’s definition using a cue-induced memory reactivation. Native speakers of Spanish (N = 373) learned low-frequency words with their corresponding definitions. The following day, reactivated groups were exposed to a reminder and provided a subjective assessment of reactivation for each word, while control groups did not receive a reactivation. Study A demonstrated that memory reactivation enhances both explicit recall and semantic integration of new meanings. Study B investigated the effect of memory reactivation in the modification of the new meanings, through three different experiments. Results show an improvement of the updated definitions according to each word’s reactivation strength. In addition, congruence with previous knowledge was suggested to be a boundary condition, while consolidation time had a positive modulatory effect. Our findings call attention to reactivation as a factor allowing for malleability as well as persistence of long-term memories for words.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • What happens after debriefing' The effectiveness and benefits of
           postexperimental debriefing

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      Abstract: Abstract After participating in an experiment, people are routinely debriefed. How effective is debriefing when the experiments involve deception, as occurs in studies of misinformation and memory' We conducted two studies addressing this question. In Study 1, participants (N = 373) watched a video, were exposed to misinformation or not, and completed a memory test. Participants were either debriefed or not and then were interviewed approximately one week later. Results revealed that, after debriefing, some participants continued to endorse misinformation. Notably, however, debriefing had positive effects; participants exposed to misinformation reported learning significantly more from their study participation than control participants. In Study 2 (N = 439), we developed and tested a novel, enhanced debriefing. The enhanced debriefing included more information about the presence of misinformation in the study and how memory errors occur. This enhanced debriefing outperformed typical debriefing. Specifically, when the enhanced debriefing explicitly named and described the misinformation, the misinformation effect postdebriefing was eliminated. Enhanced debriefing also resulted in a more positive participant experience than typical debriefing. These results have implications for the design and use of debriefing in deception studies.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • The impact of auditory distraction on reading comprehension: An individual
           differences investigation

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      Abstract: Abstract Background noise disrupts auditory selective attention and impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but the degree to which it is disruptive depends on the task and the individual. According to the load theory of attention and cognitive control, selective attention is influenced by both the perceptual load and the cognitive load of the primary task. Recent studies suggest that hard-to-read font in a reading task may shield attention against background noise and auditory distraction. The current study examined the disruptive effect of background noise on reading comprehension as a function of perceptual load and cognitive load. Perceptual load was manipulated by introducing task disfluency (hard-to-read or easy-to-read font), and cognitive load was manipulated by varying the type of background noise and investigating individual differences in working memory capacity. The results suggest that high perceptual load and high working memory capacity both facilitate reading comprehension. However, contrary to previous research, neither perceptual load nor capacity moderates the disruptive effect of background noise. These results failed to support the generalizability and applicability of the shield effect of perceptual disfluency against auditory distraction during reading but supported the beneficial effect of perceptual disfluency on reading comprehension.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Motivation-based selective encoding and retrieval

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      Abstract: Abstract Rememberers are often motivated to remember certain pieces of information more than they are motivated to remember other pieces. The literature suggests that this motivation results in selective remembering of valuable information and that it yields selective processing of this valuable information during encoding. However, the question of whether or not motivation to remember also elicits selective processing during retrieval is relatively underexplored. To fill this gap, two experiments examined the effect of incentive-based motivation to remember target information on selective encoding and retrieval processes using a paradigm that allowed participants to self-regulate their learning and cued-recall testing under relatively naturalistic settings. The results revealed that motivation yielded selective remembering of the target information and selective processing during encoding (i.e., selective allocation of study time, selective restudy, and selective control over study order), consistent with prior findings. Importantly, the results also revealed that motivation yielded selective processing during retrieval, as rememberers allocated more time to test queries about target information that they were motivated to remember and tended to start the test with these queries. These findings suggest that motivation affects how rememberers answer a cued-recall memory test. More generally, the current research demonstrates that by manipulating motivation and investigating self-regulated learning and remembering, research can advance our understanding of the intricate relationship between motivation, memory, and metacognition.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Selecting effectively contributes to the mnemonic benefits of
           self-generated cues

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      Abstract: Abstract Self-generated memory cues support recall of target information more robustly than memory cues generated by others. Across two experiments, we tested whether the benefit of self-generated cues in part reflects a meta-mnemonic effect rather than a pure generation effect. In other words, can learners select better memory cues for themselves than others can' Participants generated as many possible memory cues for each to-be-remembered target as they could and then selected the cue they thought would be most effective. Self-selected memory cues elicited better cued recall than cues the generator did not select and cues selected by observers. Critically, this effect cannot be attributed to the process of generating a cue itself because all of the cues were self-generated. Further analysis indicated that differences in cue selection arise because generators and observers valued different cue characteristics; specifically, observers valued the commonality of the cue more than the generators, while generators valued the distinctiveness of a cue more than observers. Together, results suggest that self-generated cues are effective at supporting memory, in part, because learners select cues that are tailored to their specific memory needs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Premise typicality as feature inference decision-making in perceptual
           categories

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      Abstract: Abstract Making property inferences for category instances is important and has been studied in two largely separate areas—categorical induction and perceptual categorization. Categorical induction has a corpus of well-established effects using complex, real-world categories; however, the representational basis of these effects is unclear. In contrast, the perceptual categorization paradigm has fostered the assessment of well-specified representation models due to its controlled stimuli and categories. In categorical induction, evaluations of premise typicality effects, stronger attribute generalization from typical category instances than from atypical, have tried to control the similarity between instances to be distinct from premise–conclusion similarity effects, stronger generalization from greater similarity. However, the extent to which similarity has been controlled is unclear for these complex stimuli. Our research embedded analogues of categorical induction effects in perceptual categories, notably premise typicality and premise conclusion similarity, in an attempt to clarify the category representation underlying feature inference. These experiments controlled similarity between instances using overlap of a small number of constrained features. Participants made inferences for test cases using displayed sets of category instances. The results showed typicality effects, premise–conclusion similarity effects, but no evidence of premise typicality effects (i.e., no preference for generalizing features from typical over atypical category instances when similarity was controlled for), with significant Bayesian support for the null. As typicality effects occurred and occur widely in the perceptual categorization paradigm, why was premise typicality absent' We discuss possible reasons. For attribute inference, is premise typicality distinct from instance similarity' These initial results suggest not.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Can cue familiarity during recall failure prompt illusory recollective
           experience'

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      Abstract: Abstract Recognition memory is thought to involve two bases: familiarity (a sense that something was encountered previously) and recollection (retrieval of specifics or context). The present study investigated the hypothesis that a sensation of familiarity during cued-recall failure might increase illusory recollective experience. This hypothesis was driven, in part, by the suggestion in the literature that the type of familiarity-driven recollective confabulation often seen in populations experiencing memory impairment might actually be a common feature of normal human memory. We examined the hypothesis that as perceived cue familiarity increases during the uncertainty of target retrieval failure, so does illusory recollection of a contextual detail. Toward this end, we systematically varied the amount of cue-to-target(s) surface feature-overlap in the recognition without cued recall paradigm, which has been shown to increase perceived cue familiarity during target recall failure. Increasing perceived cue familiarity during target retrieval failure led to increased confidence in knowing a contextual detail that was not actually known. As perceived cue familiarity increased, so did erroneous confidence in knowing the arrow direction (left or right) that supposedly accompanied the unretrieved target (Experiment 1), the background color (Experiment 2), and whether an accompanying tone was high or low (Experiment 3).
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Framing effects in value-directed remembering

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      Abstract: Abstract Changing how an issue is framed can influence both decision-making and metacognition, but framing a memory task in terms of gains and losses could also impact how learners prioritize information according to its value or importance. We investigated how framing task instructions and feedback in terms of gains and losses influences learners’ ability to selectively remember valuable information at the expense of low-value information. Specifically, we presented learners with to-be-remembered words paired with point values and either told participants how many points they scored (the sum of the values of recalled words) or lost (the sum of the values of not-recalled words) on each list, with participants’ goal being to maximize their scores or minimize their losses, respectively. Overall, participants were more selective for high-value words when their goals were framed in terms of point gains compared with when their goals were framed in terms of losses, and learners’ metacognitive predictions of performance (JOLs) generally mapped onto this trend. Thus, framing in terms of losses for forgetting can reduce memory selectivity, perhaps because even small losses are salient, indicating that framing effects are not limited to decision-making but can influence memory and metacognitive processes as well.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Reasoning strategies and prior knowledge effects in contingency learning

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      Abstract: Abstract Prior knowledge has been shown to be an important factor in causal judgments. However, inconsistent patterns have been reported regarding the interaction between prior knowledge and the processing of contingency information. In three studies, we examined the effect of the plausibility of the putative cause on causal judgments, when prior expectations about the rate at which the cause is accompanied by the effect in question are explicitly controlled for. Results clearly show that plausibility has a clear effect that is independent of contingency information and type of task (passive or active). We also examined the role of strategy use as an individual difference in causal judgments. Specifically, the dual-strategy model suggests that people can either use a Statistical or a Counterexample strategy to process information. Across all three studies, results showed that Strategy use has a clear effect on causal judgments that is independent of both plausibility and contingency.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
 
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