A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.374
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 24  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1747-0218 - ISSN (Online) 1747-0226
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Local and global control adjustments to stimulus-based task conflict in
           task switching

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Luca Moretti, Iring Koch, Stefanie Schuch
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A prominent feature of cognitive control is that its deployment is regulated depending on the environmental circumstances. Control upregulation has been widely documented in response-conflict paradigms where congruency effects are reduced both following incongruent trials, and in blocks where incongruent trials are the majority. In two pre-registered task-switching experiments, we investigated whether similar flexible mechanisms are also available when dealing with stimulus-based task conflict. Building up on previous Stroop studies, task conflict was measured as the difference in performance between bivalent congruent and univalent trials, which we name the “valency effect.” If cognitive control is upregulated analogously to what observed with response conflict, valency effects should be reduced following bivalent trials and in majority-bivalent blocks. Furthermore, as cognitive control upregulation has been proposed to be task specific, we assessed whether switching to a new task eliminates the expected modulations of task. The results broadly matched our predictions. First, we observed a reduction of the valency effect following bivalent trials similar to the well-known congruency sequence effect, demonstrating similar patterns of flexible control adjustment to task and response conflict. This valency sequence effect was limited to task repetitions, indicating that local control adjustments are task specific. Furthermore, task conflict was reduced in majority-bivalent blocks, similar to the proportion-congruency effect. This finding extends previous Stroop studies suggesting that control is recruited proactively when dealing with stimulus-based task. The proportion valency effect was limited to task-switch trials, leaving open the question on the precise mechanisms behind sustained control adjustments.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T05:14:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231200442
       
  • Do linguistic stimuli activate experiential colour traces related to the
           entities they refer to and, if so, under what circumstances'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Oksana Tsaregorodtseva, Lyn Frazier, Britta Stolterfoht, Barbara Kaup
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The simulation view of language comprehension holds that lexical-semantic access prompts the re-enactment of sensorimotor experiences that regularly accompany word use. For the colour domain, this suggests that reading about a stop sign reactivates experiences involving the perception of the stop sign and hence experiences involving the colour red. However, it is still not clear what circumstances would limit reactivation of colour experiences during comprehension, if the activation takes place. To address this question, we varied in our study the conditions in which the target colour stimuli appeared. The experimental stimuli were individual words (Experiment (Exp.) 1, Exp. 7, 8) or sentences (Exp. 2–6) referring to objects with a typical colour of either green or red (e.g., cucumber or raspberry). Across experiments, we manipulated the presence of fillers (present or not), and whether fillers referred to objects with other colour (e.g., honey) or objects without any particular colour (e.g., car). The stimuli were presented along with two clickable “yes” and “no” buttons, one of which was red and the other green. Location and button colour varied from trial to trial. The tasks were lexical decision (Exp. 1, Exp. 7–8) and sensibility judgement (Exp. 2–6). We observed faster response times in the match vs mismatch condition in all word-based experiments, but only in those sentence-based experiments that did not have fillers. This suggests that comprehenders indeed reactivate colour experiences when processing linguistic stimuli referring to objects with a typical colour, but this activation seems to occur only under certain circumstances.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-28T07:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231200489
       
  • Typing speed and fluency as cues to uncertainty in the real-time
           production of written messages

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Arielle V Elliott, William S Horton
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In spoken communicative contexts, speakers often convey uncertainty via intonation and through paralinguistic behaviours such as speech rate and gesture—and addressees can use these behaviours to generate inferences about the speaker’s epistemic state. In text-based contexts, however, cues of this sort are more restricted. In this study, we examine the expression and reception of epistemic information in the context of real-time written message production. We hypothesised that real-time typing dynamics (like those available in text-based collaborative contexts, such as Google Docs) can function as a rich paralinguistic cue about a partner’s epistemic state. In Experiment 1, we collected production data showing that manipulations of typist certainty, instantiated through both the ease of message formulation and repeated experience with the task, are reflected in measures of typing fluency and speed. Then, in Experiment 2, we presented select screen recordings of the typing behaviours from Experiment 1 to a group of independent observers who made epistemic judgements about the typist. Our results show that observable differences in typing speed and fluency contribute to perceptions of typist knowledge and confidence, which has implications for interfaces that enable real-time text-based collaboration.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-27T11:05:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231200243
       
  • Automatic phonological access among bilinguals with cross-script languages

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nan Zhang, Jinglei Ren, Min Wang, Nan Jiang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the hypothesis of nonselective access to phonological representations in an integrated lexicon across logographic and alphabetic writing systems among Chinese L1 (first language)–English L2 (second language) bilinguals. We employed three experiments to test this hypothesis, including a lexical decision task (LDT) and a word naming task in Experiments 1 and 2 using the masked priming paradigm, and a self-paced sentence reading task in Experiment 3. Results from the LDT and the word naming task showed a significant homophone priming effect from L1 to L2, but not from L2 to L1. In the sentence reading task, we compared processing time between homophone error words and control words in the critical and spill-over regions. A slower processing effect in the homophone condition was observed in the spill-over region. Overall, these findings suggest that phonological priming occurs across a logographic and an alphabetic script in different tasks, whether reading isolated words or sentences. Bilingual reading involves an integrated bilingual lexicon that is independent of script similarity.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-27T05:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231198500
       
  • Influence of the physical effort of reminder-setting on strategic
           offloading of delayed intentions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gavin Chiu, Sam J Gilbert
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Intention offloading involves using external reminders such as diaries, to-do lists, and digital alerts to help us remember delayed intentions. Recent studies have provided evidence for various cognitive and metacognitive factors that guide intention offloading, but little research has investigated the physical cost of reminder-setting itself. Here, we present two pre-registered experiments investigating how the cost of physical effort associated with reminder-setting influences strategic intention offloading under different levels of memory load. At all memory loads, reminder-setting was reduced when it was more effortful. The ability to set reminders allowed participants to compensate for the influence of memory load on accuracy in the low-effort condition; this effect was attenuated in the high-effort condition. In addition, there was evidence that participants with less confidence in their memory abilities were more likely to set reminders. Contrary to prediction, physical effort had the greatest effect on reminder-setting at intermediate memory loads. We speculate that the physical costs of reminder-setting might have the greatest impact when participants are uncertain about their strategy choice. These results demonstrate the importance of physical effort as one of the factors relevant to cost-benefit decision-making about cognitive offloading strategies.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-23T10:58:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231199977
       
  • When 2 become 1: Autistic simultaneity judgements about asynchronous
           audiovisual speech

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Poole, Emma Gowen, Ellen Poliakoff, Anna Lambrechts, Luke A Jones
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It has been proposed that autistic people experience a temporal distortion whereby the temporal binding window of multisensory integration is extended. Research to date has focused on autistic children so whether these differences persist into adulthood remains unknown. In addition, the possibility that the previous observations have arisen from between-group differences in response bias, rather than perceptual differences, has not been addressed. Participants completed simultaneity judgements of audiovisual speech stimuli across a range of stimulus-onset asynchronies. Response times and accuracy data were fitted to a drift-diffusion model so that the drift rate (a measure of processing efficiency) and starting point (response bias) could be estimated. In Experiment 1, we tested a sample of non-autistic adults who completed the Autism Quotient questionnaire. Autism Quotient score was not correlated with either drift rate or response bias, nor were there between-group differences when splitting based on the first and third quantiles of scores. In Experiment 2, we compared the performance of autistic with a group of non-autistic adults. There were no between-group differences in either drift rate or starting point. The results of this study do not support the previous suggestion that autistic people have an extended temporal binding window for audiovisual speech. In addition, exploratory analysis revealed that operationalising the temporal binding window in different ways influenced whether a group difference was observed, which is an important consideration for future work.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-20T09:44:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231197518
       
  • Further evidence for the role of temporal contiguity as a determinant of
           overshadowing

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: José A Alcalá, Pedro M Ogallar, José Prados, Gonzalo P Urcelay
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Three experiments explored whether weakening temporal contiguity between auditory cues and an aversive outcome attenuated cue competition in an avoidance learning task with human participants. Overall, with strong temporal contiguity between auditory cues and the outcome during training (the offset of the predictive auditory signals concurred with the onset of the outcome), the target cue trained as part of a compound yielded less avoidance behaviour than the control cue trained alone, an instance of overshadowing. However, weakening temporal contiguity during training (inserting a 5-s trace) attenuated overshadowing, resulting in similar avoidance behaviour in response to the control and target cues. These results provide evidence that, as predicted by a recent modification of Pearce’s configural theory, temporal contiguity is critical for determining cue competition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-19T06:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231197170
       
  • Examining the roles of visual imagery and working memory in the retrieval
           of autobiographical memories using a dual-task paradigm

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kristine Anthony, Hoo Keat Wong, Alfred Lim, Farrah Sow, Steve MJ Janssen
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The retrieval of autobiographical memories involves the construction of mental representations of past personal events. Many researchers examining the processes underlying memory retrieval argue that visual imagery plays a fundamental role. Other researchers, however, have argued that working memory is an integral component involved in memory retrieval. The goal of this study was to resolve these conflicting arguments by comparing the relative contributions of visual imagery and working memory during the retrieval of autobiographical memories in a dual-task paradigm. While following a moving dot, viewing a dynamic visual noise (DVN), or viewing a blank screen, 95 participants recalled their memories and subsequently rated them on different memory characteristics. The results suggest that inhibiting visual imagery by having participants view DVN merely delayed memory retrieval but did not affect the phenomenological quality of the memories retrieved. Taxations to the working memory by having participants follow a moving dot, on the contrary, resulted in only longer retrieval latencies and no reductions in the specificity, vividness, or the emotional intensity of the memories retrieved. Whereas the role of visual imagery during retrieval is clear, future studies could further examine the role of working memory during retrieval by administering a task that is less difficult or by recruiting a larger sample than this study. The results of this study seem to suggest that both visual imagery and working memory play a role during the retrieval of autobiographical memory, but more research needs to be conducted to determine their exact roles.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-14T11:53:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231200724
       
  • Testing for canonical form orientation in speech tempo perception

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Leendert Plug, Robert Lennon, Rachel Smith
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We report on two experiments that aimed to test the hypothesis that English listeners orient to full pronunciation forms—“canonical forms”—in judging the tempo of speech that features deletions. If listeners orient to canonical forms, this should mean that the perceived tempo of speech containing deletions is highly relative to the speech’s articulation rate calculated on the basis of surface phone strings. We used controlled stimuli to test this hypothesis. We created sentences with one ambiguous word form (for example, support~sport), to give half of the listeners an orthographic form that includes support and the other half an otherwise identical orthographic form with sport. In both experiments, listeners judged the tempo of the sentences, which allowed us to assess whether the difference in imposed interpretation had an impact on perceived tempo. Experiment 1 used a tempo rating task in which listeners evaluated the tempo of experimental stimuli relative to comparison stimuli, on a continuous scale. Experiment 2 used a tempo comparison task in which listeners judged whether second members of stimulus pairs were slower or faster than first members. Both experiments revealed the predicted effect of the imposed word interpretation: sentences with an imposed “schwa” interpretation for the ambiguous word form were judged faster than (the same) sentences with an imposed “no schwa” interpretation. However, in both experiments the effect was small and variables related to the experimental design had significant effects on responses. We discuss the results’ implications for our understanding of speech tempo perception.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-14T11:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231198344
       
  • Behind the mask: What the eyes can’t tell: Facial emotion recognition in
           a sample of Italian health care students

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marco Bani, Selena Russo, Stefano Ardenghi, Giulia Rampoldi, Virginia Wickline, Stephen Nowicki, Maria Grazia Strepparava
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Wearing a facemask remains a pivotal strategy to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection even after vaccination, but one of the possible costs of this protection is that it may interfere with the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. We explored the extent to which it may be more difficult for participants to read emotions in faces when faces are covered with masks than when they are not, and whether participants’ empathy, attachment style, and patient-centred orientation would affect their performance. Medical and nursing students (N = 429) were administered either a masked or unmasked set of 24 adult faces depicting anger, sadness, fear, or happiness. Participants also completed self-report measures of empathy, patient-centredness, and attachment style. As predicted, participants made more errors to the masked than the unmasked faces with the exception of the identification of fear. Of note, when participants missed happiness, they were most likely to see it as sadness, and when they missed anger, they were most likely to see it as happiness. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that more errors identifying emotions in faces was associated with faces being masked as opposed to unmasked, lower scores on the empathy fantasy scale, and higher scores on the fearful attachment style. The findings suggest that wearing facemasks is associated with a variety of negative outcomes that might interfere with the building of positive relationships between health care workers and patients. Those who teach student health care workers would benefit from bringing this finding into their curriculum and training.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-14T11:40:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231198145
       
  • Performance-related feedback as a strategy to overcome spontaneous
           occupational stereotypes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eimear Finnegan, Alan Garnham, Jane Oakhill
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the use of performance-related feedback as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous occupational stereotyping when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two studies participants were presented with two terms: a role noun (e.g., surgeon) and a kinship term (e.g., mother) and asked to quickly decide whether both terms could refer to the same person. The feedback training involved telling participants whether their responses were correct or incorrect and providing them with their cumulative percentage correct score. In the absence of feedback, responding to stereotype-incongruent pairings was typically slower and less accurate than in stereotype-congruent and neutral conditions. However, the results demonstrated that performance significantly improved to stimuli on which participants received the feedback training (Experiment 1), and to a novel set of stimuli (Experiment 2). In addition, the effects were still evident 1 week later (Experiment 2). It is concluded that performance-related feedback is a valuable strategy for overcoming spontaneous activation of occupational stereotypes and can result in lower levels of stereotype use.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-09T06:49:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231196861
       
  • When phonological neighbours cooperate during spoken sentence processing

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sophie Dufour, Jonathan Mirault, Jonathan Grainger
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined for the first time the impact of the presence of a phonological neighbour on word recognition when the target word and its neighbour co-occur in a spoken sentence. To do so, we developed a new task, the verb detection task, in which participants were instructed to respond as soon as they detected a verb in a sequence of words, thus allowing us to probe spoken word recognition processes in real time. We found that participants were faster at detecting a verb when it was phonologically related to the preceding noun than when it was phonologically unrelated. This effect was found with both correct sentences (Experiment 1) and with ungrammatical sequences of words (Experiment 2). The effect was also found in Experiment 3 where adjacent phonologically related words were included in the non-verb condition (i.e., word sequences not containing a verb), thus ruling out any strategic influences. These results suggest that activation persists across different words during spoken sentence processing such that processing of a word at position n + 1 benefits from the sublexical phonology activated during processing of the word at position n. We discuss how different models of spoken word recognition might be able (or not) to account for these findings.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-06T06:34:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231196823
       
  • Keep clam and carry on: Misperceptions of transposed-letter neighbours

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rebecca L Johnson, Cara Koch, Megan Wootten
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has provided evidence that readers experience processing difficulty when reading words that have a transposed-letter (TL) neighbour (e.g., TRAIL has the TL neighbour TRIAL). Here, we provide direct evidence that this interference is driven by explicit misidentifications of the word for its TL neighbour. Experiment 1 utilised an eye-tracking task in which participants read sentences aloud and reading errors were coded. Sentences had a target word that either (1) had a TL neighbour or (2) was a matched control word with no TL neighbour. In Experiment 2, participants identified words within sentences that they consciously misread and reported the interloper. In both experiments, readers explicitly misidentified many more of the TL words than control words, and most often for their TL neighbour. These findings support the idea that TL interference effects are due primarily to initial misperceptions and post-lexical checking rather than co-activation at the lexical level.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-05T10:26:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231196409
       
  • Stability of individual differences in implicitly guided attention

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chen Chen, Vanessa G Lee
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Daily activities often occur in familiar environments, affording us an opportunity to learn. Laboratory studies have shown that people readily acquire an implicit spatial preference for locations that frequently contained a search target in the past. These studies, however, have focused on group characteristics, downplaying the significance of individual differences. In a pre-registered study, we examined the stability of individual differences in two variants of an implicit location probability learning (LPL) task. We tested the possibility that individual differences were stable in variants that shared the same search process, but not in variants involving different search processes. In Experiment 1, participants performed alternating blocks of T-among-Ls and 5-among-2s search tasks. Unbeknownst to them, the search target appeared disproportionately often in one region of space; the high-probability regions differed between the two tasks. LPL transferred between the two tasks. In addition, individuals who showed greater LPL in the T-task also did so in the 5-task and vice versa. In Experiment 2, participants searched for either a camouflaged-T against background noise or a well-segmented T among well-segmented Ls. These two tasks produced task-specific learning that did not transfer between tasks. Moreover, individual differences in learning did not correlate between tasks. Thus, LPL is associated with stable individual differences across variants, but only when the variants share common search processes.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-09-02T07:19:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231196463
       
  • The influence of peripheral information on a proactive process during
           multitasking

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tsukasa Kimura, Tomoya Kawashima
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to examine whether peripheral information facilitates proactive processes during multitasking. For this purpose, peripheral information was presented regularly during multitasking and its effects on the performance of a tracking task (main task: reactive process) and a discrimination task (sub-task: proactive process) were examined. Experiment 1 presented peripheral information (white circles) in the same sensory modality (visual) as the information used for multitasking and the number of circle presentations was manipulated. In Experiment 2, a pure tone (auditory) was presented as peripheral information. We found that, in both experiments, the difficulty of the tracking task influenced discrimination performance, showing that as the difficulty of the tracking task (reactive process) increased, more cognitive resources were consumed in the tracking task, resulting in a decrease in cognitive resources available for the discrimination task (proactive process). In addition, regular presentation of peripheral information facilitated discrimination task performance in both experiments. Interestingly, this peripheral information also facilitated the tracking task performance (reactive process) even if the tracking task was difficult. Moreover, this promoting effect of the peripheral information occurred regardless of the sensory modality. This study revealed that processing of peripheral information facilitates the proactive process even if more cognitive resources are consumed, and that this facilitating effect does not conflict with multitasking and provides a margin of cognitive resources and also facilitates the reactive process. Our results provide evidence of how peripheral information and cognitive resources are used during multitasking.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T06:55:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231195198
       
  • Is the approach avoidance compatibility effect moderated by word
           imageability'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nicolas Pillaud, Claire Ballot, Christelle Robert, Stéphanie Mathey, François Ric
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The approach/avoidance (AA) compatibility effect refers to the fact that individuals respond faster by an approach movement to positive than to negative stimuli, whereas they respond faster by an avoidance movement to negative than to positive stimuli. Although this effect has been observed in many studies, the underlying mechanisms remain still unclear. On the basis of recent studies suggesting a key role of sensorimotor information in the emergence of the AA compatibility effect, the present study aimed to investigate the specific role of visual information, operationalised through word imageability, in the production of the AA compatibility effect. We orthogonally manipulated the emotional valence (positive/negative) and the imageability (low/high) of words in an incidental online-AA task (i.e., in the absence of valence processing goals) using a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 300 ms. In line with previous studies, Experiment 1 revealed an AA compatibility effect in the absence of valence processing goals. However, this effect was not moderated by word imageability. In Experiment 2, we examined whether the absence of influence of word imageability could be due to the short SOA (300 ms) used in this experiment. We used the same design as in Experiment 1 and manipulated the SOA (400 vs 600 ms). We again observed an AA compatibility effect which was not moderated by word imageability, whatever the SOA used. The results of both experiments suggest the absence of any influence of sensorimotor information in the AA compatibility effect, at least when provided by the to-be-approached/avoided stimulus.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T06:51:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231194499
       
  • SUBTLEX-CY: A new word frequency database for Welsh

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Walter JB van Heuven, Joshua S Payne, Manon W Jones
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We present SUBTLEX-CY, a new word frequency database created from a 32-million-word corpus of Welsh television subtitles. An experiment comprising a lexical decision task examined SUBTLEX-CY frequency estimates against words with inconsistent frequencies in a much smaller Welsh corpus that is often used by researchers, the Cronfa Electroneg o’r Gymraeg (CEG), and three other Welsh word frequency databases. Words were selected that were classified as low frequency (LF) in SUBTLEX-CY and high frequency (HF) in CEG and compared with words that were classified as medium frequency (MF) in both SUBTLEX-CY and CEG. Reaction time analyses showed that HF words in CEG were responded to more slowly compared to MF words, suggesting that SUBTLEX-CY corpus provides a more reliable estimate of Welsh word frequencies. The new Welsh word frequency database that also includes part-of-speech, contextual diversity, and other lexical information is freely available for research purposes on the Open Science Framework repository at https://osf.io/9gkqm/.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T06:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231190315
       
  • An another perspective of face masks in emotion recognition: Comment on
           Shepherd and Rippon (2022)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Elias Rodrigues de Almeida-Junior, Joaquim Pedro Brito-de-Sousa, Elenice Francisco da Silva, Rosineide Marques Ribas
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In a recent article, Shepherd and Rippon (2022) investigated the impact of widespread face mask use on emotion recognition. They found that mask-wearing led to reduced accuracy in identifying emotions such as fear, sadness, and disgust when participants were exposed to brief facial stimuli. Their study highlights the significance of masks in concealing facial areas crucial for non-verbal communication, potentially affecting emotional well-being. Here in this comment, we have argued that despite concerns about impaired emotional recognition and social interactions, balancing COVID-19 protection and effective communication is essential. We stress the importance of adhering to mask guidelines while enhancing alternative cues and communication strategies. In public health emergencies like COVID-19, such research should acknowledge the whole complexity and prioritize safety aspects in a manner that prevents controversial issues.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-08-30T11:51:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231195325
       
  • How well do we do social distancing'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Naohide Yamamoto, Mia Nightingale
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      During the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many jurisdictions around the world introduced a “social distance” rule under which people are instructed to keep a certain distance from others. Generally, this rule is implemented simply by telling people how many metres or feet of separation should be kept, without giving them precise instructions as to how the specified distance can be measured. Consequently, the rule is effective only to the extent that people are able to gauge this distance through their space perception. To examine the effectiveness of the rule from this point of view, this study empirically investigated how much distance people would leave from another person when they relied on their perception of this distance. Participants (N = 153) were asked to stand exactly 1.5 m away from a researcher, and resultant interpersonal distances showed that while their mean was close to the correct 1.5 m distance, they exhibited large individual differences. These results suggest that a number of people would not stay sufficiently away from others even when they intend to do proper social distancing. Given this outcome, it is suggested that official health advice include measures that compensate for this tendency.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-08-24T12:40:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231195247
       
  • Healthy ageing has divergent effects on verbal and non-verbal semantic
           cognition

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wei Wu, Suchismita Lohani, Taylore Homan, Katya Krieger-Redwood, Paul Hoffman
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Semantic cognition refers to the storage and appropriate use of knowledge acquired over the lifespan and underpins our everyday verbal and non-verbal behaviours. Successful semantic cognition requires representation of knowledge and control processes which ensure that currently relevant aspects of knowledge are retrieved and selected. Although these abilities have been widely studied in healthy young populations and semantically impaired patients, it is unclear how they change as a function of healthy ageing, especially for non-verbal semantic processing. Here, we addressed this issue by comparing the performance profiles of young and older people on a semantic knowledge task and a semantic control task, across verbal (word) and non-verbal (picture) versions. The results revealed distinct patterns of change during adulthood for semantic knowledge and semantic control. Older people performed better in both verbal and non-verbal knowledge tasks than young people. However, although the older group showed preserved controlled retrieval for verbal semantics, they demonstrated a specific impairment for non-verbal semantic control. These findings indicate that the effects of ageing on semantic cognition are more complex than previously assumed, and that input modality plays an important role in the shifting cognitive architecture of semantics in later life.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-08-23T12:32:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231195341
       
  • Strategies, debates, and adversarial collaboration in working memory: The
           51st Bartlett Lecture

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Robert H Logie
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Frederic Bartlett championed the importance of individual strategy differences when remembering details of events. I will describe how long-running theoretical debates in the area of working memory may be resolved by considering differences across participants in the strategies that they use when performing cognitive tasks, and through adversarial collaboration between rival laboratories. In common with the established view within experimental cognitive psychology, I assume that adults have a range of cognitive functions, evolved for everyday life. However, I will present evidence showing that these functions can be engaged selectively for laboratory tasks, and that how they are deployed may differ between and within individuals for the same task. Reliance on aggregate data, while treating inter- and intra-participant variability in data patterns as statistical noise, may lead to misleading conclusions about theoretical principles of cognition, and of working memory in particular. Moreover, different theoretical perspectives may be focused on different levels of explanation and different theoretical goals rather than being mutually incompatible. Yet researchers from contrasting theoretical frameworks pursue science as a competition, rarely do researchers from competing labs work in collaboration, and debates self-perpetuate. These approaches to research can stall debate resolution and generate ever-increasing scientific diversity rather than scientific progress. The article concludes by describing a recent extended adversarial collaboration (the WoMAAC project) focused on theoretical contrasts in working memory, and illustrates how this approach to conducting research may help resolve scientific debate and facilitate scientific advance.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-08-23T12:24:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231194037
       
  • Post-migration living difficulties and poor mental health associated with
           increased interpretation bias for threat

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anastasia Vikhanova, Marc S Tibber, Isabelle Mareschal
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has found associations between mental health difficulties and interpretation biases, including heightened interpretation of threat from neutral or ambiguous stimuli. Building on this research, we explored associations between interpretation biases (positive and negative) and three constructs that have been linked to migrant experience: mental health symptoms (Global Severity Index [GSI]), Post-Migration Living Difficulties (PMLD), and Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire (PEDQ). Two hundred thirty students who identified as first- (n = 94) or second-generation ethnic minority migrants (n = 68), and first-generation White migrants (n = 68) completed measures of GSI, PEDQ, and PMLD. They also performed an interpretation bias task using Point Light Walkers (PLW), dynamic stimuli with reduced visual input that are easily perceived as humans performing an action. Five categories of PLW were used: four that clearly depicted human forms undertaking positive, neutral, negative, or ambiguous actions, and a fifth that involved scrambled animations with no clear action or form. Participants were asked to imagine their interaction with the stimuli and rate their friendliness (positive interpretation bias) and aggressiveness (interpretation bias for threat). We found that the three groups differed on PEDQ and PMLD, with no significant differences in GSI, and the three measured were positively correlated. Poorer mental health and increased PMLD were associated with a heightened interpretation for threat of scrambled animations only. These findings have implications for understanding of the role of threat biases in mental health and the migrant experience.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-08-11T08:04:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231191442
       
  • The influence of irrelevant emotionally negative stimuli on early and late
           retrospective metacognitive judgements

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marie Geurten, Patrick Lemaire
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It is well established that negative emotions influence a range of cognitive processes. How these emotions influence the metacognitive judgement individuals make about their own performance and whether this influence is similar depending on the conditions under which metacognition is assessed, however, is far less understood. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to emotional stimuli could influence metacognitive judgements made under short or long time constraints. A total sample of 144 young adults (aged 18–35 years) was recruited and asked to complete an arithmetic strategy selection task under emotional or neutral condition. Following each strategy selection trial, participants also provided a retrospective confidence judgement (RCJ). Both strategy selection and RCJ were collected under short or long time constraints (1,500 vs. 2,500 ms for strategy selection and 800 vs. 1,500 ms for RCJ). In addition to replicating previous findings showing lower rates of better strategy selection under negative emotions compared with neutral condition, an effect of negative stimuli on the accuracy of participants’ confidence judgements was found, but only if participants had a short time limit to make their second-level evaluation. Such findings are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to emotional stimuli disturbs early, but not late metacognitive processes and have important implications to further our understanding of the role of emotions on metacognition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-08-11T06:21:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231191516
       
  • Are lexical representations graded or discrete'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Leon Li, Andrés Buxó-Lugo, Cassandra L Jacobs, L Robert Slevc
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Most research on mental lexical representations (lemmas) assumes they are discrete and correspond in number to a word’s number of distinct meanings. Thus, homophones (bat), whose meanings are unrelated, have separate lemmas for each meaning (one for baseball bat, another for flying bat), whereas polysemes (paper), whose senses are related, have shared lemmas (the same lemma for printer paper and term paper). However, most aspects of cognition are thought to be graded, not discrete; could lemmas be graded too' We conducted a preregistered picture-word interference study with pictures of words whose meanings ranged from unrelated (homophones) to very related (regular polysemes). Whereas semantic competitors to picture names slow picture naming, semantic competitors to non-depicted meanings of homophones facilitate naming, suggesting distinct lemmas for homophones’ meanings. We predicted that competitors to non-depicted senses of polysemes would slow naming, as polysemes’ depicted and non-depicted senses presumably share a lemma. Crucially, we aimed to examine the transition from facilitation to inhibition: two groupings (where competitors to non-depicted senses led to facilitation for words with two lemmas but inhibition for words with one lemma) would imply that lemmas are indeed discrete. But a transition that varies continuously by sense relatedness would imply that lemmas are graded. Unexpectedly, competitors to non-depicted senses of both homophones and polysemes facilitated naming. Although these results do not indicate whether lemmas are graded or discrete, they do inform a long-standing question on the nature of polysemes, supporting a multiple-lemma (vs. core-lemma) account.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-31T07:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231187027
       
  • Dissociations between data-driven and goal-driven effort reports:
           Performance, metacognition, and affect

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kate Van Kessel, Michelle Ashburner, Evan F Risko
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Measuring effort has long been a challenge and this seems particularly true in the case of subjective effort. Koriat et al. compared two types of effort frames, what they call data-driven effort, the amount of effort perceived to be required by a task, and goal-driven effort, the amount of effort one chooses to invest in a task. This study investigates whether self-reports of data- and goal-driven effort are differentially associated with test performance, metacognition, and affect in a complex learning task. Results demonstrate that data- and goal-driven effort have qualitatively different relations with many of these variables. For example, partial correlations revealed data-driven effort was negatively associated with prospective and retrospective performance estimates, but the opposite pattern emerged for goal-driven effort. These results demonstrate that how subjective measures of effort are framed (and interpreted by the respondent) can drastically influence how they relate to other variables of interest.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-31T07:07:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231186609
       
  • Multimodal language in child-directed versus adult-directed speech

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Songül Kandemir, Demet Özer, Aslı Aktan-Erciyes
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Speakers design their multimodal communication according to the needs and knowledge of their interlocutors, phenomenon known as audience design. We use more sophisticated language (e.g., longer sentences with complex grammatical forms) when communicating with adults compared with children. This study investigates how speech and co-speech gestures change in adult-directed speech (ADS) versus child-directed speech (CDS) for three different tasks. Overall, 66 adult participants (Mage = 21.05, 60 female) completed three different tasks (story-reading, storytelling and address description) and they were instructed to pretend to communicate with a child (CDS) or an adult (ADS). We hypothesised that participants would use more complex language, more beat gestures, and less iconic gestures in the ADS compared with the CDS. Results showed that, for CDS, participants used more iconic gestures in the story-reading task and storytelling task compared with ADS. However, participants used more beat gestures in the storytelling task for ADS than CDS. In addition, language complexity did not differ across conditions. Our findings indicate that how speakers employ different types of gestures (iconic vs beat) according to the addressee’s needs and across different tasks. Speakers might prefer to use more iconic gestures with children than adults. Results are discussed according to audience design theory.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-29T10:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231188832
       
  • Bigger is really better: Resolution of conflicting behavioural evidence
           for semantic size bias in a lexical decision task

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Larranaga, Anne Sereno
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous literature has indicated conflicting results regarding a response time bias favouring words indicating large real-world objects (RWO) over words indicating small RWO during a lexical decision task. This study aimed to replicate an original experiment and, expanding on it, disentangle possible alternatives for why this effect is sometimes observed and sometimes not. The same methods as the original study were followed, and the results were inconsistent with all previously published findings. Although no significant difference was observed for response time, the findings indicated a significant difference in accuracy and inverse efficiency scores such that “large” words were recognised significantly more accurately than “small” words. After examining several linguistic dimensions that may also contribute to response time, statistical models accounting for these dimensions yielded a significant and increased effect size for the response time size rating of words in our sample from the United States. Our findings indicate that there is a cognitive bias favouring words representing large RWO over small ones but suggest several additional linguistic factors need to be controlled for it to be detected consistently in response time.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-29T10:28:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231186582
       
  • The different impact of attention, movement, and sensory information on
           body metric representation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pietro Caggiano, Gianna Cocchini, Danila De Stefano, Daniele Romano
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of research investigating the relationship between body representation and tool-use has shown that body representation is highly malleable. The nature of the body representation does not consist only of sensory attributes but also of motor action–oriented qualities, which may modulate the subjective experience of our own body. However, how these multisensory factors and integrations may specifically guide and constrain body reorientation’s plasticity has been under-investigated. In this study, we used a forearm bisection task to selectively investigate the contribution of motor, sensory, and attentional aspects in guiding body representation malleability. Results show that the perceived forearm midpoint deviates from the real one. This shift is further modulated by a motor task but not by a sensory task, whereas the attentional task generates more uncertain results. Our findings provide novel insight into the individual role of movement, somatosensation, and attention in modulating body metric representation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-22T11:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231187385
       
  • Generalisation of unpredictable action-effect features: Large individual
           differences with little on-average effect

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Markus Janczyk, Jeff Miller
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Ideomotor theory suggests that selecting a response is achieved by anticipating the consequences of that response. Evidence for this is the response-effect compatibility (REC) effect, that is, responding tends to be faster when the (anticipated) predictable consequences of a response (the action effects) are compatible rather than incompatible with the response. The present experiments investigated the extent to which the consequences must be exactly versus categorically predictable. According to the latter, an abstraction from particular instances to the categories of dimensional overlap might take place. For participants in one group of Experiment 1, left-hand and right-hand responses produced compatible or incompatible action effects in perfectly predictable positions to the left or right of fixation, and a standard REC effect was observed. For participants in another group of Experiment 1, as well as in Experiments 2 and 3, the responses also produced action effects to the left or right of fixation, but the eccentricity of the action effects (and thus their precise location) was unpredictable. On average, the data from the latter groups suggest that there is little, if any, tendency for participants to abstract the critical left/right features from spatially somewhat unpredictable action effects and use them for action selection, although there were large individual differences in these groups. Thus, at least on average across participants, it appears that the spatial locations of action effects must be perfectly predictable for these effects to have a strong influence on the response time.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-22T09:45:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231184996
       
  • Examining the effect of expected test format and test difficulty on the
           frequency and mnemonic costs of mind wandering

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Skylar J Laursen, Jeffrey D Wammes, Chris M Fiacconi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Mind wandering, generally defined as task-unrelated thought, has been shown to constitute between 30% and 50% of individuals’ thoughts during almost every activity in which they are engaged. Critically, however, previous research has shown that the demands of a given task can lead to either the up- or down-regulation of mind wandering and that engagement in mind wandering may be differentially detrimental to future memory performance depending on learning conditions. The goal of the current research was to gain a better understanding of how the circumstances surrounding a learning episode affect the frequency with which individuals engage in off-task thought, and the extent to which these differences differentially affect memory performance across different test formats. Specifically, while prior work has manipulated the conditions of encoding, we focused on the anticipated characteristics of the retrieval task, thereby examining whether the anticipation of later demands imposed by the expected test format/difficulty would influence the frequency or performance costs of mind wandering during encoding. Across three experiments, we demonstrate that the anticipation of future test demands, as modelled by expected test format/difficulty, does not affect rates of mind wandering. However, the costs associated with mind wandering do appear to scale with the difficulty of the test. These findings provide important new insights into the impact of off-task thought on future memory performance and constrain our understanding of the strategic regulation of inattention in the context of learning and memory.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-21T10:38:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231187892
       
  • Language switching when writing: The role of phonological and orthographic
           overlap

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tanja C Roembke, Iring Koch, Andrea M Philipp
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      While language switching of bilinguals has been investigated extensively in the spoken domain, there has been little research on switching while writing. The factors that impact written language switching may differ from those that impact language switching while speaking. Thus, the study’s goal was to test to what extent phonological and/or orthographic overlap impacts written language switching. In four experiments (NExp.1 = 34; NExp. 2 = 57; NExp. 3 = 39; NExp. 4 = 39), German–English bilinguals completed a cued language switching task where responses had to be typed. To-be-named translation-equivalent concepts were selected to be similar phonologically, orthographically or neither. Participants switching between languages while writing was facilitated by both phonological and orthographic overlap. Maximum orthographic overlap between translation-equivalent words with dissimilar pronunciations facilitated switching to the extent that no switch costs could be observed. These results imply that overlapping orthography can strongly facilitate written language switching and that orthography’s role should be considered more thoroughly in models of bilingual language production.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-13T11:38:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231183706
       
  • Deficits of duration estimation in individuals aged 10–20 years old
           with idiopathic mild intellectual disability: The role of updating working
           memory

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Elsa Gourlat, Anne-Claire Rattat, Benoît Valéry, Cédric Albinet
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Duration estimation is a conceptual ability that plays a crucial role in human behaviour. Impairments in duration estimation ability have a significant impact on daily autonomy and social and cognitive capacities, even more so in psychological disorders. It has been recently shown that the ability to estimate durations develops at a slower pace in individuals with mild intellectual disability (MID) compared with typically developing (TD) individuals. More generally, it has been also demonstrated that duration estimation requires working memory updating. In this study, we compared the duration estimation and updating performances of individuals aged 10–20 years with idiopathic MID without associated disorders to those of typical individuals of the same ages (N = 160). Our results highlight a developmental lag not only in the capacity to estimate short durations (
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-12T11:54:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231185309
       
  • Swift attenuation of irrelevant features through feature consistency:
           Evidence from a capture-probe version of the contingent-capture protocol

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Christian Büsel, Charlotte Maria Seiz, Alexandra Hoffmann, Pierre Sachse, Ulrich Ansorge
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In the present two experiments, we explore the possibility of swift attenuation of capture by irrelevant features in the contingent-capture protocol. Some prior research suggests that feature attenuation might be most efficient for fixed, anticipated irrelevant features and that varying irrelevant features from trial to trial can undermine their successful attenuation. Here, we exploited this dependence of attenuation on feature certainty to test if attenuation contributed to contingent-capture effects in a capture-probe version of the contingent-capture protocol. In line with the swift attenuation of irrelevant features, salient but target-dissimilar singleton cues that were consistently coloured diminished recall of probes at their locations. This was in comparison to inconsistently coloured target-dissimilar singleton cues. Nonetheless, probe-recall was still better at target-dissimilar cue locations than at non-singleton locations in the cueing display, indicating attenuation of task-irrelevant features rather than their complete suppression.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-12T10:56:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231186045
       
  • Multiple number-naming associations: How the inversion property affects
           adults’ two-digit number processing

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Iro Xenidou-Dervou, Nienke van Atteveldt, Irina M Surducan, Bert Reynvoet, Serena Rossi, Camilla Gilmore
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Some number-naming systems are less transparent than others. For example, in Dutch, 49 is named “negenenveertig,” which translates to “nine and forty,” i.e., the unit is named first, followed by the decade. This is known as the “inversion property,” where the morpho-syntactic representation of the number name is incongruent with its written Arabic form. Number word inversion can hamper children’s developing mathematical skills. But little is known about its effects on adults’ numeracy, the underlying mechanism, and how a person’s bilingual background influences its effects. In the present study, Dutch-English bilingual adults performed an audiovisual matching task, where they heard a number word and simultaneously saw two-digit Arabic symbols and had to determine whether these matched in quantity. We experimentally manipulated the morpho-syntactic structure of the number words to alter their phonological (dis)similarities and numerical congruency with the target Arabic two-digit number. Results showed that morpho-syntactic (in)congruency differentially influenced quantity match and non-match decisions. Although participants were faster when hearing traditional non-transparent Dutch number names, they made more accurate decisions when hearing artificial, but morpho-syntactically transparent number words. This pattern was partly influenced by the participants’ bilingual background, i.e., their L2 proficiency in English, which involves more transparent number names. Our findings suggest that, within inversion number-naming systems, multiple associations are formed between two-digit Arabic symbols and number names, which can influence adults’ numerical cognition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-08T06:58:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231181367
       
  • An ERP study on the certainty of epistemic modality in predictive
           inference processing

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jiaxing Jiang, Lin Fan, Jia Liu, Muhan Liang, Yu Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous psychological experiments have shown that predictive inference processing under different textual constraints is modulated by the directionality function of epistemic modality (EM) certainty within the context. Nevertheless, recent neuroscientific studies have not presented positive evidence for such a function during text reading. Consequently, the current study deposited Chinese EMs “也许” (possibly) and “一定” (surely) into a predictive inference context to examine whether a directionality of EM certainty influences the processing of predictive inference via the ERP technique. Two independent variables, namely textual constraint and EM certainty, were manipulated, and 36 participants were recruited. The results revealed that, in the anticipatory stage of predictive inference processing while under a weak textual constraint, low certainty evoked a larger N400 (300–500 ms) in the fronto-central and centro-parietal regions, indicating the augmentation of cognitive loads in calculating the possibility of representations of the forthcoming information. Meanwhile, high certainty elicited a right fronto-central late positive component (LPC) (500–700 ms) associated with semantically congruent but lexically unpredicted words. In the integration stage, low certainty resulted in larger right fronto-central and centro-frontal N400 (300–500 ms) effects in the weak textual constraint condition, associated with the facilitation of lexical-semantic retrieval or pre-activation, and high certainty successively elicited right fronto-central and centro-parietal LPC (500–700 ms) effects, associated respectively with lexical unpredictability and reanalysis of the sentence meaning. The results support the directionality function of EM certainty and reveal the complete neural processing of predictive inferences with high and low certainties under different textual constraint conditions.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-07T08:21:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231184067
       
  • Non-arbitrary mappings between size and sound of English words: Form
           typicality effects during lexical access and memory

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Greig I de Zubicaray, Joanne Arciuli, Frank H Guenther, Katie L McMahon, Elaine Kearney
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A century of research has provided evidence of limited size sound symbolism in English, that is, certain vowels are non-arbitrarily associated with words denoting small versus large referents (e.g., /i/ as in teensy and /ɑ/ as in tall). In the present study, we investigated more extensive statistical regularities between surface form properties of English words and ratings of their semantic size, that is, form typicality, and its impact on language and memory processing. Our findings provide the first evidence of significant word form typicality for semantic size. In five empirical studies using behavioural megastudy data sets of performance on written and auditory lexical decision, reading aloud, semantic decision, and recognition memory tasks, we show that form typicality for size is a stronger and more consistent predictor of lexical access during word comprehension and production than semantic size, in addition to playing a significant role in verbal memory. The empirical results demonstrate that statistical information about non-arbitrary form-size mappings is accessed automatically during language and verbal memory processing, unlike semantic size that is largely dependent on task contexts that explicitly require participants to access size knowledge. We discuss how a priori knowledge about non-arbitrary form-meaning associations in the lexicon might be incorporated in models of language processing that implement Bayesian statistical inference.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-06T12:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231184940
       
  • Active and passive exploration for spatial knowledge acquisition: A
           meta-analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yue Qin, Hassan A Karimi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Literature reported mixed evidence on whether active exploration benefits spatial knowledge acquisition over passive exploration. Active spatial learning typically involves at least physical control of one’s movement or navigation decision-making, while passive participants merely observe during exploration. To quantify the effects of active exploration in learning large-scale, unfamiliar environments, we analysed previous findings with the multi-level meta-analytical model. Potential moderators were identified and examined for their contributions to the variability in effect sizes. Of the 128 effect sizes retrieved from 33 experiments, we observed a small to moderate advantage of active exploration over passive observation. Important moderators include gender composition, decision-making, types of spatial knowledge, and matched visual information. We discussed the implications of the results along with the limitations.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-05T09:38:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231185121
       
  • Spontaneous memory strategies in a videogame simulating everyday memory
           tasks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Matti Laine, Jussi Jylkkä, Liisa Ritakallio, Tilda Eräste, Suvi Kangas, Alexandra Hering, Sascha Zuber, Matthias Kliegel, Daniel Fellman, Juha Salmi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      People can use different internal strategies to manage their daily tasks, but systematic research on these strategies and their significance for actual performance is still quite sparse. Here we examined self-reported internal strategy use with a 10-block version of the videogame EPELI (Executive Performance in Everyday LIving) in a group of 202 neurotypical adults of 18–50 years of age. In the game, participants perform lists of everyday tasks from memory while navigating in a virtual apartment. Open-ended strategy reports were collected after each EPELI task block, and for comparison also after an EPELI Instruction Recall task and a Word List Learning task assessing episodic memory. On average, 45% of the participants reported using some strategy in EPELI, the most common types being grouping (e.g., performing the tasks room by room), utilising a familiar action schema, and condensing information (e.g., memorising only keywords). Our pre-registered hypothesis on the beneficial effect of self-initiated strategy use gained support, as strategy users showed better performance on EPELI as compared with no strategy users. One of the strategies, grouping, was identified as a clearly effective strategy type. Block-by-block transitions suggested gradual stabilisation of strategy use over the 10 EPELI blocks. The proneness to use strategies showed a weak but reliable association between EPELI and Word List Learning. Overall, the present results highlight the importance of internal strategy use for understanding individual differences in memory performance, as well as the potential benefit for internal strategy employment when faced with everyday memory tasks.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-03T12:12:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231183958
       
  • Subjective memory measures: Metamemory questionnaires currently in use

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yashoda Gopi, Christopher R Madan
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Subjective memory evaluation is important for assessing memory abilities and complaints alongside objective measures. In research and clinical settings, questionnaires are used to examine perceived memory ability, memory complaints, and memory beliefs/knowledge. Although they provide a structured measure of self-reported memory, there is some debate as to whether subjective evaluation accurately reflects memory abilities. Specifically, the disconnect between subjective and objective memory measures remains a long-standing issue within the field. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the benefits and limitations of questionnaires that are currently in use. This review encompasses three categories of metamemory questionnaires: self-efficacy, complaints, and multidimensional questionnaires. Factors influencing self-evaluation of memory including knowledge and beliefs about memory, ability to evaluate memory, recent metamemory experiences, and affect are examined. The relationship between subjective and objective memory measures is explored, and considerations for future development and use of metamemory questionnaires are provided.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-03T12:10:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231183855
       
  • Perceiving others’ cognitive effort through movement: Path length,
           speed, and time

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marcell Székely, John Michael
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Effort perception is a crucial capacity underpinning characteristically human forms of sociality, allowing us to learn about others’ mental states and about the value of opportunities afforded by our environment, and supporting our ability to cooperate efficiently and fairly. Despite the crucial importance and prevalence of effort perception, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning it. Across two online experiments (N = 462), we tested whether adults estimate others’ cognitive effort costs by tracking perceptible properties of movement such as path length, time, and speed. The results showed that only time had a consistent effect on effort perception, that is, participants rated longer time as more effortful. Taken together, our results suggest that within the context of our task—observing an agent deciphering a captcha—people rely on the time of others’ actions to estimate their cognitive effort costs.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-07-03T10:06:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231183963
       
  • Target–distractor correlation does not imply causation of the Stroop
           effect

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Giacomo Spinelli, Stephen J Lupker
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In the Stroop task, the identities of the targets (e.g., colours) and distractors (e.g., words) used are often correlated. For example, in a list in which 4 words and 4 colours are combined to form 16 stimuli, each of the 4 congruent stimuli is typically repeated 3 times as often as each of the 12 incongruent stimuli. Some accounts of the Stroop effect suggest that in this type of list, often considered as a baseline because of the matching proportion of congruent and incongruent stimuli (50%), the word dimension actually receives more attention than it does in an uncorrelated list in which words and colours are randomly paired. This increased attention would be an important determinant of the Stroop effect in correlated situations, an idea supported by the observation that higher target–distractor correlation lists are associated with larger Stroop effects. However, because target–distractor correlation tends to be confounded with congruency proportion in common designs, the latter may be the crucial factor, consistent with accounts that propose that attention is adapted to the list’s congruency proportion. In four experiments, we examined the idea that target–distractor correlation plays a major role in colour–word Stroop experiments by contrasting an uncorrelated list with a correlated list matched on relevant variables (e.g., congruency proportion). Both null hypothesis significance testing and Bayesian analyses suggested equivalent Stroop effects in the two lists, challenging accounts based on the idea that target–distractor correlations affect how attention is allocated in the colour–word Stroop task.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-30T11:04:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231182854
       
  • New in, old out: Does learning a new language make you forget previously
           learned foreign languages'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anne Mickan, Ekaterina Slesareva, James M McQueen, Kristin Lemhöfer
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Anecdotal evidence suggests that learning a new foreign language (FL) makes you forget previously learned FLs. To seek empirical evidence for this claim, we tested whether learning words in a previously unknown L3 hampers subsequent retrieval of their L2 translation equivalents. In two experiments, Dutch native speakers with knowledge of English (L2), but not Spanish (L3), first completed an English vocabulary test, based on which 46 participant-specific, known English words were chosen. Half of those were then learned in Spanish. Finally, participants’ memory for all 46 English words was probed again in a picture naming task. In Experiment 1, all tests took place within one session. In Experiment 2, we separated the English pre-test from Spanish learning by a day and manipulated the timing of the English post-test (immediately after learning vs. 1 day later). By separating the post-test from Spanish learning, we asked whether consolidation of the new Spanish words would increase their interference strength. We found significant main effects of interference in naming latencies and accuracy: Participants speeded up less and were less accurate to recall words in English for which they had learned Spanish translations, compared with words for which they had not. Consolidation time did not significantly affect these interference effects. Thus, learning a new language indeed comes at the cost of subsequent retrieval ability in other FLs. Such interference effects set in immediately after learning and do not need time to emerge, even when the other FL has been known for a long time.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-28T12:00:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231181380
       
  • Uncovering the cognitive mechanisms underlying the gaze cueing effect

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Manikya Alister, Kate T McKay, David K Sewell, Nathan J Evans
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The gaze cueing effect is the tendency for people to respond faster to targets appearing at locations gazed at by others, compared with locations gazed away from by others. The effect is robust, widely studied, and is an influential finding within social cognition. Formal evidence accumulation models provide the dominant theoretical account of the cognitive processes underlying speeded decision-making, but they have rarely been applied to social cognition research. In this study, using a combination of individual-level and hierarchical computational modelling techniques, we applied evidence accumulation models to gaze cueing data (three data sets total, N = 171, 139,001 trials) for the first time to assess the relative capacity that an attentional orienting mechanism and information processing mechanisms have for explaining the gaze cueing effect. We found that most participants were best described by the attentional orienting mechanism, such that response times were slower at gazed away from locations because they had to reorient to the target before they could process the cue. However, we found evidence for individual differences, whereby the models suggested that some gaze cueing effects were driven by a short allocation of information processing resources to the gazed at location, allowing for a brief period where orienting and processing could occur in parallel. There was exceptionally little evidence to suggest any sustained reallocation of information processing resources neither at the group nor individual level. We discuss how this individual variability might represent credible individual differences in the cognitive mechanisms that subserve behaviourally observed gaze cueing effects.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-27T12:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231181238
       
  • Working hard but not tired' The influence of task valuation on mental
           fatigue, effort investment, and task performance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Natalia Wójcik, Edward Nęcka
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It has been demonstrated in previous studies that prolonged mental effort exertion evokes mental fatigue and leads to impairments in task performance. In the current investigation, we aimed to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue depends on motivational processes and can be influenced by task valuation. In two studies, we experimentally manipulated the value of the task by financial rewards (Study 1) and the sense of autonomy (Study 2). Contrary to our predictions, those manipulations did not influence the main dependent variables. We also introduced additional rewards after prolonged effort exertion. In line with our expectations, the results showed that mental fatigue increases with time spent on effortful tasks. Importantly, however, mental fatigue decreases when the value of the task rises. This effect is accompanied by stronger effort engagement and improvement in task performance. The findings support the motivational theories of mental effort and fatigue, showing that mental fatigue might serve as a signal of diminishing value of the ongoing task.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-27T10:27:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231183708
       
  • The Oxford Face Matching Test: Short-form alternative

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mirta Stantić, Jacob Knyspel, Akhina Gaches, Yining Liu, Geoffrey Bird, Caroline Catmur
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A recently published test of face perception, the Oxford Face Matching Test, asks participants to make two judgements: whether two faces are of the same individual and how perceptually similar the two faces are. In this study, we sought to determine to what extent the test can be shortened by removing the perceptual similarity judgements and whether this affects test performance. In Experiment 1, participants completed two versions of the test, with and without similarity judgements, in separate sessions in counterbalanced order. The version without similarity judgements took approximately 40% less time to complete. Performance on the matching judgements did not differ across versions and the correlation in accuracy across the two versions was comparable with the originally reported test–retest reliability value. Experiment 2 validated the version without similarity judgements against other measures, demonstrating moderate relationships with other face matching, memory, and self-report face perception measures. These data indicate that a test version without the similarity judgements can substantially reduce administration time without affecting test performance.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-22T12:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231182933
       
  • Decision-making and ageing: everyday life situations under risk and under
           ambiguity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fanny Gaubert, Céline Borg, Jean-Christophe Roux, Hanna Chainay
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Cognitive modifications during ageing can affect decision-making competence (DMC). As this ability is central to the preservation of autonomy, our study aims to investigate how it changes in elderly adults and to determine whether such changes are linked to the deterioration of executive functions and working memory. To this end, 50 young adults and 50 elderly adults were assessed with executive, working memory, and DMC tasks. The latter comprised the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and a scenario task based on situations inspired by everyday life, under conditions of both risk and ambiguity. The results revealed lower performances in old than in young adults for the updating, inhibition, and working memory tasks. The IGT failed to distinguish between the two age groups. However, the scenario task did permit such a distinction, with young adults seeking more risky and ambiguous choices than elderly adults. Moreover, updating and inhibition capacities appeared to influence DMC.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-22T10:19:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231182403
       
  • The integration of head and body cues during the perception of social
           interactions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Elin H Williams, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Humans spend a large proportion of time participating in social interactions. The ability to accurately detect and respond to human interactions is vital for social functioning, from early childhood through to older adulthood. This detection ability arguably relies on integrating sensory information from the interactants. Within the visual modality, directional information from a person’s eyes, head, and body are integrated to inform where another person is looking and who they are interacting with. To date, social cue integration research has focused largely on the perception of isolated individuals. Across two experiments, we investigated whether observers integrate body information with head information when determining whether two people are interacting, and manipulated frame of reference (one of the interactants facing observer vs. facing away from observer) and the eye-region visibility of the interactant. Results demonstrate that individuals integrate information from the body with head information when perceiving dyadic interactions, and that integration is influenced by the frame of reference and visibility of the eye-region. Interestingly, self-reported autistics traits were associated with a stronger influence of body information on interaction perception, but only when the eye-region was visible. This study investigated the recognition of dyadic interactions using whole-body stimuli while manipulating eye visibility and frame of reference, and provides crucial insights into social cue integration, as well as how autistic traits affect cue integration, during perception of social interactions.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-22T10:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231181001
       
  • Assessing lexical ambiguity of simplified Chinese characters: Plurality
           and relatedness of character meanings

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Huilin Chen, Xu Xu, Tianqi Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Lexical ambiguity is pervasive among Chinese characters as many of them are polysemantic, with one orthographic form carrying unrelated meanings, related meanings, or sometimes both unrelated and related meanings. A large-scale database with ambiguity measures for simplified Chinese characters has yet to be developed, which could greatly benefit psycholinguistic research on the Chinese language or cross-language comparisons. This article reports two sets of ratings by native speakers, the perceived number of meanings (pNoM) for 4,363 characters and the perceived relatedness of meanings (pRoM) for a subset of 1,053 characters. These rating-based ambiguity measures capture the representational nuance about a character’s meanings stored in average native speakers’ mental lexicon, which tends to be obscured by dictionary- and corpus-based ambiguity measures. Consequently, they each account for a reliable portion of variance in the efficiency of character processing, above and beyond the effects of character frequency, age of acquisition, and other types of ambiguity measures. Theoretical and empirical implications with regard to the plurality and the relatedness of character meanings, the two focal aspects of debate on lexical ambiguity, are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-22T09:50:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231178787
       
  • Modality-dependent distortion effects of temporal frequency on time
           perception

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: You Li, Jing Xia, Yang Zhan, Juanhua Yang, Abuzha Naman, Lei Mo, Huihui Zhou, Jinqiao Zhang, Guiping Xu
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Time perception has been known to depend on the temporal frequency of the stimulus. Previously, the effect of temporal frequency modulation was assumed to be monotonically lengthening or shortening. However, this study shows that temporal frequency affects time perception in a non-monotonic and modality-dependent manner. Four experiments investigated the time distortion effects induced by modulation of temporal frequency across auditory and visual modalities. Critically, the temporal frequency was parametrically manipulated across four levels (steady stimulus, 10-, 20-, and 30/40-Hz intermittent auditory/visual stimulus). Experiment 1, 2, and 3 consistently showed that a 10-Hz auditory stimulus was perceived as shorter than a steady auditory stimulus. Meanwhile, as the temporal frequency increased, the perceived duration of the intermittent auditory stimulus was lengthened. A 40-Hz auditory stimulus was perceived as longer than a 10- Hz auditory stimulus, but did not differ significantly from a steady one. Experiment 4 showed that, for the visual modality, a 10-Hz visual stimulus was perceived as longer than a steady stimulus, and the perceived duration was lengthened as temporal frequency increased. This study demonstrated that within the scope of the temporal frequencies examined in this study, there were differential distortion effects observed across sensory modalities.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-16T10:06:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231181011
       
  • To sleep or not to sleep' No effect of sleep on contextual word
           learning in younger adults

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Emma AE Schimke, David A Copland, Sjaan R Gomersall, Anthony J Angwin
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the effect of sleep on novel word learning through reading context. Seventy-four healthy young adults attended two testing sessions, with either overnight sleep (sleep group) or daytime wakefulness (wake group) occurring between the sessions. At the initial learning session, participants identified the hidden meanings of novel words embedded within sentence contexts and were subsequently tested on their recognition of the novel word meanings. A recognition test was also conducted at the delayed session. The analyses revealed comparable recognition of novel word meanings for the sleep and wake group at both the initial and the delayed session, indicating that there was no benefit of sleep compared with wakefulness for novel word learning through context. Overall, this study highlights the critical influence of encoding method on sleep-dependent learning, where not all forms of word learning appear to benefit from sleep for consolidation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-15T10:07:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231179459
       
  • The effects of explicit reasoning on moral judgements

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Corral, Abraham M Rutchick
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We report four experiments that investigate explicit reasoning and moral judgements. In each experiment, some subjects responded to the “footbridge” version of the trolley problem (which elicits stronger moral intuitions), whereas others responded to the “switch” version (which elicits weaker moral intuitions). Experiments 1–2 crossed the type of trolley problem with four reasoning conditions: control, counter-attitudinal, pro-attitudinal, and mixed reasoning (both types of reasoning). Experiments 3–4 examine whether moral judgements vary based on (a) when reasoners engage in counter-attitudinal reasoning, (b) when they make the moral judgement, and (c) by the type of moral dilemma. These two experiments comprised five conditions: control (judgement only), delay-only (2-minute wait then judgement), reasoning-only (reasoning then judgement), reasoning-delay (reasoning, then 2-minute delay, then judgement), and delayed-reasoning (2-minute delay, then reasoning, then judgement). These conditions were crossed with the type of trolley problem. We find that engaging in some form of counter-attitudinal reasoning led to less typical judgements (regardless of when it occurs), but this effect was mostly restricted to the switch version of the dilemma (and was strongest in the reasoning-delay conditions). Furthermore, neither pro-attitudinal reasoning nor delayed judgements on their own impacted subjects’ judgements. Reasoners therefore seem open to modifying their moral judgements when they consider opposing perspectives but might be less likely to do so for dilemmas that elicit relatively strong moral intuitions.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-14T07:09:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231179685
       
  • Spelling monosyllabic English words

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maya M Khanna, Michael J Cortese, Kylie Hughes, Kayley Anderson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We conducted a megastudy to examine the spelling of American English monosyllables with typewritten responses. We related both sublexical and lexical/semantic factors to spelling accuracy and reaction time (RT) for the first keypress and response duration for spelling 1,856 monophonic monosyllables. We found that (a) each of 13 predictor variables was significantly related to performance for at least one measure, (b) orthographic length was unrelated to the first key RT, but did relate to accuracy and response duration, (c) sound-spelling and spelling-sound consistency was related to performance, and in particular, onset consistency related to accuracy and first key RT, but was unrelated to response duration, (d) contextual diversity was consistently related to performance across all measures, and (e) age of acquisition (AoA) was related to all measures, but was related more to the first key RT than response duration. The results indicate that people begin the spelling process once they identify the first letter, and they continue to process the spelling pattern as the response unfolds. These results are best explained by a parallel-distributed-processing framework.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-08T08:53:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231178507
       
  • Prosody affects visual perception in polysyllabic words: Evidence from a
           letter search task

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jana Hasenäcker, Frank Domahs
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has shown that phonology influences the visual perception of a word’s letters. However, the influence of prosody, including word stress, on grapheme perception in polysyllabic words is poorly investigated. The present study addresses this issue with a letter search task. Participants searched for vowel letters (Experiment 1) and consonant letters (Experiment 2) in stressed and unstressed syllables of bisyllabic words. Results reveal facilitated vowel letter detection in stressed syllables compared with unstressed syllables, indicating that prosodic information affects visual letter perception. Moreover, an analysis of the response time distribution revealed that the effect was present even for the fastest decisions but increased for slower response times. However, no systematic stress effect emerged for consonants. We discuss possible sources and dynamics of the observed pattern and the importance to accommodate feedback processes of prosody on letter perception in models of polysyllabic word reading.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-06T12:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231176691
       
  • Comparing word recognition in simplified and traditional Chinese: A
           megastudy approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yiu-Kei Tsang, Jian Huang, Suiping Wang, Jie Wang, Andus Wing-Kuen Wong
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Although it is well established that the visual complexity of a written word can influence processing, it is far less clear from a cross-script perspective, whether the overall visual complexity of the entire written lexicon also affects word recognition. This question can be answered with the data in megastudy of lexical decision in Chinese (MELD-CH), which was developed with over 800 participants responding to 12,587 simplified and traditional Chinese words. The results showed that lexical decision was slower but more accurate in simplified Chinese, which has about 22.5% less strokes, than traditional Chinese. This pattern could not be explained by a speed–accuracy trade-off. Moderate correlations were found in response times and error rates between the two scripts, indicating considerable overlap in processing despite the script difference. In addition, (generalised) linear mixed-effects modelling was used to examine whether the simplified and traditional Chinese groups differed in sensitivity towards linguistic variables. The results showed that the effects of word frequency, word length, and number of strokes were stronger in recognising simplified Chinese words, whereas the effects of number of words formed and number of meanings of the constituent characters were stronger in traditional Chinese. These results suggested that the visual-perceptual processing demands of simplified Chinese might force readers to focus more on local properties of the words, making them less sensitive to global properties that are defined over the entire lexicon. Finally, limitations and alternative explanations of the results were discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-06T06:47:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231176472
       
  • Does animacy affect visual statistical learning' Revisiting the effects of
           selective attention and animacy on visual statistical learning

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jolene A Cox, Yizhou Wu, Anne M Aimola Davies
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Animates receive preferential attentional processing over inanimates because, from an evolutionary perspective, animates are important to human survival. We investigated whether animacy affects visual statistical learning—the detection and extraction of regularities in visual information from our rich, dynamic, and complex environment. Participants completed a selective-attention task, in which regularities were embedded in two visual streams, an attended and an unattended visual stream. The attended visual stream always consisted of line-drawings of non-objects, while the unattended visual stream consisted of line-drawings of either animates or inanimates. Participants then completed a triplet-discrimination task, which assessed their ability to extract regularities from the attended and unattended visual streams. We also assessed participants’ awareness of regularities in the visual statistical learning task, and asked if any learning strategies were used. We were specifically interested in whether the animacy status of line-drawings in the unattended visual stream would affect visual statistical learning. There were four key findings. First, selective attention modulates visual statistical learning, with greater visual statistical learning for attended than for unattended information. Second, animacy does not affect visual statistical learning, with no differences found in visual statistical learning performance between the animate and inanimate condition. Third, awareness of regularities was associated with visual statistical learning of attended information. Fourth, participants used strategies (e.g., naming or labelling stimuli) during the visual statistical learning task. Further research is required to understand whether visual statistical learning is one of the adaptive functions that evolved from ancestral environments.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-02T10:31:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231173883
       
  • Syntactic adaptation leads to updated knowledge for local structural
           frequencies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jack Dempsey, Qiawen Liu, Kiel Christianson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Syntactic adaptation has been shown to occur for various temporarily ambiguous structures, wherein an initially unexpected resolution becomes easier to process after repeated exposure. More controversial and less replicated is the claim that this adaptation towards a locally frequent structure occurs due to a strategic shifting of expectations to match short-term statistical regularities such that readers adapt away from the a priori more frequent structure. Experiment 1 replicates the initial adaptation towards a coordination garden path structure using self-paced reading; however, this paradigm has been criticised for its low reliability for detecting such small effects. To this end, Experiments 2 and 3 use a combination of self-paced reading and sentence completion tasks to replicate initial adaptation towards both coordination and reduced relative garden path structures and show evidence for a preference for these structures over their a priori more frequent alternatives. Together, these data reveal that participants may be tracking local structural statistics in real time; however, they may not be able to rapidly use that information to update processing behaviours.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-06-02T07:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231172908
       
  • Temporal distortion for angry faces: Testing visual attention and action
           preparation accounts

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jason Tipples, Michael Lupton, David George
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      When asked to judge the duration of a face people typically overestimate the duration of angry compared with neutral faces. A novel feature of the current research was the inclusion of secondary manipulations designed to distort timing performance namely the effects of visual cues (Experiment 1) and action preparedness (Experiment 2). Furthermore, to establish whether the effects are multiplicative with duration, the effects were examined across two duration ranges (200–800 and 400–1,600 ms). Visual cues and instructions to prepare to act increased the tendency to judge faces as lasting longer. Experiment 1 revealed an unexpected underestimation effect for angry faces presented for short durations (200–800 ms). However, the effect was not replicated in Experiment 2 where the results were generally consistent with either an increase the speed of a pacemaker mechanism that resides within an internal clock or the widening of an attentional gate—the temporal overestimation effect for angry faces grew in magnitude from the short to long duration. Experiment 2 also showed that the temporal overestimation for angry faces was reduced in magnitude when participants were asked to prepare to either push or pull a joystick.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-31T05:40:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231172856
       
  • The role of visual and auditory information in social event segmentation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jelena Ristic, Francesca Capozzi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Humans organise their social worlds into social and nonsocial events. Social event segmentation refers to the ability to parse the environmental content into social and nonsocial events or units. Here, we investigated the role that perceptual information from visual and auditory modalities, in isolation and in conjunction, played in social event segmentation. Participants viewed a video clip depicting an interaction between two actors and marked the boundaries of social and nonsocial events. Depending on the condition, the clip at first contained only auditory or only visual information. Then, the clip was shown containing both auditory and visual information. Higher overall group consensus and response consistency in parsing the clip was found for social segmentation and when both auditory and visual information was available. Presenting the clip in the visual domain only benefitted group agreement in social segmentation while the inclusion of auditory information (under the audiovisual condition) also improved response consistency in nonsocial segmentation. Thus, social segmentation utilises information from the visual modality, with the auditory cues contributing under ambiguous or uncertain conditions and during segmentation of nonsocial content.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-27T05:18:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231176471
       
  • Examining listeners’ perception of spoken words with different face
           masks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bethany G Cox, Samantha E Tuft, Jessica R Morich, Conor T McLennan
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic made face masks part of daily life. While masks protect against the virus, it is important to understand the impact masks have on listeners’ recognition of spoken words. We examined spoken word recognition under three different mask conditions (no mask; cloth mask; Kn95 mask) and in both easy (low density, high phonotactic probability) and hard (high density, low phonotactic probability) words in a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, participants heard all words and nonwords under all three mask conditions. In Experiment 2, participants heard each word and nonword only once under one of the mask conditions. The reaction time and accuracy results were consistent between Experiments 1 and 2. The pattern of results was such that the no mask condition produced the fastest and most accurate responses followed by the Kn95 mask condition and the cloth mask condition, respectively. Furthermore, there was a trend towards a speed-accuracy trade-off with Word Type. Easy words produced faster but less accurate responses relative to hard words. The finding that cloth masks had a more detrimental impact on spoken word recognition than Kn95 masks is consistent with previous research, and the current results further demonstrate that this effect extends to individual word recognition tasks with only audio presentation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T12:02:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231175631
       
  • Normative values and diagnostic optimisation of three social cognition
           measures for autism and schizophrenia diagnosis in a healthy adolescent
           and adult sample

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Monica Mazza, Ilenia Le Donne, Roberto Vagnetti, Margherita Attanasio, Maria Paola Greco, Maria Chiara Pino, Marco Valenti
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Awareness of the importance of assessing social cognition skills under conditions showing atypical social behaviours has increased over the years. However, the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the measures and the availability of normative values for the clinical context are still limited. This study aims to revise, provide normative values, and evaluate the clinical validity of the Italian version of three social cognition measures: Advanced Theory of Mind (A-ToM) task, the Emotion Attribution Task (EAT), and the Social Situation Task (SST). Measures were administered to 580 adolescents and adult healthy controls (age range 14–50). We performed differential item functioning and Rasch analysis to revise each task, so normative data of the revised measures were calculated. Moreover, the revised measures were administered to 38 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 35 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD): ASD and SSD were matched by age, gender, and IQ with a control sample to evaluate clinical validity. ROC analysis showed that the SST is the best measure differentiating between healthy and clinical groups, compared to the A-ToM (AUCASD = 0.70; AUCSSD = 0.65) and EAT (AUCASD = 0.67; AUCSSD = 0.50), which showed poorer performance. For SSD diagnosis, two SST subscales (Violation and Gravity score) indicated the best accuracy (AUCs of 0.88 and 0.84, respectively); for the ASD diagnosis, we propose a combined score between the SST subscale and A-ToM (AUC = 0.86). The results suggest that the proposed measures can be used to support the diagnostic process and clinical practice.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T11:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231175613
       
  • What can evidence accumulation modelling tell us about human social
           cognition'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Samantha Parker, Richard Ramsey
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence accumulation models are a series of computational models that provide an account for speeded decision-making. These models have been used extensively within the cognitive psychology literature to great success, allowing inferences to be drawn about the psychological processes that underlie cognition that are sometimes not available in a traditional analysis of accuracy or reaction time (RT). Despite this, there have been only a few applications of these models within the domain of social cognition. In this article, we explore several ways in which the study of human social information processing would benefit from application of evidence accumulation modelling. We begin first with a brief overview of the evidence accumulation modelling framework and their past success within the domain of cognitive psychology. We then highlight five ways in which social cognitive research would benefit from an evidence accumulation approach. This includes (1) greater specification of assumptions, (2) unambiguous comparisons across blocked task conditions, (3) quantifying and comparing the magnitude of effects in standardised measures, (4) a novel approach for studying individual differences, and (5) improved reproducibility and accessibility. These points are illustrated using examples from the domain of social attention. Finally, we outline several methodological and practical considerations, which should help researchers use evidence accumulation models productively. Ultimately, it will be seen that evidence accumulation modelling offers a well-developed, accessible, and commonly understood framework that can reveal inferences about cognition that may otherwise be out of reach in a traditional analysis of accuracy and RT. This approach, therefore, has the potential to substantially revise our understanding of social cognition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-23T10:31:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231176950
       
  • Unidirectional rating scales overestimate the illusory causation
           phenomenon

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: David W Ng, Jessica C Lee, Peter F Lovibond
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Illusory causation is a phenomenon in which people mistakenly perceive a causal relationship between a cue and outcome even though the contingency between them is actually zero. Illusory causation studies typically use a unidirectional causal rating scale, where one endpoint refers to no relationship and the other to a strongly positive causal relationship. This procedure may bias mean causal ratings in a positive direction, either by censoring negative ratings or by discouraging participants from giving the normative rating of zero which is at the bottom extreme of the scale. To test this possibility, we ran two experiments that directly compared the magnitude of causal illusions when assessed with a unidirectional (zero—positive) versus a bidirectional (negative—zero—positive) rating scale. Experiment 1 used high cue and outcome densities (both 75%), whereas Experiment 2 used neutral cue and outcome densities (both 50%). Across both experiments, we observed a larger illusory causation effect in the unidirectional group compared with the bidirectional group, despite both groups experiencing the same training trials. The causal illusions in Experiment 2 were observed despite participants accurately learning the conditional probabilities of the outcome occurring in both the presence and absence of the cue, suggesting that the illusion is driven by the inability to accurately integrate conditional probabilities to infer causal relationships. Our results indicate that although illusory causation is a genuine phenomenon that is observable with either a undirectional or a bidirectional rating scale, its magnitude may be overestimated when unidirectional rating scales are used.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-23T10:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231175003
       
  • Transcoding of French numbers for first- and second-language learners in
           third grade

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anne Lafay, Emmanuelle Adrien, Sabrina Di Lonardo Burr, Heather Douglas, Kim Provost-Larocque, Chang Xu, Jo-Anne LeFevre, Erin A Maloney, Helena P Osana, Sheri-Lynn Skwarchuk, Judith Wylie
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Transcoding is the process of translating between spoken and written numbers, and it is correlated with other mathematical skills. In the present study, we investigated the link between French number writing of 49 students in the third grade (aged 7–9 years) and their language skills. Transcoding in French is of particular interest because the spoken number language system does not completely correspond to that of the written digits (e.g., quatre-vingt-dix [four-twenty-ten] and 90). We hypothesised that the complex linguistic structure of spoken numbers in French would be challenging for students who are learning to transcode. First and second French-language learners’ accuracy and errors were recorded during a writing task of 3- to 7-digit numbers. Children also completed linguistic tests (e.g., receptive vocabulary, receptive syntax). Results showed that first- and second-language learners did not differ in their transcoding accuracy. Number size, decade complexity of stimulus number words in French (i.e., numbers containing a complex decade, operationalized as a number between soixante-dix, 70, and quatre-vingt-dix-neuf, 99), and receptive vocabulary predicted children’s French transcoding skills. Students were more likely to produce errors (e.g., 68 or 6018 for 78) when they transcoded complex decade numbers compared with simple decade numbers. When an error was made on the complex decade portion of a number, it was likely a lexical error. In conclusion, third graders, both first- and second-language learners, found complex decade numbers challenging and their performance was related to their general vocabulary skills.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-23T10:22:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231174339
       
  • Put you in the problem: Effects of self-pronouns on mathematical
           problem-solving

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sheila J Cunningham, Zahra Ahmed, Joshua March, Karen Golden, Charlotte Wilks, Josephine Ross, Janet F McLean
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Self-cues such as personal pronouns are known to elicit processing biases, such as attention capture and prioritisation in working memory. This may impact the performance of tasks that have a high attentional load like mathematical problem-solving. Here, we compared the speed and accuracy with which children solved numerical problems that included either the self-cue “you,” or a different character name. First, we piloted a self-referencing manipulation with N = 52, 7 to 11 year-olds, testing performance on addition and subtraction problems that had either a single referent (“You”/“Sam”) or more than one referent. We took into account operation and positioning of the pronoun and also measured performance on attention and working memory tasks. We found a robust accuracy advantage for problems that included “you,” regardless of how many characters were included. The accuracy advantage for problems with a self-pronoun was not statistically associated with individual differences in attention or working memory. In our main study (9 to 11 year-olds, N = 144), we manipulated problem difficulty by creating consistently and inconsistently worded addition and subtraction problems. We found significantly higher speed and accuracy for problems that included “you.” However, this effect varied by task difficulty, with the self-pronoun effect being strongest in the most difficult inconsistently worded, subtraction problems. The advantage of problems with a self-pronoun was not associated with individual differences in working memory. These findings suggest that self-cues like the pronoun “you” can be usefully applied in numerical processing tasks, an effect that may be attributable to the effects of self-cues on attention.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-23T10:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231174229
       
  • Spatial attention modulates multisensory integration: The dissociation
           between exogenous and endogenous orienting

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yingnan Wu, Min Gao, Xueli Wang, Xiaoyu Tang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have separately found that exogenous orienting decreases multisensory integration (MSI), while endogenous orienting enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, why the two orientations have opposite effects on MSI. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between spatial attention and MSI in two experiments based on the cue–target paradigm. Experiment 1 separated exogenous and endogenous orienting to investigate the effect of spatial attention on MSI by varying the predictability of the cue. Experiment 2 further explored the effect of endogenous orienting on MSI. We found that exogenous orienting induced by the directionality of the cue decreased MSI, while endogenous orienting induced by the predictability of the cue enhanced MSI. The role of spatial orienting need and spatial attention bias in the modulation of MSI by exogenous and endogenous orienting was discussed. The present study sheds new light on how spatial attention modulates MSI processes.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-23T10:18:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231173925
       
  • Dual-tasking while using two languages: Examining the cognitive resource
           demands of cued and voluntary language production in bilinguals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Angela de Bruin, Ronan McGarrigle
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The way bilinguals switch languages can differ depending on the context. In cued dual-language environments, bilinguals select a language in response to environmental cues (e.g., a monolingual conversation partner). In voluntary dual-language environments, bilinguals communicating with people who speak the same languages can use their languages more freely. The control demands of these types of language-production contexts, and the costs of language switches, have been argued to differ (Adaptive Control Hypothesis). Here, we used a dual-task paradigm to examine how cued and voluntary bilingual production differ in cognitive resources used. Forty Mandarin-English bilinguals completed two language-switching paradigms as the primary task; one in response to cues and one while using two languages freely. At the same time, they also had to respond to the pitch of tones (secondary task). Response times (RTs) on the secondary task, as well as naming times on the primary task, were shorter under the voluntary- than cued-naming condition. Task workload ratings were also higher under the cued- than voluntary-naming condition. This suggests more attentional resources are needed in a cued-naming context to monitor cues and select languages accordingly. However, the costs associated with switching from one language to the other were similar in both voluntary- and cued-naming contexts. Thus, while cued-naming might be more effortful overall, cued and voluntary switching recruited similar levels of cognitive resources.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T12:52:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231173638
       
  • Linearly integrating speed and accuracy to measure individual differences
           in theory of mind: Evidence from autistic and neurotypical adults

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lucy Anne Livingston, Punit Shah, Francesca Happé
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It has long been theorised that there is a direct link between individual differences in social cognition and behaviour. One of the most popular tests of this theory has involved examination of Theory of Mind (ToM) difficulties in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, evidence for associations between ToM and social behaviour is mixed, both when testing the ToM explanation of ASD and when investigating individual differences in ToM in the general population. We argue that this is due to methodological limitations of many ToM measures, such as a lack of variability in task performance, inappropriate non-ToM control tasks, and a failure to account for general mental ability. To overcome these issues, we designed a novel task, which probed individual differences in ToM fluency through mental state attribution in response to cartoons (Cartoons Theory of Mind [CarToM] task). This task, enabling the linear combination of speed and accuracy, was used to quantify ToM ability and its association with self-reported (a)typical social behaviour in adults with and without ASD. In a large sample (N = 237), we found that having an ASD diagnosis and higher autistic traits predicted lower ToM ability, even after accounting for performance on a well-matched non-ToM condition and general mental ability. Overall, our findings provide fresh support for the existence of a link between individual differences in social cognition (specifically, ToM) and behaviour (specifically, autism). This has implications for social-cognitive theory and research, allowing large-scale, online assessment of individual differences in ToM in clinical groups and the general population.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T12:46:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231165251
       
  • The processing mechanism of mixed prospective memory: Changes in internal
           and external attention

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jiaqun Gan, Yunfei Guo, Enguo Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      While time-based prospective memory (TBPM) includes only time cues, mixed prospective memory (MPM) is a special form of prospective memory including both time and event cues. Depending on the classification of the clarity of time cues, MPM can be divided into time-period MPM and time-point MPM. While the time cue of the latter is a definite time point, the time cue of the former is a vague time period. As such, MPM and TBPM may have different processing mechanisms due to the additional event cue. This study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in the processing mechanisms between TBPM and the two types of MPM. A total of 240 college students were recruited to participate in the experiment. They were randomly assigned to a TBPM group, time-point MPM group, time-period MPM group, and baseline group. We adopted the performance of ongoing tasks to reflect internal attention indirectly and the frequency of time checks to measure external attention. The results showed that in terms of prospective memory, time-point MPM had the best performance, followed by time-period MPM, while TBPM had the worst performance. In relation to ongoing tasks, the two types of MPM had a better performance than TBPM in some stages, although worse than the baseline. In addition, the two MPMs evoked a lower time monitoring frequency than TBPM under different monitoring conditions. These results suggested that, compared with TBPM, MPM reduced both internal and external attention consumption and achieved better prospective memory performance. Internal attention consumption displayed dynamic changes for both types of MPM, and the time-point MPM had higher internal attention effectiveness than the time-period MPM. These results support the Dynamic Multiprocess Theory and the Attention to Delayed Intention model.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T05:25:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231172483
       
  • Child word learning in song and speech

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Weiyi Ma, Lisa Bowers, Douglas Behrend, Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis, William Forde Thompson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Listening to sung words rather than spoken words can facilitate word learning and memory in adults and school-aged children. To explore the development of this effect in young children, this study examined word learning (assessed as forming word-object associations) in 1- to 2-year olds and 3- to 4-year olds, and word long-term memory (LTM) in 4- to 5-year olds several days after the initial learning. In an intermodal preferential looking paradigm, children were taught a pair of words utilising adult-directed speech (ADS) and a pair of sung words. Word learning performance was better with sung words than with ADS words in 1- to 2-year olds (Experiments 1a and 1b), 3- to 4-year olds (Experiment 1a), and 4- to 5-year olds (Experiment 2b), revealing a benefit of song in word learning in all age ranges recruited. We also examined whether children successfully learned the words by comparing their performance against chance. The 1- to 2-year olds only learned sung words, but the 3- to 4-year olds learned both sung and ADS words, suggesting that the reliance on music features in word learning observed at ages 1–2 decreased with age. Furthermore, song facilitated the word mapping–recognition processes. Results on children’s LTM performance showed that the 4- to 5-year olds’ LTM performance did not differ between sung and ADS words. However, the 4- to 5-year olds reliably recalled sung words but not spoken words. The reliable LTM of sung words arose from hearing sung words during the initial learning rather than at test. Finally, the benefit of song on word learning and the reliable LTM of sung words observed at ages 3–5 cannot be explained as an attentional effect.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-16T04:49:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231172494
       
  • Perception of threat and intent to harm from vocal and facial cues

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: James Tompkinson, Mila Mileva, Dominic Watt, A Mike Burton
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      What constitutes a “threatening tone of voice”' There is currently little research exploring how listeners infer threat, or the intention to cause harm, from speakers’ voices. Here, we investigated the influence of key linguistic variables on these evaluations (Study 1). Results showed a trend for voices perceived to be lower in pitch, particularly those of male speakers, to be evaluated as sounding more threatening and conveying greater intent to harm. We next investigated the evaluation of multimodal stimuli comprising voices and faces varying in perceived dominance (Study 2). Visual information about the speaker’s face had a significant effect on threat and intent ratings. In both experiments, we observed a relatively low level of agreement among individual listeners’ evaluations, emphasising idiosyncrasy in the ways in which threat and intent-to-harm are perceived. This research provides a basis for the perceptual experience of a “threatening tone of voice,” along with an exploration of vocal and facial cue integration in social evaluation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-11T06:10:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231169952
       
  • Interoception: Where do we go from here'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jennifer Murphy
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, there has been a significant rise in interest in interoception, the processing of internal bodily signals. This interest has been coupled by increased concerns regarding the measurement and conceptualisation of interoception. Focusing on cardiac interoceptive accuracy, I outline what I believe to be the most pressing issues in the field of interoception—specifically the continued reliance on the heartbeat counting task. I then provide an overview of what I believe to be more general limitations concerning how we measure and conceptualise individual differences in interoception and suggestions for a way forward. Specifically, I believe that by moving beyond single measurements, establishing optimal levels of interoceptive accuracy, and refocusing from accuracy to propensity, we may be able to uncover the real-life relevance of interoceptive abilities.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-09T07:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231172725
       
  • The effect of chronic academic stress on intentional forgetting

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mingming Qi, Ru Gai, Heming Gao
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated whether chronic academic stress could affect the directed forgetting (DF) process. Both the stress group (undergoing preparation for a major academic examination) and the control group performed a DF task. A forgetting cue was presented after a to-be-forgotten (TBF) word, whereas no cue appeared after a to-be-remembered (TBR) item in the study phase. An old/new recognition test was used in the test phase. The results showed that (1) the stress group showed a higher level of self-reported stress, state anxiety, negative affect, and decreased cortisol awakening response (CAR) compared with the control group, suggesting a higher level of stress for the stress group. (2) Both groups showed superior recognition performance of TBR than TBF items, suggesting a DF effect. (3) The stress group showed inferior recognition performance of TBF items and an enhanced DF effect compared with the control group. These results demonstrated that the intentional memory control process might be enhanced under chronic academic stress.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-05-02T09:53:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231171481
       
  • The role of spatial words in the spatialisation of time

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Emir Akbuğa, Tilbe Göksun
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Language about time is an integral part of how we spatialise time. Factors like temporal focus can be related to time spatialisation as well. The current study investigates the role of language in how we spatialise time, using a temporal diagram task modified to include the lateral axis. We asked participants to place temporal events provided in non-metaphorical, sagittal metaphorical, and non-sagittal metaphorical scenarios on a temporal diagram. We found that sagittal metaphors elicited sagittal spatialisations of time, whereas the other two types elicited lateral spatialisations. Participants sometimes used the sagittal and lateral axes in combination to spatialise time. Exploratory analyses indicated that individuals’ time management habits, temporal distance, and event order in written scenarios were related to time spatialisations. Their temporal focus scores, however, were not. Findings suggest that temporal language plays an important role in how we map space onto time.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-29T01:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231169972
       
  • The influence of foreperiod duration on the preparation and control of
           sequential aiming movements

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Michael A Khan, Aryan Kurniawan, Madison ER Khan, Michaela CM Khan, Kristy L Smith, Sara Scharoun Benson, Anthony N Carlsen, Gavin P Lawrence
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Reaction time (RT) and movement times (MTs) to the first target are typically longer for two-target sequential movements compared to one-target movements. While this one-target advantage has been shown to be dependent on the availability of advance information about the numbers of targets, there has been no systematic investigation of how foreperiod duration (i.e., interval between presentation of the target(s) and stimulus) influences the planning and execution of sequential movements. Two experiments were performed to examine how the one-target advantage is influenced by the availability and timing of advance target information. In Experiment 1, participants performed one- and two-target movements in two separate blocks. In Experiment 2, target conditions were randomised from trial to trial. The interval between target(s) appearing and stimulus tone (i.e., foreperiod) was varied randomly (0, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ms). The results of Experiment 1 revealed that while the one-target advantage in RT was not influenced by foreperiod duration, the one-target advantage in MT increased as foreperiod duration increased. The variability of endpoints at the first target was greater in the two- compared to one-target condition. In Experiment 2, the one-target advantage in both RT and MT increased as the length of the foreperiod increased. However, there was no difference in limb trajectory variability between target conditions. The implication of these findings for theories of motor planning and execution of multiple segment movements is discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-29T01:18:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231162617
       
  • Influence of different spatial representations on the SNARC effect for
           letters: Electrophysiological evidence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jie Shen, Hua He, Bin Wu, Jiaxian Zhou
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Studies have previously demonstrated that different spatial representations may affect the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect for numbers; however, limited studies have assessed the SNARC effect for letters. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure the influence of two spatial representation modes (ruler and clock) on the SNARC effect. The ruler produced a SNARC-like effect; i.e., the left hand reacted faster than the right to the letters that appeared before N in the alphabet; the right hand reacted faster than the left to the letters that appeared after N, whereas the clock produced a reverse SNARC effect. In addition, the ERP data showed that the SNARC-like effect for letters in both representations induced significant activation in the frontal and parietal regions, indicating that the same brain areas are involved in processing letters and numbers in terms of spatial dimensions. This study further identified the conditions for the SNARC effect and proved that the SNARC effect is attributed to the simultaneous participation of brain regions for sequence and spatial information processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-27T07:08:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231167056
       
  • Non-metric distance judgements are influenced by image projection geometry
           and field of view

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nicole Ruta, Joanna Ganczarek, Karolina Pietras, Alistair Burleigh, Robert Pepperell
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Despite its mathematical simplicity and ubiquity in imaging technology, there has long been doubt about the ability of linear perspective to best represent human visual space, especially at wide-angle fields of view under natural viewing conditions. We investigated whether changes to image geometry had an impact on participants’ performance, specifically in terms of non-metric distance estimates. Our multidisciplinary research team developed a new open-source image database to study distance perception in images by systematically manipulating target distance, field of view, and image projection using non-linear natural perspective projections. The database consists of 12 outdoor scenes of a virtual three-dimensional urban environment in which a target ball is presented at increasing distance, visualised using both linear perspective and natural perspective images, rendered, respectively, with three different fields of view: 100°, 120°, and 140° horizontally. In the first experiment (N = 52), we tested the effects of linear versus natural perspective on non-metric distance judgements. In the second experiment (N = 195), we investigated the influence of contextual and previous familiarity with linear perspective, and individual differences in spatial skills on distance estimations. The results of both experiments showed that distance estimation accuracy improved in natural compared with linear perspective images, particularly at wide-angle fields of view. Moreover, undertaking a training session with only natural perspective images led to more accurate distance judgements overall. We argue that the efficacy of natural perspective may stem from its resemblance to the way objects appear under natural viewing conditions, and that this can provide insights into the phenomenological structure of visual space.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-20T06:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231164351
       
  • UniPseudo: A universal pseudoword generator

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Boris New, Jessica Bourgin, Julien Barra, Christophe Pallier
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Pseudowords are letter strings that look like words but are not words. They are used in psycholinguistic research, particularly in tasks such as lexical decision. In this context, it is essential that the pseudowords respect the orthographic statistics of the target language. Pseudowords that violate them would be too easy to reject in a lexical decision and would not enforce word recognition on real words. We propose a new pseudoword generator, UniPseudo, using an algorithm based on Markov chains of orthographic n-grams. It generates pseudowords from a customizable database, which allows one to control the characteristics of the items. It can produce pseudowords in any language, in orthographic or phonological form. It is possible to generate pseudowords with specific characteristics, such as frequency of letters, bigrams, trigrams, or quadrigrams, number of syllables, frequency of biphones, and number of morphemes. Thus, from a list of words composed of verbs, nouns, adjectives, or adverbs, UniPseudo can create pseudowords resembling verbs, nouns, adjectives, or adverbs in any language using an alphabetic or syllabic system.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-19T04:48:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231164373
       
  • The orthographic/phonological neighbourhood size effect and set size

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dominic Guitard, Leonie M Miller, Ian Neath, Steven Roodenrys
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A growing number of studies have shown that on serial recall tests, words with more orthographic/phonological neighbours are better recalled than otherwise comparable words with fewer neighbours, the so-called neighbourhood size effect. Greeno et al. replicated this result when using a large stimulus pool but found a reverse neighbourhood size effect—better recall of words with fewer rather than more neighbours—when using a small stimulus pool. We report three registered experiments that further examine the role of set size in the neighbourhood size effect. Experiment 1 used the large pool from Greeno et al. and replicated their finding of a large-neighbourhood advantage. Experiment 2 used the small pool from Greeno et al. but found no difference in recall between the large and small neighbourhood conditions. Experiment 3 also used a small pool but the small pool was randomly generated for each subject from the large pool used in Experiment 1. This resulted in a typical large neighbourhood advantage. We suggest that set size is not critical to the direction of the neighbourhood size effect, with a large neighbourhood advantage appearing with both small and large pools.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T11:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231165863
       
  • Evaluating the effects of counterconditioning, novelty-facilitated, and
           standard extinction on the spontaneous recovery of threat expectancy and
           conditioned stimulus valence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: María J Quintero, Joaquín Morís, Francisco J López
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Extinction training has proved effective to diminish the expectancy of the aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). However, the negative valence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) may still stay intact. In fact, several studies have suggested that the CS negative valence may be a factor that promotes the return of fear. Our study focuses on the role of changes in the CS valence as a potential mechanism to reduce the spontaneous recovery of threat expectancies. To do that, we evaluated counterconditioning (CC), a technique aimed to reduce the CS negative valence by paring it with a positive stimulus and compared its efficacy to that of a novelty-facilitated extinction (NFE) and a standard extinction interventions. Using a 2-day protocol, participants first learned the relationship between a figure and an aversive sound, using a differential conditioning paradigm, and were then randomly assigned to one of three different groups. For the CC group, CS+ or cue A was paired with a positive US. The standard extinction group was exposed to cue A alone. For a third NFE group, cue A was followed by a neutral US. Finally, on the second day, spontaneous recovery was tested. Our findings did not provide evidence to suggest that CC could be more effective to prevent or reduce the return of threat expectancies or influence valence ratings when compared with NFE and standard extinction.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T11:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231165373
       
  • Hands of confidence: When gestures increase confidence in spatial
           problem-solving

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dicle Çapan, Reyhan Furman, Tilbe Göksun, Terry Eskenazi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined whether the metacognitive system monitors the potential positive effects of gestures on spatial thinking. Participants (N = 59, 31F, Mage = 21.67) performed a mental rotation task, consisting of 24 problems varying in difficulty, and they evaluated their confidence in their answers to problems in either gesture or control conditions. The results revealed that performance and confidence were higher in the gesture condition, in which the participants were asked to use their gestures during problem-solving, compared with the control condition, extending the literature by evidencing gestures’ role in metacognition. Yet, the effect was only evident for females, who already performed worse than males, and when the problems were difficult. Encouraging gestures adversely affected performance and confidence in males. Such results suggest that gestures selectively influence cognition and metacognition and highlight the importance of task-related (i.e., difficulty) and individual-related variables (i.e., sex) in elucidating the links between gestures, confidence, and spatial thinking.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-04T06:32:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231164270
       
  • Does negation influence the choice of sentence continuations' Evidence
           from a four-choice cloze task

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Elena Albu, Carolin Dudschig, Tessa Warren, Barbara Kaup
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Event plausibility facilitates the processing of affirmative sentences, but little is known about how it affects negative sentences. In six behavioural experiments, we investigated negation’s impact on the choice of sentence continuations that differ with respect to event plausibility. In a four-choice cloze task, participants saw affirmative and negative sentence fragments (The child will [not] eat the . . .) in combination with four potential continuations: yoghurt (a plausible word), shellfish (a weak world knowledge violating word), branch (a severe world knowledge violating word), and minivan (a word resulting in a semantic violation). Across all experiments the plausible word was highly preferred in both affirmative and negative sentences. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 while ruling out the possibility that the lack of effect of negation in Experiment 1 stemmed from participants not fully processing the negation. Experiment 3 showed that the observed plausibility effects can be generalised to other aspectual forms (The child has [not] eaten the yoghurt). Experiment 4 ruled out the possibility that the choices were mainly driven by lexical associations and additionally suggested a role for informativity. Experiment 5 replicated Experiment 4 and reinforced the general pattern according to which negative sentences express the denial of plausible positive events. Experiment 6 provided evidence that informativity might be driving patterns of choices in the negative sentences. All in all, these findings suggest that upcoming continuations are chosen to maximise the plausibility of the event in the affirmative sentences and to deny that event in the negative sentences. The observed plausibility effects do not seem to be modulated by the internal representation of events, but they can be modulated by changes to the expected informativity of the sentence.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-04T06:28:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231158109
       
  • Strategic monitoring improves prospective memory: A meta-analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Phil Peper, B Hunter Ball
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Monitoring the environment for target events that trigger prospective memory (PM) retrieval requires cognitive resources, reflected by costs to ongoing task performance (i.e., worse accuracy and/or slower response times). Strategic monitoring refers to the use of context to engage or disengage monitoring when a PM target is anticipated or unanticipated. Laboratory strategic monitoring studies have found mixed results as to whether context specification improves PM performance. This study employed a meta-analytic technique to assess the overall effect of context specification on PM performance and ongoing task metrics of strategic monitoring. Overall, context specification improved PM performance when the target was anticipated and improved ongoing task performance (speed and accuracy) when the target was not anticipated. Moderator analyses revealed the degree of slowing in anticipated contexts predicted how much context specification improved PM performance. However, the benefits to PM performance from context specification differed by the type of procedure used. PM performance was improved when context changes could be predicted during blocked or proximity procedures, but not when context varied randomly in trial-level procedures. These results provide insights into the mechanisms underlying strategic monitoring and guidance for researchers on which procedures to be use depending on the theory-driven questions.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T11:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231161015
       
  • Disorientation and time distortions during the metro commute: An analysis
           of 456 responses to a questionnaire distributed in real time on Twitter
           during traffic disruptions in the Paris area

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bastien Perroy, Umer Gurchani, Roberto Casati
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Public transport disruptions are conducive to disorientation narratives in which the temporal aspects of the experience are central, but it is difficult to collect psychometric data at the moment of disruption to quantify the occurring underlying feelings. We propose a new real-time survey distribution method based on travellers’ interaction with disruption announcements on social media. We analyse 456 responses in the Paris area and find that travellers experience time slowing down and their destination feeling temporally farther away when undergoing traffic disruptions. Time dilation is more pronounced for people filling out the survey while still presently experiencing the disruption, suggesting that over time people remember a compressed version of their disorientation. Conflicted time feelings about the disruption, e.g., both faster and slower feelings of the passage of time, appear the longer the recollection delay. Travellers in a stopped train seem to change their itinerary not because the alternative journey feels shorter (it does not), but because it makes time pass faster. Time distortions are phenomenological hallmarks of public transport disruptions, but these distortions are poor predictors of confusion per se. Public transport operators can alleviate the time dilation experienced by their travellers by clearly stating whether they should reorient or wait for recovery when incidents occur. Our real-time survey distribution method can be used for the psychological study of crises, where a timely and targeted distribution is of paramount importance.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T06:49:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231163702
       
  • Social gaze cueing elicits facilitatory and inhibitory effects on movement
           execution when the model might act on an object

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xiaoye Michael Wang, April Karlinsky, Merryn D Constable, Samantha EA Gregory, Timothy N Welsh
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Social cues, such as eye gaze and pointing fingers, can increase the prioritisation of specific locations for cognitive processing. A previous study using a manual reaching task showed that, although both gaze and pointing cues altered target prioritisation (reaction times [RTs]), only pointing cues affected action execution (trajectory deviations). These differential effects of gaze and pointing cues on action execution could be because the gaze cue was conveyed through a disembodied head; hence, the model lacked the potential for a body part (i.e., hands) to interact with the target. In the present study, the image of a male gaze model, whose gaze direction coincided with two potential target locations, was centrally presented. The model either had his arms and hands extended underneath the potential target locations, indicating the potential to act on the targets (Experiment 1), or had his arms crossed in front of his chest, indicating the absence of potential to act (Experiment 2). Participants reached to a target that followed a nonpredictive gaze cue at one of three stimulus onset asynchronies. RTs and reach trajectories of the movements to cued and uncued targets were analysed. RTs showed a facilitation effect for both experiments, whereas trajectory analysis revealed facilitatory and inhibitory effects, but only in Experiment 1 when the model could potentially act on the targets. The results of this study suggested that when the gaze model had the potential to interact with the cued target location, the model’s gaze affected not only target prioritisation but also movement execution.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-31T08:50:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231162546
       
  • Recognition of facial expressions in autism: Effects of face masks and
           alexithymia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bayparvah Kaur Gehdu, Maria Tsantani, Clare Press, Katie LH Gray, Richard Cook
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It is often assumed that the recognition of facial expressions is impaired in autism. However, recent evidence suggests that reports of expression recognition difficulties in autistic participants may be attributable to co-occurring alexithymia—a trait associated with difficulties interpreting interoceptive and emotional states—not autism per se. Due to problems fixating on the eye-region, autistic individuals may be more reliant on information from the mouth region when judging facial expressions. As such, it may be easier to detect expression recognition deficits attributable to autism, not alexithymia, when participants are forced to base expression judgements on the eye-region alone. To test this possibility, we compared the ability of autistic participants (with and without high levels of alexithymia) and non-autistic controls to categorise facial expressions (a) when the whole face was visible, and (b) when the lower portion of the face was covered with a surgical mask. High-alexithymic autistic participants showed clear evidence of expression recognition difficulties: they correctly categorised fewer expressions than non-autistic controls. In contrast, low-alexithymic autistic participants were unimpaired relative to non-autistic controls. The same pattern of results was seen when judging masked and unmasked expression stimuli. In sum, we find no evidence for an expression recognition deficit attributable to autism, in the absence of high levels of co-occurring alexithymia, either when participants judge whole-face stimuli or just the eye-region. These findings underscore the influence of co-occurring alexithymia on expression recognition in autism.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-30T08:30:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231163007
       
  • Is conflict adaptation adaptive' An introduction to conflict monitoring
           theory and the ecological problems it faces

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: James R Schmidt
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Attending to a single stimulus (or dimension of a stimulus) requires filtering out distracting stimuli to avoid producing an incorrect response. The conflict monitoring (or conflict adaptation) account proposes that experience of conflict results in a shift of attention away from distracting stimuli and/or towards the target stimulus. The proportion congruent and congruency sequence effects are two findings often used to argue in favour of the conflict monitoring account. However, there are several potential limitations with conflict monitoring theory. This article explores some of the previously unarticulated (or rarely articulated) supplementary assumptions that must be made for the conflict monitoring account to be consistent with several important findings in the literature, some of which might undermine the initial intuitive appeal of the theory. Indeed, this opinion paper presents the view that conflict adaptation may not actually be particularly adaptive for performance. This article also discusses alternative interpretations of so-called “attentional control” phenomena. According to this view, participants may simply be learning regularities in the task structure that are unintentionally introduced when manipulating conflict (e.g., contingent regularities between distracting stimuli and responses). This sort of learning does benefit performance and is inherent for our functioning in the world, making this a more parsimonious view. Although simplicity is not everything, this article will present the case that the assumptions (often hidden or non-obvious) of conflict monitoring theory are non-trivial and, in many cases, imply relatively non-adaptive processes.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-29T12:50:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231161555
       
  • Stimulus–response compatibility effects during object semantic
           categorisation: Evocation of grasp affordances or abstract coding of
           object size'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lilas Haddad, Yannick Wamain, Solène Kalénine
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      When the size of visual objects matches the size of the response required to perform the task, a potentiation effect has been reported, with faster responses in compatible than incompatible situations. Size compatibility effects have been taken as evidence of close perception-action interrelations. However, it is still unclear whether the effect arises from abstract coding of the size of stimulus and response or from the evocation of grasp affordances from visual objects. We aimed to disentangle the two interpretations. Two groups of 40 young adults categorised small and large objects presented in standardised size as natural or artefact objects. One group categorised manipulable objects that may be associated with small or large size properties and evoke power or precision grasp affordances. The other group categorised non-manipulable objects that may only be associated with small or large size properties. Categorisation responses were made by reaching and grasping a monotonic cylindric device with a power or precision grip in a grasping condition and with large or small touch responses in a control condition. Compatibility effects were found in both grasping and control conditions, independently of the manipulability or category of objects. Participants were faster when the size of the expected response matched the size of the object than when they mismatched, especially for power grasps or whole-hand touch responses. Overall findings support the abstract coding hypothesis and suggest that compatibility between the conceptual size of the object and the size of the hand response is sufficient to facilitate semantic categorisation judgements.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-27T06:27:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231161310
       
  • Are social interactions preferentially attended in real-world scenes'
           Evidence from change blindness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mahsa Barzy, Rachel Morgan, Richard Cook, Katie LH Gray
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In change detection paradigms, changes to social or animate aspects of a scene are detected better and faster compared with non-social or inanimate aspects. While previous studies have focused on how changes to individual faces/bodies are detected, it is possible that individuals presented within a social interaction may be further prioritised, as the accurate interpretation of social interactions may convey a competitive advantage. Over three experiments, we explored change detection to complex real-world scenes, in which changes either occurred by the removal of (a) an individual on their own, (b) an individual who was interacting with others, or (c) an object. In Experiment 1 (N = 50), we measured change detection for non-interacting individuals versus objects. In Experiment 2 (N = 49), we measured change detection for interacting individuals versus objects. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N = 85), we measured change detection for non-interacting versus interacting individuals. We also ran an inverted version of each task to determine whether differences were driven by low-level visual features. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found that changes to non-interacting and interacting individuals were detected better and more quickly than changes to objects. We also found inversion effects for both non-interaction and interaction changes, whereby they were detected more quickly when upright compared with inverted. No such inversion effect was seen for objects. This suggests that the high-level, social content of the images was driving the faster change detection for social versus object targets. Finally, we found that changes to individuals in non-interactions were detected faster than those presented within an interaction. Our results replicate the social advantage often found in change detection paradigms. However, we find that changes to individuals presented within social interaction configurations do not appear to be more quickly and easily detected than those in non-interacting configurations.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-27T06:24:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231161044
       
  • When and where did it happen' Systematic differences in recall of core and
           optional sentence information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jan Chromý, Sonja Vojvodić
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports on four experiments aiming to examine immediate post-sentential recall of core sentence information (conveyed by direct objects), and optional/additional information (conveyed by temporal or locative adjuncts). Participants read simple and unambiguous Czech sentences such as Starší důchodce velmi pečlivě pročetl noviny v neděli v knihovně: “An older retiree read the newspaper very carefully on Sunday in the library.” Sentences always appeared as a whole after pressing a space bar. Immediately after the sentence disappeared, an open-ended (free response) question was presented targeting either the direct object (e.g., newspaper), temporal adjunct (e.g., on Sunday), or locative adjunct (e.g., in the library). Altogether, it was found that the core information (conveyed by the direct object) was recalled almost perfectly, whereas additional information, conveyed by temporal and locative adjuncts, was recalled with significantly lower accuracy rates. Information structure also played a role: if the temporal or locative adjunct was focused, it was recalled better than if it was unfocused. The present article thus shows systematic differences in recall success for different pieces of information. These findings suggest the presence of selective attention mechanisms during early stages of sentence processing. Factors such as syntactic function or information structure influence the degree of attention to different pieces of information conveyed by a sentence. In turn, certain pieces of information may not be consciously accessible already after the sentence is processed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-27T06:22:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231159190
       
  • Response generation, not response execution, influences feelings of
           rightness in reasoning

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kaiden M Stewart, Evan F Risko, Jonathan Fugelsang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It has been argued that the experience of ease (i.e., the ability to quickly generate an initial response) during processing influences one’s likelihood of engaging reflectively when reasoning. This is a key facet of Metacognitive Reasoning Theory (MRT) and numerous studies have found support for this claim by showing that answers that come to mind quickly, are associated with higher feelings of rightness (FORs), and less reflective processing. However, the possibility remains that the critical determinant of FORs may be the speed of executing a response and not generating a response, given the nature of the evidence for this claim. Across two experiments, we manipulated the duration of the response execution to identify whether participants’ FOR judgements are at least partially based on factors occurring after the initial mental generation of an answer. We found no evidence that FORs nor reflection are influenced by a manipulation of response execution. Broadly, the present investigation provides evidence that the relation between speed of response and FORs is likely due to the speed with which an answer is generated internally, and not the response execution phase. These findings are consistent with Metacognitive Reasoning Theory and provide further support for the suggestion that answer fluency is the critical variable in determining FORs. All data, scripts, and materials can be found at https://osf.io/f48az/
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-27T06:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231156712
       
  • The effect of word transpositions on grammaticality judgements in first
           and second language sentence reading

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Simon P Tiffin-Richards
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the cross-language influence of a reader’s first language (L1, German) grammar knowledge on the syntactic processing of sentences in their second language (L2, English), using a grammaticality judgement task and comparing results with monolingual L1 English-speakers. In Experiment 1, unbalanced bilinguals (N = 82) read sentences in their L1 German and L2 English that were either grammatical in German but not English, grammatical in English but not German, or ungrammatical in both languages. Sentences were presented in mixed-language blocks. Grammaticality judgements were less accurate and slower for ungrammatical L2 sentences that were grammatical in their literal L1 translation, compared with sentences that were ungrammatical in both languages. Experiment 2 replicated these findings with an independent German-English bilingual sample (N = 78), using monolingual language blocks. In Experiment 3, effects were absent in decision accuracy and weaker in decision latency for monolingual English readers (N = 54). A post hoc validation study with an independent sample of L1 English-speakers (n = 21) provided further evidence that the ungrammatical English sentences with German word order were indeed less natural and grammatically acceptable to L1 English-speakers than the grammatical English sentences. These findings suggest that, consistent with competition models of language comprehension, multiple languages are simultaneously active and can compete during syntactic processing. However, due to the complex nature of cross-language comparisons, the cross-language transfer effects are likely to be driven by multiple interacting factors, of which one is cross-language transfer.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-24T11:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231161433
       
  • Shared vs separate structural representations: Evidence from cumulative
           cross-language structural priming

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Danbi Ahn, Victor S Ferreira
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      How do bilingual speakers represent the information that guides the assembly of words into sentences for their two languages' The shared-syntax account argues that bilinguals have a single, shared representation of the sentence structures that exist in both languages. Structural priming has been shown to be equal within and across languages, providing support for the shared-syntax account. However, equivalent levels of structural priming within and across languages could be observed even if structural representations are separate and connected, due to frequent switches between languages, which is a property of standard structural priming paradigms. Here, we investigated whether cumulative structural priming (i.e., structural priming across blocks rather than trial-by-trial), which does not involve frequent switches between languages, also shows equivalent levels of structural priming within- and cross-languages. Mixed results point towards a possibility that cumulative structural priming can be more persistent within- compared to cross-languages, suggesting a separate-and-connected account of bilingual structural representations. We discuss these results in terms of the current literature on bilingual structural representations and highlight the value of diversity in paradigms and less-studied languages.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-24T11:47:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231160942
       
  • Are syntactic representations similar in both reading and listening'
           Evidence from priming in first and second languages

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Basma Elkhafif, Jelena Havelka, Melanie Rose Burke, Anna Weighall
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It is unclear to what extent natural differences between reading and listening result in differences in the syntactic representations formed in each modality. The present study investigated the occurrence of syntactic priming bidirectionally from reading to listening, and vice versa to examine whether reading and listening share the same syntactic representations in both first language (L1) and second language (L2). Participants performed a lexical decision task in which the experimental words were embedded in sentences with either an ambiguous or a familiar structure. These structures were alternated to produce a priming effect. The modality was manipulated whereby participants (a) first read part of the sentence list and then listened to the rest of the list (reading-listening group), or (b) listened and then read (listening-reading group). In addition, the study involved two within-modality lists in which participants either read or listened to the whole list. The L1 group showed within-modal priming in both listening and reading as well as a cross-modal priming effect. Although L2 speakers showed priming in reading, the effect was absent in listening and weak in the listening-reading condition. The absence of priming in L2 listening was attributed to difficulties in L2 listening rather than to an inability to produce abstract priming.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-24T11:45:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231159588
       
  • Autocorrelation in category judgement

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Donald Laming
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Jesteadt et al. discovered a remarkable pattern of autocorrelation in log estimates of loudness. Responses to repeated stimuli correlated to about +0.7, but that correlation was much reduced (0.1) following large differences between successive stimuli. The experiment reported here demonstrates the same pattern in absolute identification without feedback; if feedback is supplied, the pattern is much muted. A model is proposed for this pattern of autocorrelation, based on the premise: “There is no absolute judgment of sensory magnitudes; nor is there any absolute judgment of differences/ratios between sensory magnitudes.” Each stimulus in an experiment is compared with its predecessor, greater, less than, or about the same. The variability of that comparison increases with the difference in magnitude between the stimuli, so the assessment of a stimulus far removed from its predecessor is very uncertain. The model provides explanations for the apparent normal variability of sensory stimuli, for the “bow” effect and for the widely reported pattern of sequential effects. It has applications to the effects of stimulus range, to the difficulty of identifying more than five stimuli on a single continuum without error, and to inspection tasks in general, notably medical screening and the marking of examination scripts.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-24T11:44:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231159393
       
  • Value-modulated attentional capture is augmented by win-related sensory
           cues

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Pearson, Meihui Piao, Mike E Le Pelley
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Attentional prioritisation of stimuli in the environment plays an important role in overt choice. Previous research shows that prioritisation is influenced by the magnitude of paired rewards, in that stimuli signalling high-value rewards are more likely to capture attention than stimuli signalling low-value rewards; and this attentional bias has been proposed to play a role in addictive and compulsive behaviours. A separate line of research has shown that win-related sensory cues can bias overt choices. However, the role that these cues play in attentional selection is yet to be investigated. Participants in this study completed a visual search task in which they responded to a target shape in order to earn reward. The colour of a distractor signalled the magnitude of reward and type of feedback on each trial. Participants were slower to respond to the target when the distractor signalled high reward compared to when the distractor signalled low reward, suggesting that the high-reward distractors had increased attentional priority. Critically, the magnitude of this reward-related attentional bias was further increased for a high-reward distractor with post-trial feedback accompanied by win-related sensory cues. Participants also demonstrated an overt choice preference for the distractor that was associated with win-related sensory cues. These findings demonstrate that stimuli paired with win-related sensory cues are prioritised by the attention system over stimuli with equivalent physical salience and learned value. This attentional prioritisation may have downstream implications for overt choices, especially in gambling contexts where win-related sensory cues are common.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-23T12:48:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231160368
       
  • Easy to process, hard to control: Transient and sustained processing
           fluency impairs cognitive control adjustments to conflict

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gonçalo A Oliveira, Miguel Remondes, Teresa Garcia-Marques
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research suggests that the cognitive monitoring system of control could be using negative affective cues intrinsic to changes in information processing to initiate top-down regulatory mechanisms. Here, we propose that positive feelings of ease-of-processing could be picked up by the monitoring system as a cue indicating that control is not necessary, leading to maladaptive control adjustments. We simultaneously target control adjustments driven by task context and on a trial-by-trial level, macro-, and micro-adjustments. This hypothesis was tested using a Stroop-like task comprised trials varying in congruence and perceptual fluency. A pseudo randomisation procedure within different proportion of congruence conditions was used to maximise discrepancy and fluency effects. Results suggest that in a mostly congruent context participants committed more fast errors when incongruent trials were easy-to-read. Moreover, within the mostly incongruent condition, we also found more errors on incongruent trials after experiencing the facilitation effect of repeated congruent trials. These results suggest that transient and sustained feelings of processing fluency can downregulate control mechanisms, leading to failed adaptive adjustments to conflict.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-23T12:41:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231159787
       
  • The production of referring expressions is influenced by the likelihood of
           next mention

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Oliver Bott, Torgrim Solstad
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The present study provides converging evidence across three next-mention biases that likelihood of coreference influences the choice of referring expression: implicit causality (IC), the goal bias of transfer-of-possession (ToP) verbs, and implicit consequentiality (I-Cons). A pilot study and four experiments investigated coreference production in German using a forced-reference paradigm. The pilot study used object- and subject-biased IC verbs, showing a statistically marginal influence of next-mention bias on referential expressions, albeit mediated by grammatical function and feature overlap between antecedents. Experiment 1 focused on these features for object reference with ToP verbs, showing effects of coreference bias. In a within-participants comparison, Experiment 2 showed comparable effects for two classes of IC verbs, stimulus–experiencer and experiencer–stimulus predicates. Experiment 3 replicated and extended the IC form effects to another verb class, agent–evocator verbs. Finally, Experiment 4 revealed effects on anaphoric form also for I-Cons, while simultaneously replicating the effect observed for IC.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-23T12:35:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231157268
       
  • Acute stress reduces attentional blindness: Relations with resting
           respiratory sinus arrhythmia and cortisol

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yuecui Kan, Haijun Duan, Zhuo Wang, Yining Wang, Saifang Liu, Jijun Lan
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study made the first attempt to combine resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cortisol to provide an explanatory mechanism for the effect of acute stress on emotion-induced blindness (EIB) from the perspective of vagus nerve activity and stress hormone responses. For this purpose, resting electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were recorded first. Participants underwent both the socially evaluated cold-pressor test and control treatments 7 days apart and then completed the EIB task. Heart rate and saliva samples were collected over time. The results demonstrated that acute stress promoted the overall detection of targets. Resting RSA and cortisol levels predicted the stress-induced changes in EIB performance under the negative distractor condition at lag2 negatively and positively, respectively. These findings indicate that the effect of stress on EIB was partially contributed by cortisol, which is more relevant to negative distractor conditions. Resting RSA, as an indicator of inter-individual differences, further provided evidence from the perspective of the trait emotional regulation ability based on the vagus nerve control. In general, resting RSA and cortisol changes over time exhibit different patterns of influence on stress-induced changes in EIB performance. Thus, this study provides a more comprehensive understanding of the effect of acute stress on attentional blindness.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T10:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231159654
       
  • The role of language in mental health during the transition from primary
           to secondary education

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maria Barbara Jelen, Sarah Louise Griffiths, Laura Lucas, Jo Saul, Courtenay F Norbury
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We report a preregistered analysis to test whether children meeting diagnostic criteria for language disorder (LD) have higher self-reported and/or parent-reported mental health symptoms during the transition from primary to secondary education. Data are from a UK-based longitudinal cohort study, The Surrey Communication and Language in Education Study (SCALES). SCALES oversampled children at risk of LD at school entry. Language was measured using a battery of standardised assessments in Year 1 (age 5–6 years, n = 529), and mental health symptoms were measured using self and parent report in Year 6 (age 10–11 years, n = 384) and Year 8 (age 12–13 years, n = 246). Social experiences were also measured using self-report measures in Year 6. Mental health symptoms were stable during the transition from primary to secondary school. Symptom rates did not differ between children with and without LD based on self-report, but children with LD had higher parent-reported mental health symptoms than their peers with typical language. Similarly, early language was negatively associated with parent-reported but not self-reported mental health symptoms. Early language was associated with fewer child-reported positive social experiences in Year 6, but social experiences did not mediate the association between language and mental health. We found poor agreement between parent and self-reported child mental health symptoms across language groups. Future studies should aim to determine sources of disagreement between parent and child report, particularly for children with communication difficulties who may struggle to accurately self-report mental health symptoms.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T10:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231158069
       
  • In sight, out of mind' Disengagement at encoding gradually reduces
           recall of location

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Corinna S Martarelli, Rebecca Ovalle-Fresa
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Disengaging from the external world—a phenomenon referred to as mind wandering—is a common experience that has been shown to be associated with detriments in cognitive performance across a large range of tasks. In the current web-based study, we used a continuous delayed estimation paradigm to investigate the impact of task disengagement at encoding on subsequent recall of location. Task disengagement was assessed with thought probes on a dichotomous (off- vs. on-task) and a continuous response scale (from 0% to 100% on-task). This approach allowed us to consider perceptual decoupling in both a dichotomous and a graded manner. In the first study (n = 54), we found a negative relationship between levels of task disengagement at encoding and subsequent recall of location measured in degrees. This finding supports a graded perceptual decoupling process rather than a decoupling that happens in an all-or-none manner. In the second study (n = 104), we replicated this finding. An analysis of 22 participants showing enough off-task trials to fit the data with the standard mixture model revealed that in this particular subsample, being disengaged from the task at encoding was related to worse long-term memory performance in terms of likelihood to recall but not in terms of precision with which information is recalled. Overall, the findings suggest a graded nature of task disengagement that covaries with fine-grained differences in subsequent recall of location. Going forwards, it will be important to test the validity of continuous measures of mind-wandering.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T12:29:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231159656
       
  • Joint action with human and robotic co-actors: Self-other integration is
           immune to the perceived humanness of the interacting partner

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cédric A Bouquet, Clément Belletier, Sophie Monceau, Pierre Chausse, Jean-Claude Croizet, Pascal Huguet, Ludovic Ferrand
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      When performing a joint action task, we automatically represent the action and/or task constraints of the co-actor with whom we are interacting. Current models suggest that, not only physical similarity, but also abstract, conceptual features shared between self and the interacting partner play a key role in the emergence of joint action effects. Across two experiments, we investigated the influence of the perceived humanness of a robotic agent on the extent to which we integrate the action of that agent into our own action/task representation, as indexed by the Joint Simon Effect (JSE). The presence (vs. absence) of a prior verbal interaction was used to manipulate robot’s perceived humanness. In Experiment 1, using a within-participant design, we had participants perform the joint Go/No-go Simon task with two different robots. Before performing the joint task, one robot engaged in a verbal interaction with the participant and the other robot did not. In Experiment 2, we employed a between-participants design to contrast these two robot conditions as well as a human partner condition. In both experiments, a significant Simon effect emerged during joint action and its amplitude was not modulated by the humanness of the interacting partner. Experiment 2 further showed that the JSE obtained in robot conditions did not differ from that measured in the human partner condition. These findings contradict current theories of joint action mechanisms according to which perceived self-other similarity is a crucial determinant of self-other integration in shared task settings.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T07:05:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231158481
       
  • Sound–action symbolism in relation to precision manipulation and
           whole-hand grasp usage

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lari Vainio, Markku Kilpeläinen, Alexandra Wikström, Martti Vainio
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It has been suggested that actions can provide a fruitful conceptual context for sound symbolism phenomena, and that tight interaction between manual and articulatory processes might cause that hand actions, in particular, are sound-symbolically associated with specific speech sounds. Experiment 1 investigated whether novel words, built from speech sounds that have been previously linked to precision or power grasp responses, are implicitly associated with perceived actions that present precision manipulation or whole-hand grasp tool-use or the corresponding utilisation pantomimes. In the two-alternative forced-choice task, the participants were more likely to match novel words to tool-use actions and corresponding pantomimes that were sound-symbolically congruent with the words. Experiment 2 showed that the same or even larger sound–action symbolism effect can be observed when the pantomimes present unfamiliar utilisation actions. Based on this we propose that the sound–action symbolism might originate from the same sensorimotor mechanisms that process the meaning of iconic gestural signs. The study presents a novel sound–action phenomenon and supports the view that hand–mouth interaction might manifest itself by associating specific speech sounds with grasp-related utilisations.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T07:03:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231160910
       
  • The role of syllables and morphemes in silent reading: An eye-tracking
           study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Elisabetta De Simone, Kristina Moll, Lisa Feldmann, Xenia Schmalz, Elisabeth Beyersmann
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      German skilled readers have been found to engage in morphological and syllable-based processing in visual word recognition. However, the relative reliance on syllables and morphemes in reading multi-syllabic complex words is still unresolved. This study aimed to unveil which of these sublexical units are the preferred units of reading by employing eye-tracking technology. Participants silently read sentences while their eye-movements were recorded. Words were visually marked using colour alternation (Experiment 1) or hyphenation (Experiment 2)—at syllable boundary (e.g., Kir-schen), at morpheme boundary (e.g., Kirsch-en), or within the units themselves (e.g., Ki-rschen). A control condition without disruptions was used as a baseline (e.g., Kirschen). The results of Experiment 1 showed that eye-movements were not modulated by colour alternations. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that hyphens disrupting syllables had a larger inhibitory effect on reading times than hyphens disrupting morphemes, suggesting that eye-movements in German skilled readers are more influenced by syllabic than morphological structure.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T07:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231160638
       
  • Can’t catch the beat: Failure to find simple repetition effects in three
           types of temporal judgements

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jordan Wehrman, John H Wearden
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      More experience results in better performance, usually. In most tasks, the more chances to learn we have, the better we are at it. This does not always appear to be the case in time perception however. In the current article, we use three different methods to investigate the role of the number of standard example durations presented on performance on three timing tasks: rhythm continuation, deviance detection, and final stimulus duration judgement. In Experiments 1a and 1b, rhythms were produced with the same accuracy whether one, two, three, or four examples of the critical duration were presented. In Experiment 2, participants were required to judge which of four stimuli had a different duration from the other three. This judgement did not depend on which of the four stimuli was the deviant one. In Experiments 3a and 3b, participants were just as accurate at judging the duration of a final stimulus in comparison to the prior stimuli regardless of the number of standards presented prior to the final stimulus. In summary, we never found any systematic effect of the number of standards presented on performance on any of the three timing tasks. In the discussion, we briefly relate these findings to three theories of time perception.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-09T11:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231157674
       
  • Effects of alternating letter case on processing sequences of written
           words

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Colas Fournet, Jonathan Mirault, Manuel Perea, Jonathan Grainger
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In three grammatical decision experiments, we examined the impact of alternating letter case on sentence reading to determine the locus of case-alternation effects. Experiments 1 and 2 compared grammatical decision responses (“Is this a grammatically correct sequence of words or not'”) in three different conditions: (1) SAME CASE/same case; (2) alternating CASE between WORDS; and (3) aLterNaTing cAsE wItHin WoRdS. For the grammatically correct sequences, we observed significantly faster responses in the same-case conditions compared with the between-word case manipulation, as well as a significant advantage for the between-word condition compared with within-word alternating case. These results confirm that case-alternation deteriorates sentence reading, but more so at the level of single word processing (within-word alternation) than at the sentence level (between-word alternation). Experiment 3 demonstrated that between-word case-alternation facilitates sentence processing compared with an all-lowercase condition when betweenWORDspacesAREremoved. Therefore, in the absence of between-word spacing, case changes across words facilitate sentence processing, possibly by guiding readers’ eyes to optimal locations for word identification.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-08T06:51:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231156604
       
  • Resisting the urge to calculate: The relation between inhibitory control
           and perceptual cues in arithmetic performance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Avery Harrison Closser, Jenny Yun-Chen Chan, Erin Ottmar
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Subtle visual manipulations to the presentation of mathematical notation influence the way that students perceive and solve problems. While there is a consistent impact of perceptual cues on students’ problem-solving, other cognitive skills such as inhibitory control may interact with perceptual cues to affect students’ arithmetic problem-solving performance. We present an online experiment in which college students completed a version of the Stroop task followed by arithmetic problems in which the spacing between numbers and operators was either congruent (e.g., 2 + 3x4) or incongruent (e.g., 2 + 3 × 4) to the order of precedence. We found that students were comparably accurate between problem types but might have spent longer responding to problems with congruent than incongruent spacing. There was no main effect of inhibitory control on students’ performance on these problems. However, an exploratory analysis on a combined performance measure of accuracy and response time revealed an interaction between problem type and inhibitory control. Students with higher inhibitory control performed better on congruent versus incongruent problems, whereas students with lower inhibitory control performed worse on congruent versus incongruent problems. Together, these results suggest that the relation between inhibitory control and arithmetic performance may not be straightforward. Furthermore, this work advances perceptual learning theory and contributes new findings on the contexts in which perceptual cues, such as spacing, influence arithmetic performance.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T12:59:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231156125
       
  • Influences of cognitive control on number processing: New evidence from
           switching between two numerical tasks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Andreas Schliephake, Julia Bahnmueller, Klaus Willmes, Iring Koch, Korbinian Moeller
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of research suggests that basic numerical abilities such as number magnitude and number parity processing are influenced by cognitive control. So far, however, evidence for number processing being influenced by cognitive control came primarily from observed adaptations to stimulus set characteristics (e.g., ratio or order of specific stimulus types) and switches between a numerical and non-numerical task. Complementing this previous research, the present study employed a task switching paradigm exclusively involving numerical tasks (i.e., magnitude comparisons and parity judgements) to examine how cognitive control processes influence number processing. Participants were presented with a single-digit number and had to either judge its parity or compare its magnitude with a standard of 5, depending on a preceding cue. Based on previous results, we expected the numerical distance effect and the spatial–numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect to be modulated in switch trials requiring the exertion of cognitive control. Partly in line with our expectations, the numerical distance effect was reduced in switch trials. However, no modulation of the SNARC effect was observed. The results pattern suggests that number processing is influenced by cognitive control, depending on task requirements and the type of numerical information (i.e., numerical magnitude vs spatial association of numbers) that is processed. To reconcile the present and previous results, we propose an information prioritisation account, suggesting that cognitive control primarily influences the processing of the information type that requires the most explicit processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T12:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231154155
       
  • Identifying unfamiliar voices: Examining the system variables of sample
           duration and parade size

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nikolas Pautz, Kirsty McDougall, Katrin Mueller-Johnson, Francis Nolan, Alice Paver, Harriet M. J. Smith
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Voice identification parades can be unreliable due to the error-prone nature of earwitness responses. UK government guidelines recommend that voice parades should have nine voices, each played for 60 s. This makes parades resource-consuming to construct. In this article, we conducted two experiments to see if voice parade procedures could be simplified. In Experiment 1 (N = 271, 135 female), we investigated if reducing the duration of the voice samples on a nine-voice parade would negatively affect identification performance using both conventional logistic and signal detection approaches. In Experiment 2 (N = 270, 136 female), we first explored if the same sample duration conditions used in Experiment 1 would lead to different outcomes if we reduced the parade size to include only six voices. Following this, we pooled the data from both experiments to investigate the influence of target-position effects. The results show that 15-s sample durations result in statistically equivalent voice identification performance to the longer 60-s sample durations, but that the 30-s sample duration suffers in terms of overall signal sensitivity. This pattern of results was replicated using both a nine- and a six-voice parade. Performance on target-absent parades were at chance levels in both parade sizes, and response criteria were mostly liberal. In addition, unwanted position effects were present. The results provide initial evidence that the sample duration used in a voice parade may be reduced, but we argue that the guidelines recommending a parade with nine voices should be maintained to provide additional protection for a potentially innocent suspect given the low target-absent accuracy.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T01:05:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231155738
       
  • The relevance of familiarity in the context of self-related information
           processing

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Letizia Amodeo, Annabel D Nijhof, Marcel Brass, Jan R Wiersema
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Humans are inclined to preferentially process self-related content, referred to as the “self-bias.” Different paradigms have been used to study this effect. However, not all paradigms included a familiar other condition (but rather an unfamiliar other condition), needed to differentiate self-specific effects from the impact of familiarity. The primary goal of our study was to test the suitability for studying the self-bias of two paradigms that provide robust measures of salience effects—that is, the Repetition Blindness (RB) effect and the Emotional Stroop (ES) interference—while addressing the familiarity confound. We further explored whether self-bias effects were related to autism symptomatology, as a reduced self-bias in autism has been reported in previous research. In an online procedure, 82 adults performed an RB task and an ES task in a counterbalanced order, while being presented with both self- and familiar other-related stimuli. Results of both frequentist and Bayesian analyses did not provide evidence in favour of a specific self-bias on either task: we found no significant modulation of the RB effect, nor of the ES interference, for the own versus a close other’s name. Moreover, no link with autism symptomatology was found. Tackling a crucial shortcoming from earlier studies, our investigation raises awareness on the importance of accounting for familiarity when investigating self-related processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T01:03:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231154884
       
  • Opposing influences of global and local stimulus-hand proximity on
           crosstalk interference in dual tasks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ruben Ellinghaus, Markus Janczyk, Robert Wirth, Wilfried Kunde, Rico Fischer, Roman Liepelt
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In contrast to traditional dualistic views of cognition, visual stimulus processing appears not independent of bodily factors such as hand positioning. For example, reduced crosstalk between two temporally overlapping tasks has been observed when the hands are moved into the attentional window alongside their respective stimuli (i.e., establishing global stimulus-hand proximity). This result indicates that hand-specific attentional processing enhancements support a more serial rather than parallel processing of the two tasks. To further elucidate the nature of these processing modulations and their effect on multitasking performance, the present study consisted of three interrelated crosstalk experiments. Experiment 1 manipulated global stimulus-hand proximity and stimulus-effect proximity orthogonally, with results demonstrating that hand proximity rather than effect proximity drives the crosstalk reduction. Experiment 2 manipulated the physical distance between both hands (i.e., varying local stimulus-hand proximity), with results showing weak evidence of increased crosstalk when both hands are close to each other. Experiment 3 tested opposing influences of global and local stimulus-hand proximity as observed in Experiment 1 and 2 rigorously within one experiment, by employing an orthogonal manipulation of these two proximity measures. Again, we observed slightly increased crosstalk for hands close to each other (replicating Experiment 2); however, in contrast to Experiment 1, the effect of global stimulus-hand proximity on the observed crosstalk was not significant this time. Taken together, the experiments support the notion of hand-specific modulations of perception-action coupling, which can either lead to more or less interference in multitasking, depending on the exact arrangement of hands and stimuli.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T01:02:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231157548
       
  • The correlation between proprioceptive drift and subjective embodiment
           during the rubber hand illusion: A meta-analytic approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Giorgia Tosi, Benedetta Mentesana, Daniele Romano
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), participants see a fake hand touched synchronously with their real hand, which is hidden from view. The three-way interaction between vision, touch, and proprioception induces the sensation that the dummy hand belongs to oneself (i.e., subjective embodiment) and the illusory displacement of the real hand towards the fake one (i.e., proprioceptive drift). In the literature, there are mixed results (some positive and some null) regarding the existence of a relationship between subjective embodiment and proprioceptive drift. We conducted a Bayesian meta-analysis to tackle this issue quantitatively. Evidence strongly favours the presence of a correlation between subjective embodiment and proprioceptive drift, supporting the model proposed by Botvinick and Cohen in 1998. However, the correlation is around .35, a value suggesting that the two indices capture different facets of the RHI. This result clarifies the association between the illusory effects produced by the RHI and may be helpful for designing studies having appropriate statistical power.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T01:00:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231156849
       
  • Mental representation of equivalence and order

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ulrich von Hecker, Elisabeth Müller, Stefan Kirian Dill, Karl Christoph Klauer
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      With mental models based on relational information, the present research shows that the semantics expressed by the relation can determine the structural properties of the constructed model. In particular, we demonstrate a reversal of the classical, well-replicated symbolic distance effect (SDE), as a function of relational semantics. The classical SDE shows that responses are more accurate, and faster, the wider the distance between queried elements on a mentally constructed rank order. We replicate this effect in a study using a relation that expresses a rank hierarchy (“older than,” Experiment 4). In contrast, we obtain a clear reversal of the same effect for accuracy data when the relation expresses a number of equivalence classes (“is from the same city,” Experiments 1–3). In Experiment 3, we find clear evidence of a reversed SDE for accuracy and latency in the above standard condition, and flat curves of means, across pair distances, for accuracy and latency in a condition that makes equivalence classes salient from the beginning. We discuss these findings in the context of a process model of equivalence class formation based on learned piecemeal information.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-06T10:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231153974
       
  • The attentional boost effect overcomes dual-task interference in
           choice-response tasks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Vanessa G Lee
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Dual-task interference often arises when people respond to an incoming stimulus according to an arbitrary rule, such as choosing between the gas pedal and the brake when driving. Severe interference from response selection yields a brief “Psychological Refractory Period,” during which a concurrent task is put on hold. Here, we show that response selection in one task does not always hamper the processing of a secondary task. Responding to a target may paradoxically enhance the processing of secondary tasks, even when the target requires complex response selection. In three experiments, participants encoded pictures of common objects to memory while simultaneously monitoring a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of characters or colours. Some of the RSVP stimuli were targets, requiring participants to press one of the two buttons to report their identity; others were distractors that participants ignored. Despite the increased response selection demands on target trials, pictures encoded with the RSVP targets were better remembered than those encoded with the RSVP distractors. Contrary to previous reports and predictions from dual-task interference, the attentional boost from target detection overcomes increased interference from response selection.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-02T12:04:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231156375
       
  • Transitive inference and the testing effect: Retrieval practice impairs
           transitive inference

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Neil W Mulligan, Zachary L Buchin, Annaliisa Powers
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      There is substantial interest in the extent to which the testing effect (the finding that retrieval practice enhances memory) extends to more complex forms of learning, especially those entailing greater element interactivity. Transitive inference (TI) requires just such interactivity, in which information must be combined across multiple learning elements or premises to extract an underlying structure. Picklesimer et al. provided preliminary evidence that retrieval practice fails to enhance, and actually disrupts, TI. This study assessed the generality of that result. The current experiments employed a seven- or eight-element TI paradigm in which participants initially learned a set of premise pairs (e.g., A > B, B > C, and C > D) and then engaged in either restudy or retrieval practice of the premise pairs before taking a final test that assessed memory for the original premise pairs and one’s ability to make TIs (e.g., to infer that B > D). Experiments 1 and 2 used pictorial materials and simultaneous presentation of premises during learning, a form of presentation that has induced testing effects on other forms of inference. For TI, the results were unchanged from Picklesimer et al.—TI was worse for retrieval practice than restudy. Experiment 3 used verbal materials and likewise found worse TI for retrieval practice. A small-scale meta-analysis combining the current experiments with those of Picklesimer et al. revealed a significant negative testing effect on TI (d = −0.37). Although retrieval practice enhances many aspects of memory, this fundamental aspect of human reasoning may be impaired by retrieval practice.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-01T09:28:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231156732
       
  • Effect of colour–shape associations on visual feature discrimination

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Na Chen, Katsumi Watanabe
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Non-synesthetes exhibit a tendency to associate specific shapes with particular colours (i.e., circle-red, triangle-yellow, and square-blue). Here, we used two Go/No-go tasks to examine the congruency priming effect of colour–shape associations on recognition efficiency of colour and shape features. At the beginning of each trial, a target colour or shape word was introduced, followed by a coloured-shape visual stimulus. Participants were required to press a key to a target stimulus (“go” cues), while withholding their responses to a non-target stimulus (“no-go” cues). The targets were presented either visually (visual word, Experiment 1) or auditorily (spoken word, Experiment 2). Results showed a congruency effect of colour–shape associations on recognition efficiency for colour and shape features in both experiments. Response times were shorter in congruent than in incongruent conditions, that a target could be recognised faster when it was presented with the congruent visual features than with incongruent ones, irrespective of the presentation form (visual or auditory). These results suggest that colour–shape associations can be strong to influence visual recognition of colour and shape features.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-01T09:26:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231156432
       
  • The effects of semantic similarity on Mandarin speakers’ referential
           expressions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yangzi Zhou, Holly P Branigan, Yue Yu, Martin J Pickering
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has found apparently contradictory effects of a semantically similar competitor on how people refer to previously mentioned entities. To address this issue, we conducted two picture-description experiments in spoken Mandarin. In Experiment 1, participants saw pictures and heard sentences referring to both the target referent and a competitor, and then described actions involving only the target referent. They produced fewer omissions and more repeated noun phrases when the competitor was semantically similar to the target referent than otherwise. In Experiment 2, participants saw introductory pictures and heard sentences referring to only the target referent, and then described actions involving both the target referent and a competitor. They produced more omissions and fewer pronouns when the competitor was semantically similar to the target referent than otherwise. We interpret the results in terms of the representation of discourse entities and the stages of language production.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-03-01T09:19:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231154578
       
  • Interpretation of ambiguous trials along with reasoning strategy is
           related to causal judgements in zero-contingency learning

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gaëtan Béghin, Henry Markovits
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The dual strategy model suggests that people can use either a Statistical or a Counterexample reasoning strategy, which reflects two qualitatively different ways of processing information. This model has been shown to capture individual differences in a wide array of tasks, such as contingency learning. Here, we examined whether this extends to individual differences in the interpretation of contingency information where effects are ambiguous. Previous studies, using perceptually complex stimuli, have shown that the way in which participants interpret ambiguous effects predicts causal judgements. In two studies, we attempted to replicate this effect using a small number of clearly identifiable cues. Results show that the interpretation of ambiguous effects as effect present is related to final contingency judgements. In addition, results showed that Statistical reasoners had a stronger tendency to interpret ambiguous effects as effect present than Counterexample reasoners, which mediates the difference in contingency judgements.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-24T12:38:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231155897
       
  • Struggling with L2 alphabet: The role of proficiency in orthographic
           learning

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yang Fu, Beatriz Bermúdez-Margaretto, Huili Wang, Dong Tang, Fernando Cuetos, Alberto Dominguez
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The present study examined the process of L2 orthographic learning in bilinguals with distant L1–L2 orthographies. Chinese–English bilinguals with various English proficiency levels were trained with novel L2 words during a reading task. In contrast to higher proficient learners, those with lower L2 proficiency exhibited increased effects of length, frequency, and lexicality across exposures and at-chance recognition of trained words. Importantly, an additional post-training task assessing the lexical integration of trained words evidenced the engagement in different L1–L2 reading strategies across different levels of L2 proficiency, hence suggesting the L1 holistic processing at the base of the effortful establishment of L2 orthographic representations shown by lower-proficient learners. Overall, these findings indicate the role of L2 proficiency in the influence that cross-linguistic variation exerts on L2 orthographic learning and highlight the need for English education programmes to tackle specific grapheme-to-phoneme skills in non-alphabetic target communities.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-22T12:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231154910
       
  • Visual movement impairs duration discrimination at short intervals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nathércia L Torres, São Luís Castro, Susana Silva
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The classic advantage of audition over vision in time processing has been recently challenged by studies using continuously moving visual stimuli such as bouncing balls. Bouncing balls drive beat-based synchronisation better than static visual stimuli (flashes) and as efficiently as auditory ones (beeps). It is yet unknown how bouncing balls modulate performance in duration perception. Our previous study addressing this was inconclusive: there were no differences among bouncing balls, flashes, and beeps, but this could have been due to the fact that intervals were too long to allow sensitivity to modality (visual vs auditory). In this study, we conducted a first experiment to determine whether shorter intervals elicit cross-stimulus differences. We found that short (mean 157 ms) but not medium (326 ms) intervals made duration perception worse for bouncing balls compared with flashes and beeps. In a second experiment, we investigated whether the lower efficiency of bouncing balls was due to experimental confounds, lack of realism, or movement. We ruled out the experimental confounds and found support for the hypothesis that visual movement—be it continuous or discontinuous—impairs duration perception at short interval lengths. Therefore, unlike beat-based synchronisation, duration perception does not benefit from continuous visual movement, which may even have a detrimental effect at short intervals.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-22T05:22:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231156542
       
  • The visual size is enough to automatically induce the potentiation of
           grasping behaviours

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Loïc P Heurley, Mohamed Halim Harrak, Ronan Guerineau, Laurent P Ferrier, Nicolas Morgado
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Seeing objects usually grasped with a power or a precision grip (e.g., an apple vs a cherry) potentiates power- and precision-grip responses, respectively. An embodied account suggests that this effect occurs because object conceptual representations would lie on a motor simulation process. A new account, named the size-coding account, argues that this effect could be rather due to an overlapping of size codes used to represent both manipulable objects and response options. In this article, we investigate whether this potentiation effect could be merely due to a low-level visual feature that favours a size-coding of stimuli: the visual size in which objects are presented. Accordingly, we conducted two experiments in which we presented highly elementary and non-graspable stimuli (i.e., ink spots) either large or small rather than graspable objects. Our results showed that the mere visual size automatically potentiates power- and precision-grip responses that are in line with the size-coding account of the potentiation effect of grasping behaviours. Moreover, these results appeal to improve the methodological control of the size of stimuli especially when researchers try to support the embodied account.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-22T05:16:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231155836
       
  • Effect of cognitive style on time-based prospective memory

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Guo Yunfei, Gan Jiaqun, Wang Mingyuan, Ji Xiaoqi, Li Yongxin
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Field-independent and field-dependent individuals have different reference patterns and cognitive processing preferences. Field-independent individuals tend to rely on internal capabilities and use internal references to process information, while field-dependent individuals mainly rely on external references and focus on external information. Individuals with two cognitive styles have different attention patterns to perform time-based prospective memory (TBPM) tasks, with different effects on their TBPM performance. This study explored the influence of field-independent and field-dependent cognitive styles on TBPM. In Experiment 1, the attention load was manipulated by the difficulty of the ongoing task. The results showed that the field-independent individuals performed better than the field-dependent individuals only under a low-difficulty condition, indicating that the field-independent individuals had advantages in TBPM but were easily affected by the attention load. Experiment 2 further introduced external reminders to provide individuals with more external information and reduce individual attention consumption in internal time information processing to manipulate attention load. The results showed that external cues eliminated the difference between field-independent and field-dependent individuals in TBPM.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-22T01:06:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231156022
       
  • People prefer to predict middle, most likely quantitative outcomes (not
           extreme ones), but they still over-estimate their likelihood

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marie Juanchich, Miroslav Sirota, Karl Halvor Teigen
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Past work showed a tendency to associate verbal probabilities (e.g., possible, unlikely) with extreme quantitative outcomes, and to over-estimate the outcomes’ probability of occurrence. In the first four experiments (Experiment 1, Experiments 2a–c), we tested whether this “extremity effect” reflects a general preference for extreme (vs central or less extreme) values of a distribution. Participants made predictions based on a frequency distribution in two scenarios. We did not find a preference for extreme outcomes. Instead, most of the participants made a prediction about the middle, most frequent outcome of the distribution (i.e., the modal outcome), but still over-estimated the outcomes’ probabilities. In Experiment 3, we tested whether the over-estimation could be better explained by an “at least”/“at most” reading of the predictions. We found that only a minority of participants interpreted predictions as the lower/upper bounds of an open interval and that these interpretations were not associated with heightened probability estimates. In the final three experiments (Experiments 4a–c), we tested whether participants perceived extreme outcome predictions as more correct, useful and interesting than modal outcome predictions. We found that extreme and modal predictions were considered equally correct, but modal predictions were judged most useful, whereas extreme predictions were judged to be more interesting. Overall, our results indicate that the preference for extreme outcomes is limited to specific verbal probability expressions, whereas the over-estimation of the probability of quantitative outcomes may be more general than anticipated and applies to non-extreme values as well.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-18T11:40:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231153394
       
  • Word-association norms for 1,100 French words with varying levels of
           concreteness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dounia Lakhzoum, Marie Izaute, Ludovic Ferrand
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The organisation of concepts in the mental lexicon is a widely studied research topic in experimental psychology. For instance, several studies have shown that whereas concrete concepts are organised according to semantic similarity, abstract concepts are organised according to verbal association. However, these results are not systematically replicated, mainly due to a lack of normative database especially in French. To that end, we introduce a French word-association database for 1,100 cues with varying levels of concreteness from abstract to concrete concepts. Analyses from the word-association task revealed stronger association strength for concrete concepts compared with abstract concepts. Additional results showed that cues tend to elicit responses of a similar level of concreteness. The database will be useful for investigators interested in French verbal associations for abstract and concrete concepts. The data (available on OSF https://osf.io/dhuqs/) introduce responses organised according to association strength and provides cue concreteness.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-15T11:31:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231154454
       
  • Exploring the carry-over of top-down attentional settings in dynamic
           conditions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Catherine Thompson, Maryam Jalali, Peter J Hills
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A top-down attentional set can persist from a relevant task to an irrelevant task, influencing allocation of attentional resources, visual search, and performance. While this “carry-over” effect has been found across numerous experiments, past studies have utilised paradigms that present similar tasks to the same spatial location. The present research explored whether attentional settings persist in more dynamic situations. In Experiment 1, participants played a computer game that encouraged a horizontal, vertical, or random spread of search. After 10 or 30 s, they moved 90° to their right and monitored a driving video for hazards. Eye movements to the videos were not affected by the characteristics of the preceding game, revealing no carry-over of attentional settings. One possible explanation for this was the visuospatial shift between the tasks. To explore this further, Experiment 2 adopted a similar paradigm to previous research; participants searched horizontal, vertical, or random letter strings before completing an image search. In one block the tasks were presented to the same screen, and in one block the tasks were presented to different screens (incorporating a 90° visuospatial shift mid-trial). Carry-over was found in the one-screen block, with a significantly wider horizontal search and a narrower vertical search in the pictures after a horizontal letter search. However, there was no carry-over from the letter to the picture task in the two-screen block. This indicates the flexibility of attentional control in dynamic situations, and it is suggested that persistence of attentional settings will be most costly under stable conditions.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-10T11:39:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231155018
       
  • Social and non-social categorisation in investment decisions and learning

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maïka Telga, José A Alcalá, Juan Lupiáñez
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Categorical processes allow us to make sense of the environment effortlessly by grouping stimuli sharing relevant features. Although these processes occur in both social and non-social contexts, motivational, affective, and epistemic factors specific to the social world may motivate individuation over categorisation of social compared with non-social stimuli. In one experiment, we tested this hypothesis by analysing the reliance on categorical versus individuating information when making investment decisions about social and non-social targets. In an adaptation of the iterative trust game, participants from three experimental groups had to predict the economic outcomes associated with either humans (i.e., social stimuli), artificial races (i.e., social-like stimuli), or artworks (i.e., non-social stimuli) to earn economic rewards. We observed that investment decisions with humans were initially biased by categorical information in the form of gender stereotypes, but later improved through an individuating learning approach. In contrast, decisions made with non-social stimuli were initially unbiased by categorical information, but the category–outcomes associations learned through repeated interactions were quickly used to categorise new targets. These results are discussed along with motivational and perceptual mechanisms involved in investment decisions and learning about social and non-social agents.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-04T11:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231153137
       
  • The song that never ends: The effect of repeated exposure on the
           development of an earworm

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Callula Killingly, Philippe Lacherez
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      An “earworm”—the experience of a catchy melody that repeats persistently in the mind—is a ubiquitous yet mysterious cognitive phenomenon. Previous research demonstrates that earworms for vocal music engage working memory resources, manifesting as “inner singing.” This study investigated whether this effect is moderated by prior exposure to music. In one experimental session, participants (N = 44) were presented with four novel song choruses. To manipulate exposure, each song was presented between one and four times, counterbalanced across participants. The following day, participants undertook a serial recall task during and following presentation of each song. In addition, they rated the music on familiarity, enjoyment, their desire to sing along, and perceived catchiness, both before and following the experiment. Increased exposure to novel songs on the first day tended to result in greater interference on task performance during and following their presentation on the second day, yet the effect varied depending on the song. Ratings of the desire to sing along and perceived familiarity increased significantly between the sessions for all songs. These findings are important in understanding the relative influence of familiarity and song-level characteristics on the development of an earworm.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-04T11:11:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231152368
       
  • No conclusive evidence for number-induced attentional shifts in a temporal
           order judgement task

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Guido Hesselmann, André Knops
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect refers to the observation that relatively small (e.g., 1) and large numbers (e.g., 9) elicit faster left- and right-sided manual responses, respectively. In a variation known as the attentional SNARC effect, merely looking at numbers caused a left- or right-ward shift in covert spatial attention, depending on the number’s magnitude. In our study, we probed the notion that numbers induce shifts of spatial attention in accordance with their position on a mental number line (MNL). Critically, we removed any putative spatial response code that may contaminate the responses. We used a square and a tilted square as targets, thereby situating the decisive response dimension in the ventral, non-spatial processing stream. In two experiments where numbers were used as non-informative cues preceding a temporal order judgement (TOJ) task, we did not observe a deflection of the locus of spatial attention as a function of the numerical magnitude of the cue. In a third experiment, finding a significant modulation of TOJ performance as a function of the pointing direction of arrow cues allowed us to rule out the possibility that the absence of any significant modulation in Experiments 1 and 2 was due to a lack of sensitivity of our task set-up. We conclude from the current findings that the spatial codes that the perception and naming of numbers potentially elicit are not in and by themselves sufficient to elicit deflections of spatial attention.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T12:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231152406
       
  • Implicit and explicit processing on base rate neglect problems

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Robert B Ricco, Hideya Koshino, Jasmine Bonsel, Jay Von Monteza, Stephen Ware
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Base rate reasoning as assessed on Base rate neglect (BRN) Tasks has been studied extensively, with a sizable body of findings indicating that both logical (base rate) and belief-based (case description) processing contribute to responses on the task. Various task conditions have been found to influence which type of processing controls responding. The present study compares two instructional sets, one which requires responding in terms of the base rate information and one which requires responding in accordance with the case description. This manipulation allows for a distinction between explicit processing (set-consistent) and implicit processing (set-inconsistent and potentially interfering). We also manipulated the extremity of the base rates employed in the task and the extremity of the stereotypes contained in the case description. We argue that extremity effects should be present in implicit, but not explicit, processing, suggesting that these effects are the result of limitations in the control of set-inconsistent processing. The results generally supported the predictions. In addition, a proclivity for analytical thinking, as measured by actively open-minded thinking (AOT), was associated with less interference of belief-based processing on logical responding, but greater interference of logical processing on belief-based responding.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T12:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218231152361
       
  • Verbal deception in picture naming

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eduardo Navarrete, Marta De Pedis, Anna Lorenzoni
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Telling a lie requires several cognitive processes. We investigated three cognitive processes involved in verbal deception: the decision to deceive, the suppression of the true statement, and the construction of the false statement. In a standard picture-naming task, participants were instructed to commit true and false naming statements. Critically, participants could freely decide to name the picture (i.e., true naming events) or to commit a verbal deception and use a different name (i.e., false naming events). Different types of analysis were performed with the aim of exploring the influence of semantic, lexical, and phonological information of the target picture in the decision, suppression, and construction processes. The first type of analysis revealed that participants decided to lie more often when the target picture was less typical or less familiar. The second and third types of analysis focused on the false naming events. False naming latencies turned out to be faster when the name of the target picture was a highly frequent or an earlier-acquired name, suggesting an influence of lexical variables in the suppression of the true statement. The third analysis type explored the phonological relationship between the word that participants uttered in the false statements and the target picture name. No phonological influences emerged in this last analysis. These findings demonstrate that verbal deception is tied to semantic and lexical variables corresponding to true statements.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T12:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221146540
       
  • The unseen, the seen, and the spoken: Latent and overt priming in cyclic
           picture naming

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Channing E Hambric, Pádraig G O’Séaghdha
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Language production entails selecting words in the face of internally, and sometimes externally, driven competition that influences the long-term accessibility of both selected words and competitors. Because both endogenous and externally presented competitors usually result in semantic interference, it is often assumed that they engage the same underlying processes. We question this assumption. Specifically, we propose that latent primes may more naturally commingle with endogenous lexical activation whereas overt primes elicit strong control processes. Two experiments examined the effects of latent (masked) and overt (picture–word) priming in combination with cyclic picture naming of small sets of taxonomically or thematically related or unrelated pictures. A subsequent continuous picture naming phase was designed to assess enduring effects of service as a prime or target. Only taxonomic relations showed substantial interference in cyclic naming. Latent priming tended to increase interference for taxonomic relations, but it produced facilitation for thematic relations. In contrast, overt priming induced interference for both types of relation, indicating exertion of cognitive control. In the continuous picture naming phases, accessibility was hindered for previously presented latent primes (Experiment 1) but enhanced for previously overt primes (Experiment 2). Surprisingly, interference in cyclic naming did not carry forward to the continuous phase. These findings suggest that masked priming may be a viable intervention in the internal dynamics of lexical selection. In contrast, they also add to the body of evidence questioning the validity of using picture–word procedures to study inherent semantic interference.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T12:54:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221144460
       
  • Anaesthetics and time perception: A review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jordan J Wehrman, Clara C Chung, Robert Sanders
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Consciousness requires subjective experience in the “now.” Establishing “now,” however, necessitates temporal processing. In the current article, we review one method of altering consciousness, anaesthetic drug administration, and its effects on perceived duration. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, and ScienceDirect databases, and article reference sections, for combinations of anaesthetic drugs and time perception tasks, finding a total of 36 articles which met our inclusion criteria. We categorised these articles with regard to whether they altered the felt passage of time, short or long interval timing, or were motor timing tasks. We found that various drugs alter the perceived passage of time; ketamine makes time subjectively slow down while GABAergic drugs make time subjectively speed up. At a short interval there is little established evidence of a shift in time perception, though temporal estimates appear more variable. Similarly, when asked to use time to optimise responses (i.e., in motor timing tasks), various anaesthetic agents make timing more variable. Longer durations are estimated as lasting longer than their objective duration, though there is some variation across articles in this regard. We conclude by proposing further experiments to examine time perception under altered states of consciousness and ask whether it is possible to perceive the passage of time of events which do not necessarily reach the level of conscious perception. The variety of methods used raises the need for more systematic investigations of time perception under anaesthesia. We encourage future investigations into the overlap of consciousness and time perception to advance both fields.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T09:12:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221144614
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.197.111.121
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-