A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 4 5 6        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 1023 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Psychiatry and Psychology Journal : APPJ     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 360)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aging Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 180)
An-Nafs : Jurnal Fakultas Psikologi     Open Access  
Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access  
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analogías del Comportamiento     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 248)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aprender     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archives of Depression and Anxiety     Open Access  
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Augmented Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior and Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioural Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 150)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers d’Études sur la Représentation     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Art Therapy : Research, Practice, and Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
CES Psicología     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Contemporary Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos de Psicología     Open Access  
cultura & psyché : Journal of Cultural Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture - Society - Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 23)

        1 2 3 4 5 6        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1747-0218 - ISSN (Online) 1747-0226
This journal is no longer being updated because:
    RSS is not working
  • High bladder pressure reduces the ability to filter out interference from
           distractors in low perceptual load condition

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hasan Gunduz, Turan Gunduz, Arzu Ozkan Ceylan
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      According to the load theory of attention, an active cognitive control mechanism is needed to ensure that behaviour is controlled by target-relevant information when distractors are also perceived. Although the active cognitive control mechanism consists of working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition components, predictions regarding the load effects of this mechanism were derived mostly from studies on working memory. We aimed to test whether these predictions are also valid for an inhibition component. The inhibitory load was manipulated physiologically by creating different bladder pressure and its effects on distractor interference were examined under low and high perceptual load conditions. The results indicated that the availability of inhibitory control resources was important for decreasing the interference of distractors in the low perceptual load condition and that the high perceptual load reduced the effects of distractors independently from the availability of inhibitory resources. The results were consistent with the predictions of load theory, and to the best of our knowledge, the study provided the first piece of evidence in terms of the load effect of inhibition component on distractor interference.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T06:12:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211068828
       
  • Working memory capacity and dual mechanisms of cognitive control: An
           experimental-correlational approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kevin P Rosales, Jean-Paul Snijder, Andrew RA Conway, Corentin Gonthier
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Working memory is thought to be strongly related to cognitive control. Recent studies have sought to understand this relationship under the prism of the dual mechanisms of control (DMC) framework, in which cognitive control is thought to operate in two distinct modes: proactive and reactive. Several authors have concluded that a high working memory capacity is associated with a tendency to engage the more effective mechanism of proactive control. However, the predicted pattern of proactive control use has never been observed; correlational evidence is made difficult to interpret by the overall superiority of participants with a high working memory capacity: they tend to perform better even when proactive control should be detrimental. In two experiments, we used an experimental-correlational approach to experimentally induce the use of reactive or proactive control in the AX-CPT. The relation between working memory capacity and performance was unaffected, incompatible with the hypothesis that the better performance of participants with a high working memory capacity in the task is due to their use of proactive control. It remains unclear how individual differences in working memory capacity relate to cognitive control under the DMC framework.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T06:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211066410
       
  • Do cognitive load and ADHD traits affect the tendency to prioritise social
           information in scenes'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Astrid Priscilla Martinez-Cedillo, Kevin Dent, Tom Foulsham
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We report two experiments investigating the effect of working memory (WM) load on selective attention. Experiment 1 was a modified version of Lavie et al. and confirmed that increasing memory load disrupted performance in the classic flanker task. Experiment 2 used the same manipulation of WM load to probe attention during the viewing of complex scenes while also investigating individual differences in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits. In the image-viewing task, we measured the degree to which fixations targeted each of two crucial objects: (1) a social object (a person in the scene) and (2) a non-social object of higher or lower physical salience. We compared the extent to which increasing WM load would change the pattern of viewing of the physically salient and socially salient objects. If attending to the social item requires greater default voluntary top-down resources, then the viewing of social objects should show stronger modulation by WM load compared with viewing of physically salient objects. The results showed that the social object was fixated to a greater degree than the other object (regardless of physical salience). Increased salience drew fixations away from the background leading to slightly increased fixations on the non-social object, without changing fixations on the social object. Increased levels of ADHD-like traits were associated with fewer fixations on the social object, but only in the high-salient, low-load condition. Importantly, WM load did not affect the number of fixations on the social object. Such findings suggest rather surprisingly that attending to a social area in complex stimuli is not dependent on the availability of voluntary top-down resources.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T06:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211066475
       
  • Using relative-speed-of-processing to explain the shielding function of
           task rules

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Liang Huang, Bingxin Li, Panjie Yan, Chen Xu, Xueyin Tian, Chengyang Han, Xiangqian Li
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In choice reaction tests, applying task rules instead of responding associatively can help participants shield against interference from distractors. However, the mechanism of such shielding functions remains unclear. Through four experiments, we show how the shielding function can be explained by the relative-speed-of-processing theory. Experiment 1A demonstrated that applying task rules can reduce the relative processing advantage of the distractor by facilitating the target processing speed, thereby eliminating the interference effect. In Experiment 1B and 1C, we manipulated the relative processing advantage between targets and distractors by adjusting the temporal sequence of the presence of the targets and distractors: stimuli appearing first would gain more relative processing advantage. The results showed that when the relative processing advantage of a distractor was large enough, applying task rules cannot help participants shield against the interference. Contrarily, when the relative processing advantage of the distractor was small, even without applying task rules, participants did not experience the interference. In Experiment 2, we directly manipulated the processing speed of the targets and the distractor, so that participants who responded associatively would facilitate target processing speed, but participants who applied task rules would not. Contrary to previous studies but in line with our prediction, in Experiment 2, only participants who applied task rules had interference effects. Our results suggested that applying the task rule might not help shield against the interference directly. Instead, applying task rules improves target processing speed, which in turn reduces the relative processing advantage of the distractor and eliminates the interference.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T04:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211069484
       
  • Fooling System 1 in the field of perception: Failure to intuitively detect
           attribute substitution in the flushtration count illusion

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cyril Thomas, Marion Botella, André Didierjean
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      To facilitate our interactions with the surroundings, the human brain sometimes reshapes the situations that it faces to simplify them. This phenomenon has been widely studied in the context of reasoning, especially through the attribute substitution error. It has however been given much less attention in the field of perception. Recent research on the bat-and-ball problem suggests that reasoners are able to intuitively detect attribute substitution errors. Using a perceptual illusion drawn from the field of magic, we investigate the extent to which a perceptual form of attribute substitution depends on executive resources and can be detected. We also investigate the relationship between susceptibility to attribute substitution error in the flushtration count illusion and in a French adaptation of the bat-and-ball problem. Finally, we investigate the link between the intuitive cognitive style (assessed by the cognitive reflection test) and the susceptibility to the flushtration count illusion. Our results suggest that participants do not detect perceptual attribute substitution error, that this phenomenon could be independent of the executive resources allocated to the task, and could rest on mechanisms distinct from those that produce errors in reasoning. We discuss differences between these two phenomena, and factors that may explain them.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T04:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211069381
       
  • Abstracts

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 193 - 196
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Volume 75, Issue 2, Page 193-196, February 2022.

      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-30T04:42:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211070687
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Sometimes nothing is simply nothing: Automatic processing of empty sets

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yam Zagury, Rut Zaks-Ohayon, Joseph Tzelgov, Michal Pinhas
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous work using the numerical comparison task has shown that an empty set, the nonsymbolic manifestation of zero, can be represented as the smallest quantity of the numerical magnitude system. In this study, we examined whether an empty set can be represented as such under conditions of automatic processing in which deliberate processing of stimuli magnitudes is not required by the task. In Experiment 1, participants performed physical and numerical comparisons of empty sets (i.e., empty frames) and of other numerosities presented as framed arrays of 1 to 9 dots. The physical sizes of the frames varied within pairs. Both tasks revealed a size congruity effect (SCE) for comparisons of non-empty sets. In contrast, comparisons to empty sets produced an inverted SCE in the physical comparison task, whereas no SCE was found for comparisons to empty sets in the numerical comparison task. In Experiment 2, participants performed an area comparison task using the same stimuli as Experiment 1 to examine the effect of visual cues on the automatic processing of empty sets. The results replicated the findings of the physical comparison task in Experiment 1. Taken together, our findings indicate that empty sets are not perceived as “zero,” but rather as “nothing,” when processed automatically. Hence, the perceptual dominance of empty sets seems to play a more important role under conditions of automatic processing, making it harder to abstract the numerical meaning of zero from empty sets.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-30T10:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211066436
       
  • Consonant and vowel transposition effects during reading development: A
           study on Italian children and adults

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Giacomo Spinelli, Lucia Colombo, Stephen J. Lupker
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, Colombo, Spinelli, and Lupker, using a masked transposed letter (TL) priming paradigm, investigated whether consonant/vowel (CV) status is important early in orthographic processing. In four experiments with Italian and English adults, they found equivalent TL priming effects for CC, CV, and VC transpositions. Here, we investigated that question with younger readers (aged 7–10) and adults, as well as whether masked TL priming effects might have a phonological basis. That is, because young children are likely to use phonological recoding in reading, the question was whether they would show TL priming that is affected by CV status. In Experiment 1, target words were preceded by primes in which two letters (either CV, VC, or CC) were transposed versus substituted (SL). We found significant TL priming effects, with an increasing developmental trend but, again, no letter type by priming interaction. In Experiment 2, the transpositions/substitutions involved only pairs of vowels with those vowels having either diphthong or hiatus status. The difference between these two types of vowel clusters is only phonological; thus, the question was, “Would TL priming interact with this factor'” TL priming was again found with an increasing trend with age, but there was no vowel cluster by priming interaction. There was, however, an overall vowel cluster effect (slower responding to words with hiatuses) which decreased with age. The results suggest that TL priming only taps the orthographic level, and that CV status only becomes important at a later phonological level.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T08:28:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211066301
       
  • A meta-analysis of the effects of episodic future thinking on delay
           discounting

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jun-yan Ye, Qing-yu Ding, Ji-fang Cui, Zhe Liu, Lu-xia Jia, Xiao-jing Qin, Hua Xu, Ya Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Delay discounting (DD) refers to the phenomenon in which the subjective value of future rewards is reduced over time. There are individual differences in the DD rate, and increased discounting has been observed in those with various psychiatric disorders. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the act of vividly imagining events that may happen in the future. Studies have shown that EFT could reduce DD, although inconsistent results have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the efficacy with which EFT reduces DD and to identify potential moderators. Forty-seven studies (including 63 contrasts) were included in the final analysis. EFT was found to significantly reduce DD (Hedges’ g = 0.52). Moderator analysis showed that positive EFT (g = 0.64) was more effective in reducing DD than EFT with the valence not specifically mentioned (g = 0.28) and EFT with neutral or negative valence (g = –0.03). In addition, several factors related to the control task and DD task were related to the efficacy of EFT to reduce DD. These findings have implications for using EFT to reduce DD in the future.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T08:23:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211066282
       
  • Behavioural evidence of altered sensory attenuation in obesity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Federica Scarpina, Carlotta Fossataro, Alice Rossi Sebastiano, Francesca Bruni, Massimo Scacchi, Alessandro Mauro, Francesca Garbarini
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Body ownership (i.e., the conscious belief of owning a body) and sense of agency (i.e., being the agent of one’s own movements) are part of a pre-reflective experience of bodily self, which grounds on low-level complex sensory–motor processes. Although previous literature had already investigated body ownership in obesity, sense of agency was never explored. Here, we exploited the sensory attenuation effect (i.e., an implicit marker of the sense of agency; SA effect) to investigate whether the sense of agency was altered in a sample of 18 individuals affected by obesity as compared with 18 healthy-weight individuals. In our experiment, participants were asked to rate the perceived intensity of self-generated and other-generated tactile stimuli. Healthy-weight individuals showed a significantly greater SA effect than participants affected by obesity. Indeed, while healthy-weight participants perceived self-generated stimuli as significantly less intense as compared to externally generated ones, this difference between stimuli was not reported by affected participants. Our results relative to the SA effect pinpointed an altered sense of agency in obesity. We discussed this finding within the motor control framework with reference to obesity. We encouraged future research to further explore such effect and its role in shaping the clinical features of obesity.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T08:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211065766
       
  • Framing the area: An efficient approach for avoiding visual interference
           and optimising visual search in adolescents

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sabrina Bouhassoun, Christian Gerlach, Grégoire Borst, Nicolas Poirel
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Attentional resources are limited, and resistance to interference plays a critical role during cognitive tasks and learning. Previous studies have shown that participants find it difficult to avoid being distracted by global visual information when processing local details. In this study, we investigated an innovative approach for enhancing the processing of local visual details by middle-school adolescents. Two groups completed a classic global/local visual search task in which a predefined target could appear at the global or local level, either with or without a frame. The results from the no-frame display group provided a direct replication in adolescents of previous findings in adults, with increasing number of interferent stimuli presented in the display adversely affecting detection of local targets. In addition, by varying the numbers of distractors inside and outside the frame, we showed that distractors only interfered with the processing of local information inside the frame, while the deleterious impact of increases in distracting information was prevented when the distractors were outside the frame. These findings suggest that when a frame delimits an attentional area, the influence of an increasing number of distractors present outside the frame is eliminated. We assume that application of a frame allows for efficient delimitation of attention deployment to a restricted topographical visual area in adolescents. These results evidence that processing of local details can be improved without modifying the structure of the stimuli, and provide promising clues for optimising attentional resources during time-absorbing visual searches. Applicable implications in the educational field are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T08:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211065011
       
  • Feelings first' Sex differences in affective and cognitive processes
           in emotion recognition

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Judith Bek, Bronagh Donahoe, Nuala Brady
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The recognition of emotional expressions is important for social understanding and interaction, but findings on the relationship between emotion recognition, empathy, and theory of mind, as well as sex differences in these relationships, have been inconsistent. This may reflect the relative involvement of affective and cognitive processes at different stages of emotion recognition and in different experimental paradigms. In this study, images of faces were morphed from neutral to full expression of five basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness), which participants were asked to identify as quickly and accurately as possible. Accuracy and response times from healthy males (n = 46) and females (n = 43) were analysed in relation to self-reported empathy (Empathy Quotient; EQ) and mentalising/theory of mind (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test). Females were faster and more accurate than males in recognising dynamic emotions. Linear mixed-effects modelling showed that response times were inversely related to the emotional empathy subscale of the EQ, but this was accounted for by a female advantage on both measures. Accuracy was unrelated to EQ scores but was predicted independently by sex and Eyes Test scores. These findings suggest that rapid processing of dynamic emotional expressions is strongly influenced by sex, which may reflect the greater involvement of affective processes at earlier stages of emotion recognition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-27T11:55:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211064583
       
  • The letter position coding mechanism of second language words during
           sentence reading: Evidence from eye movements

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fengjiao Cong, Baoguo Chen
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We conducted three eye movement experiments to investigate the mechanism for coding letter positions in a person’s second language during sentence reading; we also examined the role of morphology in this process with a more rigorous manipulation. Given that readers obtain information not only from currently fixated words (i.e., the foveal area) but also from upcoming words (i.e., the parafoveal area) to guide their reading, we examined both when the targets were fixated (Exp. 1) and when the targets were seen parafoveally (Exps. 2 and 3). First, we found the classic transposed letter (TL) effect in Exp. 1, but not in Exp. 2 or 3. This implies that flexible letter position coding exists during sentence reading. However, this was limited to words located in the foveal area, suggesting that L2 readers whose L2 proficiency is not as high as skilled native readers are not able to extract and utilise the parafoveal letter identity and position information of a word, whether the word length is long (Exp. 2) or short (Exp. 3). Second, we found morphological information to influence the magnitude of the TL effect in Exp. 1. These results provide new eye movement evidence for the flexibility of L2 letter position coding during sentence reading, as well as the interactions between the different internal representations of words in this process. Future L2 reading frameworks should integrate word recognition and eye movement control models.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-27T11:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211064539
       
  • The role of perceptual and cognitive load on inattentional blindness: A
           systematic review and three meta-analyses

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jérémy Matias, Clément Belletier, Marie Izaute, Matthieu Lutz, Laetitia Silvert
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The inattentional blindness phenomenon refers to situations in which a visible but unexpected stimulus remains consciously unnoticed by observers. This phenomenon is classically explained as the consequence of insufficient attention, because attentional resources are already engaged elsewhere or vary between individuals. However, this attentional-resources view is broad and often imprecise regarding the variety of attentional models, the different pools of resources that can be involved in attentional tasks, and the heterogeneity of the experimental paradigms. Our aim was to investigate whether a classic theoretical model of attention, namely the Load Theory, could account for a large range of empirical findings in this field by distinguishing the role of perceptual and cognitive resources in attentional selection and attentional capture by irrelevant stimuli. As this model has been mostly built on implicit measures of distractor interference, it is unclear whether its predictions also hold when explicit and subjective awareness of an unexpected stimulus is concerned. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of inattentional blindness studies investigating the role of perceptual and/or cognitive resources. The results reveal that, in line with the perceptual account of the Load Theory, inattentional blindness significantly increases with the perceptual load of the task. However, the cognitive account of this theory is not clearly supported by the empirical findings analysed here. Furthermore, the interaction between perceptual and cognitive load on inattentional blindness remains understudied. Theoretical implications for the Load Theory are discussed, notably regarding the difference between attentional capture and subjective awareness paradigms, and further research directions are provided.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T10:52:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211064903
       
  • Corrigendum to: Regulating mirroring of emotions: A social-specific
           mechanism'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T10:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211067030
       
  • Lexically independent representation of the monotransitive structure

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Manabu Arai, Roger P.G. van Gompel
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Many previous studies have shown that syntactic priming is stronger when the verb is repeated between the prime and target sentences. This phenomenon is known as the lexical boost and has been interpreted as evidence for a direct association between individual verbs and structural information. However, in previous experiments, we found no lexical boost with the monotransitive structure and argued that this structure is not associated with individual lexical items. The results of these experiments instead suggested that monotransitive structure information is represented at the category-general level. The current study examined whether this finding generalises to verbs that can take either a monotransitive structure or a ditransitive structure. Our results demonstrated a lexical boost with double object ditransitive primes but not with monotransitive primes. This suggests that the monotransitive structure is indeed represented at the category-general level across different classes of verbs, whereas other structures are represented at the lexically specific level.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T10:23:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211061225
       
  • Misretrieval but not misrepresentation: A feature misbinding account of
           post-interpretive effects in number attraction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jack Dempsey, Kiel Christianson, Darren Tanner
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Attraction effects in comprehension have reliably shown a grammaticality asymmetry in which mismatching plural attractors confer facilitatory interference for ungrammatical verbs, but no processing cost for grammatical verbs. While this has favoured cue-based retrieval accounts of attraction phenomena in comprehension, Patson and Husband offered offline evidence suggesting that comprehenders systematically misrepresent number information in attraction phrases, leaving open the possibility for faulty noun phrase (NP) representations later in processing. The current study employs two self-paced reading discourse experiments to test for number attraction misrepresentations in real time. Specifically, the attraction phrases occurred as embedded direct object phrases, allowing for a direct test of the role of attractor noun number in head noun number misrepresentation (i.e., no number cue from verb). Although no online evidence for misrepresentation was found, a third single-sentence rapid serial visual presentation experiment showed error rates to offline probes corroborating the post-interpretive findings from Patson and Husband, suggesting that a search in memory for associative features may not employ the same processes as the formation of dependencies in discourse comprehension. The findings are discussed in the framework of feature misbinding in memory in line with recent post-interpretive accounts of offline comprehension errors.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T09:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211061578
       
  • Serial dependence of facial identity for own- and other-race faces

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kaitlyn Turbett, Linda Jeffery, Jason Bell, Andrew Digges, Yueyuan Zheng, Janet Hsiao, Romina Palermo
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It is well established that individuals are better at recognising faces of their own-race compared with other-races; however, there is ongoing debate regarding the perceptual mechanisms that may be involved and therefore sensitive to face-race. Here, we ask whether serial dependence of facial identity, a bias where the perception of a face’s identity is biased towards a previously presented face, shows an other-race effect. Serial dependence is associated with face recognition ability and appears to operate on high-level, face-selective representations, like other candidate mechanisms (e.g., holistic processing). We therefore expected to find an other-race effect for serial dependence for our Caucasian and Asian participants. While participants showed robust effects of serial dependence for all faces, only Caucasian participants showed stronger serial dependence for own-race faces. Intriguingly, we found that individual variation in own-race, but not other-race, serial dependence was significantly associated with face recognition abilities. Preliminary evidence also suggested that other-race contact is associated with other-race serial dependence. In conclusion, though we did not find an overall difference in serial dependence for own- versus other-race faces in both participant groups, our results highlight that this bias may be functionally different for own- versus other-race faces and sensitive to racial experience.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T09:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211059430
       
  • Remembering spatial words: Sensorimotor simulation affects verbal
           recognition memory

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alper Kumcu, Robin L. Thompson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous evidence shows that words with implicit spatial meaning or metaphorical spatial associations are perceptually simulated and can guide attention to associated locations (e.g., bird—upward location). In turn, simulated representations interfere with visual perception at an associated location. The present study investigates the effect of spatial associations on short-term verbal recognition memory to disambiguate between modal and amodal accounts of spatial interference effects across two experiments. Participants in both experiments encoded words presented in congruent and incongruent locations. Congruent and incongruent locations were based on an independent norming task. In Experiment 1, an auditorily presented word probed participants’ memory as they were visually cued to either the original location of the probe word or a diagonal location at retrieval. In Experiment 2, there was no cue at retrieval but a neutral encoding condition in which words normed to central locations were shown. Results show that spatial associations affected memory performance although spatial information was neither relevant nor necessary for successful retrieval: Words in Experiment 1 were retrieved more accurately when there was a visual cue in the congruent location at retrieval but only if they were encoded in a non-canonical position. A visual cue in the congruent location slowed down memory performance when retrieving highly imageable words. With no cue at retrieval (Experiment 2), participants were better at remembering spatially congruent words as opposed to neutral words. Results provide evidence in support of sensorimotor simulation in verbal memory and a perceptual competition account of spatial interference effect.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T09:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211059011
       
  • Temporal grouping effects in verbal and musical short-term memory: Is
           serial order representation domain-general'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Simon Gorin
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The question of the domain-general versus domain-specific nature of the serial order mechanisms involved in short-term memory is currently under debate. The present study aimed at addressing this question through the study of temporal grouping effects in short-term memory tasks with musical material, a domain which has received little interest so far. The goal was to determine whether positional coding—currently the best account of grouping effect in verbal short-term memory—represents a viable mechanism to explain grouping effects in the musical domain. In a first experiment, non-musicians performed serial reconstruction of 6-tone sequences, where half of the sequences was grouped by groups of three items and the other half presented at a regular pace. The overall data pattern suggests that temporal grouping exerts on tone sequences reconstruction the same effects as in the verbal domain, except for ordering errors which were not characterised by the typical increase of interpositions. This pattern has been replicated in two additional experiments with verbal material, using the same grouping structure as in the musical experiment. The findings support that verbal and musical short-term memory domains are characterised by similar temporal grouping effects for the recall of 6-item lists grouped by three, but it also suggests the existence of boundary condition to observe an increase in interposition errors predicted by positional theories.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-22T09:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211057466
       
  • Your action does matter to me: Examining the role of the co-actor’s
           action-effects in resolving the self-other discrimination problem

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kévin Campos-Moinier, Lionel Brunel
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Sharing a task with another person can introduce the need to discriminate representations that refer to our own action from that of the other person’s. The current understanding is that information about the stimulus event drives the self-other discrimination process, as it promotes (via the reactivation of feature codes) the representation that encodes the corresponding action. However, this mechanistic explanation relies on experimental situations in which stimulus event information (e.g., spatial location) is always and directly available. Thus, it remains unclear whether and how we could successfully discriminate between self- and other related action representations in the absence of such information. The present study addressed this unanswered question using a novel joint Simon task-based paradigm. We report the results of three experiments in which we manipulated the availability of stimulus event information into the contralateral space. Our findings demonstrate that participants are able to compensate for the absence of stimulus event information by relying on temporal features of their co-actor’s action-effects (Experiment 1). Even more surprising was that participants continued to monitor the temporal features of their co-actor’s actions even when given a verbal signal by their co-actor (Experiments 2a), or full access to the common workspace (Experiment 2b). Our results are strong evidence that the representation of actions is not purely stimulus driven. They suggest that the temporal dimension of the other person’s actions is able to drive the self-other discrimination process, in the same way as other perceptual dimensions and feature codes that are shared with the stimulus event.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-13T05:42:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211056929
       
  • The nature of perceptual units in Chinese character recognition

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Joanna Isselé, Fabienne Chetail, Alain Content
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Chinese character recognition is based on a limited set of recurrent stroke patterns. Most Chinese characters are a combination of two or more of these components. To test whether readers are sensitive to combinations of components (or multi-component units [MCUs]) within a character, we conducted two probe detection tasks where participants had to detect the presence of a component in a target character. Critically, some targets contained an MCU that can stand as a character on its own, with its own meaning and sound, while other targets contained an MCU that only exists embedded within other characters (no associated meaning and sound). Participants had more difficulty detecting component probes that were a part of an existing MCU, compared to component probes that belonged to a non-existing MCU. These findings suggest that existing MCUs are a perceptual unit in Chinese character recognition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-13T05:35:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211056895
       
  • Degree of learning and linear forgetting

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jerry S Fisher, Gabriel A Radvansky
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to assess whether the degree of learning influences the observation of memory retention and forgetting that follows a linear pattern. According to our retention accuracy from fragmented traces (RAFT) model, one factor that should increase the likelihood of this is when there is greater learning of the material. Higher levels of learning can increase the number of trace components, making it more likely that reconstruction or partial retrieval can lead to an accurate response on a memory test. Here, we report three new experiments, as well as re-analyses of existing data from the literature, to show that increasing the level of learning in some ways can lead to increases in the likelihood of observing linear forgetting. For Experiment 1, people learned materials to different levels. This learning involved cued recall testing during memorisation. Linear forgetting was observed with increased learning. For Experiment 2, learning did not involve cued recall testing. Linear forgetting was not observed. Although our aim was not to test theories of retrieval practice, for Experiment 3, we showed that when people engage in this process, the pattern of retention and forgetting becomes more linear. Overall, these data are consistent with the RAFT theory and support mechanisms that it suggests can lead to the observation of linear forgetting.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-13T05:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211056464
       
  • The profile of real-time competition in spoken and written word
           recognition: More similar than different

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kristi Hendrickson, Keith Apfelbaum, Claire Goodwin, Christina Blomquist, Kelsey Klein, Bob McMurray
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Word recognition occurs across two sensory modalities: auditory (spoken words) and visual (written words). While each faces different challenges, they are often described in similar terms as a competition process by which multiple lexical candidates are activated and compete for recognition. While there is a general consensus regarding the types of words that compete during spoken word recognition, there is less consensus for written word recognition. The present study develops a novel version of the Visual World Paradigm (VWP) to examine written word recognition and uses this to assess the nature of the competitor set during word recognition in both modalities using the same experimental design. For both spoken and written words, we found evidence for activation of onset competitors (cohorts, e.g., cat, cap) and words that contain the same phonemes or letters in reverse order (anadromes, e.g., cat, tack). We found no evidence of activation for rhymes (e.g., cat, hat). The results across modalities were quite similar, with the exception that for spoken words, cohorts were more active than anadromes, whereas for written words activation was similar. These results suggest a common characterisation of lexical similarity across spoken and written words: temporal or spatial order is coarsely coded, and onsets may receive more weight in both systems. However, for spoken words, temporary ambiguity during the moment of processing gives cohorts an additional boost during real-time recognition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:05:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211056842
       
  • Drawing individual images benefits recognition accuracy in the
           Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jacob M. Namias, Mark J Huff, Allison Smith, Nicholas P Maxwell
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the effects of drawing on correct and false recognition within the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm. In Experiment 1, we compared drawing of a word’s referent using either a standard black pencil or coloured pencils relative to a read-only control group. Relative to reading, drawing in either black or coloured pencil similarly boosted correct recognition and reduced false recognition. Signal-detection analyses indicated that drawing reduced the amount of encoded memory information for critical lures and increased monitoring, indicating that both processes contributed to the false recognition reduction. Experiment 2 compared drawing of individual images of DRM list items relative to drawing integrated images using sets of DRM list items. False recognition was lower for drawing of individual images relative to integrated images—a pattern that reflected a decrease in encoded memory information but not monitoring. Therefore, drawing individual images improves memory accuracy in the DRM paradigm relative to a standard read-control task and an integrated-drawing task, which we argue is due to the recruitment of item-specific processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-10T11:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211056498
       
  • Music reading expertise affects visual change detection: Evidence from a
           music-related flicker paradigm

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Heather Sheridan, Abigail L Kleinsmith
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      To study the mechanisms and boundary conditions of expertise effects on change detection, we introduced a novel music-related variant of the flicker paradigm. Specifically, we monitored the eye movements of expert musicians (with 10 years of music experience) and non-musicians (who could not read music) while they located changes across two rapidly alternating versions of a music score, with a blank screen presented between each screen change. Relative to the non-musicians, experts were faster at change detection, with shorter fixations and larger saccade amplitudes. Expertise effects on accuracy and saccade amplitude were magnified for visually complex relative to simple music scores. Consistent with the assumptions of chunking and template theories of expertise, our results suggest that expert musicians can use chunking (i.e., perceptual grouping) mechanisms to facilitate perceptual encoding during change detection.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-10T05:51:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211056924
       
  • Remembered together: Social interaction facilitates retrieval while
           reducing individuation of features within bound representations

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tim Vestner, Jonathan C Flavell, Richard Cook, Steven P Tipper
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      When encountering social scenes, there appears to be rapid and automatic detection of social interactions. Representations of interacting people appear to be bound together via a mechanism of joint attention, which results in enhanced memory, even when participants are unaware that memory is required. However, even though access is facilitated for socially bound representations, we predicted that the individual features of these representations are less efficiently encoded, and features can therefore migrate between the constituent interacting individuals. This was confirmed in Experiment 1, where overall memory for interacting compared with non-interacting dyads was facilitated but binding of features within an individual was weak, resulting in feature migration errors. Experiment 2 demonstrated the role of conscious strategic processing, where participants were aware that memory would be tested. With such awareness, attention can be focused on individual objects allowing the binding of features. The results support an account of two forms of processing: an initial automatic social binding process where interacting individuals are represented as one episode in memory facilitating access and a further stage where attention can be focused on each individual enabling the binding of features within individual objects.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-10T05:48:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211056499
       
  • Enhanced recognition of emotional images is not affected by post-exposure
           exercise-induced arousal

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Veronica M Smith, Poppy Watson, Steven B Most
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that aerobic exercise (i.e., exercise aiming to improve cardiovascular fitness) promotes cognition, but the impact on memory specifically, is unclear. There is some evidence to suggest that as little as one session of post-learning exercise benefits memory consolidation. Furthermore, memory may be particularly facilitated by exercise when the individual is emotionally aroused while encoding stimuli. The current study tested whether exercise after exposure to neutral and emotional images improved memory consolidation of the items among university students. Ninety-nine students were randomly instructed to either exercise or not exercise after viewing a set of images that were positive, neutral, and negative in valence, and they were later tested on their memory. Although emotional images were remembered better than non-emotional images, the results suggested that exercise did not influence this effect or enhance consolidation of the items overall. Explanations and implications for these findings are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-10T05:42:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211054950
       
  • How ageing and blindness affect egocentric and allocentric spatial memory

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gennaro Ruggiero, Francesco Ruotolo, Tina Iachini
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Egocentric (subject-to-object) and allocentric (object-to-object) spatial reference frames are fundamental for representing the position of objects or places around us. The literature on spatial cognition in blind people has shown that lack of vision may limit the ability to represent spatial information in an allocentric rather than egocentric way. Furthermore, much research with sighted individuals has reported that ageing has a negative impact on spatial memory. However, as far as we know, no study has assessed how ageing may affect the processing of spatial reference frames in individuals with different degrees of visual experience. To fill this gap, here we report data from a cross-sectional study in which a large sample of young and elderly participants (160 participants in total) who were congenitally blind (long-term visual deprivation), adventitiously blind (late onset of blindness), blindfolded sighted (short-term visual deprivation) and sighted (full visual availability) performed a spatial memory task that required egocentric/allocentric distance judgements with regard to memorised stimuli. The results showed that egocentric judgements were better than allocentric ones and above all that the ability to process allocentric information was influenced by both age and visual status. Specifically, the allocentric judgements of congenitally blind elderly participants were worse than those of all other groups. These findings suggest that ageing and congenital blindness can contribute to the worsening of the ability to represent spatial relationships between external, non-body-centred anchor points.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-08T09:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211056772
       
  • The dominance of item learning in the location-specific proportion
           congruence paradigm

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Julie M Bugg, Jihyun Suh, Jackson S Colvett
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Prior research has shown that various cues are exploited to reactively adjust attention, and such adjustments depend on learning associations between cues and proportion congruence. This raises the intriguing question of what will be learned when more than one cue is available, a question that has implications for understanding which cue(s) will dominate in guiding reactive adjustments. Evidence from a picture-word Stroop task demonstrated that item learning dominated over location learning in a location-specific proportion congruence (LSPC) paradigm, a pattern that may explain the difficulty researchers have faced in replicating and reproducing the LSPC effect. One goal was to reproduce this pattern using a non-overlapping two-item set design that more closely matched prior studies, and another goal was to examine generalisability of the pattern to two other tasks. Using a prime-probe, colour–word Stroop task (Experiment 1), and a flanker task (Experiment 2), we again found clear dominance of item learning. In Experiment 3, we attempted to disrupt item learning and promote location learning by using a counting procedure that directed participants’ attention to location. Once again, we found the same pattern of item dominance. In addition, in none of the experiments did we find evidence for conjunctive (location–item) learning. Collectively, the findings suggest item learning is neither design- or task-specific; rather, it is robust, reliable, and not easily disrupted. Discussion centres on factors dictating dominance of item- over location-based adjustments and implications for the broader literature on LSPC effects.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-08T09:19:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211055162
       
  • The vertical space–time association

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alessia Beracci, Marissa Lynn Rescott, Vincenzo Natale, Marco Fabbri
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The space–time interaction suggests a left-to-right directionality in the mind’s representation of elapsing time. However, studies showing a possible vertical time representation are scarce and contradictory. In Experiment 1, 32 participants had to judge the duration (200, 300, 500, or 600 ms) of the target stimulus that appeared at the top, centre, or bottom of the screen, compared with a reference stimulus (400 ms) that always appeared in the centre of the screen. In Experiment 2, 32 participants were administered the same procedure, but the reference stimulus appeared at the top, centre, or bottom of the screen and the target stimulus was fixed in the centre location. In both experiments, a space–time interaction was found with an association between short durations and bottom response key as well as between long durations and top key. The evidence of a vertical mental timeline was further confirmed by the distance effect with a lower level of performance for durations close to that of the reference stimulus. The results suggest a bottom-to-top mapping of time representation, more in line with the metaphor “more is up.”
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-05T11:24:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211057031
       
  • Proportion of conflict, contingency learning, and recency effects in a
           Stroop task

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Luis Jiménez, David Gallego, Oscar Agra, María José Lorda, Cástor Méndez
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research on the relation between learning and cognitive control has assumed that conflict modulates learning, either by increasing arousal and hence improving learning in high-conflict situations, or by inducing control, and hence inhibiting the processing of distracters and their eventual association with the imperative responses. We analyse whether the amount of conflict, manipulated through the proportion of congruency in a set of Stroop inducer trials, affects learning of contingencies established on diagnostic trials composed by neutral words associated with colour responses. The results reproduced the list-wide proportion of congruency effect on the inducer trials, and showed evidence of contingency learning on the diagnostic trials, but provided no indication that this learning was modulated by the level of conflict. Specific analyses conducted to control for the impact of episodic effects on the expression of learning indicated that contingency effects were not driven by the incremental processes that could be expected by associative learning, but rather they were due to the impact of the most recent trial involving the same distracter. Accordingly, these effects disappeared when tested selectively on trials that required a non-matching response with respect to the previous occurrence of the distracter. We interpret this result in the context of the debate on how learning and memory interact with the processes of cognitive control.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-05T11:22:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211056813
       
  • Excitotoxic lesions of the perirhinal cortex leave intact rats’
           gustatory sensory preconditioning

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jasper Robinson, Peter M. Jones, Emma J. Whitt
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We report findings from two sensory preconditioning experiments in which rats consumed two flavoured solutions, each with two gustatory components (AX and BY), composed of sweet, bitter, salt, and acid elements. After this pre-exposure, rats were conditioned to X by pairing with lithium chloride. Standard sensory preconditioning was observed: Consumption of flavour A was less than that of B. We found that sensory preconditioning was maintained when X was added to A and B. Both experiments included one group of rats with lesions of the perirhinal cortex, which did not influence sensory preconditioning. We discuss our findings in the light of other sensory preconditioning procedures that involve the perirhinal cortex and conclude that differences in experimental variables invoke different mechanisms of sensory preconditioning, which vary in their requirement of the perirhinal cortex.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-02T11:49:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211054981
       
  • Music-reading expertise associates with face but not Chinese character
           processing ability

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jie Chen, Panpan Yuan, Hong Li, Changming Chen, Yi Jiang, Kang Lee
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A growing number of behavioural and neuroimaging studies have investigated the cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates underlying various forms of visual expertise, such as face and word processing. However, it remains poorly understood whether and to what extent the acquisition of one form of expertise would be associated with that of another. The current study examined the relationship between music-reading expertise and face and Chinese character processing abilities. In a series of experiments, music experts and novices performed discrimination and recognition tasks of musical notations, faces, and words. Results consistently showed that musical experts responded more accurately to musical notations and faces, but not to words, than did musical novices. More intriguingly, the music expert’s age of training onset could well predict their face but not word processing performance: the earlier musical experts began musical notation reading, the better their face processing performance. Taken together, our findings provide preliminary and converging evidence that music-reading expertise links with face, but not word, processing, and lend support to the notion that the development of different types of visual expertise may not be independent, but rather interact with each other during their acquisition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T10:19:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211053144
       
  • When non-salient information becomes salient in conversational memory:
           Collaboration shapes the effects of emotion and self-production

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ludovic Le Bigot, Cléo Bangoura, Dominique Knutsen, Sandrine Gil
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      People’s memory of what was said and who said what during dialogue plays a central role in mutual comprehension and subsequent adaptation. This article outlines that well-established effects in conversational memory such as the self-production and the emotional effects actually depend on the nature of the interaction. We specifically focus on the impact of the collaborative nature of the interaction, comparing participants’ conversational memory in non-collaborative and collaborative interactive settings involving interactions between two people (i.e., dialogue). The findings reveal that the amplitude of these conversational memory effects depends on the collaborative vs. non-collaborative nature of the interaction. The effects are attenuated when people have the opportunity to collaborate because information that remained non-salient in the non-collaborative condition (neutral and partner-produced words) became salient in the collaborative condition to a level similar to otherwise salient information (emotional and self-produced words). We highlight the importance of these findings in the study of dialogue and conversational memory.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-29T11:11:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211055005
       
  • Unveiling the boost in the sandwich priming technique

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: María Fernández-López, Colin J Davis, Manuel Perea, Ana Marcet, Pablo Gómez
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The masked priming technique (which compares #####-house-HOUSE vs. #####-fight-HOUSE) is the gold-standard tool to examine the initial moments of word processing. Lupker and Davis showed that adding a pre-prime identical to the target produced greater priming effects in the sandwich technique (which compares #####-HOUSE-house-HOUSE vs #####-HOUSE-fight-HOUSE). While there is consensus that the sandwich technique magnifies the size of priming effects relative to the standard procedure, the mechanisms underlying this boost are not well understood (i.e., does it reflect quantitative or qualitative changes'). To fully characterise the sandwich technique, we compared the sandwich and standard techniques by examining the response times (RTs) and their distributional features (delta plots; conditional-accuracy functions), comparing identity versus unrelated primes. The results showed that the locus of the boost in the sandwich technique was two-fold: faster responses in the identity condition (via a shift in the RT distributions) and slower responses in the unrelated condition. We discuss the theoretical and methodological implications of these findings.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-28T12:10:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211055097
       
  • T1 difficulty does not modulate the magnitude of the attentional blink

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Thomas M Spalek, Hayley E P Lagroix, Vincent Di Lollo
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      When the visual system is busy processing one stimulus, it has problems processing a subsequent stimulus if it arrives soon after the first. Laboratory studies of this second-stimulus impairment—known as attentional blink (AB)—have employed two targets (T1, T2) presented in rapid sequence, and have found identification accuracy to be nearly perfect for T1, but impaired for T2. It is commonly believed that the magnitude of the AB is related directly to the difficulty of T1: the greater the T1 difficulty, the larger the AB. A survey of the experimental literature disconfirms that belief showing it to have arisen from artificial constraints imposed by the 100% limit of the response scale. Removal of that constraint, either using reaction time (RT) instead of accuracy as the dependent measure, or in experiments in which the functions of T2 accuracy over lags do not converge to the limit of the response scale, reveals parallel functions for the easy-T1 and the hard-T1 conditions, consistent with the idea that T1 difficulty does not modulate AB magnitude. This finding is problematic for all, but the Boost and Bounce (B&B) and the Locus Coeruleus–Norepinephrine (LC–NE) theories in which T1 acts merely as a trigger for an eventual refractory period that leads to the failure to process T2, rendering T1 difficulty and its relationship to the AB an irrelevant consideration.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-27T06:54:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211054750
       
  • Automatically binding relevant and irrelevant features in visual working
           memory

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chenxiao Zhao, Xinyu Li, Michel Failing, Benchi Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It is generally assumed that, to save storage space, features are stored as integrated objects in visual working memory (VWM). Although such an object-based account does not always hold because features can be processed in parallel, a previous study has shown that different features can be automatically bound with their locations (task-irrelevant feature) into an integrated unit, resulting in improved memory performance. The present study was designed to further explore this phenomenon by investigating whether other features, which are not spatial in origin, can act as the binding cue to form such automatic binding. To test this, we used three different features as binding cues (i.e., colour, spatial frequency, and shape) over multiple separate experiments. The results consistently showed that when two features shared the same binding cue, memory performance was better relative to when each of those features had their own binding cue. We conclude that any task-irrelevant feature can act as a binding cue to automatically bind with task-relevant features even across different objects, resulting in memory enhancement.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-26T11:53:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211053992
       
  • On the pervasive effect of word frequency in metamemory

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pedro S Mendes, Monika Undorf
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Predictions of one’s future memory performance—judgements of learning (JOLs)—are based on the cues that learners regard as diagnostic of memory performance. One of these cues is word frequency or how often words are experienced in the language. It is not clear, however, whether word frequency would affect JOLs when other cues are also available. The current study aims to close this gap by testing whether objective and subjective word frequency affect JOLs in the presence of font size as an additional cue. Across three experiments, participants studied words that varied in word frequency (Experiment 1: high and low objective frequency; Experiment 2: a whole continuum from high to low objective frequency; Experiment 3: high and low subjective and objective frequency) and were presented in a large (48pt) or a small (18pt) font size, made JOLs, and completed a free recall test. Results showed that people based their JOLs on both word frequency and font size. We conclude that word frequency is an important cue that affects metamemory even in multiple-cue situations.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T09:16:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211053329
       
  • Visual perspective-taking in complex natural scenes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Paola Del Sette, Markus Bindemann, Heather J Ferguson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Studies of visual perspective-taking have shown that adults can rapidly and accurately compute their own and other peoples’ viewpoints, but they experience difficulties when the two perspectives are inconsistent. We tested whether these egocentric (i.e., interference from one’s own perspective) and altercentric biases (i.e., interference from another person’s perspective) persist in ecologically valid complex environments. Participants (N = 150) completed a dot-probe visual perspective-taking task, in which they verified the number of discs in natural scenes containing real people, first only according to their own perspective and then judging both their own and another person’s perspective. Results showed that the other person’s perspective did not disrupt self perspective-taking judgements when the other perspective was not explicitly prompted. In contrast, egocentric and altercentric biases were found when participants were prompted to switch between self and other perspectives. These findings suggest that altercentric visual perspective-taking can be activated spontaneously in complex real-world contexts, but is subject to both top-down and bottom-up influences, including explicit prompts or salient visual stimuli.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T09:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211054474
       
  • Articulatory suppression delays processing of abstract words: The role of
           inner speech

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chiara Fini, Gian Daniele Zannino, Matteo Orsoni, Giovanni A Carlesimo, Mariagrazia Benassi, Anna M Borghi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Compared to concrete concepts, like “book,” abstract concepts expressed by words like “justice” are more detached from sensorial experiences, even though they are also grounded in sensorial modalities. concepts lack a single object as referent and are characterised by higher variability both within and across participants. According to the Word as Social Tool (WAT) proposal, owing to their complexity, abstract concepts need to be processed with the help of inner language. Inner language can namely help participants to re-explain to themselves the meaning of the word, to keep information active in working memory, and to prepare themselves to ask information from more competent people. While previous studies have demonstrated that the mouth is involved during abstract concepts’ processing, both the functional role and the mechanisms underlying this involvement still need to be clarified. We report an experiment in which participants were required to evaluate whether 78 words were abstract or concrete by pressing two different pedals. During the judgement task, they were submitted, in different blocks, to a baseline, an articulatory suppression, and a manipulation condition. In the last two conditions, they had to repeat a syllable continually and to manipulate a softball with their dominant hand. Results showed that articulatory suppression slowed down the processing of abstract more than that of concrete words. Overall results confirm the WAT proposal’s hypothesis that abstract concepts processing involves the mouth motor system and specifically inner speech. We discuss the implications for current theories of conceptual representation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T09:10:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211053623
       
  • Reliance on semantic and structural heuristics in sentence comprehension
           across the lifespan

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anastasiya Lopukhina, Anna Laurinavichyute, Svetlana Malyutina, Galina Ryazanskaya, Elena Savinova, Aleksandra Simdianova, Anastasia Antonova, Irina Korkina
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      People sometimes misinterpret the sentences that they read. One possible reason suggested in the literature is a race between slow bottom-up algorithmic processing and “fast and frugal” top-down heuristic processing that serves to support fast-paced communication but sometimes results in incorrect representations. Heuristic processing can be both semantic, relying on world knowledge and semantic relations between words, and structural, relying on structural economy. Scattered experimental evidence suggests that reliance on heuristics may change from greater reliance on syntactic information in younger people to greater reliance on semantic information in older people. We tested whether the reliance on structural and semantic heuristics changes with age in 137 Russian-speaking adolescents, 135 young adults, and 77 older adults. In a self-paced reading task with comprehension questions, participants read unambiguous high- versus low-attachment sentences that were either semantically plausible or implausible: i.e., the syntactic structure either matched or contradicted the semantic relations between words. We found that the use of top-down heuristics in comprehension increased across the lifespan. Adolescents did not rely on structural heuristics, in contrast to young and older adults. At the same time, older adults relied on semantic heuristics more than young adults and adolescents. Importantly, we found that top-down heuristic processing was faster than bottom-up algorithmic processing: slower reading times were associated with greater accuracy specifically in implausible sentences.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T09:05:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211053263
       
  • Who tugs at our heart strings' The effect of avatar images on player
           generosity in the dictator game

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kathryn Buchanan, Jonathan J. Rolison, Isadora Jinga, Jessica Thompson, Riccardo Russo
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The present research was motivated by a prior study, where several wallets, each containing a photo of either a baby, a puppy, a family, or an elderly couple, were scattered across a city in the United Kingdom. Most of the wallets containing a photo of a baby were returned compared with less than one-third of the wallets containing a photo of an elderly couple. To investigate further, in a series of three studies we examined, using a pseudo online version of the dictator game, possible subtle cues supporting prosocial behaviour by manipulating the type of avatar used by the recipient of the donation made by the “dictator.” Overall, it emerged that participants showed significantly higher levels of generosity towards babies and older people, supporting the notion that perceptions of vulnerability and need drive prosocial behaviour.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T09:03:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211050359
       
  • Representations underlying pronoun choice in Italian and English

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kumiko Fukumura, Coralie Hervé, Sandra Villata, Shi Zhang, Francesca Foppolo
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Research has shown that speakers use fewer pronouns when the referential candidates are more similar and hence compete more strongly. Here we examined the locus of such an effect, investigating (1) whether pronoun use is affected by the referents’ competition at a non-linguistic level only (non-linguistic competition account) or whether it is also affected by competition arising from the antecedents’ similarities (linguistic competition account) and (2) the extent to which this depends on the type of pronoun. Speakers used Italian null pronouns and English pronouns less often (relative to full nouns) when the referential candidates compete more strongly situationally, while the antecedents’ semantic, grammatical or phonological similarity did not affect the rates of either pronouns, providing support for the non-linguistic competition account. However, unlike English pronouns, Italian null pronouns were unaffected by gender congruence between human referents, running counter to the gender effect for the use of non-gendered overt pronouns reported earlier. Hence, while both null and overt pronouns are sensitive to non-linguistic competition, what similarity affects non-linguistic competition partly depends on the type of pronouns.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-22T09:42:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211051989
       
  • Phonological encoding in Vietnamese: An experimental investigation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rinus G Verdonschot, Hoàng Thị Lan Phương, Katsuo Tamaoka
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In English, Dutch, and other Germanic languages the initial phonological unit used in word production has been shown to be the phoneme; conversely, others have revealed that in Chinese this is the atonal syllable and in Japanese the mora. The current paper is, to our knowledge, the first to report chronometric data on Vietnamese phonological encoding. Vietnamese, a tonal language, is of interest as, despite its Austroasiatic roots, it has clear similarities with Chinese through extended contact over a prolonged period. Four experiments (i.e., masked priming, phonological Stroop, picture naming with written distractors, picture naming with auditory distractors) have been conducted to investigate Vietnamese phonological encoding. Results show that in all four experiments both onset effects as well as whole syllable effects emerge. This indicates that the fundamental phonological encoding unit during Vietnamese language production is the phoneme despite its apparent similarities to Chinese. This result might have emerged due to tone assignment being a qualitatively different process in Vietnamese compared to Chinese.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-21T12:51:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211053244
       
  • Lay, professional, and artificial intelligence perspectives on risky
           medical decisions and COVID-19: How does the number of lives matter in
           clinical trials framed as gains versus losses'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sumitava Mukherjee, Divya Reji
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Outcomes of clinical trials need to be communicated effectively to make decisions that save lives. We investigated whether framing can bias these decisions and if risk preferences shift depending on the number of patients. Hypothetical information about two medicines used in clinical trials having a sure or a risky outcome was presented in either a gain frame (people would be saved) or a loss frame (people would die). The number of patients who signed up for the clinical trials was manipulated in both frames in all the experiments. Using an unnamed disease, lay participants (experiment 1) and would-be medical professionals (experiment 2) were asked to choose which medicine they would have administered. For COVID-19, lay participants were asked which medicine should medical professionals (experiment 3), artificially intelligent software (experiment 4), and they themselves (experiment 5) favour to be administered. Broadly consistent with prospect theory, people were more risk-seeking in the loss frames than the gain frames. However, risk-aversion in gain frames was sensitive to the number of lives with risk-neutrality at low magnitudes and risk-aversion at high magnitudes. In the loss frame, participants were mostly risk-seeking. This pattern was consistent across laypersons and medical professionals, further extended to preferences for choices that medical professionals and artificial intelligence programmes should make in the context of COVID-19. These results underscore how medical decisions can be impacted by the number of lives at stake while revealing inconsistent risk preferences for clinical trials during a real pandemic.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-21T12:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211052037
       
  • Not just form, not just meaning: Words with consistent form-meaning
           mappings are learned earlier

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Giovanni Cassani, Niklas Limacher
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      By leveraging Phonology-to-Semantics Consistency (PSC), which quantifies form-meaning systematicity as the semantic similarity between a target word and its phonological nearest neighbours, we document a unique effect of systematicity on Age of Acquisition (AoA). This effect is also found after controlling for the effect of neighbourhood density measured for word forms and lexical semantics and several other standard predictors of AoA. Moreover, we show that the effect of systematicity is not reducible to iconicity. Finally, we extensively probe the reliability of this finding by testing different statistical models, analysing systematicity in phonology and orthography and implementing random baselines, reporting a robust, unique negative effect of systematicity on AoA, such that more systematic words tend to be learned earlier. We discuss the findings in the light of studies on non-arbitrary form-meaning mappings and their role in language learning, focusing on the analogical process at the interface of form and meaning upon which PSC is based and how it could help children infer the semantics of novel words when context is scarce or uninformative, ultimately speeding up word learning.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-21T12:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211053472
       
  • Effects of presentation modality and duration on children’s strategy
           use: A study in computational estimation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Svenja Hammerstein, Sebastian Poloczek, Patrick Lösche, Patrick Lemaire, Gerhard Büttner
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Two experiments were run to determine how presentation modality and duration influence children’s arithmetic performance and strategy selection. Third and fourth graders were asked to find estimates for two-digit addition problems (e.g., 52 + 39). Children were tested in three conditions: (1) time-unlimited visual, (2) time-limited visual, or (3) time-limited auditory conditions. Moreover, we assessed children’s working-memory updating and arithmetic fluency. Children were told which strategy to use on each problem to assess arithmetic performance while executing strategies, in Experiment 1, and were asked to choose the best strategy of three available strategies to assess strategy selection, in Experiment 2. Presentation modality influenced strategy execution (i.e., children were faster and more accurate in problems under visual than auditory conditions) but only in children with low updating abilities. In contrast, presentation modality had no effect on children’s strategy selection. Presentation duration had an effect on both strategy execution and strategy selection with time-limited presentation leading to a decline in children’s performance. Interestingly, specifically in children with low updating abilities, time-limited presentation led to poorer performance. Hence, efficient updating seemed to compensate for detrimental effects of auditory in comparison to visual and time-limited in comparison to time-unlimited presentation. These findings have important implications for determining conditions under which children execute strategies most efficiently and select the best strategy on each problem most often, as well as for understanding mechanisms underlying strategic behaviour.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:18:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211053309
       
  • Object-based encoding in visual working memory: A critical revisit

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Quan Gu, Alessandro Dai, Tian Ye, Bo Huang, Xiqian Lu, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Visual working memory (VWM) is responsible for the temporal retention and manipulation of visual information. It has been suggested that VWM employs an object-based encoding (OBE) manner to extract highly discriminable information from visual perception: Whenever one feature dimension of the objects is selected for entry into VWM, the other task-irrelevant highly discriminable dimension is also extracted into VWM involuntarily. However, the task-irrelevant feature in OBE studies might reflect a high capacity fragile VWM (FVWM) trace that stores maskable sensory representations. To directly compare the VWM storage hypothesis and the FVWM storage hypothesis, we used a unique characteristic of FVWM that the representations in FVWM could be erased by backward masks presented at the original locations of the memory array. We required participants to memorise the orientations of three coloured bars while ignoring their colours, and presented backward masks during the VWM maintenance interval. In four experiments, we consistently observed that the OBE occurs regardless of the presentation of the backward masks, except when even the task-relevant features in VWM were significantly interrupted by immediate backward masks, suggesting that the task-irrelevant features of objects are stored in VWM rather than in FVWM.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211052502
       
  • Taking apart what brings us together: The role of action prediction,
           perspective-taking, and theory of mind in joint action

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lucia Maria Sacheli, Elisa Arcangeli, Desiré Carioti, Steve Butterfill, Manuela Berlingeri
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The ability to act together with others to achieve common goals is crucial in life, yet there is no full consensus on the underlying cognitive skills. While influential theoretical accounts suggest that interaction requires sophisticated insights into others’ minds, alternative views propose that high-level social skills might not be necessary because interactions are grounded on sensorimotor predictive mechanisms. At present, empirical evidence is insufficient to decide between the two. This study addressed this issue and explored the association between performance at joint action tasks and cognitive abilities in three domains—action prediction, perspective-taking, and theory of mind—in healthy adults (N = 58). We found that, while perspective-taking played a role in reading the behaviour of others independently of the social context, action prediction abilities specifically influenced the agents’ performance in an interactive task but not in a control (social but non-interactive) task. In our study, performance at a theory of mind test did not play any role, as confirmed by Bayesian analyses. The results suggest that, in adults, sensorimotor predictive mechanisms might play a significant and specific role in supporting interpersonal coordination during motor interactions. We discuss the implications of our findings for the contrasting theoretical views described earlier and propose a way they might be partly reconciled.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211050198
       
  • Interruption, work rumination, and stress as indicators of reduced working
           memory resources affect aesthetic experiences

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rosalie Weigand, Thomas Jacobsen
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Do we savour aesthetic experiences less when distracted by interrupted tasks, work rumination, or stress' Evidence suggests that the ability to concentrate on the aesthetic experience is crucial for initiating a processing mode of conscious aesthetic reception that results in more positive emotions. When working memory resources are otherwise occupied, people are less able to concentrate on aesthetic experiences. Aesthetic savouring, in particular—a cognitive form of emotion regulation that is used to maintain and extend aesthetic experiences—is thought to be impaired under those circumstances. We conducted three investigations to examine how conditions that are known to deplete working memory resources affect the savouring of aesthetic experiences. In Study 1, participants rated beauty and savouring felt from encounters with visual stimuli in a controlled laboratory setting after an interruption of a writing task. Aesthetic experience was hampered if participants were interrupted. In two field investigations, we demonstrated that work-related rumination (Study 2, N = 329) and stress (Study 3, N = 368) are inversely related to the savouring felt from opera, theatre, or cabaret pieces. These findings highlight the importance of concentrating on aesthetic experiences so that the perceiver can fully benefit from them. We also discuss implications for cognitive models of working memory and for health and well-being.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:00:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211050194
       
  • Identifying with the beautiful: Facial attractiveness effects on
           unisensory and multisensory self–other distinction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Elena Panagiotopoulou, Laura Crucianelli, Alessandra Lemma, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      People tend to evaluate their own traits and abilities favourably and such favourable self-perceptions extend to attractiveness. However, the exact mechanism underlying this self-enhancement bias remains unclear. One possibility could be the identification with attractive others through blurring of self–other boundaries. Across two experiments, we used the enfacement illusion to investigate the effect of others’ attractiveness in the multisensory perception of the self. In Experiment 1 (N = 35), participants received synchronous or asynchronous interpersonal visuo-tactile stimulation with an attractive and non-attractive face. In Experiment 2 (N = 35), two new faces were used and spatial incongruency was introduced as a control condition. The results showed that increased ratings of attractiveness of an unfamiliar face lead to blurring of self–other boundaries, allowing the identification of our psychological self with another’s physical self and specifically their face, and this seems to be unrelated to perceived own attractiveness. The effect of facial attractiveness on face ownership showed dissociable mechanisms, with multisensory integration modulating the effect on similarity but not identification, an effect that may be purely based on vision. Overall, our findings suggest that others’ attractiveness may lead to positive distortions of the self. This research provides a psychophysical starting point for studying the impact of others’ attractiveness on self-face recognition, which can be particularly important for individuals with malleable, embodied self–other boundaries and body image disturbances.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T07:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211050318
       
  • Do both WRAP and TRAP inhibit the recognition of the French word DRAP'
           Impact of orthographic markedness on cross-language orthographic priming

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eva Commissaire
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated lexical and sub-lexical orthographic coding in bilingual visual word recognition by examining interactions between orthographic neighbourhood and markedness. In three experiments, French/English bilinguals performed a masked lexical decision task in French (L1) in which orthographically related prime words could be either marked or unmarked English (L2) words, compared to unrelated primes (e.g., wrap, trap, gift—DRAP, meaning sheet). The results yielded an overall inhibition priming effect, which was unexpectedly more robust in the marked condition than in the unmarked one. This result highlights the need to integrate both lexical competition and orthographic markedness in bilingual models such as BIA/+ and determine how the latter may modulate lexical processing in bilinguals.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T07:21:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048770
       
  • Evaluation of the transient hypofrontality theory in the context of
           exercise: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Myungjin Jung, Seungho Ryu, Minsoo Kang, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Paul D. Loprinzi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Accumulating research suggests that, as a result of reduced neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), higher-order cognitive function may be compromised while engaging in high-intensity acute exercise, with this phenomenon referred to as the transient hypofrontality effect. However, findings in this field remain unclear and lack a thorough synthesis of the evidence. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of in-task acute exercise on cognitive function, and further, to examine whether this effect is moderated by the specific type of cognition (i.e., PFC-dependent vs. non-PFC-dependent). Studies were identified by electronic databases in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. In total, 22 studies met our inclusion criteria and intercept only meta-regression models with robust variance estimation were used to calculate the weighted average effect sizes across studies. Acute exercise at all intensities did not influence cognitive function (β = -0.16, 95% CI = [-0.58, 0.27], p = .45) when exercise occurred during the cognitive task, and no significant moderation effects emerged. However, there was evidence that cognitive task type (PFC-dependent vs. non-PFC-dependent) moderated the effect of high-intensity acute exercise on a concomitant cognitive performance (β = -0.81, 95% CI = [-1.60, -0.02], p = .04). Specifically, our findings suggest that PFC-dependent cognition is impaired while engaging in an acute bout of high-intensity exercise, providing support for the transient hypofrontality theory. We discuss these findings in the context of reticular-activating and cognitive-energetic perspectives.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T04:48:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048807
       
  • Regulating mirroring of emotions A social-specific mechanism'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sophie Sowden, Divyush Khemka, Caroline Catmur
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      There is evidence that humans mirror others’ emotional responses: brain responses to observed and experienced emotion overlap, and reaction time costs of observing others’ pain suggest that others’ emotional states interfere with our own. Such emotional mirroring requires regulation to prevent personal distress. However, currently it is unclear whether this “empathic interference effect” is uniquely social, arising only from the observation of human actors, or also from the observation of non-biological objects in “painful” states. Moreover, the degree to which this interference relates to individual differences in self-reported levels of empathy is yet to be revealed. We introduce a modified pain observation task, measuring empathic interference effects induced by observation of painful states applied to both biological and non-biological stimuli. An initial validation study (N = 50) confirmed that painful states applied to biological stimuli were rated explicitly as more painful than non-painful states applied to biological stimuli, and also than both painful and non-painful states applied to non-biological stimuli. Subsequently, across two independent discovery (N = 83) and replication (N = 80) samples, the task elicited slowing of response times during the observation of painful states when compared to non-painful states, but the magnitude of this effect did not differ between biological and non-biological stimuli. Little evidence was found for reliable relationships between empathic interference and self-reported empathy. Caution should therefore be taken in using the current task to pursue an individual differences approach to empathic interference, but the task shows promise for investigating the specificity of the mechanism involved in regulating emotional mirroring.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:45:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211049780
       
  • Deliberative process in sharing information with different audiences:
           Eye-tracking correlates

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Beatriz Martín-Luengo, Andriy Myachykov, Yury Shtyrov
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Research on conversational pragmatics demonstrates how interlocutors tailor the information they share depending on the audience. Previous research showed that, in informal contexts, speakers often provide several alternative answers, whereas in formal contexts, they tend to give only a single answer; however, the psychological underpinnings of these effects remain obscure. To investigate this answer selection process, we measured participants’ eye movements in different experimentally modelled social contexts. Participants answered general knowledge questions by providing responses with either single (one) or plural (three) alternatives. Then, a formal (job interview) or informal (conversation with friends) context was presented and participants decided either to report or withdraw their responses after considering the given social context. Growth curve analysis on the eye movements indicates that the selected response option attracted more eye movements. There was a discrepancy between the answer selection likelihood and the proportion of fixations to the corresponding option—but only in the formal context. These findings support a more elaborate decision-making processes in formal contexts. They also suggest that eye movements do not necessarily accompany the options considered in the decision-making processes.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:40:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047437
       
  • Sensitivity to misinformation retractions in the continued influence
           paradigm: Evidence for stability

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Paul McIlhiney, Gilles E Gignac, Michael Weinborn, Ullrich KH Ecker
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Research has consistently shown that misinformation can continue to affect inferential reasoning after a correction. This phenomenon is known as the continued influence effect (CIE). Recent studies have demonstrated that CIE susceptibility can be predicted by individual differences in stable cognitive abilities. Based on this, it was reasoned that CIE susceptibility ought to have some degree of stability itself; however, this has never been tested. The current study aimed to investigate the temporal stability of retraction sensitivity, arguably a major determinant of CIE susceptibility. Participants were given parallel forms of a standard CIE task 4 weeks apart, and the association between testing points was assessed with an intra-class correlation coefficient and confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggested that retraction sensitivity is relatively stable and can be predicted as an individual-differences variable. These results encourage continued individual-differences research on the CIE and have implications for real-world CIE intervention.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T12:19:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048986
       
  • Impaired selection of a previously ignored singleton: Evidence for
           salience map plastic changes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Massimo Turatto, Matteo Valsecchi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Spatial suppression of a salient colour distractor is achievable via statistical learning. Distractor suppression attenuates unwanted capture, but at the same time target selection at the most likely distractor location is impaired. This result corroborates the idea that the distractor salience is attenuated via inhibitory signals applied to the corresponding location in the priority map. What is less clear, however, is whether lingering impairment in target selection when the distractor is removed are due to the proactive strategic maintenance of the suppressive signal at the previous most likely distractor location or result from the fact that suppression has induced plastic changes in the priority map, probably changing input weights. Here, we provide evidence that supports the latter possibility, as we found that impairment in target selection persisted even when the singleton distractor in the training phase became the target of search in a subsequent test phase. This manipulation rules out the possibility that the observed impairments at the previous most likely distractor location were caused by a signal suppression maintained at this location. Rather, the results reveal that the inhibitory signals cause long-lasting changes in the priority map, which affect future computation of the target salience at the same location, and therefore the efficiency of attentional selection.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T12:16:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047859
       
  • The influence of movement on negative and positive emotional responses to
           animals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Krystal S St. Peter, Laura L Vernon, Alan W Kersten
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies were conducted to explore whether the addition of animal movement would influence the intensity of emotional reactions towards that animal. Both studies compared self-reported emotional reactions with still images and videos for six animal categories (snakes, spiders, rodents, hoofed animals, animals with flippers, and turtles). In Study 1, participants reported fear and disgust to the animal stimuli, which were averaged into a single negative emotion rating. In Study 2, participants reported either fear and disgust or joy and affection to the animal stimuli, which were averaged into either a single negative or positive emotion rating. Upon combining the reported emotions from the two studies, movement was found to increase negative emotion reported to snakes and spiders and decrease negative emotion reported to rodents, hoofed animals, and animals with flippers. Results from Study 2 indicated that movement increased reported positive emotions to all six animal categories. Our findings suggest that animal movement is an important component of emotional reactions to animals.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T11:27:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211049331
       
  • Visually guided movement with increasing time-on-task: Differential
           effects on movement preparation and movement execution

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: András Matuz, Dimitri van der Linden, András Zsidó, Árpád Csathó
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Top-down cognitive control seems to be sensitive to the detrimental effects of fatigue induced by time-on-task (ToT). The planning and preparation of the motor responses may be especially vulnerable to ToT. Yet, effects of ToT specific to the different phases of movements have received little attention. Therefore, in three experiments, we assessed the effect of ToT on a mouse-pointing task. In Experiment 1, there were 16 possible target positions with variable movement directions. In Experiment 2, the layout of the targets was simplified. In Experiment 3, using cuing conditions, we examined whether the effects of ToT on movement preparation and execution were caused by an increased orientation deficit or decreased phasic alertness. In each experiment, initiation of movement (preparatory phase) became slower, movement execution became faster and overall response time remained constant with increasing ToT. There was, however, no significant within-person association between the preparatory and execution phases. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found a decreasing movement time/movement error ratio, suggesting a more impulsive execution of the pointing movement. In addition, ToT was also accompanied with imprecise movement execution as indicated by the increased errors, mainly in Experiment 2. The results of Experiment 3 indicated that ToT did not induce orientation and phasic alerting deficits but rather was accompanied by decreased tonic alertness.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T11:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048001
       
  • Individual word activation and word frequency effects during the
           processing of opaque idiomatic expressions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ferdy Hubers, Catia Cucchiarini, Helmer Strik, Ton Dijkstra
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Idiom processing studies have paid considerable attention to the relationship between idiomatic expressions as a whole and their constituent words. Although most research focused on the semantic properties of the constituent words, their orthographic form could also play a role in processing. To test this, we assessed both form and meaning activation of individual words during the processing of opaque idioms. In two primed word naming experiments, Dutch native speakers silently read sentences word by word and then named the last word of the sentence. This target word was embedded in either an idiomatic or a literal context and was expected and correct in this context (COR), semantically related (REL) to the expected word, or unrelated (UNREL) to the expected word. The correct target word in the idiomatic context was always part of an opaque idiom. Faster naming latencies for the idiom-final noun than for the unrelated target in the idiomatic context indicated that the idiom was activated as a whole during processing. In addition, semantic facilitation was observed in the literal context (COR 
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T11:23:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047995
       
  • The dynamic mask: Facial correlates of character portrayal in professional
           actors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Matthew Berry, Steven Brown
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Actors make modifications to their face, voice, and body to match standard gestural conceptions of the fictional characters they are portraying during stage performances. However, the gestural manifestations of acting have not been quantified experimentally, least of all in group-level analyses. To quantify the facial correlates of character portrayal in professional actors for the first time, we had 24 actors portray a contrastive series of nine stock characters (e.g., king, bully, lover) that were organised according to a predictive scheme based on the two statistically independent personality dimensions of assertiveness (i.e., the tendency to satisfy personal concerns) and cooperativeness (i.e., the tendency to satisfy others’ concerns). We used three-dimensional motion capture to examine changes in facial dimensions, with an emphasis on the relative expansion/contraction of four facial segments related to the brow, eyebrows, lips, and jaw, respectively. The results demonstrated that expansions in both upper- and lower-facial segments were related to increases in the levels of character cooperativeness, but not assertiveness. These findings demonstrate that actors reliably manipulate their facial features in a contrastive manner to differentiate characters based on their underlying personality traits.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T11:21:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047935
       
  • Forgetting tracked by recognition of pictures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Donald Laming
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Thirty-three participants viewed 1,000 pictures for 6 s each. Recognition was tested after 10 different intervals of time by mixing 100 of the original 1,000 with 100 new pictures. Participants judged each test picture “Old” or “New” on a 6-point scale. The unequal-variance recognition model is reinterpreted to estimate the probability of retrieval of an original (1,000) picture after each lapse of time. A second model then relates those different estimates of accessibility to the lapse of time, taking into account the interference on each test from pictures presented in preceding tests. Studies of category judgement explain (a) why the model distributions are normal, (b) why the operating characteristics are asymmetric, (c) why they are curvilinear, and (d) why the asymmetry decreases with lapse of time, this to justify a particular estimate of accessibility (probability of retrieval). Nine candidate functions are shown to the accessibilities. The underlying relation is a power law, but the exponent is poorly determined by the data (−1.5, −0.5), as also is the offset from the temporal origin. Comparisons with previous work identify two different relationships with respect to lapse of time: The retrieval of a unique image shows an approximately reciprocal loss, whereas a decrease in the amount of material reproduced by recall, recognition, or other method is approximately logarithmic. The present experiment exhibits both relationships, depending on whether specific account is taken of the effects of interference or, alternatively, interference is entirely ignored.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T11:19:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047862
       
  • Estimating the effects of trait knowledge on social perception

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Andrew Wildman, Richard Ramsey
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Research in social cognition has predominantly investigated perceptual and inferential processes separately; however, real-world social interactions usually involve integration between person inferences (e.g., generous, selfish) and the perception of physical appearance (e.g., thin, tall). Therefore, in the current work, we investigated the integration of different person-relevant signals, by estimating the extent to which bias in one social information processing system influences another. Following an initial stimulus-validation experiment (Experiment 1, N = 55), two further pre-registered experiments (Experiments 2, N = 55 and 3; N = 123) employed a priming paradigm to measure the effects of extraversion-diagnostic information on subsequent health and body-size judgements of a target body. The results were consistent across both priming experiments and supported our predictions: compared to trait-neutral control statements, extraversion-diagnostic statements increased judgements of health and decreased those of body size. As such, we show that trait-based knowledge does not only influence mappings towards similar types of person judgements, such as health judgements. Rather, even a brief re-configuration of trait-space alters mappings towards non-trait judgements, which are based on body size and shape. The results complement prior neuroimaging findings that showed functional interactions between the body-selective brain regions in the ventral visual stream and the theory of mind network when forming impressions of others. Therefore, we provide a functional signature of how distinct information processing units exchange signals and integrate information to form impressions. Overall, the current study underscores the value of behavioural work in complementing neuroscience research when investigating the role and properties of functional integration during impression formation. In addition, it stresses the potential limitations of an over-reliance on studying separate systems in isolation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T11:17:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047447
       
  • Redesigning the exploration of semantic dynamics: SSD account in light of
           regression design

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ksenija Mišić, Dušica Filipović Đurđević
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The Semantic Settling Dynamics model postulated that the seemingly inconsistent effects of lexical ambiguity are, in fact, a systematic manifestation of the specific dynamics that arise as a consequence of the amount of time spent in processing. The model has thus far been tested by prolonging lexical decision and comparing homonymous, polysemous, and unambiguous words in a factorial design. Here, we kept the strategy of task manipulation but tested the model by using continuous measures as indices of the level of lexical ambiguity and their slopes as indices of the effect size. We expressed the size of the polysemy effect as the slope of the effect of entropy of sense probability distribution and the size of the homonymy effect as the redundancy of sense probability distribution. Comparing lexical decision tasks with the shorter and longer time spent in processing, we observed the predicted decrease in the effect of the polysemy level as well as the predicted increase in the effect of homonymy level.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T09:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048386
       
  • Emotion perception bias associated with the hijab in Austrian and Turkish
           participants

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sebastian Korb, Tugba Ceren Deniz, Bengi Ünal, Alasdair Clarke, Giorgia Silani
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In a cross-cultural study, we investigated the link between explicit attitudes towards the hijab and implicit measures of cultural and religious bias during the recognition of emotions. Participants tested in Austria (N = 71) and in Turkey (N = 70) reported their attitude towards the hijab, and categorised in a mousetracker task happy and sad faces of women, shown with five levels of intensity, and framed either by a hijab or by an oval-shaped mask. The two samples did not differ in their explicit attitudes towards the hijab. However, negative attitude towards the hijab predicted greater sadness attribution to happy faces with the hijab in Austrian participants. Unrelated to their explicit attitudes, Turkish participants attributed more sadness to happy faces with than without the hijab. Results suggest that the sight of the hijab activated, in both Austrian and Turkish participants, implicit biases resulting in associations with sadness and negative emotions.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T09:42:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048317
       
  • Controlled or automatic' Influence of congruency proportion and
           stimulus-onset asynchrony on the brightness-valence and spatial-valence
           metaphoric congruency effects

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yanli Huang, Chi-Shing Tse, Jiushu Xie, Manqiong Shen, Ruiming Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Whether a cognitive process is operated automatically or in a controlled manner has been a long-standing question in cognitive psychology. However, this issue has not been investigated in the activation of metaphoric association. A primed word valence judgement task is often used to test the activation of metaphoric association, in which participants first see a prime (bright/dark square or fixation point moving up or down from the centre of the screen) and then make a valence judgement to a target word. Metaphoric congruency effect occurs when participants make faster judgements to the target with valence being matched with the prime (good followed bright/top prime) than being mismatched with the prime (good followed dark/bottom prime). In the present two experiments, we manipulated prime-target stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and proportion of metaphorically congruent trials (congruency proportion) to tease apart the effects of automatic and controlled activation of brightness-valence and spatial-valence metaphoric associations on word valence judgements. Results showed an overall effect of congruency proportion on brightness-valence and spatial-valence metaphoric congruency effect, which was independent of prime-target SOA. The effect was enhanced or reversed when congruency proportion was higher or lower than 0.5, respectively, suggesting that the activation of metaphoric association could be modulated by strategic control. The implications of these findings on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory and semantic priming theories are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T09:33:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048190
       
  • Data-driven group comparisons of eye fixations to dynamic stimuli

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tochukwu Onwuegbusi, Frouke Hermens, Todd Hogue
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent advances in software and hardware have allowed eye tracking to move away from static images to more ecologically relevant video streams. The analysis of eye tracking data for such dynamic stimuli, however, is not without challenges. The frame-by-frame coding of regions of interest (ROIs) is labour-intensive and computer vision techniques to automatically code such ROIs are not yet mainstream, restricting the use of such stimuli. Combined with the more general problem of defining relevant ROIs for video frames, methods are needed that facilitate data analysis. Here, we present a first evaluation of an easy-to-implement data-driven method with the potential to address these issues. To test the new method, we examined the differences in eye movements of self-reported politically left- or right-wing leaning participants to video clips of left- and right-wing politicians. The results show that our method can accurately predict group membership on the basis of eye movement patterns, isolate video clips that best distinguish people on the political left–right spectrum, and reveal the section of each video clip with the largest group differences. Our methodology thereby aids the understanding of group differences in gaze behaviour, and the identification of critical stimuli for follow-up studies or for use in saccade diagnosis.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T09:29:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048060
       
  • Timbral perception is influenced by unconscious presentation of hands
           playing musical instruments

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hirokazu Doi, Kazuki Yamaguchi, Shoma Sugisaki
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Timbre is an integral dimension of musical sound quality, and people accumulate knowledge about timbre of sounds generated by various musical instruments throughout their life. Recent studies have proposed the possibility that musical sound is crossmodally integrated with visual information related to the sound. However, little is known about the influence of visual information on musical timbre perception. The present study investigated the automaticity of crossmodal integration between musical timbre and visual image of hands playing musical instruments. In the experiment, an image of hands playing piano or violin, or a control scrambled image was presented to participants unconsciously. Simultaneously, participants heard intermediate sounds synthesised by morphing piano and violin sounds with the same note. The participants answered whether the musical tone sounded like piano or violin. The results revealed that participants were more likely to perceive violin sound when an image of a violin was presented unconsciously than when playing piano was presented. This finding indicates that timbral perception of musical sound is influenced by visual information of musical performance without conscious awareness, supporting the automaticity of crossmodal integration in musical timbre perception.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T09:25:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048032
       
  • Rethinking attentional reset: Task sets determine the boundaries of
           adaptive control

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lauren D Grant, Samantha R Cerpa, Daniel H Weissman
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Adaptive control processes that minimise distraction often operate in a context-specific manner. For example, they may minimise distraction from irrelevant conversations during a lecture but not in the hallway afterwards. It remains unclear, however, whether (a) salient perceptual features or (b) task sets based on such features serve as contextual boundaries for adaptive control in standard distractor-interference tasks. To distinguish between these possibilities, we manipulated whether the structure of a standard, visual distractor-interference task allowed (Experiment 1) or did not allow (Experiment 2) participants to associate salient visual features (i.e., colour patches and colour words) with different task sets. We found that changing salient visual features across consecutive trials reduced a popular measure of adaptive control in distractor-interference tasks—the congruency sequence effect (CSE)—only when the task structure allowed participants to associate these visual features with different task sets. These findings extend prior support for the task set hypothesis from somewhat atypical cross-modal tasks to a standard unimodal task. In contrast, they pose a challenge to an alternative “attentional reset” hypothesis, and related views, wherein changing salient perceptual features always results in a contextual boundary for the CSE.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T09:24:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047424
       
  • Perceiving the facial trustworthiness: Facial age, emotional expression,
           and attractiveness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yongna Li, Ziwei Chen, Xun Liu, Yue Qi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      People can make trustworthiness judgements based on facial characteristics. However, the previous findings regarding whether facial age influences interpersonal trust are inconsistent. Using the trust game, the current study investigated the interactions of facial age with attractiveness and emotional expression in regard to trustworthiness judgements. In Experiments 1 and 2, younger participants were asked to invest in either younger or older faces that were shown for 2,000 and 33 ms, respectively. The results showed that people trust the faces of older people more than they do younger people. There was also an interaction between facial age and attractiveness. Participants invested more money in older faces than in younger faces only when they perceived the faces to be less attractive. However, the interaction between facial age and emotional expression was slightly inconsistent in the two experiments. Participants invested more money in older faces that were shown for 2,000 ms when they perceived the happy and sad emotions, but they invested more money in older faces that were shown for 33 ms when they perceived the happy emotion. These results reveal that people make trustworthiness judgements based on multiple facial cues when they view strangers of different ages.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T12:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047176
       
  • Dispositional and situational predictors of coping with violated
           achievement expectations

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Larissa Henss, Martin Pinquart
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Most students experience expectation violations during their academic career, such as unexpected failed tests. However, contradictory evidence does not always result in expectation change (accommodation). Expectations often persist through stronger efforts to fulfil the expectation (assimilation) or ignoring the discrepancy (immunisation). Our study addresses possible situational and dispositional predictors that may be decisive influences on the use of the three coping strategies. We conducted an experimental study with n = 439 students who experienced an expectation violation in an achievement test. Dispositional coping tendencies, valence of expectation violation, and the interaction of valence and degree of expectation violation were found to predict situational coping. Furthermore, higher need for cognitive closure predicted stronger accommodation, and a large degree of expectation violation predicted stronger immunisation. Thus, our study provides initial evidence on which situational and dispositional factors predict coping with expectation violations in an educational context. Expectation violation in a performance context mainly resulted in stronger efforts to protect positive achievement expectations.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T07:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211048108
       
  • Semantic feedback processing mechanism of the enactment effect: Evidence
           from event-related potentials

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lijuan Wang, Zhanyu Yu, Zhi Ren, Jialin Ma
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The enactment effect refers to a phenomenon in which the memory performance for action phrases is enhanced by performing the described action (e.g., sharpen a pencil) compared with simply reading the action phrase. This produced effect can result in improved motor processing. This study investigated the contribution of semantic integration to the enactment effect by contrasting well-integrated phrases, such as “blow up the balloon,” with poorly integrated phrases, such as “sew the toothpick,” and analysing the N400 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). The subjects encoded action phrases with different degrees of semantic integration by either pretending to perform or reading action phrases. They then completed a phrase recognition test, while electroencephalographic signals were simultaneously recorded. The behavioural results showed that semantic integration improved memory performance under the motor encoding condition but not under the verbal encoding condition. The ERP results revealed that, regardless of whether it was an old (memorised) or new (distractor) phrase, a larger N400 component was elicited under the motor encoding condition than under the verbal encoding condition. In the motor encoding condition, poorly integrated phrases elicited a larger N400 component than well-integrated phrases; in the verbal encoding condition, this effect was not observed. The N400 effect associated with semantic processing was enhanced by semantic integration under the motor encoding condition rather than the verbal encoding condition. These results supported a deep semantic processing mechanism under the motor encoding condition, and a semantic feedback processing mechanism for the enactment effect was partially supported.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T07:22:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047944
       
  • Lexicality effects on orthographic learning in beginning and advanced
           readers of Dutch: An eye-tracking study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sietske van Viersen, Athanassios Protopapas, George K Georgiou, Rauno Parrila, Laoura Ziaka, Peter F de Jong
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Orthographic learning is the topic of many recent studies about reading, but much is still unknown about conditions that affect orthographic learning and their influence on reading fluency development over time. This study investigated lexicality effects on orthographic learning in beginning and relatively advanced readers of Dutch. Eye movements of 131 children in Grades 2 and 5 were monitored during an orthographic learning task. Children read sentences containing pseudowords or low-frequency real words that varied in number of exposures. We examined both offline learning outcomes (i.e., orthographic choice and spelling dictation) of target items and online gaze durations on target words. The results showed general effects of exposure, lexicality, and reading-skill level. Also, a two-way interaction was found between the number of exposures and lexicality when detailed orthographic representations were required, consistent with a larger overall effect of exposure on learning the spellings of pseudowords. Moreover, lexicality and reading-skill level were found to affect the learning rate across exposures based on a decrease in gaze durations, indicating a larger learning effect for pseudowords in Grade 5 children. Yet, further interactions between exposure and reading-skill level were not present, indicating largely similar learning curves for beginning and advanced readers. We concluded that the reading system of more advanced readers may cope somewhat better with words varying in lexicality, but is not more efficient than that of beginning readers in building up orthographic knowledge of specific words across repeated exposures.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T07:20:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211047420
       
  • The role of attention and ageing in the retrieval dynamics of
           value-directed remembering

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dillon H Murphy, Alan D Castel
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      For memory to be efficient, people need to remember important information. This involves selective encoding and retrieval operations to maximise the recall of valuable information at the expense of less important information. While past research has examined this in terms of strategic encoding operations, we investigated differences in the dynamics of retrieval in value-directed remembering tasks with younger adults under full and divided attention during encoding as well as in older adults. Participants typically initiated recall with the first presented, last presented, or highest valued words and also strategically organised retrieval according to information value such that high-value words tended to be recalled before low-value words. However, the average value of older adults’ first recalled word was greater than that of younger adults, likely contributing to their enhanced selectivity. In addition, there were no differences in lag-conditional-response probabilities in younger adults under full or divided attention, but older adults showed impairments in the retrieval of items sharing contextual features with nearby items, while younger adults relied more on temporal-contextual cues to recall words. Together, this study suggests that both strategic encoding and strategic retrieval operations contribute to selectivity for valuable information and older adults may be able to maximise retrieval operations despite displaying impairments in temporal binding during encoding and an overall recall deficit.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-20T10:51:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211046612
       
  • No evidence of word-level uncertainty in younger and older adults in
           self-paced reading

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Michael G Cutter, Kevin B Paterson, Ruth Filik
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In a self-paced reading study, we investigated whether older adults maintain a greater level of uncertainty about the identity of words in a sentence than younger adults, potentially due to deficits in visuo-perceptual processing of high-spatial frequencies associated with normal aging. In the experiment, 60 older adults and 60 younger adults read sentences in which an early preposition was either perceptually confusable with another word (at; confusable with as) or not (toward), and in which the reading of a subsequent ambiguous verb (e.g., tossed) should be affected by the confusability of the preposition, while the reading of an unambiguous verb (e.g., thrown) should not be. This design replicated that of an earlier study conducted by Levy et al. (2009) that found evidence in favour of participants maintaining uncertainty about the confusable preposition in go-past times during natural reading. However, in our study, there was no evidence that either younger or older adults maintained uncertainty about the identity of the perceptually confusable preposition, such that there was no interaction between the preposition’s form and subsequent verb ambiguity in self-paced reading times, although we did observe a main effect of verb ambiguity. This represents a failure to replicate the effect observed by Levy et al. when using a different experimental paradigm, and we consider potential causes of our findings at both a methodological and theoretical level.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T11:49:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211045987
       
  • I am the metre: The representation of one’s body size affects the
           perception of tactile distances on the body

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Giorgia Tosi, Angelo Maravita, Daniele Romano
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Humans must ground the perception of one’s body in a mental representation to move in space and interact with objects. This representation can be temporarily altered artificially. In the full-body illusion (FBI), participants see a virtual (or filmed) body receiving a tactile stimulation. When participants receive touches on their body similarly to the seen one (i.e., homologous location and synchronous timing), they embody the seen alien body. While the subjective embodiment of alien bodies of different sizes has been already manipulated with the FBI, it remains unexplored whether the body-metric perception is impacted too. We first developed a new setup for the FBI using 360° videos to favour the embodiment. The FBI was induced for bodies of three sizes adopting anatomical and non-anatomical viewpoints, and we measured the subjective embodiment. The results suggest that humans can embody normal size or bigger bodies seen from anatomical viewpoints, but not smaller ones. We then investigated if the FBI modulates the body-metric representation. We found that the resized bodies’ vision affects the perception of one’s body-metric representation, but this was independent of the embodiment, suggesting that the FBI alters the body representation at different levels with a specific impact.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T11:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211044488
       
  • Phonological precision for word recognition in skilled readers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mahmoud M Elsherif, Linda Ruth Wheeldon, Steven Frisson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      According to the lexical quality hypothesis, differences in the orthographic, semantic, and phonological representations of words will affect individual reading performance. While several studies have focused on orthographic precision and semantic coherence, few have considered phonological precision. The present study used a suite of individual difference measures to assess which components of lexical quality contributed to competition resolution in a masked priming experiment. The experiment measured form priming for word and pseudoword targets with dense and sparse neighbourhoods in 84 university students. Individual difference measures of language and cognitive skills were also collected and a principal component analysis was used to group these data into components. The data showed that phonological precision and NHD interacted with form priming. In participants with high phonological precision, the direction of priming for word targets with sparse neighbourhoods was facilitatory, while the direction for those with dense neighbourhoods was inhibitory. In contrast, people with low phonological precision showed the opposite pattern, but the interaction was non-significant. These results suggest that the component of phonological precision is linked to lexical competition for word recognition and that access to the mental lexicon during reading is affected by differing levels of phonological processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-15T10:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211046350
       
  • When the independence of syntactic representation meets the sentence
           processing of Mandarin: Evidence from syntactic priming

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Keshu Xiang, Hui Chang, Lu Sun
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      There is no consensus on whether syntactic representation is independent of semantic representation in Mandarin. In four experiments, we adopted the syntactic priming paradigm to investigate the independence of syntactic representation in Mandarin. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the priming effects of double object construction (DO) and prepositional object construction (PO) with the ditransitive verb being repeated across the prime and target. Experiment 1 showed two-way priming effects of DO and PO. Experiment 2 showed that the syntactic priming effects persisted regardless of whether the semantic features (animacy of the Theme) matched across the prime and target or not. Furthermore, such effects persisted in Experiments 3 and 4 where the ditransitive verb across the prime and target was not repeated. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that syntactic/semantic independence is universal and favoured over the traditional Chinese grammar account, which claims that the syntactic representation of Mandarin is not independent of the semantic representation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T01:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211044987
       
  • Tactile disgust: Post-contact can be more disgusting than contact

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Supreet Saluja, Richard J Stevenson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Several studies have examined if disgust can be evoked by contacting an object—yet none have examined if reported disgust changes when the hand leaves the object. This is surprising given that post-contact tactile disgust is probably a driver of hand hygiene. We examined contact and post-contact tactile disgust and its sensory origins. Participants were asked to touch several objects, making sensory, disgust, and desire-to-handwash evaluations. These ratings were made at three stages-of-contact: object-contact (just touch), post-contact (just touch), and visual post-contact (touch, vision). Disgust was typically highest at post-contact (when the hand left the object). Stickiness and wetness were uniquely predictive of object-contact disgust. Only stickiness drove post-contact disgust, and only wetness visual post-contact disgust. Hand-washing desire was primarily driven by quantity of residue perceived on the hand. These findings suggest that tactile disgust is a multisensory and iterative process relating to object- and residue-adhesiveness.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-11T10:11:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211043688
       
  • Comparing individual and collective management of referential choices in
           dialogue

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dominique Knutsen, Marion Fossard, Amélie M Achim
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Past research shows that when a discourse referent is mentioned repeatedly, it is usually introduced with a full noun phrase and maintained with a reduced form such as a pronoun. Is this also the case in dialogue, where the same referent may be introduced by one person and maintained by another person' An experiment was conducted in which participants either told entire stories to each other or told stories together, thus enabling us to contrast situations in which characters were introduced and maintained by the same person (control condition) and situations in which the introduction and the maintaining of each character were performed by different people (alternating condition). Story complexity was also manipulated through the introduction of one or two characters in each story. We found that participants were less likely to use reduced forms to maintain referents in the alternating condition. The use of reduced forms also depended on the context in which the referent was maintained (in particular, first or second mention of a character) and on story complexity. These results shed light on how the pressure to signal understanding to one’s conversational partner affects referential choices throughout the interaction.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-11T10:10:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211037117
       
  • Mapping effects in choice-response and go/no-go variants of the lexical
           decision task: A case for polarity correspondence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Peter Wühr, Herbert Heuer
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has shown that responses to words are faster and more accurate in the go/no-go version of the lexical decision task (LDT) than in the choice-response version. This finding has been attributed to reduced response-selection demands in the go/no-go task. Here, we test an alternative account assuming similar response-selection demands in the two tasks, but an additional impact of polarity correspondence between stimuli and responses in the go/no-go task. Positive and negative polarities have been described as a frequent characteristic of binary stimulus and response dimensions. Only for the go/no-go version of the LDT, an apparent polarity difference between go and no-go responses exists, with go responses having the same polarity as words and no-go responses the same polarity as nonwords. Thus, compared with the choice-response LDT, in the go/no-go LDT, go responses to words should be facilitated by polarity correspondence, and go responses to nonwords should be inhibited by polarity noncorrespondence. In this study, each participant performed a go/no-go LDT and a choice-response LDT. Responses to words were faster and more accurate than responses to nonwords, and—consistent with the alternative account—this difference was larger in the go/no-go LDT than in the choice-response LDT. An analysis of performance by means of sequential-sampling models that take into account a decaying influence of irrelevant stimulus features supported the effect of polarity correspondence in the go/no-go LDT. This analysis suggested an effect in the choice-response LDT as well, though of a smaller size and a faster decay.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T11:07:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211043860
       
  • Similarities and differences in understanding negative and affirmative
           counterfactuals and causal assertions: Evidence from eye-tracking

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Isabel Orenes, Orlando Espino, Ruth MJ Byrne
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Two eye-tracking experiments compared affirmative and negative counterfactuals, “if she had (not) arrived early, she would (not) have bought roses” and affirmative and negative causal assertions, “Because she arrived (did not arrive) early, she bought (did not buy) roses.” When participants heard a counterfactual, they looked on screen at words corresponding to its conjecture (“roses”), and its presupposed facts (“no roses”), whereas for a causal assertion, they looked only at words corresponding to the facts. For counterfactuals, they looked at the conjecture first, and later the presupposed facts, and at the latter more than the former. The effect was more pronounced for negative counterfactuals than affirmative ones because the negative counterfactual’s presupposed facts identify a specific item (“she bought roses”), whereas the affirmative counterfactual’s presupposed facts do not (“she did not buy roses”). Hence, when participants were given a binary context, “she did not know whether to buy roses or carnations,” they looked primarily at the presupposed facts for both sorts of counterfactuals. We discuss the implications for theories of negation, the dual meaning of counterfactuals, and their relation to causal assertions.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T10:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211044085
       
  • Limitations of occasional reinforced extinction to alleviate spontaneous
           recovery and reinstatement effects: Evidence for a trial-signalling
           mechanism

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: María J Quintero, Amanda Flores, María T Gutiérrez-Huerta, Patricia Molina-Guerrero, Francisco J López, Joaquín Morís
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Fear extinction is not permanent but is instead more vulnerable than the original fear memory, as traditionally shown by the return of fear phenomena. Because of this, techniques to mitigate the return of fear are needed in the clinical treatment of related psychological conditions. One promising strategy is the occasional reinforced extinction treatment, introducing a gradual and sparse number of conditioned stimulus–unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) pairings within the extinction treatment. We present the results of three experiments in which we used a threat conditioning procedure in humans. Our main aim was to evaluate whether occasional reinforced extinction could reduce two different forms of relapse: spontaneous recovery (Experiments 1 and 2) and reinstatement (Experiment 3). Contrary to our predictions and previous literature, the results indicate that an occasional reinforcement treatment did not mitigate relapse compared with standard extinction. From a theoretical standpoint, these results are more consistent with the idea that extinction entails the acquisition of new knowledge than with the idea that there are conditions in which extinction leads to a weakening of the original fear memory. These findings also question the generality of the potential benefits of using occasional reinforced extinction in clinical settings.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-08T02:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211043434
       
  • The bright homunculus in our head: Individual differences in intuitive
           sensitivity to logical validity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Omid Ghasemi, Simon Handley, Stephanie Howarth
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Classic dual process theories of human reasoning attribute explicit reasoning to effortful, deliberative thinking. According to these models, intuitive processes lack any access to the formal rules of logic and probability and hence rely exclusively on superficial problem features to determine a response. However, in recent years, researchers have demonstrated that reasoners are able to solve simple logical or probabilistic problems relatively automatically, a capability which has been called “logical intuition.” In four experiments, we instructed participants to judge the validity (Experiments 1 and 4), likeability (Experiments 1, 2, and 3), and physical brightness (Experiments 2, 3, and 4) of the conclusion to several reasoning problems. Brightness judgements were made by evaluating the font shade brightness of the argument’s conclusion. Participants were also asked to complete a range of individual differences measures, drawing on cognitive ability and cognitive style, to evaluate the extent to which “logical intuitions” were linked to measures of deliberative reasoning. The results showed that participants judged the conclusion of logically valid statements to be more valid, more likable, and more physically bright than invalid statements. Participants with higher cognitive ability and unlimited processing time showed greater effects of logical validity in their liking judgements (varied across experiments). However, these effects were absent in the brightness tasks, suggesting that logic effects observed under instructions to judge conclusion brightness are a purer measure of “logical intuition.” We discuss the implications of our findings for recent dual process theories of human reasoning.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-08T02:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211044691
       
  • Own-race faces promote integrated audiovisual speech information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yuta Ujiie, Kohske Takahashi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The other-race effect indicates a perceptual advantage when processing own-race faces. This effect has been demonstrated in individuals’ recognition of facial identity and emotional expressions. However, it remains unclear whether the other-race effect also exists in multisensory domains. We conducted two experiments to provide evidence for the other-race effect in facial speech recognition, using the McGurk effect. Experiment 1 tested this issue among East Asian adults, examining the magnitude of the McGurk effect during stimuli using speakers from two different races (own-race vs. other-race). We found that own-race faces induced a stronger McGurk effect than other-race faces. Experiment 2 indicated that the other-race effect was not simply due to different levels of attention being paid to the mouths of own- and other-race speakers. Our findings demonstrated that own-race faces enhance the weight of visual input during audiovisual speech perception, and they provide evidence of the own-race effect in the audiovisual interaction for speech perception in adults.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-08T02:48:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211044480
       
  • The role of inhibitory control in shoot/don’t-shoot decisions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Adam T Biggs, Kyle A Pettijohn
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous work has demonstrated a link between cognitive abilities, specifically inhibitory control and lethal force decision-making performance. However, many previously used approaches to simulating shoot/don’t shoot scenarios have lacked ecological validity. There is a need to investigate how inhibitory control impacts shoot/don’t decisions using realistic simulations to better translate the findings to military and law enforcement settings. This study used multiple cognitive control tasks incorporating discrete judgements in go/no-go and stop signal tasks as well as subjective judgements in go/no-go tasks with both colour stimuli and emotional faces. These combined tasks provided a comprehensive evaluation of inhibitory control abilities. To ensure ecological validity in shooting performance, existing military training scenarios incorporated realistic weaponry and aiming behaviours across different shoot/don’t-shoot simulations. The inhibitory control battery identified five principal components from the various tasks, including: stopping ability, response speed, emotion detection, colour detection, and emotional biases. These principal inhibitory control components were entered into hierarchical linear regressions with the dependent variables of unintended casualties inflicted and lethal rounds fired, respectively. Stopping ability better predicted the likelihood of inflicting an unintended casualty, whereas response speed better predicted the number of lethal rounds fired. These regression models included baseline metrics of marksmanship and shots fired, which supports a role for inhibitory control above and beyond basic shooting abilities or strategy. These collective findings provide mechanistic support for the relationship between inhibitory control and errors in shoot/don’t-shoot decision-making while using realistic military training scenarios.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-08T02:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211041923
       
  • Do facially disfiguring features influence attention and perception of
           faces' Evidence from an antisaccade task

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Luc Boutsen, Nathan A Pearson, Martin Jüttner
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Facial disfigurements can influence how observers attend to and interact with the person, leading to disease-avoidance behaviour and emotions (disgust, threat, fear for contagion). However, it is unclear whether this behaviour is reflected in the effect of the facial stigma on attention and perceptual encoding of facial information. We addressed this question by measuring, in a mixed antisaccade task, observers’ speed and accuracy of orienting of visual attention towards or away from peripherally presented upright and inverted unfamiliar faces that had either a realistic looking disease-signalling feature (a skin discolouration), a non-disease-signalling control feature, or no added feature. The presence of a disfiguring or control feature did not influence the orienting of attention (in terms of saccadic latency) towards upright faces, suggesting that avoidance responses towards facial stigma do not occur during covert attention. However, disfiguring and control features significantly reduced the effect of face inversion on saccadic latency, thus suggesting an impact on the holistic processing of facial information. The implications of these findings for the encoding and appraisal of facial disfigurements are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T09:45:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211041621
       
  • Intentions with actions: The role of intentionality attribution on the
           vicarious sense of agency in Human–Robot interaction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cecilia Roselli, Francesca Ciardo, Agnieszka Wykowska
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Sense of Agency (SoA) is the feeling of control over one’s actions and their consequences. In social contexts, people experience a “vicarious” SoA over other humans’ actions; however, the phenomenon disappears when the other agent is a computer. This study aimed to investigate the factors that determine when humans experience vicarious SoA in Human–Robot Interaction (HRI). To this end, in two experiments, we disentangled two potential contributing factors: (1) the possibility of representing the robot’s actions and (2) the adoption of Intentional Stance towards robots. Participants performed an Intentional Binding (IB) task reporting the time of occurrence for self- or robot-generated actions or sensory outcomes. To assess the role of action representation, the robot either performed a physical keypress (Experiment 1) or “acted” by sending a command via Bluetooth (Experiment 2). Before the experiment, attribution of intentionality to the robot was assessed. Results showed that when participants judged the occurrence of the action, vicarious SoA was predicted by the degree of attributed intentionality, but only when the robot’s action was physical. Conversely, digital actions elicited the reversed effect of vicarious IB, suggesting that disembodied actions of robots are perceived as non-intentional. When participants judged the occurrence of the sensory outcome, vicarious SoA emerged only when the causing action was physical. Notably, intentionality attribution predicted vicarious SoA for sensory outcomes independently of the nature of the causing event, physical or digital. In conclusion, both intentionality attribution and action representation play a crucial role for vicarious SoA in HRI.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-02T12:02:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211042003
       
  • To organise or not to organise' Understanding search strategy
           preferences using Lego building blocks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mona JH Zhu, Evan F Risko
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Humans routinely organise or reconfigure the environment as part of their everyday activities, such as placing a set of keys in a designated location to reduce the need to remember its location. This type of spatial organisation is widely thought to reduce both the physical and cognitive demands of a task to allow individuals to perform tasks more easily. Although spatial organisation can be a useful strategy when searching for items in the environment, individuals do not always choose to utilise these organisational strategies when carrying out everyday tasks. Across three experiments, we examined individuals’ preference for spatial organisation in the context of a real-world search task, and the degree to which individuals engaged in time- and effort-based cost–benefit analysis to inform whether to choose between an organisation-based or non-organisation-based search strategy. We found that individuals’ strategy preferences could be explained by the perceived task time associated with each strategy, but not perceived task effort. However, even statistically controlling for relative perceived task time or reported effort, participants showed a strong systematic preference against organisation prior to engaging in the task, and, post-task, a strong preference towards organisation. Implications for understanding individuals’ use of spatial organisation are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-02T09:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211040724
       
  • The association of basic numerical abilities and math achievement: The
           mediating role of visuospatial and arithmetical abilities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Franziska Rebholz, Jessika Golle, Korbinian Moeller
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Basic numerical abilities such as number line estimation have been observed repeatedly to be associated with mathematical achievement. Recently, it was argued that the association between basic numerical abilities and mathematical achievement is fully mediated by visuospatial abilities. However, arithmetical abilities have not yet been considered as influencing this association, even though solution strategies in number line estimation as well as mathematical achievement often involve arithmetical procedures. Therefore, we investigated the mediating role of arithmetical and visuospatial abilities on the association between number line estimation and mathematical achievement in a sample of n = 599 German elementary school students. The results indicated that arithmetical abilities as well as visuospatial abilities mediated the association between number line estimation and mathematical achievement. However, neither visuospatial nor arithmetical abilities fully mediated the association between number line estimation and mathematical achievement when considered in isolation. This substantiates the relevance of the intertwined development of visuospatial and arithmetical abilities as well as basic numerical abilities such as number line estimation (i.e., the combination of domain-specific numerical and domain-general abilities) driving mathematical achievement.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-09-02T09:21:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211040060
       
  • The effects of emotionality and lexical category on L2 word processing in
           different tasks: Evidence from late Chinese–English bilinguals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xiaogen Liao, Chuanbin Ni
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Although it has been well established that emotional content influences language comprehension, the effects of emotionality on L2 (second language: English) word processing require further clarification. Notably, most previous studies unsystematically mixed words of different lexical categories, although they often showed processing differences. Here, using the same set of tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words across three lexical categories (i.e., nouns, verbs, adjectives), we examined the effects of emotionality and lexical category on L2 word processing by conducting three experiments. In these experiments, three groups of late Chinese–English bilinguals performed three tasks: the emotional Stroop task (Experiment 1), the lexical decision task (Experiment 2), and the emotional categorisation task (Experiment 3), respectively. Overall, our data suggested that emotionality and lexical category exerted no influence on L2 word processing in the emotional Stroop task, but acted interactively to influence it in the other two tasks. The results evidenced that the processing of L2 emotional words was sensitive to task type. Therefore, we conclude that future research on L2 word processing should fully consider the emotionality, lexical category, and task type.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-30T08:35:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211041833
       
  • Numeral order and the operationalization of the numerical system

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: David Muñez, Josetxu Orrantia, Laura Matilla, Rosario Sanchez
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent years have witnessed an increase in research on how numeral ordering skills relate to children’s and adults’ mathematics achievement both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Nonetheless, it remains unknown which core competency numeral ordering tasks measure, which cognitive mechanisms underlie performance on these tasks, and why numeral ordering skills relate to arithmetic and math achievement. In the current study, we focused on the processes underlying decision-making in the numeral order judgement task with triplets to investigate these questions. A drift-diffusion model for two-choice decisions was fit to data from 97 undergraduates. Findings aligned with the hypothesis that numeral ordering skills reflected the operationalization of the numerical system, where small numbers provide more evidence of an ordered response than large numbers. Furthermore, the pattern of findings suggested that arithmetic achievement was associated with the accuracy of the ordinal representations of numbers.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T07:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211041953
       
  • Practice and transfer with mappings of spoon tip and handle to keypress
           responses

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yaqi Xu, Aiping Xiong, Robert W Proctor
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      When orientation of a horizontal spoon image varies to the left or right, instructions can map left and right keypresses to the tip or handle location. We conducted Experiment 1 to determine whether practice with an incompatible mapping of the salient tip transfers to a test session in which the relevant part and/or mapping are changed. Participants performed 80 practice trials with tip-incompatible mapping, followed by 80 test trials with tip-compatible, tip-incompatible, handle-compatible, or handle-incompatible mapping. Performance improved across 20-trial blocks in the practice session. In the test session, responses were 65 ms faster with tip-compatible than tip-incompatible mapping but 31 ms faster with handle-incompatible than handle-compatible mapping. This latter result, and verbal reports, indicate that some participants adopted a strategy of responding compatibly to the salient tip even though instructed to respond to the handle. Experiment 2 focused on whether participants with handle-incompatible mapping instructions would adopt the tip-compatible strategy spontaneously or after receiving a hint: 77% of participants reported adopting the tip-compatible strategy in Session 1, showing that prior experience responding to the tip is not necessary and 9% of participants did not report using that strategy in Session 1 but reported changing to it in Session 2 after receiving the hint. Their responses in Session 2 were slower than those who used the strategy throughout, but this difference was minimal in the last two trial blocks. Compatible mapping of the salient spoon tip to keypresses dominated performance over prior practice with incompatible tip mapping and instructions with incompatible handle mapping.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T07:14:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211041366
       
  • Working memory training does not improve executive functioning or fluid
           intelligence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jose A Rodas, Ciara M Greene
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Several studies have reported that cognitive training can lead to improvements of complex mental skills such as intelligence. However, attempts to replicate these findings have not been very successful with many studies reporting lack of transferable effects on cognitive processes unrelated to the training task. On the contrary, transfer effects on cognitive processes closely related to the training task have been more commonly reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of a frequently used working-memory training programme on fluid intelligence and specific executive functions (updating, inhibition, switching, the focus of attention, and sustained attention). We remedied common issues with previous training studies by using an active control group, using more than one instrument to assess each function, and including a larger sample size. The experimental group showed significant improvement in the training task, indicating strong practice effects. However, no evidence of training-specific transfer was found in any of the variables investigated, and we could not find any of the previous improvements reported. Participants in both the training and control groups showed post-training improvements in most of the outcome variables, suggesting that practice effects can be found even when a task is only performed twice. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for the differences between our results and those reported in prior studies and recommend that any claims of improvement should be supported by studies capable of replicating them.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T07:12:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211039502
       
  • Differential impacts of natural L2 immersion and intensive classroom L2
           training on cognitive control

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zhilong Xie, Katarina Antolovic
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The relationship between bilingualism and cognitive control has been controversial. We believe that the discrepant findings are likely driven by the complexities of the bilingual experience, which is consistent with the Adaptive Control Hypothesis. The current study investigates whether the natural language immersion experience and the classroom intensive language training experience have differential impacts on cognitive control. Among unbalanced Chinese-English bilingual students, a natural L2 (second language) immersion group, an L2 public speaking training group, and a control bilingual group without immersion or training experience were compared on their cognitive control abilities, with the participants’ demographic factors strictly controlled. The results showed that the L2 immersion group and the L2 speaking group had faster speed than the control group in the Flanker task, whereas the L2 immersion group had fewer errors than the other two groups in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). These results generally provide evidence in favour of the Adaptive Control Hypothesis, specifying that natural L2 immersion and L2 public speaking training experiences are distinctively related to cognitive control. The current study is the first of its kind to link specific bilingual experiences (natural L2 immersion vs. intensive L2 public speaking) with different components of cognitive control.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T06:04:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211040813
       
  • Is the attentional SNARC effect truly attentional' Using temporal
           order judgements to differentiate attention from response

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Diana B Galarraga, Jay Pratt, Brett A Cochrane
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The spatial–numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect reflects the phenomenon that low digits are responded to faster with the left hand and high digits with the right. Recently, a particular variant of the SNARC effect known as the attentional SNARC (which reflects that attention can be shifted in a similar manner) has had notable replicability issues. However, a potentially useful method for measuring it was revealed by Casarotti et al. using a temporal order judgement (TOJ) task. Accordingly, the present study evaluated whether Casarotti et al.’s results were reproducible by presenting a low (1) or high (9) digit prior to a TOJ task where participants had to indicate which of two peripherally presented targets appeared first (Experiment 1) or second (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, it was revealed that the findings of Casarotti et al.’s were indeed observable upon replication. In Experiment 2, when attention and response dimensions were put in opposition, the SNARC effect corresponded to the side of response rather than attention. Taken together, the present study confirms the robustness of the attentional SNARC in TOJ tasks, but that it is not likely due to shifts in attention.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T09:43:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211039479
       
  • The effect of low-frequency equalisation on preference and sensorimotor
           synchronisation in music

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Scott Beveridge, Estefanía Cano, Steffen A Herff
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Equalisation, a signal processing technique commonly used to shape the sound of music, is defined as the adjustment of the energy in specific frequency components of a signal. In this work, we investigate the effects of equalisation on preference and sensorimotor synchronisation in music. A total of 21 participants engaged in a goal-directed upper body movements in synchrony with stimuli equalised in three low-frequency sub-bands (0–50, 50–100, and 100–200 Hz). To quantify the effect of equalisation, music features including spectral flux, pulse clarity, and beat confidence were extracted from seven differently equalised versions of music tracks—one original and six manipulated versions for each music track. These music tracks were then used in a movement synchronisation task. Bayesian mixed-effects models revealed different synchronisation behaviours in response to the three sub-bands considered. Boosting energy in the 100–200 Hz sub-band reduced synchronisation performance irrespective of the sub-band energy of the original version. An energy boost in the 0–50 Hz band resulted in increased synchronisation performance only when the sub-band energy of the original version was high. An energy boost in the 50–100 Hz band increased synchronisation performance only when the sub-band energy of the original version was low. Boosting the energy in any of the three sub-bands increased preference regardless of the energy of the original version. Our results provide empirical support for the importance of low-frequency information for sensorimotor synchronisation and suggest that the effects of equalisation on preference and synchronisation are largely independent of one another.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-14T06:01:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211037145
       
  • Manual training of mental rotation performance: Visual representation of
           rotating figures is the main driver for improvements

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Leonardo Jost, Petra Jansen
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Studies have demonstrated that manual and mental rotation show common processes. Training studies have shown that a manual and concurrent visual rotation improves mental rotation performance. In this study, we separated the visual rotation from the manual rotation. In all, 121 participants were randomly assigned to visual training, manual rotation training, or manual training without rotational movement. Before and after the training session of 30 min, they had to solve a chronometric mental rotation test. Data were analysed with linear mixed models and showed an improvement in mental rotation performance for all groups. However, this improvement did not differ between groups. Due to the independence of the form and occurrence of the manual activity, this suggests that it is not the motor activity, but the concurrent visual rotation that leads to improvements in mental rotation tasks. Therefore, the visual component in mental rotation tasks has to be investigated in more detail.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T09:25:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211039494
       
  • Effects of a neutral warning signal on spatial two-choice reactions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tianfang Han, Robert W Proctor
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Posner et al. reported that, at short fixed foreperiods, a neutral warning tone reduced reaction times (RTs) in a visual two-choice task while increasing error rates for both spatially compatible and incompatible stimulus–response mappings. Consequently, they concluded that alertness induced by the warning does not affect the efficiency of information processing but the setting of a response criterion. We conducted two experiments to determine the conditions under which the trade-off occurs. In Experiment 1, participants performed the same two-choice task as in Posner et al.’s study without RT feedback. Results showed that the warning tone speeded responses with no evidence of speed/accuracy trade-off. In Experiment 2, RT feedback was provided after each response, and a speed/accuracy trade-off was found for the 50-ms foreperiod. However, better information-processing efficiency was evident for the 200-ms foreperiod. We conclude that the foreperiod effect of a 50-ms foreperiod is a result of response criterion adjustment and that providing trial-level RT feedback is critical for replicating this pattern. However, fixed foreperiods of 200 ms or longer benefit both speed and accuracy, implying a more controlled preparation component that improves response efficiency.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T07:20:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211037604
       
  • In the hands of the beholder: Wearing a COVID-19 mask is associated with
           its attractiveness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Veronica Dudarev, Maria GM Manaligod, James T Enns, Rebecca M Todd
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Protective facial masks reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection and save lives. Yet a substantial number of people have been resistant to wearing them. Considerable effort has been invested in convincing people to put on a mask, if not for their own sake than for those more vulnerable. Social and cognitive psychologists know that use and liking go both ways: people use what they like, and they like what they use. Here we asked whether positive attitudes towards facial masks were higher in those who had been wearing them longer. We asked participants in a diverse sample (N = 498 from five countries and more than 30 US states) to rate how attractive and emotionally arousing masks and other objects associated with COVID-19 were in comparison to neutral objects, as well as reporting on their mask-wearing habits. To confirm reliability of findings, the experiment was repeated in a subset of participants 8–10 weeks later. The findings show that regular use of protective masks was linked to their positive appraisal, with a higher frequency and a longer history of wearing a mask predicting increased mask attractiveness. These results extended to other COVID-related objects relative to controls. They also provide critical ecological validity for the idea that emotional appraisal of everyday objects is associated with our experience of using them. Practically, they imply that societal measures to encourage mask wearing may have contributed to positive emotional appraisals in those who put them on, whether due to personal choice or societal pressure.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T07:18:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211037128
       
  • Prepotent task-irrelevant semantic information is dampened by
           domain-specific control mechanisms during visual word recognition

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Simone Sulpizio, Remo Job, Paolo Leoni, Michele Scaltritti
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated whether semantic interference occurring during visual word recognition is resolved using domain-general control mechanisms or using more specific mechanisms related to semantic processing. We asked participants to perform a lexical decision task with taboo stimuli, which induce semantic interference, as well as a semantic Stroop task and a Simon task, intended as benchmarks of linguistic-semantic and non-linguistic interference, respectively. Using a correlational approach, we investigated potential similarities between effects produced in the three tasks, both at the level of overall means and as a function of response speed (delta-plot analysis). Correlations selectively surfaced between the lexical decision and the semantic Stroop task. These findings suggest that, during visual word recognition, semantic interference is controlled by semantic-specific mechanisms, which intervene to face prepotent but task-irrelevant semantic information interfering with the accomplishment of the task’s goal.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-07-21T09:50:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211030863
       
  • Processing symbolic magnitude information conveyed by number words and by
           scalar adjectives

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Arnold R Kochari, Herbert Schriefers
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Humans not only process and compare magnitude information such as size, duration, and number perceptually, but they also communicate about these properties using language. In this respect, a relevant class of lexical items are so-called scalar adjectives like “big,” “long,” “loud,” and so on which refer to magnitude information. It has been proposed that humans use an amodal and abstract representation format shared by different dimensions, called the generalised magnitude system (GMS). In this paper, we test the hypothesis that scalar adjectives are symbolic references to GMS representations, and, therefore, GMS gets involved in processing their meaning. Previously, a parallel hypothesis on the relation between number symbols and GMS representations has been tested with the size congruity paradigm. The results of these experiments showed interference between the processing of number symbols and the processing of physical (font-) size. In the first three experiments of the present study (total N = 150), we used the size congruity paradigm and the same/different task to look at the potential interaction between physical size magnitude and numerical magnitude expressed by number words. In the subsequent three experiments (total N = 149), we looked at a parallel potential interaction between physical size magnitude and scalar adjective meaning. In the size congruity paradigm, we observed interference between the processing of the numerical value of number words and the meaning of scalar adjectives, on the one hand, and physical (font-) size, on the other hand, when participants had to judge the number words or the adjectives (while ignoring physical size). No interference was obtained for the reverse situation, i.e., when participants judged the physical font size (while ignoring numerical value or meaning). The results of the same/different task for both number words and scalar adjectives strongly suggested that the interference that was observed in the size congruity paradigm was likely due to a response conflict at the decision stage of processing rather than due to the recruitment of GMS representations. Taken together, it can be concluded that the size congruity paradigm does not provide evidence in support the hypothesis that GMS representations are used in the processing of number words or scalar adjectives. Nonetheless, the hypothesis we put forward about scalar adjectives is still is a promising potential line of research. We make a number of suggestions for how this hypothesis can be explored in future studies.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T10:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211031158
       
  • People with larger social networks show poorer voice recognition

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shiri Lev-Ari
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The way we process language is influenced by our experience. We are more likely to attend to features that proved to be useful in the past. Importantly, the size of individuals’ social network can influence their experience, and consequently, how they process language. In the case of voice recognition, having a larger social network might provide more variable input and thus enhance the ability to recognise new voices. On the other hand, learning to recognise voices is more demanding and less beneficial for people with a larger social network as they have more speakers to learn yet spend less time with each. This paper tests whether social network size influences voice recognition, and if so, in which direction. Native Dutch speakers listed their social network and performed a voice recognition task. Results showed that people with larger social networks were poorer at learning to recognise voices. Experiment 2 replicated the results with a British sample and English stimuli. Experiment 3 showed that the effect does not generalise to voice recognition in an unfamiliar language suggesting that social network size influences attention to the linguistic rather than non-linguistic markers that differentiate speakers. The studies thus show that our social network size influences our inclination to learn speaker-specific patterns in our environment, and consequently, the development of skills that rely on such learned patterns, such as voice recognition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T05:23:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211030798
       
  • Wearing same- and opposite-sex virtual bodies and seeing them caressed in
           intimate areas

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Manuel Mello, Martina Fusaro, Gaetano Tieri, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Immersive virtual reality enables people to undergo the experience of owning an artificial body and vicariously feeling tactile stimuli delivered to it. However, it is currently unknown how such experiences are modified by the sexual congruency between the human and the artificial agent. In two studies, heterosexual men (Experiment 1) and women (Experiment 2) embodied same-sex and opposite-sex avatars and were asked to evaluate the experience (e.g., pleasantness, erogeneity) of being touched on social or intimate areas of their virtual body by a male or female avatar. Electrocardiogram and galvanic skin response were also recorded. Moreover, participants’ implicit and explicit gender biases were examined via a gender-potency implicit association test and the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. When embodying a same-sex avatar, men and women rated caresses on intimate areas from an avatar of the opposite sex as more pleasant and erogenous. Conversely, body swap—that is, wearing an opposite-sex avatar—enhanced participants’ perceptions of pleasantness and erogeneity for caresses on intimate areas from a same-sex toucher. This effect was stronger in men than in women. Furthermore, physiological correlates of enhanced processing of arousing stimuli predicted behavioural outcomes during the body swap illusion. Wearing an opposite-sex avatar affects one’s own body representations and may have important implications on people’s attitudes and implicit reactivity to touch-mediated interactions. Men seem more susceptible to this type of body swap illusion. Our paradigm may induce profound changes of cross-sex perspective-taking and provide novel tools for promoting empathy and comprehension of sex-related diversity.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T05:18:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211031557
       
  • Sources of variation in search and foraging: A theoretical perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alastair D Smith, Carlo De Lillo
      First page: 197
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Search—the problem of exploring a space of alternatives to identify target goals—is a fundamental behaviour for many species. Although its foundation lies in foraging, most studies of human search behaviour have been directed towards understanding the attentional mechanisms that underlie the efficient visual exploration of two-dimensional (2D) scenes. With this review, we aim to characterise how search behaviour can be explained across a wide range of contexts, environments, spatial scales, and populations, both typical and atypical. We first consider the generality of search processes across psychological domains. We then review studies of interspecies differences in search. Finally, we explore in detail the individual and contextual variables that affect visual search and related behaviours in established experimental psychology paradigms. Despite the heterogeneity of the findings discussed, we identify that variations in control processes, along with the ability to regulate behaviour as a function of the structure of search space and the sampling processes adopted, to be central to explanations of variations in search behaviour. We propose a tentative theoretical model aimed at integrating these notions and close by exploring questions that remain unaddressed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-21T12:46:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211050314
       
  • Two variations and one similarity in memory functions deployed by mice and
           humans to support foraging

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Spencer Talbot, Todor Gerdjikov, Carlo De Lillo
      First page: 245
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Assessing variations in cognitive function between humans and animals is vital for understanding the idiosyncrasies of human cognition and for refining animal models of human brain function and disease. We determined memory functions deployed by mice and humans to support foraging with a search task acting as a test battery. Mice searched for food from the top of poles within an open arena. Poles were divided into groups based on visual cues and baited according to different schedules. White and black poles were baited in alternate trials. Striped poles were never baited. The requirement of the task was to find all baits in each trial. Mice’s foraging efficiency, defined as the number of poles visited before all baits were retrieved, improved with practice. Mice learnt to avoid visiting unbaited poles across trials (long-term memory) and revisits to poles within each trial (working memory). Humans tested with a virtual reality version of the task outperformed mice in foraging efficiency, working memory, and exploitation of the temporal pattern of rewards across trials. Moreover, humans, but not mice, reduced the number of possible movement sequences used to search the set of poles. For these measures, interspecies differences were maintained throughout the 3 weeks of testing. By contrast, long-term memory for never-rewarded poles was similar in mice and humans after the first week of testing. These results indicate that human cognitive functions relying on archaic brain structures may be adequately modelled in mice. Conversely, modelling in mice fluid skills likely to have developed specifically in primates requires caution.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:11:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211010576
       
  • The effects of induced optical blur on visual search performance and
           training

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Azuwan Musa, Alison R Lane, Amanda Ellison
      First page: 277
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Visual search is a task often used in the rehabilitation of patients with cortical and non-cortical visual pathologies such as visual field loss. Reduced visual acuity is often comorbid with these disorders, and it remains poorly defined how low visual acuity may affect a patient’s ability to recover visual function through visual search training. The two experiments reported here investigated whether induced blurring of vision (from 6/15 to 6/60) in a neurotypical population differentially affected various types of feature search tasks, whether there is a minimal acceptable level of visual acuity required for normal search performance, and whether these factors affected the degree to which participants could improve with training. From the results, it can be seen that reducing visual acuity did reduce search speed, but only for tasks where the target was defined by shape or size (not colour), and only when acuity was worse than 6/15. Furthermore, searching behaviour was seen to improve with training in all three feature search tasks, irrespective of the degree of blurring that was induced. The improvement also generalised to a non-trained search task, indicating that an enhanced search strategy had been developed. These findings have important implications for the use of visual search as a rehabilitation aid for partial visual loss, indicating that individuals with even severe comorbid blurring should still be able to benefit from such training.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T07:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211050280
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.84.132.40
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-