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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Psychiatry and Psychology Journal : APPJ     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Journal of Professional Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 362)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aging Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 205)
An-Nafs : Jurnal Fakultas Psikologi     Open Access  
Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access  
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analogías del Comportamiento     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 84)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 292)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aprender     Open Access  
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Archives of Depression and Anxiety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Augmented Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior and Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioural Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 174)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Art Therapy : Research, Practice, and Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
CES Psicología     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology     Open Access  
Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Contemporary Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos de Psicología     Open Access  
cultura & psyché : Journal of Cultural Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Culture - Society - Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.374
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 22  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1747-0218 - ISSN (Online) 1747-0226
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • The Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control (DMCC) project: Validation of an
           online behavioural task battery

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rongxiang Tang, Julie M Bugg, Jean-Paul Snijder, Andrew RA Conway, Todd S Braver
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Cognitive control serves a crucial role in human higher mental functions. The Dual Mechanisms of Control theoretical framework provides a unifying account that decomposes cognitive control into two qualitatively distinct mechanisms—proactive control and reactive control. Here, we describe the Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control (DMCC) task battery, which was developed to probe cognitive control modes in a theoretically targeted manner, along with detailed descriptions of the experimental manipulations used to encourage shifts to proactive or reactive mode in each of four prototypical domains of cognition: selective attention, context processing, multitasking, and working memory. We present results from this task battery, conducted from a large (N > 100), online sample that rigorously evaluates the group effects of these manipulations in primary indices of proactive and reactive control, establishing the validity of the battery in providing dissociable yet convergent measures of the two cognitive control modes. The DMCC battery may be a useful tool for the research community to examine cognitive control in a theoretically targeted manner across different individuals and groups.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T06:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221114769
       
  • Arithmetic operations without symbols are unimpaired in adults with math
           anxiety

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eli Zaleznik, Olivia Comeau, Joonkoo Park
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study characterises a previously unstudied facet of a major causal model of math anxiety. The model posits that impaired “basic number abilities” can lead to math anxiety, but what constitutes a basic number ability remains underdefined. Previous work has raised the idea that our perceptual ability to represent quantities approximately without using symbols constitutes one of the basic number abilities. Indeed, several recent studies tested how participants with math anxiety estimate and compare non-symbolic quantities. However, little is known about how participants with math anxiety perform arithmetic operations (addition and subtraction) on non-symbolic quantities. This is an important question because poor arithmetic performance on symbolic numbers is one of the primary signatures of high math anxiety. To test the question, we recruited 92 participants and asked them to complete a math anxiety survey, two measures of working memory, a timed symbolic arithmetic test, and a non-symbolic “approximate arithmetic” task. We hypothesised that if impaired ability to perform operations was a potential causal factor to math anxiety, we should see relationships between math anxiety and both symbolic and approximate arithmetic. However, if math anxiety relates to precise or symbolic representation, only a relationship between math anxiety and symbolic arithmetic should appear. Our results show no relationship between math anxiety and the ability to perform operations with approximate quantities, suggesting that difficulties performing perceptually based arithmetic operations do not constitute a basic number ability linked to math anxiety.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T11:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221113555
       
  • A framing effect of intertemporal and spatial choice

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      Authors: Yi Kuang, Yuan-Na Huang, Shu Li
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A given spatial distance can be measured using either a length or a time unit. A spatial-choice problem with given distances represented in a space frame and in a time frame is logically equivalent. Different representations of the same choice problem should yield the same preferences according to the invariance principle. To test invariance in the context of spatial choice, we used a constant velocity to construct six spatial (intertemporal) choice problems with single-placed (single-dated) outcomes in a space (time) frame and investigated whether invariance-violating behaviour could be detected under the two frames (Studies 1–3). If such behaviour existed, we then aimed to determine whether two models—the attribute-comparison model, which predicts a framing effect occurs if framing shifts people’s judgement of the inequality relationship between the differences of two options in time/space dimension and that in outcome dimension, and the utility comparison model, which predicts that a framing effect occurs if framing shifts people’s judgement of the inequality relationship between two options’ overall utility—could account for it, and which of these two models is better supported by the data (Studies 2–3). The results indicate that a time–space framing effect existed, as people’s preference orders were significantly changed by the different descriptions of spatial-choice problems, and this new time–space framing effect could be satisfactorily explained by the attribute-comparison rather than the utility comparison model. Our findings could support the creation of new forms of choice architecture that improve decisions about health, wealth, and happiness.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T11:08:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221113519
       
  • Encoding arm and leg movements in the same or opposite direction

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      Authors: Tingting Xie, Lijuan Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined whether working memory performance for arm and leg movements differed when encoding in the same or opposite direction (relative to the observed direction) and which direction was better for encoding these two kinds of movements. The results showed that encoding direction regulated the comparison between arm and leg movements in working memory performance. In the same-direction encoding condition, arm movements performed better than leg movements, whereas in the opposite-direction encoding condition, arm movements performed worse. In addition, arm movements performed better when they were encoded in the same direction, while encoding leg movements in the same direction did not differ from encoding them in the opposite direction. Therefore, we should move appropriate body parts for the same and opposite learning directions. The same direction is suitable for learning arm movements but not leg movements; the opposite direction is suitable for learning leg movements but not arm movements. We should also consider the appropriate learning direction for arm movements rather than leg movements. Arm movements are encoded more effectively in the same direction than in the opposite direction.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T11:04:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221113427
       
  • Olfactory habituation to food and nonfood odours

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      Authors: Lara Fontana, Javier Albayay, Irune Fernández-Prieto, Massimiliano Zampini
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Olfactory perception can be modulated by the repeated exposure to odours. Olfactory habituation is a reduced behavioural response to repetitive stimulation. Edibility is considered an important top-down feature that can affect olfactory perception, but whether it could modulate olfactory habituation when food or nonfood odours are repeatedly smelled remains unclear. Indeed, due to their ecological salience, food odours attract attention automatically which might slow down habituation. This registered report aimed to determine whether olfactory habituation shows a different pattern when participants are presented with food or nonfood odours. In a within-subject design, 50 participants were tested under satiated and fasted states in separated experimental sessions. In each session, participants were exposed to the same food and nonfood odour in different blocks of 20 trials each. Participants rated the perceived odour intensity and pleasantness after each trial. We used an intermittent odour presentation to reduce olfactory fatigue while capitalising on the effect of cognitive states on habituation. Linear mixed-effects models showed that the perceived odour intensity decreased over time only for nonfood odours. Conversely, the perceived odour pleasantness decreased significantly more across trials for food odours. These effects were retrieved regardless of the participant’s hunger state. Our results are in line with the olfactory-specific satiety theory which posits a specific decrease in the perceived pleasantness of food odours, without changes in the perceived odour intensity. In short, our findings indicate that perceived odour edibility modulates olfactory habituation, extending the previous literature on the impact of top-down factors on olfactory perception.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T09:42:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221115046
       
  • Perceptual scale expansion: A natural design for improving the precision
           of motor control

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chenyu Yan, Yilin Chen, Yu Zhang, Linghang Kong, Frank H Durgin, Zhi Li
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Space perception is systematically biased. Few theories of spatial bias address the possible functional advantages of mechanisms that produce spatial biases. The scale expansion hypothesis proposes that many spatial biases are due to the perceptual expansion of visual angles, which acts somewhat like a natural magnifying glass in vision. The present study examined the idea that visual expansion may improve motor precision (i.e., reduce motor variability) in movements when using closed-loop control but not when using open-loop control. Experiment 1 tested this idea in an online tracking task (closed-loop control), whereas Experiment 2 tested it in a fast-hitting task (open-loop control). The results were consistent with the hypothesis. To rule out the effect of the task difference (i.e., tracking vs fast hitting), Experiment 3 examined the effect of visual expansion on the variability of motor performance in a line-reproduction task. The control type (closed-loop or open-loop) was manipulated by the form of visual feedback (online or offline). The results were again consistent with the present assumption. Taken together, the present data suggest that perceptual expansion in vision improves motor-control precision when using closed-loop control (but not when using open-loop control), which supports the scale expansion hypothesis. In addition, the present findings also improve our understanding of how visual error amplification affects motor control.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-06T11:08:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221115075
       
  • Cognition in zero gravity: Effects of non-terrestrial gravity on human
           behaviour

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Iqra Arshad, Elisa Raffaella Ferré
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      As humanity prepares for deep space exploration, understanding the impact of spaceflight on bodily physiology is critical. While the effects of non-terrestrial gravity on the body are well established, little is known about its impact on human behaviour and cognition. Astronauts often describe dramatic alterations in sensorimotor functioning, including orientation, postural control, and balance. Changes in cognitive functioning as well as in socio-affective processing have also been observed. Strikingly, no comprehensive theoretical model exists to outline the impact of non-terrestrial gravity on behaviour. Here, we have reviewed the key literature across the last 10 years and explored the impact of non-terrestrial gravity across three key functional domains: sensorimotor functioning, cognition, and socio-affective processing. We have proposed and preliminary validated a neurocognitive model to account for the effects of non-terrestrial gravity in these domains. Understanding the impact of non-terrestrial gravity on human behaviour has never been timelier and it will help mitigate against risks in both commercial and non-commercial spaceflight.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-06T11:00:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221113935
       
  • ROC measures of memory accessibility

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chad Dubé
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Laming has recently proposed a way to measure the accessibility (as opposed to availability) of memories via recognition testing. His measure “Accessibility” is calculated by subtracting the hit rate and false alarm rate that fall at the point where the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve’s derivative is 1. I prove that, if one works within the framework of Unequal-Variance Signal Detection Theory (UVSDT), as Laming does, the measure “Accessibility” depends on the location of the response criterion (though always with a neutral likelihood ratio). Furthermore, I prove that the measure varies with the underlying variances of UVSDT regardless of which definition of bias (criterion or likelihood ratio) is used and, crucially, this holds even when the accuracy of discrimination performance or “sensitivity” [math] in UVSDT is constant. As such, from the standpoint of (at least) UVSDT, it is questionable whether or to what extent the new measure of “Accessibility” actually measures the accessibility of any memory.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T12:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221113559
       
  • The effect of oral vocabulary training on reading novel complex words

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      Authors: Elisabeth Beyersmann, Signy Wegener, Valentina N Pescuma, Kate Nation, Danielle Colenbrander, Anne Castles
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Do readers benefit from their knowledge of the phonological form and meaning of stems when seeing them embedded in morphologically complex words for the first time in print' This question was addressed using a word learning paradigm. Participants were trained on novel spoken word stems and their meanings (“tump”). Following training, participants then saw the novel stems for the first time in print, either in combination with a real affix (tumpist, tumpor) or with a non-affix (tumpel, tumpain). Untrained items were also included to test whether the affix effect was modulated by the prior training of the spoken word stems. First, the complex words were embedded in meaningful sentences which participants read as their eye movements were recorded (first orthographic exposure). Second, participants were asked to read aloud and spell each individual complex novel word (second orthographic exposure). Participants spent less time fixating on words that included trained stems compared with untrained stems. However, the training effect did not change depending on whether stems were accompanied by a real affix or a non-affix. In the reading aloud and spelling tasks, there was no effect of training, suggesting that the effect of oral vocabulary training did not extend beyond the initial print exposure. The results indicate that familiarity with spoken stems influences how complex words containing those stems are processed when being read for the first time. Our findings highlight the flexibility and adaptability of the morphological processing system to novel complex words during the first print exposure.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T11:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221113949
       
  • Accelerated forgetting in healthy older samples: Implications for
           methodology, future ageing studies, and early identification of risk of
           dementia

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      Authors: Terence McGibbon, Ashok Jansari, Jessica Demirjian, Ana Nemes, Adrian Opre
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) has been reported in healthy older individuals, and is a possible early marker for risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The Verbal Associative Learning and Memory Test (VALMT) addresses methodological weaknesses in existing clinical tests and has detected ALF in epilepsy within an hour. We used VALMT to investigate learning and forgetting in healthy Older participants. Older (60–69 years) and Younger (19–31 years) participants were compared. Using VALMT, unrelated word pairs were learnt to criterion, then cued-recall tested at delays of 5, 30, and 55 min. Unique pairs were tested at each delay. Subjective memory complaints data was gathered, and the Wechsler Memory Scale Logical Memory test (WMS-LM; a standard clinical measure) was administered. VALMT identified a significant difference in delayed recall between Younger and Older groups by 55 min (d = 1.32). While “fast-learning” Older participants scored similarly to Younger participants, “slow-learning” Older participants were impaired at all delays. Forgetting rates suggested degradation of memory starts during early synaptic consolidation rather than later system-level consolidation. Increased subjective memory complaints were associated with reduced VALMT scores. By contrast, WMS-LM failed to identify significant differences between any groups, and did not correlate with memory complaints. We conclude that VALMT may be better able than WMS-LM to identify subtle impairments in healthy older adults within a single clinical visit, and VALMT results better reflect subjective experience. Older slow-learners forget faster and report more subjective memory complaints, which may indicate a group at risk of developing AD.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T10:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221113412
       
  • Going beyond the spacing effect: Does it matter how time on a task is
           distributed'

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      Authors: Dillon H Murphy, Robert A Bjork, Elizabeth L Bjork
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We assessed the effects of removing some constraints that characterise traditional experiments on the effects of spaced, rather than massed, study opportunities. In five experiments—using lists of to-be-remembered words—we examined the effects of how total study time was distributed across multiple repetitions of a given to-be-remembered word. Overall, within a given list, recall profited from study time being distributed (e.g., four 1-s presentations or two 2-s presentations vs one 4-s presentation). Among the implications of these findings is that if students choose to engage in massed studying (by virtue of constraints on their study time or a failure to appreciate the benefits of spaced study sessions), then studying the information twice but for half the time may produce memory benefits in a single study session.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T05:47:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221113933
       
  • Self-relevance and the activation of attentional networks

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      Authors: Saga Svensson, Marius Golubickis, Sam Johnson, Johanna K Falbén, C Neil Macrae
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent theoretical accounts maintain that core components of attentional functioning are preferentially tuned to self-relevant information. Evidence in support of this viewpoint is equivocal, however, with research overly reliant on personally significant (i.e., familiar) stimulus inputs (e.g., faces, forenames) and a diverse range of methodologies. Addressing these limitations, here we utilised arbitrary items (i.e., geometric shapes) and administered the Attention Network Test (ANT) to establish the extent to which self-relevance (vs friend-relevance) moderates the three subsystems of attentional functioning—alerting, orienting, and executive control. The results revealed that only executive control was sensitive to the meaning of the stimuli, such that conflict resolution was enhanced following the presentation of self-associated compared with friend-associated shapes (i.e., cues). Probing the origin of this effect, a further computational analysis (i.e., Shrinking Spotlight Diffusion Model analysis) indicated that self-relevance facilitated the narrowing of visual attention. These findings highlight when and how the personal significance of otherwise trivial material modulates attentional processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T06:43:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221112238
       
  • Event model retrieval and daily interference

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      Authors: Gabriel A Radvansky, Andrea E O’Rear
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The differential fan effect was used to assess the influence of periods of daily, generalised interference. Experiment 1 replicated the differential forgetting effect as a control for the other experiments. Experiment 2 involved fact learning in either the morning or the evening with a 12-hr testing delay. It might be expected that experiencing more generalised interference during the retention interval would impair memory, but no differences in response times were observed, and only very small differences in the error rates were observed. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 but with a 24-hr delay. In this way, the influence on memory of the proximity of daily, generalised inference to the learning experience could be assessed. Although one might expect worse memory when more interference occurred closer to the learning phase, no clear differences were observed. This is consistent with the idea that event model memory is relatively stable soon after encoding.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T06:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221112222
       
  • Determinants of extinction in a streamed trial procedure

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      Authors: James E Witnauer, Santiago Castiello, Ethan Fung, Riddhi J. Pitliya, Robin A Murphy, Ralph R Miller
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The strength of an association between a cue and its outcome is influenced by both the probability of the outcome given the cue and the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. Once an association has been formed, extinction is the procedure for reducing responding indicative of the association by repeated presentation of the cue without the outcome. The present experiments tested whether cumulative frequency and/or cumulative duration of these events affects associative extinction in a streamed trial extinction procedure with human participants. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of parametric manipulations of the frequency and duration of either the cue by itself or cue–outcome co-absence. In Experiment 1, participants proved relatively insensitive to manipulation of the event’s duration. In contrast, judgements of the association by participants decreased when the frequency of cue-alone events was increased, even when the durations of those events were decreased so that cumulative exposure to the cue was equated. No effect of either the duration or the frequency of cue–outcome co-absence was observed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the effect of cue-alone (i.e., extinction trial) frequency generalises across a wide range of parameters for initial acquisition achieved by cue–outcome pairings. Experiment 3 tested for an interaction between event duration during initial learning and event duration during extinction. Collectively, these results indicate that the cumulative frequency, and not the cumulative duration, of extinction trials as well as the duration of the cue–outcome co-absences between extinction trials control the effectiveness of an extinction procedure.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T12:54:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221110827
       
  • The effect of sudden-onset distractors on reading efficiency and
           comprehension

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      Authors: Steven G Luke, Tanner Jensen
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Reading is an essential skill that requires focused attention. However, much reading is done in non-optimal environments. These days, reading is often done on digital devices or with a digital device nearby. These devices often introduce momentary distractions during reading, interrupting with alerts, notifications, and pop-ups. In two eye-tracking experiments, we investigated how such momentary distractions affect reading. Participants read paragraphs while their eye movements were monitored. During half of the paragraphs, distractions appeared periodically on the screen that required a response from the participants. In Experiment 1, the distractions were arrows that the participant had to respond to and then could immediately forget. In Experiment 2, the participants performed a 1-back task that required them to remember the identity of the last distractor. Compared with the no-distraction condition, the respond-and-forget distractors of Experiment 1 had minimal impact on reading behaviour and comprehension, but the working-memory-load distractors of Experiment 2 led to increased rereading and decreased reading comprehension. It seems a simple pop-up does not disrupt reading, but a message you must remember will.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T12:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221108355
       
  • Combining refutations and social norms increases belief change

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      Authors: Ullrich KH Ecker, Jasmyne A Sanderson, Paul McIlhiney, Jessica J Rowsell, Hayley L Quekett, Gordon DA Brown, Stephan Lewandowsky
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Misinformed beliefs are difficult to change. Refutations that target false claims typically reduce false beliefs, but tend to be only partially effective. In this study, a social norming approach was explored to test whether provision of peer norms could provide an alternative or complementary approach to refutation. Three experiments investigated whether a descriptive norm—by itself or in combination with a refutation—could reduce the endorsement of worldview-congruent claims. Experiment 1 found that using a single-point estimate to communicate a norm affected belief but had less impact than a refutation. Experiment 2 used a verbally presented distribution of four values to communicate a norm, which was largely ineffective. Experiment 3 used a graphically presented social norm with 25 values, which was found to be as effective at reducing claim belief as a refutation, with the combination of both interventions being most impactful. These results provide a proof of concept that normative information can aid in the debunking of false or equivocal claims, and suggests that theories of misinformation processing should take social factors into account.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T07:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221111750
       
  • Long-term learning and forgetting of feature binding in verbal free recall

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      Authors: Riccardo Sacripante, Sergio Della Sala, Robert H Logie
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Temporary feature bindings can be learned under specific experimental conditions. However, how this learning occurs and how it is forgotten over long intervals is unclear. We addressed this question with repeated presentation of an array of coloured shapes followed by verbal free recall after delays of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. A total of 120 participants viewed 24 repetitions of the same study array of six objects each with two features (shape and colour). After 24 trials, 61 participants reported becoming aware of the repetition while 59 reported being unaware. Memory performance improved across trials, with aware participants showing faster learning than unaware participants whose performance appeared to reflect the capacity of short-term visual memory across all repetitions. Both aware and unaware participants recalled some of the array after their allocated delay, showing that learning had occurred during repetition trials, even for unaware participants who showed little or no improvement across 24 repetition trials. Memory for binding showed no change after 1 day compared with performance on the 24th repetition trial, was significantly lower for participants tested after 1 week, and was lower still for those tested after 1 month. Findings are interpreted as consistent with both a short-term, limited capacity visual cache that supports performance during early repetition trials, before learning can have occurred, and gradual strengthening across trials of an episodic long-term memory trace that supports learning. If the episodic trace exceeds the threshold of awareness, this accelerates learning.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-13T10:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221111343
       
  • How negative emotions affect young and older adults’ numerosity
           estimation performance

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      Authors: Ludovic Fabre, Paola Melani, Patrick Lemaire
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we investigated the influence of negative emotions on numerosity estimation and whether this influence changes with aging during adulthood. Young and older adults were asked to estimate and compare the numerosity of collections of elements (cars or dots) with a two-digit number. Collections of elements were preceded by emotionally neutral (e.g., mushrooms) or emotionally negative (e.g., a corpse) pictures. Stimuli were easier (i.e., small-ratio) or harder (i.e., large-ratio) items. Young and older participants obtained similar numerosity estimation performance. Interestingly, participants were less accurate under negative emotions than under neutral emotions when they estimated numerosity of collections of abstract elements (i.e., dots). In contrast, participants improved their performance under negative emotions while estimating collections of non-abstract, daily-life elements (i.e., cars). These findings have important implications for furthering our understanding of the role of negative emotions in numerosity estimation and age-related differences therein.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T10:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221107766
       
  • Reliability and convergence of approach/avoidance bias assessment tasks in
           the food consumption domain

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      Authors: Julian Basanovic, Laura Dondzilo, Daniel Rudaizky, Bram Van Bockstaele
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Theories of motivation posit that people will more readily approach positive or appetitive stimuli, and there has been growing interest in the relationship between biases in approach and avoidance behaviours for food cues and food craving and consumption behaviour. Two paradigms commonly employed by research to investigate this relationship are the approach-avoidance task (AAT) and the stimulus-response compatibility task (SRCT). However, it is yet to be determined whether the measures yielded by these tasks reflect the same processes operating in the food craving and consumption domain. The present study examined the internal reliability and convergence of AAT and SRCT paradigms in their assessment of biased approach to unhealthy compared with healthy food stimuli, and whether the measures yielded by the AAT and SRCT paradigms demonstrated associations with individual differences in food craving and eating behaviour. One hundred twenty-one participants completed an SRCT, an AAT using an arm movement response mode, and an AAT using a key-press response mode. The measures yielded comparable and acceptable levels of internal consistency, but convergence between the different task bias scores was modest or absent, and only approach bias as measured with the AAT task using an arm movement response mode was associated with self-report measures of eating behaviour and trait food craving. Thus, tasks did not converge strongly enough to be considered equivalent measures of approach/avoidance biases, and the AAT task using an arm movement response seems uniquely suited to detect approach biases argued to characterise maladaptive eating behaviour and craving.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T10:41:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221108270
       
  • Multisensory perception of natural versus unnatural motion

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      Authors: Kayla Soma Tsutsuse, Jonas Vibell, Scott Sinnett
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has shown that visual perception is influenced by Newtonian constraints. Kominsky et al. showed humans detect unnatural motion, where objects break Newtonian constraints by moving at a faster speed after colliding with another object, faster than collisions that do not violate Newtonian constraints. These findings show that the perceptual system distinguishes between realistic and unrealistic causal events. However, real-world collisions are rarely silent. The present study extends this research by including sound at the collision point between two objects to evaluate how multisensory integration influences the perception of natural versus unnatural colliding events. Participants viewed an array of three simultaneous videos, each depicting two objects moving in a horizontal back and forth motion. Two of the videos showed the objects moving at the same speed while the third video was an oddball that either moved faster before the collision and slower after (natural target), or slower before the collision and faster after (unnatural target). A brief click was presented at the collision point of one or none of the videos. Participants were asked to indicate the oddball video via keypress. Replicating Kominsky et al., participants were faster when identifying unnatural target motion events compared with natural target motion events, both with and without sound. The findings also demonstrated lower accuracy rates for unnatural events compared with natural events, especially when a sound was added. These findings suggest that the addition of a sound could be distracting to participants, possibly due to limitations in attentional resources.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T08:04:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221108251
       
  • Don’t be a Square: The processing mechanisms characterising the
           elemental dimensions of width and height

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      Authors: Yanjun Liu, James T Townsend, Michael J Wenger
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      What are the geometric and information processing characteristics of elementary figures composed of simple physical dimensions' There have been a number of investigations of perception of rectangles, including debate about configurality (e.g., integrality and gestalt properties) as well as the prime perceptual dimensions. Yet, because of ambiguity even in the “right” definition of configurality and an absence of penetrating methodologies, there is still little known concerning the information processing of these patterns. To this end, the present study brings together two separate theory-driven methodologies, general recognition theory (GRT) and systems factorial technology (SFT). The first attacks the problem of dimensional interactions while the latter seeks to uncover process characteristics such as architecture, decisional stopping rules, and workload capacity. The same observers and as much as possible, the same stimuli were used in both approaches. Through our GRT analyses, we found strong evidence for dependencies between the percepts of height and width on both within-stimulus and cross-stimulus bases. Height perception was better with narrow widths and width perception was superior with short heights. In addition, a significant positive within-trial correlation of dimensions was evidenced within squares but not with rectangles. Our SFT initiative uncovered consistent signatures of parallelism paired with super capacity, the latter appearing both through the traditional conditioning on being correct and still present when modest speed accuracy trade-off was accounted for. Thus, the SFT and GRT inferences were quite compatible with a plausible cause of the positive correlations being across-channel facilitatory interactions which led to super capacity processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T05:55:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221096950
       
  • Orthographic and feature-level contributions to letter identification

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      Authors: Clare Lally, Kathleen Rastle
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Word recognition is facilitated by primes containing visually similar letters (dentjst-dentist), suggesting that letter identities are encoded with initial uncertainty. Orthographic knowledge also guides letter identification, as readers are more accurate at identifying letters in words compared with pseudowords. We investigated how high-level orthographic knowledge and low-level visual feature analysis operate in combination during letter identification. We conducted a Reicher–Wheeler task to compare readers’ ability to discriminate between visually similar and dissimilar letters across different orthographic contexts (words, pseudowords, and consonant strings). Orthographic context and visual similarity had independent effects on letter identification, and there was no interaction between these factors. The magnitude of these effects indicated that high-level orthographic information plays a greater role than low-level visual feature information in letter identification. We propose that readers use orthographic knowledge to refine potential letter candidates while visual feature information is accumulated. This combination of high-level knowledge and low-level feature analysis may be essential in permitting the flexibility required to identify visual variations of the same letter (e.g., N-n) while maintaining enough precision to tell visually similar letters apart (e.g., n-h). These results provide new insights on the integration of visual and linguistic information and highlight the need for greater integration between models of reading and visual processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T09:19:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221106155
       
  • Reading spaced and unspaced Korean text: Evidence from eye-tracking during
           reading

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      Authors: Hyunah Baek, Wonil Choi, Peter C Gordon
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In written Korean, spaces appear between phrasal units (“eojeols”). In Experiment 1, participants read sentences in which space information had been manipulated. Results indicated that removing spaces or replacing them with a symbol hindered reading, but this effect was not as disruptive as previously found in English. Experiment 2 presented sentences varying in the proportion of eojeols that ended with postpositional particles as well as the presence/absence of spaces. Results showed that space removal interfered with reading, but its effects were weaker when the sentence contained more postpositional particles. This suggests that postpositional particles provide an extra cue to word segmentation in Korean texts. These findings are discussed in relation to the unique characteristics of the Korean writing system and to the models of eye-movement control during reading in different languages.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T07:12:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221104736
       
  • The relationship between self, value-based reward, and emotion
           prioritisation effects

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      Authors: Alla Yankouskaya, Gemma Lovett, Jie Sui
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      People show systematic biases in perception, memory, attention, and decision-making to prioritise information related to self, reward, and positive emotion. A long-standing set of experimental findings points towards putative common properties of these effects. However, the relationship between them remains largely unknown. Here, we addressed this question by assessing and linking these prioritisation effects generated by a common associative matching procedure in three experiments. Self, reward, and positive emotion prioritisation effects were assessed using cluster and shift function analyses to explore and test associations between these effects across individuals. Cluster analysis revealed two distinct patterns of the relationship between the biases. Individuals with faster responses showed a smaller reward and linear positive association between reward and emotion biases. Individuals with slower responses demonstrated a large reward and no association between reward and emotion biases. No evidence of the relationship between self and value-based reward or positive emotion prioritisation effects was found among the clusters. A shift function indicated a partial dominance of high-reward over low-reward distributions at later processing stages in participants with slower but not faster responses. Full stochastic dominance of self-relevance over others and positive over neutral emotion was pertinent to each subgroup of participants. Our findings suggest the independent origin of the self-prioritisation effect. In contrast, commonalities in cognitive mechanisms supporting value-based reward and positive emotion processing are subject to individual differences. These findings add important evidence to a steadily growing research base about the relationship between basic behavioural drivers.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T07:09:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221102887
       
  • Lexical competition influences correct and incorrect visual word
           recognition

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      Authors: Julie Gregg, Albrecht W Inhoff, Xingshan Li
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of research suggests that visual word recognition is error-prone, and that errors may contribute to inhibitory neighbour frequency effects in word identification and reading. The present study used the neighbourhood frequency effect to examine the relationship between lexical competition and error making during visual word recognition. A novel adaptation of the visual world paradigm (VWP) was used, in which participants selected a briefly presented printed target word from an array containing the target, its higher- or lower-frequency neighbour, an orthographic onset competitor, and an orthographically unrelated distractor word. Analyses of the visual inspection of the arrays suggested that lexical competition occurred when words were correctly identified, as competitors were preferentially viewed as a function of their orthographic similarity with the target, and higher-frequency neighbours were preferentially viewed over lower-frequency neighbours. Orthographic similarity and neighbour frequency also influenced error making. Targets were often mistaken for their neighbours, and these errors were more common for targets with higher-frequency neighbours. The time course of target and neighbour viewing for error trials also provided preliminary evidence for two kinds of errors: early-occurring, perceptual errors and later-occurring selection errors that resulted from unsuccessfully resolved lexical competition. Together, these findings suggest that neighbour frequency effects reflect the contribution of both general lexical competition and occasional errors.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T12:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221102878
       
  • Strawman argument characterises critique of Kamin blocking effect

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      Authors: Peter Seraganian
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This commentary focuses on the robustness of the Kamin blocking effect (KBE) that Maes et al., based upon 15 failures to replicate, have questioned. This challenge to KBE robustness has not gone unaddressed. Soto outlined conceptual as well as methodological issues that cast doubt on the validity of the Maes et al. critique. Despite recognition of certain interpretive issues, Maes et al. have reaffirmed that their failures to replicate are meaningful and call out for further parametric scrutiny of KBE. Faced with such marked differences of opinion with regard to KBE robustness, the present commentary highlights certain methodological features that may have contributed to the Maes et al. failures to replicate: (a) Roles of stimulus salience and independence, (b) Multiple test trials, and (c) Reliance on a single control procedure. It is suggested that the existence of such methodological issues renders it fallacious to argue that the Maes et al. findings represent a true failure to replicate KBE. Instead, the present formulation contends that Maes et al. engaged in a strawman argument in which they have found fault with a distorted version of KBE rather than KBE itself. Although employing variations of paradigms that had earlier been seen to generate KBE, the presence of multiple methodological shortcomings was such as to effectively mask observance of KBE. In affirmation of the Soto’s critique, the replication failure reported by Maes et al. is thus seen as unsurprising. Accordingly, the Maes et al. proposal to remove KBE as a “touchstone for our theories of elementary learning” is argued to be unwarranted. In the face of this protracted dispute, the positing of a strawman argument serves to further cast doubt upon the import of the Maes et al. replication failure, and consequently, to reaffirm KBE as a core phenomenon in the learning domain.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T01:35:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221104715
       
  • Choice of nominative and topic markers in Korean discourse

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      Authors: Heeju Hwang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In two written sentence completion experiments, I tested whether the choice of nominative and topic markers is subserved by the same mechanisms as anaphor choice and referent choice in Korean. I found that morphological marker choice was sensitive to various factors including connective, grammatical role, and verb semantics, whereas anaphor choice was sensitive only to grammatical role. I also found that morphological marker choice did not systematically vary with verb semantics unlike referent choice. These findings reveal two important properties of referential form production. One is that morphological marker choice relies on different mechanisms than underlie anaphor choice and referent choice. Another is that connective plays a significant role in determining referential form. Despite its role in referent choice and pronoun comprehension, connective has received little attention in current models of referential form production. The current study is the first to systematically test the effect of connective on referential form choice and to demonstrate its effect on morphological marker choice. By revealing how morphological marker choice is related to anaphor choice and referent choice, and identifying the factors that influence morphological marker choice, the results of the study improve our theoretical understanding of morphological marker production and reference production.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T01:30:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221103544
       
  • The impact of sensory modality on prospective memory: Differences between
           visual and auditory processing

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      Authors: Stefano Vicentin, Giorgia Cona, Giorgio Arcara, Patrizia Bisiacchi
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to perform an intended action when the appropriate conditions occur. Several features play a role in the successful retrieval of an intention: the activity we are concurrently engaged in, the number of intentions we are maintaining, where our attention is focused (outward vs. to inner states), and how outstanding the trigger of the intention is. Another factor that may play a crucial role is sensory modality: Do auditory and visual stimuli prompt PM processing in the same way' In this study, we explored for the first time the nature of PM for auditory stimuli and the presence of modality-dependent differences in PM processing. To do so, an identical paradigm composed of multiple PM tasks was administered in two versions, one with auditory stimuli and one with visual ones. Each PM task differed for features such as focality, salience, and number of intentions (factors that are known in literature to modulate the monitoring and maintenance requests of PM) to explore the impact of sensory modality on a broad variety of classical PM tasks. In general, PM processing showed similar patterns between modalities, especially for low demanding prospective instructions. Conversely, substantial differences were found when the prospective load was increased and monitoring requests enhanced, as participants were significantly slower and less accurate with acoustic stimuli. These results represent the first evidence that modality-dependent effects arise in PM processing, especially in its interaction with features such as the difficulty of the task and the increased monitoring load.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T01:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221103500
       
  • Are they really stronger' Comparing effects of semantic variables in
           speeded deadline and standard picture naming

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      Authors: Leonie F Lampe, Solène Hameau, Lyndsey Nickels
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Investigations of effects of semantic variables on picture naming have often been inconclusive, with some studies reporting significant and others non-significant effects. One potential explanation may relate to the specific naming tasks used: While most previous studies have used standard picture naming, others have used speeded naming that requires participants to prioritise naming speed over accuracy. Speeded naming has been suggested to cause enhanced effects of item-inherent word characteristics due to disruptions of cognitive control and resulting modulations of responsiveness to input. Consequently, this study investigated whether effects are stronger in speeded compared to standard picture naming, focusing on six feature-based semantic variables: number of semantic features, intercorrelational density, number of near semantic neighbours, semantic similarity, typicality, and distinctiveness. The results showed few differences in the variables’ effects between the two naming tasks: In the naming latency analysis, the inhibitory effect of distinctiveness was stronger in the speeded naming task, while in the accuracy analysis the effect of number of semantic features was stronger in the standard naming task. These findings cannot, therefore, be exclusively accounted for by increased responsiveness to input in speeded naming and we discuss possible underlying mechanisms. We conclude that, while some differences in effects of semantic variables between previous studies may have been caused by the specific naming task used, differences between studies more likely depend on statistical power and control of other influential variables in the experiment.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T01:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221103356
       
  • Processing symmetry between visual and auditory spatial representations in
           updating working memory

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      Authors: Tomoki Maezawa, Jun I Kawahara
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Updating spatial representations in visual and auditory working memory relies on common processes, and the modalities should compete for attentional resources. If competition occurs, one type of spatial information is presumably weighted over the other, irrespective of sensory modality. This study used incompatible spatial information conveyed from two different cue modalities to examine relative dominance in memory updating. Participants mentally manoeuvred a designated target in a matrix according to visual or auditory stimuli that were presented simultaneously, to identify a terminal location. Prior to the navigation task, the relative perceptual saliences of the visual cues were manipulated to be equal, superior, or inferior to the auditory cues. The results demonstrate that visual and auditory information competed for attentional resources, such that visual/auditory guidance was impaired by incongruent cues delivered from the other modality. Although visual bias was generally observed in working-memory navigation, stimuli of relatively high salience interfered with or facilitated other stimuli regardless of modality, demonstrating the processing symmetry of spatial updating in visual and auditory spatial working memory. Furthermore, this processing symmetry can be identified during the encoding of sensory inputs into working-memory representations. The results imply that auditory spatial updating is comparable to visual spatial updating in that salient stimuli receive a high priority when selecting inputs and are used when tracking spatial representations.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T01:16:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221103253
       
  • Orthographic facilitation of oral vocabulary acquisition in primary school
           children

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      Authors: Andrea Salins, Linda Cupples, Greg Leigh, Anne Castles
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Children’s oral vocabulary acquisition is an important aspect of language development that plays a crucial role in reading and literacy development and subsequent academic success. Therefore, it is important to identify and implement evidence-based effective strategies of vocabulary instruction for primary school children. Orthographic facilitation refers to the benefit afforded to word learning by incidentally presenting spellings when new words are introduced. This study aimed to replicate the orthographic facilitation effect in primary school (Grades 1–6) children and further assess whether children in different grades benefitted differently from the presence of orthography during spoken word learning. To do this, 91 children from Grades 1 to 6 were taught novel picture–word pairs with or without spellings. Word learning was assessed during and after training using behavioural and eye-tracking data from picture-naming and picture–word-matching (PWM) tasks. Irrespective of grade, all children experienced a significant orthographic facilitation effect during training. The post-training results were more task dependent with all grades showing a significant orthographic facilitation effect on the picture-naming task, and only Grades 1 to 4 showing a facilitation effect on the PWM task. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T01:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221102916
       
  • Understanding face matching

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      Authors: Matthew C Fysh, Markus Bindemann
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Many security settings rely on the identity matching of unfamiliar people, which has led this task to be studied extensively in Cognitive Psychology. In these experiments, observers typically decide whether pairs of faces depict one person (an identity match) or two different people (an identity mismatch). The visual similarity of the to-be-compared faces must play a primary role in how observers accurately resolve this task, but the nature of this similarity–accuracy relationship is unclear. The current study investigated the association between accuracy and facial similarity at the level of individual items (Experiments 1 and 2) and facial features (Experiments 3 and 4). All experiments demonstrate a strong link between similarity and matching accuracy, indicating that this forms the basis of identification decisions. At a feature level, however, similarity exhibited distinct relationships with match and mismatch accuracy. In matches, similarity information was generally shared across the features of a face pair under comparison, with greater similarity linked to higher accuracy. Conversely, features within mismatching face pairs exhibited greater variation in similarity information. This indicates that identity matches and mismatches are characterised by different similarity profiles, which present distinct challenges to the cognitive system. We propose that these identification decisions can be resolved through the accumulation of convergent featural information in matches and the evaluation of divergent featural information in mismatches.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T12:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221104476
       
  • Investigating the role of working memory resources across aesthetic and
           non-aesthetic judgements

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      Authors: Ionela Bara, Richard J Binney, Richard Ramsey
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Aesthetic judgements dominate much of daily life by guiding how we evaluate objects, people, and experiences in our environment. One key question that remains unanswered is the extent to which more specialised or largely general cognitive resources support aesthetic judgements. To investigate this question in the context of working memory, we examined the extent to which a working memory load produces similar or different response time interference on aesthetic compared with non-aesthetic judgements. Across three pre-registered experiments that used Bayesian multi-level modelling approaches (N > 100 per experiment), we found clear evidence that a working memory load produces similar response time interference on aesthetic judgements relative to non-aesthetic (motion) judgements. We also showed that this similarity in processing across aesthetic versus non-aesthetic judgements holds across variations in the form of art (people vs. landscape; Experiments 1–3), medium type (artwork vs. photographs; Experiment 2), and load content (art images vs. letters; Experiments 1–3). These findings suggest that across a range of experimental contexts, as well as different processing streams in working memory (e.g., visual vs. verbal), aesthetic and motion judgements commonly rely on a domain-general cognitive system, rather than a system that is more specifically tied to aesthetic judgements. In doing so, these findings shine new light on the working memory resources that support aesthetic judgements, as well as on how domain-general cognitive systems operate more generally in cognition.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T09:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221101876
       
  • Testing links between pain-related biases in visual attention and
           recognition memory: An eye-tracking study based on an impending pain
           paradigm

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      Authors: Xibo Zuo, Ying Ling, Todd Jackson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Although separate lines of research have evaluated pain-related biases in attention or memory, laboratory studies examining links between attention and memory for pain-related information have received little consideration. In this eye-tracking experiment, we assessed relations between pain-related attention biases (ABs) and recognition memory biases (MBs) among 122 pain-free adults randomly assigned to impending pain (n = 59) versus impending touch (n = 63) conditions, wherein offsets of trials that included pain images were followed by subsequent possibly painful and non-painful somatosensory stimulation, respectively. Gaze biases of participants were assessed during presentations of pain-neutral (P-N) and happy-neutral (H-N) face image pairs within these conditions. Subsequently, condition differences in recognition accuracy for previously viewed versus novel pained and happy face images were examined. Overall gaze durations were significantly longer for pain (vs. neutral) faces that signalled impending pain than impending non-painful touch, particularly among the less resilient in the former condition. Impending pain cohorts also exhibited comparatively better recognition accuracy for both pained and happy face images. Finally, longer gaze durations on pain faces that signalled potential pain, but not potential touch, were related to more accurate recognition of previously viewed pain faces. In sum, pain cues that signal potential personal discomfort maintain visual attention more fully and are subsequently recognised more accuracy than are pain cues that signal non-painful touch stimulation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T12:45:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221102922
       
  • Temporal and sequential negative priming generalise across visual and
           auditory modalities and are dependent on relative rather than absolute
           speed

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      Authors: Todd A Kahan, Louisa M Slowiaczek, Alexa CM Harrison, Caroline M Bogue
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Prior work has found a negative priming effect for a sequence, and more purely time-based negative priming has also been identified. Although sequential effects have been reported with both visual and auditory stimuli, only visual stimuli have been used in experiments examining purely temporal negative priming. In this article, sequential and temporal negative priming are compared across modalities. Prime trials included random presentation of a target (auditory bird chirp or visual X), a non-target (auditory dog bark or visual O), and two neutral stimuli (auditory computer beeps or empty visual boxes). Probe trials included random presentation of the target and three neutral stimuli. Participants indicated the temporal location of the target. On 88% of the trials, participants (N = 119 in Experiment 1; N = 65 in Experiment 2) indicated the location of the non-target stimulus from the prime trial. Results showed an increase in response time when the temporal location of the probe’s target was the same as the location of the non-target stimulus from the prime trial, but this only occurred when the prime was presented more slowly. Experiment 2 tested, and falsified, the hypothesis that a fixed amount of time on the prime is necessary to bind features of the non-target stimulus with temporal and sequential positions. Together, these data show that sequential and temporal negative priming effects generalise across modality and that relative rather than fixed timing is critical. Implications for theories of negative priming are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T12:39:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221100248
       
  • Undeserved reward but not inevitable loss biases attention: Personal
           control moderates evaluative attentional biases in the
           additional-singleton paradigm

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      Authors: Philipp Müller, Dirk Wentura
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It is important for organisms to notice signals of opportunities (i.e., chances for performance-dependent reward) and dangers (i.e., performance-dependent risks of loss). Attentional biases towards opportunity and danger signals should therefore be functionally valuable. By contrast, the functional value of attentional biases towards signals of performance-independent (i.e., uncontrollable) rewards or losses is not obvious. The present study compares attentional biases towards positive and negative stimuli, depending on whether the stimuli signal performance-dependent or performance-independent reward or loss. Specifically, we induced colour-valence associations before engaging participants in an additional-singleton task that measures attentional bias. In the valence-induction phase, one colour signalled a potential reward, and another colour signalled a potential loss; importantly, in one group, rewards and losses were performance-dependent, whereas in another group, they were performance-independent (i.e., seemingly random). In the subsequent additional-singleton task, we found increased additional-singleton effects for colours associated with performance-dependent rewards and losses (i.e., opportunities and dangers). If, however, rewards and losses were performance-independent, the singleton effect was enhanced only for reward but not loss stimuli.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T12:36:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221099125
       
  • The binding structure of event elements in episodic memory and the role of
           animacy

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      Authors: Marcel R Schreiner, Thorsten Meiser, Arndt Bröder
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Experienced events consist of several elements which need to be bound together in memory to represent the event in a coherent manner. Given such bindings, the retrieval of one event element should be related to the successful retrieval of another element of the same event, thus leading to a stochastic dependency of the retrieval of event elements. The way in which bindings are structured is not yet clearly established and only few moderators of the binding of event elements have been identified. We present results from three experiments aiming to distinguish between an integrated binding structure, in which event elements are bound into a unitary representation, and a hierarchical binding structure, in which event elements are preferentially bound to specific types of elements. Experiments 2 and 3 were additionally designed to identify animacy, an entity’s property of being alive, as a potential moderator of the binding of event elements. We also offer a new approach for modelling dependencies of the retrieval of event elements which mitigates some limitations of previous approaches. Consistent with previous literature, we found dependencies of the retrieval of event elements if all of an event’s constituent associations were shown. We found mixed evidence for integrated or hierarchical binding structures but found dependency of the retrieval of event elements to be sensitive to the presence of animacy in an event. The results suggest that binding structures may vary depending on moderators such as animacy or event structure awareness. Theoretical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T12:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221096148
       
  • Searching for meaning: Local scene semantics guide attention during
           natural visual search in scenes

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      Authors: Candace E Peacock, Praveena Singh, Taylor R Hayes, Gwendolyn Rehrig, John M Henderson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Models of visual search in scenes include image salience as a source of attentional guidance. However, because scene meaning is correlated with image salience, it could be that the salience predictor in these models is driven by meaning. To test this proposal, we generated meaning maps that represented the spatial distribution of semantic informativeness in scenes, and salience maps which represented the spatial distribution of conspicuous image features and tested their influence on fixation densities from two object search tasks in real-world scenes. The results showed that meaning accounted for significantly greater variance in fixation densities than image salience, both overall and in early attention across both studies. Here, meaning explained 58% and 63% of the theoretical ceiling of variance in attention across both studies, respectively. Furthermore, both studies demonstrated that fast initial saccades were not more likely to be directed to higher salience regions than slower initial saccades, and initial saccades of all latencies were directed to regions containing higher meaning than salience. Together, these results demonstrated that even though meaning was task-neutral, the visual system still selected meaningful over salient scene regions for attention during search.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T12:35:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221101334
       
  • The effect of contextual arousal on the integration of emotional words
           during discourse comprehension

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      Authors: Qian Zhang, Cong Mou, Xiaohong Yang, Yufang Yang, Lin Li
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effect of contextual arousal on emotional word integration during discourse comprehension. We used two-sentence discourses as experimental materials. The first sentence served as an emotional context and described a high-arousal positive event, a low-arousal positive event, a high-arousal negative event, or a low-arousal negative event. The second sentence contained one negative word as the critical word, which was identical among different conditions. Thus, four conditions were included in the present study: high-arousal inconsistent, low-arousal inconsistent, high-arousal consistent, and low-arousal consistent. The ERP results showed that inconsistent emotional words elicited larger P200 and LPC than consistent words in the high-arousal context. However, only a P200 effect was observed for inconsistent emotional words in the low-arousal context. Our results indicate that a high-arousal context could lead to more elaborated emotional evaluation in the later stage of emotional word integration and suggest an important role of contextual arousal on the processing of emotional words during discourse processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221098838
       
  • The structure of the notation system in adults’ number line
           estimation: An eye-tracking study

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      Authors: Kelsey J MacKay, Filip Germeys, Wim Van Dooren, Lieven Verschaffel, Koen Luwel
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Research on rational numbers suggests that adults experience more difficulties in understanding the numerical magnitude of rational than natural numbers. Within rational numbers, the numerical magnitude of fractions has been found to be more difficult to understand than that of decimals. Using a number line estimation (NLE) task, the current study investigated two sources of difficulty in adults’ numerical magnitude understanding: number type (natural vs rational) and structure of the notation system (place-value-based vs non-place-value-based). This within-subjects design led to four conditions: natural numbers (natural/place-value-based), decimals (rational/place-value-based), fractions (rational/non-place-value-based), and separated fractions (natural/non-place-value-based). In addition to percentage absolute error (PAE) and response times, we collected eye-tracking data. Results showed that participants estimated natural and place-value-based notations more accurately than rational and non-place-value-based notations, respectively. Participants were also slower to respond to fractions compared with the three other notations. Consistent with the response time data, eye-tracking data showed that participants spent more time encoding fractions and re-visited them more often than the other notations. Moreover, in general, participants spent more time positioning non-place-value-based than place-value-based notations on the number line. Overall, the present study contends that when both sources of difficulty are present in a notation (i.e., both rational and non-place-value-based), adults understand its numerical magnitude less well than when there is only one source of difficulty present (i.e., either rational or non-place-value-based). When no sources of difficulty are present in a notation (i.e., both natural and place-value-based), adults have the strongest understanding of its numerical magnitude.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221094577
       
  • Contextualising facial expressions: The effect of temporal context and
           individual differences on classification

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      Authors: Kinenoita Irwantoro, Nathali Nimsha Nilakshi Lennon, Isabelle Mareschal, Ahamed Miflah Hussain Ismail
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The influence of context on facial expression classification is most often investigated using simple cues in static faces portraying basic expressions with a fixed emotional intensity. We examined (1) whether a perceptually rich, dynamic audiovisual context, presented in the form of movie clips (to achieve closer resemblance to real life), affected the subsequent classification of dynamic basic (happy) and non-basic (sarcastic) facial expressions and (2) whether people’s susceptibility to contextual cues was related to their ability to classify facial expressions viewed in isolation. Participants classified facial expressions—gradually progressing from neutral to happy/sarcastic in increasing intensity—that followed movie clips. Classification was relatively more accurate and faster when the preceding context predicted the upcoming expression, compared with when the context did not. Speeded classifications suggested that predictive contexts reduced the emotional intensity required to be accurately classified. More importantly, we show for the first time that participants’ accuracy in classifying expressions without an informative context correlated with the magnitude of the contextual effects experienced by them—poor classifiers of isolated expressions were more susceptible to a predictive context. Our findings support the emerging view that contextual cues and individual differences must be considered when explaining mechanisms underlying facial expression classification.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T08:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221094296
       
  • Crossmodal associations between visual textures and temperature concepts

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      Authors: Francisco Barbosa Escobar, Carlos Velasco, Derek Victor Byrne, Qian Janice Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Visual textures are critical in how individuals form sensory expectations about objects, which include somatosensory properties such as temperature. This study aimed to uncover crossmodal associations between visual textures and temperature concepts. In Experiment 1 (N = 193), we evaluated crossmodal associations between 43 visual texture categories and different temperature concepts (via temperature words such as cold and hot) using an explicit forced-choice test. The results revealed associations between striped, cracked, matted, and waffled visual textures and high temperatures and between crystalline and flecked visual textures and low temperatures. In Experiment 2 (N = 247), we conducted six implicit association tests (IATs) pairing the two visual textures most strongly associated with low (crystalline and flecked) and high (striped and cracked) temperatures with the words cold and hot as per the results of Experiment 1. When pairing the crystalline and striped visual textures, the results revealed that crystalline was matched to the word cold, and striped was matched to the word hot. However, some associations found in the explicit test were not found in the IATs. In Experiment 3 (N = 124), we investigated how mappings between visual textures and concrete entities may influence crossmodal associations with temperature and these visual textures. Altogether, we found a range of association strengths and automaticity levels. Importantly, we found evidence of relative effects. Furthermore, some of these crossmodal associations are partly influenced by indirect mappings to concrete entities.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T11:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221096452
       
  • Modulations of one’s sense of agency during human–machine
           interactions: A behavioural study using a full humanoid robot

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      Authors: Aïsha Sahaï, Emilie Caspar, Albert De Beir, Ouriel Grynszpan, Elisabeth Pacherie, Bruno Berberian
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Although previous investigations reported a reduced sense of agency when individuals act with traditional machines, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning interactions with human-like automata. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effect of the machine’s physical appearance on the individuals’ sense of agency and (2) to explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying the individuals’ sense of agency when they are engaged in a joint task. Twenty-eight participants performed a joint Simon task together with another human or an automated artificial system as a co-agent. The physical appearance of the automated artificial system was manipulated so that participants could cooperate either with a servomotor or a full humanoid robot during the joint task. Both participants’ response times and temporal estimations of action-output delays (i.e., an implicit measure of agency) were collected. Results showed that participants’ sense of agency for self- and other-generated actions sharply declined during interactions with the servomotor compared with the human–human interactions. Interestingly, participants’ sense of agency for self- and other-generated actions was reinforced when participants interacted with the humanoid robot compared with the servomotor. These results are discussed further.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T11:34:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221095841
       
  • Both the domain-general and the mentalising processes affect visual
           perspective taking

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      Authors: Gabriele Pesimena, Alessandro Soranzo
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      People’s attention cannot help being affected by what others are looking at. The dot-perspective task has been often employed to investigate this visual attentional shift. In this task, participants are presented with virtual scenes with a cue facing some targets and must judge how many targets are visible from their own or the cue perspective. Typically, this task shows an interference pattern: Participants record slower reaction times (RTs) and more errors when the cue is facing away from the targets. Interestingly, this occurs also when participants take their own perspective. Two accounts contend the explanation of this interference. The mentalising account focuses on the social relevance of the cue, while the domain-general account focuses on the directional features of the cue. To investigate the relative contribution of the two accounts, we developed a Social_Only cue, a cue having only social features and compared its effects with a Social+Directional cue, which had both social and directional features. Results show that while the Social+Directional cue generates the typical interference pattern, the Social_Only cue does not generate interference in the RTs, only in the error rate. We advance an integration between the mentalising and the domain-general accounts. We suggest that the dot-perspective task requires two processes: an orienting process, elicited by the directional features of the cue and measured by the RTs, and a decisional process elicited by the social features of the cue and measured also by the error rate.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T11:31:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221094310
       
  • The retention of proprioceptive information is suppressed by competing
           verbal and spatial task

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      Authors: Áron Horváth, Eszter Ferentzi, Anett Ragó, Ferenc Köteles
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Proprioceptive information makes us able to perceive the position of our joints from an internal point of view. In the certain cases, proprioceptive information has to be stored in short-term memory, for example, during the learning of new motor skills or the assessment of proprioceptive accuracy. However, there are contradictory findings about the modality-specific storage of proprioceptive information in working memory. In this preregistered study, we applied the interference paradigm, assessing proprioceptive memory capacity in the subdominant elbow joint for 35 young individuals in five different experimental conditions: (a) without competing task/interference (baseline condition), (b) with motor interference, (c) with spatial interference, (d) with visual interference, and (e) with verbal interference. Proprioceptive span was lower in the verbal and spatial interference condition than in the baseline condition, whereas no significant differences were found for the motor and visual conditions. These results indicate that individuals use verbal and spatial strategies to encode proprioceptive information in short-term memory, and, in contrast to our expectation, the motor subsystem of working memory is not substantially involved in this process.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T10:13:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221096251
       
  • Neutral animals matter: Animacy modulates object-based attentional
           allocation

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      Authors: Saisai Hu, Tingting Yang, Haiyang Zhang, Yunfei Gao, Jingjing Zhao, Yonghui Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Animacy plays an essential role in survival and adaptive behaviour. Previous studies have found that dangerous or threatening animals can capture and hold attention. However, it is unclear whether and how neutral animate objects guide attentional allocation. It is also uncertain whether the modulation of animate objects on attentional allocation is based on the object itself (object-based attention) or its location (space-based attention). Therefore, the present study adopted the well-established two-rectangle paradigm and used animate and inanimate objects as stimuli to test the abovementioned problems. The results revealed that object-based effects were obtained for both animate and inanimate objects. However, the object-based effects were larger when the cue appeared on the animate objects than on the inanimate objects, due to faster response to invalid same-object trials and slower response to invalid different-object trials. Beyond that, we also further confirmed that animacy itself, not the low-level visual complexity, led to the differential object-based effects. These results suggest that neutral animals also mattered to our attentional allocation and animacy can modulate object-based attentional selection by capturing and holding visual attention on the animate objects. Ultimately, the present study not only enriches our understanding of how neutral animate objects guide attentional allocation and support the attentional prioritisation theory, but also further extends and amends the animate-monitoring hypothesis.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T07:26:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221095743
       
  • How sociolinguistic factors shape children’s subjective impressions
           of teacher quality

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      Authors: Melissa Paquette-Smith, Helen Buckler, Elizabeth K Johnson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      When university students are asked to rate their instructors, their evaluations are often influenced by the demographic characteristics of the instructor—such as the instructor’s race, gender, or language background. These influences can manifest in unfair systematic biases against particular groups of teachers and hamper movements to promote diversity in higher education. When and how do these biases develop' Here, we begin to address these questions by examining children’s sociolinguistic biases against teachers who speak with different accents. To do this, we presented 5-year-old Canadian English-speaking children with pairs of adult talkers. Children were asked to select “who they’d like to be their teacher” then they rated “how good of a teacher” they thought each talker would be on a 5-point scale. In each trial, one talker spoke in the locally dominant variety of Canadian English, and the other spoke in a different accent. Children strongly preferred Canadian-accented teachers over teachers who spoke with non-native (i.e., French or Dutch) accents, but also demonstrated a preference for Canadian teachers over teachers who spoke with non-local regional accents (i.e., Australian or British). In line with the binary choice data, children rated the Canadian talkers more favourably. The relationship between the gender of the teacher and the gender of the child also impacted ratings. This work demonstrates that even at the onset of formal education, children may already exhibit signs of accent-based biases. We discuss these findings in relation to the growing literature on implicit bias in higher education.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T07:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221094312
       
  • Thinking about neither death nor poverty affects delay discounting, but
           episodic foresight does: Three replications of the effects of priming on
           time preferences

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      Authors: Richard J Tunney, Jodie N Raybould
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We outline three attempts to replicate experiments that reported priming effects on time preferences measured by delay discounting. Experiment 1 tested the claim that images of poverty prime impulsive choice in people from less affluent backgrounds compared with people from more affluent backgrounds. Experiment 2 tested the claim that mortality salience—thinking about death—primes people to place more value on the future than people who thought about dental surgery. Experiment 3 tested the claim that an episodic foresight manipulation primes greater discounting than no episodic foresight. Experiments 1 and 2 failed to replicate the effects of priming on discount rates. Experiment 3 was a successful and very close replication of the effect of episodic foresight on discount rates.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T06:26:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221097047
       
  • Repetition enhances the effects of activated long-term memory

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      Authors: Lindsay Plater, Sandra Nyman, Samantha Joubran, Naseem Al-Aidroos
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research indicates that visual long-term memory (vLTM) representations directly interface with perception and guide attention. This may be accomplished through a state known as activated LTM, however, little is known about the nature of activated LTM. Is it possible to enhance the attentional effects of these activated representations' And furthermore, is activated LTM discrete (i.e., a representation is either active or not active, but only active representations interact with perception) or continuous (i.e., there are different levels within the active state that all interact with perception)' To answer these questions, in the present study, we measured intrusion effects during a modified Sternberg task. Participants saw two lists of three complex visual objects, were cued that only one list was relevant for the current trial (the other list was, thus, irrelevant), and then their memory for the cued list was probed. Critically, half of the trials contained repeat objects (shown 10 times each), and half of the trials contained non-repeat objects (shown only once each). Results indicated that repetition enhanced activated LTM, as the intrusion effect (i.e., longer reaction times to irrelevant list objects than novel objects) was larger for repeat trials compared with non-repeat trials. These initial findings provide preliminary support that LTM activation is continuous, as the intrusion effect was not the same size for repeat and non-repeat trials. We conclude that researchers should repeat stimuli to increase the size of their effects and enhance how LTM representations interact with perception.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T12:08:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221095755
       
  • Does interpersonal liking lead to interpersonal synchrony in musical
           contexts'

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      Authors: Zachary J Melton, Roger Chaffin, Kayleigh Kangas-Dick, Kerry L Marsh, Alexander P Demos
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The causal relationship of interpersonal liking affecting interpersonal synchrony is inconsistently documented. This study tests whether (a) interpersonal liking increases both behavioural and perceived synchrony and (b) people will synchronise with an agreeable partner over a competing musical stimulus. We had college students (N = 25) shake an egg-shaker with an agreeable or disagreeable confederate without music, with music, and with specific instruction to synchronise. Participants reported liking the agreeable confederate more than the disagreeable confederate and rated their relationship more positively; however, both behavioural and perceived synchrony were unaffected by the agreeableness of the confederate. Thus, we failed to replicate previous findings in an auditory only context. Furthermore, participants who believed they were more synchronised with the confederate liked the confederate more and felt more like a team, but the degree of behavioural synchrony was unrelated to these social perceptions. Perception of synchrony appears to be more important for social bonding than behavioural synchrony.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T11:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221094306
       
  • A language compatibility effect in fraction processing

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      Authors: Jimin Park, Soo-hyun Im, Sashank Varma
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      A language compatibility effect occurs when there is a match between what a language provides and what a mathematical task demands. Here, we investigated whether such an effect exists for fraction processing in English, which names the numerator first, versus Korean, which names the denominator first. We developed two new tasks: a fraction span task where participants view and then recall four fractions and a fraction identification task where they view one fraction and then another and judge whether the two fractions are the same or not. We generally found that English speakers were advantaged when the numerator drove task performance and Korean speakers were advantaged when the denominator was critical. These findings, particularly from the fraction identification task, were inconsistent with the attentional focus hypothesis, which proposes that the serialisation bias of a language guides which fraction component is attended to first. Rather, they were better explained by the verbal encoding hypothesis, which states that a necessary condition for observing language compatibility effects may be that the fraction components must be encoded in verbal working memory and rehearsed there.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T07:11:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221095747
       
  • Learning new words by reading books: Does semantic information help'

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      Authors: Anezka Smejkalova, Fabienne Chetail
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Encountering new words during reading is a common experience of any adult reader and it constitutes an important source of word knowledge. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, studies remain scarce in adults. Here, we addressed new word acquisition in adults using a natural contextual exposure, and we focused on the influence of context informativeness on orthographic learning. Indeed, previous studies suggest that the availability of semantic information plays an important role in orthographic learning in adults, but no such advantage was found in children. We hypothesised that this discrepancy comes from the fact that new word learning was examined almost only through artificial settings in adults. On the contrary, in the present study, adult participants were exposed to new words by reading a book. Half of the new words were embedded in informative contexts (easy to infer new word meaning) and the other half in less informative contexts. Both recall and recognition tasks were used to assess orthographic and semantic learning. The results showed efficient learning of the orthographic form and no reliable effect of the context informativeness. Regarding semantic learning, we found that if a word was correctly spelled, its definition was more likely to be retrieved. This shows that the orthographic and semantic dimensions of a word co-occurring in context are likely to influence each other during lexical acquisition. More generally, the present experiment showed that using an ecological learning design is essential to understand the mechanism of new word learning.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T07:09:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221095735
       
  • Far from the eyes, far from the heart: COVID-19 confinement dampened
           sensitivity to painful facial features

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      Authors: Lia Antico, Corrado Corradi-Dell’Acqua
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In the last 2 years, governments of many countries imposed heavy social restrictions to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus, with consequent increase of bad mood, distress, or depression for the people involved. Few studies investigated the impact of these restrictive measures on individual social proficiency, and specifically the processing of emotional facial information, leading to mixed results. The present research aimed at investigating systematically whether, and to which extent, social isolation influences the processing of facial expressions. To this end, we manipulated the social exclusion experimentally through the well-known Cyberball game (within-subject factor), and we exploited the occurrence of the lockdown for the Swiss COVID-19 first wave by recruiting participants before and after being restricted at home (grouping factor). We then tested whether either form of social segregation influenced the processing of pain, disgust, or neutral expressions, across multiple tasks probing access to different components of affective facial responses (state-specific, shared across states). We found that the lockdown (but not game-induced exclusion) affected negatively the processing of pain-specific information, without influencing other components of the affective facial response related to disgust or broad unpleasantness. In addition, participants recruited after the confinement reported lower scores in empathy questionnaires. These results suggest that social isolation affected negatively individual sensitivity to other people’s affect and, with specific reference to the processing of facial expressions, the processing of pain-diagnostic information.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T07:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221094772
       
  • Bayesian approximations to the theory of visual attention (TVA) in a
           foraging task

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      Authors: Sofia Tkhan Tin Le, Árni Kristjánsson, W Joseph MacInnes
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Foraging as a natural visual search for multiple targets has increasingly been studied in humans in recent years. Here, we aimed to model the differences in foraging strategies between feature and conjunction foraging tasks found by Á. Kristjánsson et al. Bundesen proposed the theory of visual attention (TVA) as a computational model of attentional function that divides the selection process into filtering and pigeonholing. The theory describes a mechanism by which the strength of sensory evidence serves to categorise elements. We combined these ideas to train augmented Naïve Bayesian classifiers using data from Á. Kristjánsson et al. as input. Specifically, we attempted to answer whether it is possible to predict how frequently observers switch between different target types during consecutive selections (switches) during feature and conjunction foraging using Bayesian classifiers. We formulated 11 new parameters that represent key sensory and bias information that could be used for each selection during the foraging task and tested them with multiple Bayesian models. Separate Bayesian networks were trained on feature and conjunction foraging data, and parameters that had no impact on the model’s predictability were pruned away. We report high accuracy for switch prediction in both tasks from the classifiers, although the model for conjunction foraging was more accurate. We also report our Bayesian parameters in terms of their theoretical associations with TVA parameters, [math] (denoting the pertinence value), and [math] (denoting the decision-making bias).
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T07:01:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221094572
       
  • Hysteresis in motor and language production

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      Authors: Amy L Lebkuecher, Natalie Schwob, Misty Kabasa, Arella E Gussow, Maryellen C MacDonald, Daniel J Weiss
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Hysteresis in motor planning and syntactic priming in language planning refer to the influence of prior production history on current production behaviour. Computational efficiency accounts of action hysteresis and theoretical accounts of syntactic priming both argue that reusing an existing plan is less costly than generating a novel plan. Despite these similarities across motor and language frameworks, research on planning in these domains has largely been conducted independently. The current study adapted an existing language paradigm to mirror the incremental nature of a manual motor task to investigate the presence of parallel hysteresis effects across domains. We observed asymmetries in production choice for both the motor and language tasks that resulted from the influence of prior history. Furthermore, these hysteresis effects were more exaggerated for subordinate production forms implicating an inverse preference effect that spanned domain. Consistent with computational efficiency accounts, across both task participants exhibited reaction time savings on trials in which they reused a recent production choice. Together, these findings lend support to the broader notion that there are common production biases that span both motor and language domains.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T06:59:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221094568
       
  • Skipping the structural particle de (的) in reading Chinese: The role of
           word frequency and sentential fit

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      Authors: Jinmian Yang, Tianyu Zhang, Yangxin Xue
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies suggested that readers were more likely to skip a word when it was previewed by a very-high-frequency word, like “the” in English and “de (的)” in Chinese, and they suggested that readers based skipping decisions on parafoveal word information rather than on sentence context. However, in these studies, the very-high-frequency preview word (the or de) was always implausible given the sentence context. It is an open question whether parafoveal word information interacts with sentence context to influence skipping decisions. Therefore, the current experiment orthogonally manipulated the preview information of the target character (identical or de preview) and the plausibility of de (plausible or implausible) to examine this question. The major results indicated that readers were more likely to skip the target character and made longer outgoing saccade length across the boundary in the de preview condition than in the identical preview condition. What is more important, the interaction between the plausibility of de and preview condition was significant: Readers’ higher probability of skipping the target character and longer outgoing saccade length in the de preview condition than in the identical preview condition was only significant when de was plausible, suggesting that parafoveal word information and context information can act as a joint constraint on skipping decision in reading Chinese.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T06:57:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221094315
       
  • Individual differences in executive attention and inhibitory control are
           related to spatial memory biases in adults

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      Authors: Anne R Schutte, Yinbo Wu, Morgan N Jacoby
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Executive attention is involved in working memory; however, the role of executive attention in the maintenance of information in spatial working memory is debated. This study examined whether inhibitory control was related to spatial working memory biases in adults in a simple spatial memory task where participants had to remember one location on an otherwise blank computer screen. On some trials, a distractor was presented during the maintenance period. Eighty-four participants completed the spatial working memory task and a battery of cognitive control measures. When a distractor was presented during the maintenance period of the spatial memory task, performance on two of the cognitive control measures, a measure of overall attention and a measure of inhibitory control was related to memory errors. When a distractor was not presented during the spatial memory task, memory errors were not related to performance on the cognitive control tasks. Overall, these effects demonstrated that attention is related to maintaining locations in spatial working memory in adults, and inhibitory control may also be related such that those with more efficient inhibitory control were less influenced by distractors presented during the maintenance period.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T06:49:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221092776
       
  • Incidental learning in music reading: The music contingency learning task

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      Authors: Claudia Iorio, Iva Šaban, Bénédicte Poulin-Charronnat, James R Schmidt
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The present report investigated whether nonmusicians can incidentally learn musical skills needed for sight-reading. On each trial, participants identified a note name written inside of a note on the musical staff. In Experiment 1, each note was presented frequently with the congruent note name (e.g., “do” with the note for “do”) and rarely with the incongruent names (e.g., “do” with the note for “fa”). With or without deliberate learning instructions, a robust contingency learning effect was observed: faster responses for congruent trials compared with incongruent trials. Participants also explicitly identified the meaning of the note positions more accurately than chance. Experiment 2 ruled out the potential influence of preexisting knowledge on the contingency learning effect by presenting notes most often with an incongruent note name. Robust learning was again observed, suggesting that participants acquired sufficient knowledge of musical notation to produce automatic influences on behaviour (e.g., akin to the interference effect previously found in skilled musicians). A congruency effect was additionally observed in Experiment 2, however. Experiment 3 further explored to what extent this congruency effect might be due to prior music knowledge and/or spatial stimulus–response compatibility between note and response locations (analogous to the SMARC effect). Overall, our results open up new avenues for investigating the incidental learning of complex material, musical or otherwise, and for reinforcing learning even further.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T11:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221092779
       
  • The effect of reducing attentional resources on selective suppression in
           the Simon task

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      Authors: Aurélie Grandjean, Isabel Suarez, Laurence Casini
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Studies using reaction times (RTs) distribution methods find that the Simon effect is greater for fast RTs and becomes smaller or reversed for slow RTs. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for this reduction are under debate. This study addressed the issue of whether attentional resources play a role in reduction of the Simon effect over time by investigating whether it is influenced by attentional constraints in a dual-task paradigm. Participants were instructed to perform a Simon task concurrently with a secondary task. Secondary task characteristics were manipulated by varying the overlap between the secondary task and the Simon task. Specifically, secondary tasks varied in their stimulus modality (auditory or visual) and/or response type (verbal or manual and lateralised or not). Distribution analyses of RTs, in the form of delta-plot functions, were performed for both the single- and dual-task conditions. Results showed that the more attention the secondary task demanded, the less the Simon effect was reduced, even for slower RTs. This suggests that the mechanisms responsible for the reduction of Simon effect over time are under top-down control.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T11:29:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221092421
       
  • Plausibility and structural reanalysis in L1 and L2 sentence comprehension

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      Authors: Juyoung Lee, Jeffrey Witzel
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines whether English native speakers and highly proficient non-native speakers make comparable use of plausibility information during online sentence processing. Two sentence types involving temporarily ambiguous structural configurations—subordinate-clause ambiguity sentences and sentences with adjacent/split verb-particle constructions (VPCs)—were tested in a self-paced reading task. In the subordinate-clause ambiguity sentences, the pattern of reading times indicated that both native and non-native speakers used plausibility to recover from initial structural misanalysis. Native speakers were also able to use this information during syntactic and semantic reanalysis in the sentences involving split VPCs. Non-native speakers, however, showed persistent processing difficulty for split VPC sentences, regardless of plausibility. These results are taken to indicate that both native speakers and non-native speakers use plausibility information to recover from misanalysis, even in sentences that require major syntactic revision. The only clear limit on non-native speakers’ ability to use this information related to lexico-syntactic/semantic processing difficulty, in that they appeared to be unable to use this information to recover from misanalysis associated with the structural properties of English VPCs.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T11:25:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221092400
       
  • Language dominance and order of acquisition affect auditory translation
           priming in heritage speakers

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      Authors: Rachel Soo, Philip J Monahan
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Late second language (L2) learners show translation priming from the first language (L1) to the second language (L1–L2), while L2–L1 effects are inconsistent. Late L2 learners also acquire the L2 after the L1 and are typically less dominant in the L2. As such, the relative contribution of language dominance and order of acquisition is confounded in these results. Here, Cantonese heritage and native speakers are tested in an auditory translation priming paradigm. As heritage speakers first learn Cantonese (L1) but later become dominant in English (L2), this profile allows for the potential dissociation of dominance and order of acquisition in translation priming. If order of acquisition is the primary factor, stronger priming is expected in the L1–L2 (Cantonese–English) direction; however, if dominance plays a stronger role, priming is expected in the L2–L1 (English–Cantonese) direction. Native speakers showed stronger L1–L2 priming, consistent with previous findings, while heritage speakers showed priming in both directions, and marginally larger L2–L1 priming. Treating language dominance as a continuous variable revealed that L1–L2 priming correlated with increased Cantonese dominance, while L2–L1 priming marginally correlated with increased English dominance. Collectively, these results suggest that both language dominance and order of acquisition help explain translation priming findings and bilingual lexical processing, generally. Overall, they invite a rethinking of the role of both variables in bilingual lexical access for speakers with different language dominance profiles.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T03:28:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221091753
       
  • The implicit effect of action mental simulation on action evaluation

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      Authors: Francesco Ianì, Teresa Limata, Monica Bucciarelli, Giuliana Mazzoni
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The main assumption underlying the present investigation is that action observation elicits a mandatory mental simulation representing the action forward in time. In Experiment 1, participants observed pairs of photos portraying the initial and the final still frames of an action video; then they observed a photo depicting the very same action but either forward or backward in time. Their task was to tell whether the action in the photo portrayed something happened before or after the action seen at encoding. In this explicit task, the evaluation was faster for forward photos than for backward photos. Crucially, the effect was replicated when instructions asked only to evaluate at test whether the photo depicted a scene congruent with the action seen at encoding (implicit task from two still frames, Experiment 2), and when at encoding, they were presented a single still frame and evaluated at test whether a photo depicted a scene congruent with the action seen at encoding (implicit task from single still frame; Experiment 3). Overall, the results speak in favour of a mandatory mechanism through which our brain simulates the action also in tasks that do not explicitly require action simulation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T05:46:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221091096
       
  • Judging accidental harm: Reasoning style modulates the weight of intention
           and harm severity

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      Authors: Flora Schwartz, Hakim Djeriouat, Bastien Trémolière
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      When judging a perpetrator who harmed someone accidentally, humans rely on distinct information pertaining to the perpetrator and victim. The present study investigates how reasoning style modulates the contribution of the victim’s harm and the perpetrator’s intention to third-party judgement of accidental harm. In two pre-registered online experiments, we simultaneously manipulated harm severity and the perpetrator’s intention. Participants completed reasoning measures as well as a moral judgement task consisting of short narratives which depicted the interaction between a perpetrator and a victim. In experiment 1, we manipulated the perpetrator’s intent to harm (accidental versus intentional harm) and the victim’s harm (mild versus severe harm). In experiment 2, we aimed to manipulate intent in accidental harm scenarios exclusively, using positive or neutral intents and manipulating harm severity (mild versus severe harm). As expected, intent and harm severity moderated participants’ moral judgement of acceptability, punishment, and blame. Most importantly, in both experiments, the perpetrator’s intent not only interacted with the outcome severity but also polarised moral judgements in participants with a more deliberative reasoning style. While moral judgements of more intuitive reasoners were less sensitive to intent, more deliberative reasoners were more forgiving of accidental harm, especially following mild harm. These findings extend previous studies by showing that reasoning style interacts with intent and harm severity to shape moral judgement of accidents.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T03:54:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221089964
       
  • The impact of briefly observing faces in opaque facial masks on emotion
           recognition and empathic concern

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      Authors: Josh Liam Shepherd, Daniel Rippon
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019, there have been global public health initiatives that have advocated for the community use of face masks to reduce spread of the virus. Although the community use of facial coverings has been deemed essential for public health, there have been calls for enquiries to ascertain how face masks may impact non-verbal methods of communication. This study aimed to ascertain how the brief observations of faces in opaque facial coverings could impact facial emotion recognition. It was also an aim to ascertain if there was an association between the levels of empathic concern and facial emotion recognition when viewing masked faces. An opportunity sample of 199 participants, who resided in the United Kingdom, were randomly assigned to briefly observe either masked (n = 102) or unmasked (n = 97) faces. Participants in both conditions were required to view a series of facial expressions, from the Radboud Faces Database, with models conveying the emotional states of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprised. Each face was presented to participants for a period of 250 ms in the masked and unmasked conditions. A 6 (emotion type) x 2 (masked/unmasked condition) mixed ANOVA revealed that viewing masked faces significantly reduced facial emotion recognition of disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprised. However, there were no differences in the success rate of recognising the emotional state of anger between the masked and unmasked conditions. Furthermore, higher levels of empathic concern were associated with greater success in facially recognising the emotional state of disgust. The results of this study suggest that significant reductions in emotion recognition, when viewing faces in opaque masks, can still be observed when people are exposed to facial stimuli for a brief period of time.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T10:29:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221092590
       
  • The development of lexical competition in written- and spoken-word
           recognition

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      Authors: Keith S Apfelbaum, Claire Goodwin, Christina Blomquist, Bob McMurray
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Efficient word recognition depends on the ability to overcome competition from overlapping words. The nature of the overlap depends on the input modality: spoken words have temporal overlap from other words that share phonemes in the same positions, whereas written words have spatial overlap from other words with letters in the same places. It is unclear how these differences in input format affect the ability to recognise a word and the types of competitors that become active while doing so. This study investigates word recognition in both modalities in children between 7 and 15. Children complete a visual-world paradigm eye-tracking task that measures competition from words with several types of overlap, using identical word lists between modalities. Results showed correlated developmental changes in the speed of target recognition in both modalities. In addition, developmental changes were seen in the efficiency of competitor suppression for some competitor types in the spoken modality. These data reveal some developmental continuity in the process of word recognition independent of modality but also some instances of independence in how competitors are activated. Stimuli, data, and analyses from this project are available at: https://osf.io/eav72.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T10:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221090483
       
  • Instrumental responses and Pavlovian stimuli as temporal referents in a
           peak procedure

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      Authors: Katy V Burgess, Robert C Honey, Dominic M Dwyer
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Three experiments investigated whether the nature of the temporal referent affects timing behaviour in rats. We used a peak procedure and assessed timing of food well activity as a function of whether the referent was an instrumental response (a lever press that resulted in the withdrawal of the lever) or a conditioned stimulus (CS) that was 2 s in Experiment 1, 500 ms in Experiment 2, and 800 ms in Experiment 3. In all experiments, the interval between the offset of the temporal referent and food was 5 s. The curve fits for each experiment revealed no differences in peak time, but magazine responding immediately following the CS was higher than following a lever press. This pattern of results was interpreted as reflecting a combination of (a) ambiguity in which component of the 500 ms–2-s auditory stimulus was serving as the referent and (b) response competition between lever pressing and magazine activity. Critically, these results suggest that peak timing in rats is unaffected by whether a lever press or CS serves as the referent. This conclusion is consistent with theoretical models of timing behaviour, but not with evidence from humans showing that the subjective perception of time is affected by whether the cause of an outcome was self-generated or not.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:56:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221090418
       
  • Adult listeners can extract age-related cues from child-directed speech

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      Authors: Ceren Bozkurt, Gaye Soley
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated adult listeners’ ability to detect age-related cues in child-directed speech (CDS). Participants (N = 186) listened to two speech recordings directed at children between the ages of 6 and 44 months and guessed which had addressed a younger or an older child. The recordings came from North American English-speaking mothers and listeners were native speakers of Turkish with varying degrees of English knowledge. Participants were randomly assigned to listen either to the original recordings or to the low-pass filtered versions. Accuracy was above chance level across all groups. Participants’ English level, age, and the age difference between the addressees significantly predicted accuracy. After controlling for these variables, we found a significant effect of condition. Participants’ accuracy tended to be better in the unfiltered condition with the exception of male participants without children. These results suggest that age-related variations in CDS are perceptually available to adult listeners. Furthermore, even though sensitivity to the age-related cues is facilitated by the availability of content-related cues in speech, it does not seem to be solely dependent on these cues, providing further support for the form–function relations in CDS.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:53:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221089634
       
  • Attention does not always help: The role of expectancy, divided, and
           spatial attention on illusory conjunctions

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      Authors: María I Cobos, Ana B Chica
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Humans have the subjective impression of a rich perceptual experience, but this perception is riddled with errors that might be produced by top-down expectancies or failures in feature integration. The role of attention in feature integration is still unclear. Some studies support the importance of attention in feature integration, whereas others suggest that feature integration does not require attention. Understanding attention as a heterogeneous system, in this study, we explored the role of divided (as opposed to focused—Experiment 1) attention, and endogenous–exogenous spatial orienting (Experiments 2 and 3) in feature integration. We also explored the role of feature expectancy, by presenting stimulus features that were completely unexpected to the participants. Results demonstrated that both endogenous and exogenous orienting improved feature integration whereas divided attention did not. Moreover, a strong and consistent feature expectancy effect was observed, demonstrating perceptual completion when an unexpected perceptual feature was presented in the scene. These results support the feature confirmation account, which proposes that attention is important for top-down matching of stable representations.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:50:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221089625
       
  • Reading vertically and horizontally mirrored text: An eye movement
           investigation

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      Authors: Katharina Pittrich, Sascha Schroeder
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the cognitive processes involved in reading vertically and horizontally mirrored text. We tracked participants’ eye movements while they were reading the Potsdam Sentence Corpus which consists of 144 sentences with target words that are manipulated for length and frequency. Sentences were presented in three different conditions: In the normal condition, text was presented with upright letters, in the vertical condition, each letter was flipped around its vertical (left-right) axis while in the horizontal condition, letters were flipped around their horizontal (up-down) axis. Results show that reading was slowed down in both mirror conditions and that horizontal mirroring was particularly disruptive. In both conditions, we found larger effects of word length than in the normal condition indicating that participants read the sentences more serially and effortfully. Similarly, frequency effects were larger in both mirror conditions in later reading measures (gaze duration, go-past time, and total reading time) and particularly pronounced in the horizontal condition. This indicates that reading mirrored script involves a late checking mechanism that is particularly important for reading a horizontally mirrored script. Together, our findings demonstrate that mirroring affects both early visual identification and later linguistic processes.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T11:36:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221085943
       
  • What is required for the truth of a general conditional'

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      Authors: Moyun Wang, David Over, Lixia Liang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      General conditionals, if p then q, can be used to make assertions about sets of objects. Previous studies have generally found that people judge the probability of one these conditionals to be the conditional probability of q given p, P(q p). Two experiments investigated the qualitative relation between the exhaustive possibilities, p & q, p & ¬q, ¬p & q, and ¬p & ¬q, and truth and possibility judgements about general conditionals. In Experiment 1, for truth judgements, people evaluated a general conditional as “true” in sets containing p & q cases but no p & ¬q, and “true” judgements depended only on P(q p). In Experiment 2, for possibility judgements, people’s responses implied that only p & q cases have to be possible in a set for a general conditional to be true of the set. Our results add to earlier findings against representing a general conditional as the material conditional of extensional logic, and they provide novel disconfirmation of two recent proposals: the modal semantics of revised mental model theory and certain inferentialist accounts of conditionals. They supply new support for suppositional theories of conditionals.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T07:12:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221089331
       
  • Humans sense by touch the location of objects that roll in handheld
           containers

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      Authors: Ilja Frissen, Hsin-Yun Yao, Catherine Guastavino, Vincent Hayward
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Humans use active touch to gain behaviourally relevant information from their environment, including information about contained objects. Although most common, the perceptual basis of interacting with containers remains largely unexplored. The first aim of this study was to determine how accurately people can sense, by touch only, the location of a contained rolling object. Experiment 1 used tubes containing physical balls and demonstrated a considerable degree of accuracy in estimating the rolled distance. The second aim was to identify the relative effectiveness of the various available physical cues. Experiment 2 employed virtual reality technology to present, in isolation and in various combinations, the constituent haptic cues produced by a rolling ball, which are, the mechanical noise during rolling, the jolts from an impact with an internal wall, and the intensity and timing of the jolts resulting from elastic bounces. The rolling noise was of primary importance to the perceptual estimation task suggesting that the implementation of the laws of motion is based on an analysis of the ball’s movement velocity. Although estimates became more accurate when the rolling and impact cues were combined, they were not necessarily more precise. The presence of elastic bounces did not affect performance.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T07:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221086458
       
  • As clear as glass: How figurativeness and familiarity impact simile
           processing in readers with and without dyslexia

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      Authors: Ciara Egan, Anna Siyanova-Chanturia, Paul Warren, Manon W Jones
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      For skilled readers, idiomatic language confers faster access to overall meaning compared with non-idiomatic language, with a processing advantage for figurative over literal interpretation. However, currently very little research exists to elucidate whether atypical readers—such as those with developmental dyslexia—show such a processing advantage for figurative interpretations of idioms, or whether their reading impairment implicates subtle differences in semantic access. We wanted to know whether an initial figurative interpretation of similes, for both typical and dyslexic readers, is dependent on familiarity. Here, we tracked typical and dyslexic readers’ eye movements as they read sentences containing similes (e.g., as cold as ice), orthogonally manipulated for novelty (e.g., familiar: as cold as ice, novel: as cold as snow) and figurativeness (e.g., literal: as cold as ice [low temperature], figurative: as cold as ice [emotionally distant]), with figurativeness being defined by the sentence context. Both participant groups exhibited a processing advantage for familiar and figurative similes over novel and literal similes. However, compared with typical readers, participants with dyslexia had greater difficulty processing similes both when they were unfamiliar and when the context biased the simile meaning towards a literal rather than a figurative interpretation. Our findings suggest a semantic processing anomaly in dyslexic readers, which we discuss in light of recent literature on sentence-level semantic processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T11:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221089245
       
  • Imagining emotional events benefits future-oriented decisions

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      Authors: Braedon C Ballance, Young Ji Tuen, Aria S Petrucci, William Orwig, Omran K Safi, Christopher R Madan, Daniela J Palombo
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      How does imagining future events—whether positive or negative—influence our choices in the present' Prior work has shown the simulation of hypothetical future events, dubbed episodic future thinking, can alter the propensity to engage in delay discounting (the tendency to devalue future rewards) and does so in a valence-specific manner. Some research shows that positive episodic future thinking reduces delay discounting, whereas negative future thinking augments it. However, more recent research indicates that both positive and negative episodic future thinking reduce delay discounting, suggesting an effect of episodic future thinking that is independent of valence. In this study, we sought to replicate and extend these latter findings. Here, participants (N = 604; N = 572 after exclusions) completed an online study. In the baseline task, participants completed a delay discounting task. In the experimental task, they engaged in episodic future thinking before completing a second delay discounting task. Participants were randomly assigned to engage in either positive, neutral, or negative episodic future thinking. In accordance with Bulley et al., we found that episodic future thinking, regardless of valence, reduced delay discounting. Although episodic future thinking shifted decision-making in all conditions, the effect was stronger when participants engaged in positive episodic future thinking, even after accounting for personal relevance and vividness of imagined events. These findings suggest that episodic future thinking may promote future-oriented choices by contextualising the future, and this effect is further strengthened when the future is tied to positive emotion.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T11:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221086637
       
  • Are there associations between daily multitasking experience and
           multitasking performance'

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      Authors: Kelvin FH Lui, Pu Fan, Ken HM Yip, Yetta Kwailing Wong, Alan C-N Wong
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Research showed mixed findings regarding the relationships between daily multitasking experience and laboratory multitasking performance. One measurement issue was the low reliability and validity of using a single measurement for daily multitasking experience. Another measurement issue was the popular use of simple laboratory paradigms that may or may not capture well cognitive processes underlying real-life multitasking. The current study revisited the relationship between daily multitasking experience and multitasking performance with a better design. Multiple measurements were used to ensure good reliability and validity. This included a mobile phone task switching measurement—an arguably better proxy for daily multitasking experience and three realistic multitasking paradigms that mimic real life multitasking situations. The results showed that (1) phone switching was not significantly associated with the media multitasking index, suggesting that they were measuring different aspects of multitasking experience; (2) indicators of the multitasking performance were moderately correlated among themselves, suggesting that different realistic multitasking paradigms were measuring overlapping multitasking abilities; and, intriguingly, (3) no significant association between multitasking experience and performance indicators was found. One possibility is that people can only benefit from daily multitasking practice when they engaged in daily multitasking activities with an intention to improve the performance. Other possibilities and implications were also discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T07:17:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221087959
       
  • The action dynamics of approach-avoidance conflict during decision-making

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      Authors: Santiago Garcia-Guerrero, Denis O’Hora, Arkady Zgonnikov, Stefan Scherbaum
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Approach-avoidance conflict is observed in the competing motivations towards the benefits and away from the costs of a decision. The current study investigates the action dynamics of response motion during such conflicts in an attempt to characterise their dynamic resolution. An approach-avoidance conflict was generated by varying the appetitive consequences of a decision (i.e., point rewards and shorter participation time) in the presence of simultaneous aversive consequences (i.e., shock probability). Across two experiments, approach-avoidance conflict differentially affected response trajectories. Approach trajectories were less complex than avoidance trajectories and, as approach and avoidance motivations neared equipotentiality, response trajectories were more deflected from the shortest route to the eventual choice. Consistency in the location of approach and avoidance response options reduced variability in performance enabling more sensitive estimates of dynamic conflict. The time course of competing influences on response trajectories including trial-to-trial effects and conflict between approach and avoidance were estimated using regression analyses. We discuss these findings in terms of a dynamic theory of approach-avoidance that we hope will lead to insights of practical relevance in the field of maladaptive avoidance.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T07:14:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221087625
       
  • When the sense of fluency triggers an attentional bias

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      Authors: Sibylle Turo, Frédéric Collin, Denis Brouillet
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Spatial attention can be captured automatically by an exogenous stimulus (e.g., digital interruption) or by an endogenous stimulus (e.g., valence of the stimulus). In this study, we investigated whether a non-perceptual characteristic (e.g., sense of fluency) has an impact on attention. To this end, we used the conceptual fluency paradigm developed by Whittlesea combined with the dot-probe task developed by MacLeod et al. In three experiments, we measured the response times for each experimental situation (i.e., Valid and Non-valid situations). At each trial, participants were presented in three consecutive displays on a screen: (1) an incomplete and predictive sentence stem; (2) a pair of words, one of which was semantically compatible with the previous sentence stem; and (3) a circle appeared at the spatial location of one of the words. Then, participants had to perform a Go (i.e., a filled circle) and No-go (i.e., an empty circle) task. The analysis found that response times were significantly faster when the Go stimulus appeared at the same location as the semantically compatible word (i.e., Valid situations). Overall, our results show that the sense of fluency triggers attentional capture. Thus, they replicate those of Gardner et al. using another experimental paradigm. Our finding might be helpful to better understand the consequences of digital interruptions on behavioural performance.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T04:29:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221086185
       
  • Contextual uncertainty of visual scene modulates object-based attention

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      Authors: Ting Luo, Shimin Fu
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Contextual information involves invariant properties that are critical in selective attention. There is no direct evidence showing the effect of contextual information on object-based selective attention. The current study aimed to investigate the role of contextual uncertainty on object-based effect using a flanker task and to clarify the contradictory results obtained in previous studies. Herein, contextual uncertainty specifically referred to the configurations of the stimuli presented randomly as vertical or horizontal displays (high contextual uncertainty) that was reduced by showing consistent configurations within a block, via implicit learning of configuration (low contextual uncertainty). In Experiment 1, the object-based effect was observed under the high uncertainty condition and disappeared under the low uncertainty condition, demonstrating that contextual uncertainty modulated object-based attention. Experiment 2 provided explicit knowledge of the configural orientations, which can be utilised to sufficiently guide subsequent perception with increase in cueing interval, and therefore, affected contextual uncertainty. Relative to a short cueing interval, the long cueing interval enabled the participants to utilise the contextual knowledge for guiding visual attention and reducing uncertainty. Consistent with the finding in Experiment 1, the explicit manipulation of contextual uncertainty affected the object-based effect. The results proved that the contextual uncertainty played an important role in prioritisation in the object-based attentional selection. The mechanism of the interplay between contextual uncertainty and object-based attention was discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T10:50:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221086550
       
  • Graphemes are used when reading: Evidence from Monte Carlo simulation
           using word norms from mega-studies

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      Authors: Conrad Perry
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, Chetail (Journal of Memory and Language, 2020) has claimed there is no strong evidence that multi-letter graphemes are used in reading tasks with proficient adult readers, with most studies being statistically weak or having confounds in the stimuli used. Here, I used Monte Carlo simulation with data from reading mega-studies to examine the extent to which the number of multi-letter graphemes matters in words when letter length is held constant. This was done by simulating thousands of experiments using different sets of items for each of a small number of comparisons (e.g., words with only single-letter graphemes versus words with one multi-letter grapheme). The results showed that words with two multi-letter graphemes tended to cause slower reaction times than words with one or no multi-letter graphemes, with effects found in both naming and lexical decision tasks. Interestingly, when words with no multi-letter graphemes were compared with words with one multi-letter grapheme, the differences were much weaker. Simulations of naming results using two computer models, the connectionist dual-process (CDP) model and the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model, showed only CDP predicted this pattern. Since CDP learns simple associations between graphemes and phonemes whereas DRC uses a set of grapheme–phoneme rules, this suggests that the results may have been caused by simple associations between spelling and sound being relatively easy to learn with words with one compared with two multi-letter graphemes. More generally, the results suggest that graphemes are used when reading, but they often produce relatively weak effects and thus differences in some studies may not have been found due to a lack of power.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T10:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221086533
       
  • Co-linguistic content inferences: From gestures to sound effects and emoji

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      Authors: Robert Pasternak, Lyn Tieu
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Among other uses, co-speech gestures can contribute additional semantic content to the spoken utterances with which they coincide. A growing body of research is dedicated to understanding how inferences from gestures interact with logical operators in speech, including negation (“not”/“n’t”), modals (e.g., “might”), and quantifiers (e.g., “each,” “none,” “exactly one”). A related but less addressed question is what kinds of meaningful content other than gestures can evince this same behaviour; this is in turn connected to the much broader question of what properties of gestures are responsible for how they interact with logical operators. We present two experiments investigating sentences with co-speech sound effects and co-text emoji in lieu of gestures, revealing a remarkably similar inference pattern to that of co-speech gestures. The results suggest that gestural inferences do not behave the way they do because of any traits specific to gestures, and that the inference pattern extends to a much broader range of content.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T10:47:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221080645
       
  • Age and processing effects on perceptual and conceptual priming

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      Authors: Emma V Ward
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Explicit (declarative) memory declines with age, but age effects on implicit (nondeclarative) memory are debated. Some studies have reported null changes in implicit memory (e.g., priming in word-fragment completion, perceptual identification, category exemplar generation) with age, while others have uncovered declines. One factor that may account for these discrepancies is processing. Evidence suggests that conceptual and perceptual processes are not equally affected by ageing, yet processing requirements have varied greatly between studies. Processing may moderate age effects on priming, but no study has systematically examined this issue. This registered report presents an experiment to manipulate processing (conceptual / perceptual) during incidental encoding of words, prior to measures of perceptual (perceptual identification) and conceptual (category verification) priming. The perceptual and conceptual priming tasks were matched on all characteristics except processing, making them highly comparable. The four orthogonal conditions (perceptual encoding, perceptual test [PP]; conceptual encoding, perceptual test [CP]; perceptual encoding, conceptual test [PC]; conceptual encoding, conceptual test [CC]) were designed to clarify situations in which age effects on implicit memory emerge, which holds important practical and theoretical implications. Significant effects of Age, Test, and an Age × Processing interaction emerged. Priming was greater in young than older adults and on the perceptual than the conceptual test, but in contrast to the predictions, the age difference was only significant when prior encoding was perceptual (i.e., in the PP and CP conditions).
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T09:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221090128
       
  • Sex differences in social and spatial perspective taking: A replication
           and extension of Tarampi et al. (2016)

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      Authors: Elyssa A Geer, Colleen Ganley
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Tarampi and colleagues (2016) found that females performed better on spatial perspective-taking tasks when social information was present. They interpreted this finding to suggest that adding social information would uniquely improve the performance of females due to their better social perspective taking. In this replication and extension study, we tested an alternative explanation for their results: the tasks with social information also provided spatial information which could explain improved performance. In a study with 278 college students, we used the two versions of the tasks from their study (no social or spatial information and with social and spatial information) and added two versions that isolate only social and only spatial information. Our replication of Tarampi et al.’s analyses found no difference in females’ performance on the tasks; however, when both females and males were included, we found some evidence for better performance in the social and spatial condition. Examining both males’ and females’ performance in all four conditions, we found that males outperformed females. In addition, participants who completed tasks with spatial information performed better. Findings suggest the difference observed in Tarampi et al. may have been due to the inclusion of spatial information, not social information, that improves task performance for both females and males. These results suggest that spatial perspective-taking performance is better when given even subtle spatial cues, but that social information alone does not appear to improve performance, despite ties with social perspective taking.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T09:32:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221085117
       
  • The role of the eye region for familiar face recognition: Evidence from
           spatial low-pass filtering and contrast negation

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      Authors: Bartholomew PA Quinn, Holger Wiese
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      What information is used for familiar face recognition' While previous research suggests a particular importance of the eye region, information from the rest of the face also needs to be integrated. What type of information is used in conjunction with the eyes is largely unclear. In three experiments, participants were asked to recognise so-called face chimeras, in which the eye region was not manipulated, while the rest of the face was either presented in negative contrast (contrast chimeras) or low-pass filtered (blur chimeras). We show (1) that both chimeras are recognised substantially better than fully blurred faces, (2) that the recognition advantage for blur chimeras is specific to the eye region but cannot be explained by cues available in this part of the face alone, and (3) that a combination of negative contrast and blurring outside of the eye region eliminates the chimera advantage. We conclude that full-frequency but distorted surface reflectance cues (in contrast chimeras) or coarse shape information (in blur chimeras) can be used in combination with the eye region for effective face recognition. Our findings further suggest that the face recognition system can flexibly use both types of information, depending on availability.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221085990
       
  • Feature-specific retrieval of the knowledge of having lied before: Persons
           and questions independently retrieve truth-related information

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      Authors: Franziska Schreckenbach, Klaus Rothermund
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research on event coding has shown that, by default, bindings are binary and elemental, that is, individual objects or single features of these objects can retrieve responses separately and independently. In our study, we applied these findings to the automatic retrieval of former deceptions. Specifically, we investigated whether the person or the question to which one has answered deceptively can retrieve this knowledge independently, or whether there is also evidence for configural retrieval processes that use a combination of person and question information to retrieve the truth status of former episodes. We found evidence for retrieval based on single cues (i.e., person or question), supporting that the elementary retrieval of episodes by independent cues also holds in the context of retrieving knowledge about former lies.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221085822
       
  • Item-specific control of attention capture: An eye movement study

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      Authors: Chao Wang, Mitchell Reid Pond LaPointe, Shree Venkateshan, Guang Zhao, Weidong Tao, Hong-Jin Sun, Bruce Milliken
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Measures of attentional capture are sensitive to attentional control settings. Recent research suggests that such control settings can be linked associatively to specific items. Rapid item-specific retrieval of these control settings can then modulate measures of attentional capture. However, the processes that produce this item-specific control of attentional capture are unclear. The current study addressed this issue by examining eye-movement patterns associated with the item-specific proportion congruency effect (ISPC). Participants searched for a shape singleton target in search displays that also contained a colour singleton—the colour singleton was either the same item as the shape singleton (congruent trials) or a different item (incongruent trials). The relative proportions of congruent and incongruent trials were manipulated separately for two distinct item types that were randomly intermixed. Response times (RTs) were faster on congruent than incongruent trials, and this congruency effect was larger for high-proportion congruent (HPC) than low-proportion congruent (LPC) items. Eye movement data revealed a higher proportion of saccades towards the distractor and longer dwell times on the distractor in the HPC condition. These results suggest that item-specific associative learning can influence the strength of representation of the task goal (e.g., find the odd shape), a form of selection history effect in visual search.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:10:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221085110
       
  • Effect of swearing on strength: Disinhibition as a potential mediator

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      Authors: Richard Stephens, Harry Dowber, Amber Barrie, Sannida Almeida, Katie Atkins
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Swearing fulfils positive functions, including benefitting pain relief and physical strength. Here we present two experiments assessing a possible psychological mechanism, increased state disinhibition, for the effect of swearing on physical strength. Two repeated measures experiments were carried out with sample sizes N = 56 and N = 118. Both included the measures of physical performance assessing, respectively, grip and arm strength, and both included the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) to measure risky behaviour. Experiment 2, which was pre-registered, additionally assessed flow, emotion including humour, distraction including novelty, self-confidence, and anxiety. Experiments 1 and 2 found that repeating a swear word benefitted physical strength and increased risky behaviour, but risky behaviour did not mediate the strength effect. Experiment 2 found that repeating a swear word increased flow, positive emotion, humour, distraction, and self-confidence. Humour mediated the effect of swearing on physical strength. Consistent effects of swearing on physical strength indicate that this is a reliable effect. Swearing influenced several constructs related to state disinhibition, including increased self-confidence. Humour appeared to mediate the effect of swearing on physical strength, consistent with a hot cognitions explanation of swearing-induced state disinhibition. However, as this mediation effect was part of an exploratory analysis, further pre-registered experimental research, including validated measures of humour, is required.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T02:20:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221082657
       
  • Comparing mnemonic effects of iconic gestures and pictures on word memory

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      Authors: Iván Sánchez-Borges, Carlos J Álvarez
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies using intermodal semantic priming have found that gestures improve language memory. In the present study, we ask whether the inherent characteristics of representative gestures (iconic gestures) facilitate word memory, or it is simply the semantic content shared with the words. Two analogous experiments were carried out presenting iconic gestures, pictures, or null primes to target words (nouns and action verbs). In Experiment 1, participants performed a free word recall task. In Experiment 2, the task was one of recognition. The results showed that participants recalled (Experiment 1) an equivalent number of words preceded by gestures or pictures compared with words alone, with no prime. However, a significantly higher number of words were recognised (Experiment 2) when they were primed by iconic gestures compared with the other two conditions, an advantage also found in reaction times (RTs) and both effects being larger in verbs than in nouns. These findings are discussed regarding the differences between recall and recognition processes as well as the particular characteristics of representative gestures.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-19T06:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221082654
       
  • Do the eyes have it' A comparison of eye-movement and
           attentional-probe-based approaches to indexing attentional control within
           the antisaccade paradigm

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      Authors: Julian Basanovic, Owen Myles, Colin MacLeod
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Individual differences in the ability to control visual attention, often termed “attentional control,” have been of particular interest to cognitive researchers. This has led to the development of numerous tasks intended to measure attentional control, including the antisaccade task. While attentional performance on the antisaccade task is typically indexed through the recording of eye movements, increasingly researchers are reporting the use of probe-based methods of indexing attentional performance on the task. Critically, no research has yet determined the convergence of measures yielded by each of these assessment methods, nor compared the reliability of these measures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether antisaccade cost measures yielded by a probe-based adaptation of the task converge with antisaccade cost measures yielded by an eye movement task in the sample of individuals, and whether these alternative approaches have comparable levels of psychometric reliability. Ninety-three individuals completed an eye movement task and a probe-based task at two assessment times, and an index of antisaccade cost was computed from each task at each assessment time. Analyses revealed that the antisaccade cost index yielded by each task demonstrated high internal reliability (eye-movement, rSB = .92; probe-based, rSB = .80–.84) and high test–retest reliability (eye-movement, rSB = .82; probe-based, rSB = .72), but modest measurement convergence (r = .21–.35). Findings suggest that probe-based and eye-movement based antisaccade tasks measure shared variance in attentional control, although their measures do not converge strongly enough to be considered equivalent measures of attentional control.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T07:12:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221083556
       
  • An eye-tracking investigation of the cognitive processes involved in the
           comprehension of simple and complex communicative acts

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      Authors: Alberto Parola, Francesca M. Bosco
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Indirect speech acts communicate more than their literal meaning, and their comprehension relies on the listener’s ability to draw the appropriate inferences in a given context. We used eye tracking to investigate the cognitive processing involved in the comprehension of simple (direct) and complex (unconventional indirect) communicative acts, a more general distinction that applies not only to sincere speech acts, but also to irony and deceit. We recorded the eye movements of 40 participants while they read 60 stories (20 sincere, 20 deceitful, 20 ironic) consisting of a context and a target answer. For each story, we created two different contexts so that the same identical target answer was a simple (direct) and a complex (unconventional indirect) communicative act, respectively. We also assessed the indirectness of simple and complex communicative acts, as well as participants’ working memory (WM) and theory of mind (ToM). Eye-pattern analysis showed that complex communicative acts were more difficult to understand than simple acts; differences between simple and complex acts held for all the pragmatic phenomena investigated, though processing differences were greater for sincere acts than for irony and deceit. We found a role of indirectness and ToM in the pragmatic processing of simple and complex acts, whereas the role of WM was modest. The present findings underscore the importance of adopting an encompassing theory that can account for different types of indirect speech acts, such as sincere, deceitful and ironic acts; they also suggest the importance of assessing individual differences in inferential and cognitive abilities.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T07:11:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221079629
       
  • Novel immersive virtual reality experiences do not produce retroactive
           memory benefits for unrelated material

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      Authors: Jörn Alexander Quent, Richard N Henson
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The experience of novelty can enhance memory for information that occurs close in time, even if not directly related to the experience—a phenomenon called “behavioural tagging.” For example, an animal exposed to a novel spatial environment shows improved memory for other information presented previously. This has been linked to neurochemical modulations induced by novelty, which affect consolidation of memories for experiences that were encoded around the same time. Neurophysiological research in animals has shown that novelty benefits weakly encoded but not strongly encoded information. However, a benefit that is selective to weak memories seems difficult to reconcile with studies in humans that have reported that novelty improves recollection, but not familiarity. One possibility is that the novelty increases activity in hippocampus, which is also associated with processes that enable recollection. This is consistent with another prediction of behavioural tagging theory, namely that novelty only enhances consolidation of information that converges on the same neuronal population. However, no study has directly explored the relationship between encoding strength and retrieval quality (recollection versus familiarity). We examined the effects of exposure to a novel immersive virtual reality environment on memory for words presented immediately beforehand, under either deep or shallow encoding tasks, and by testing both recall memory immediately, and recognition memory with remember/know instructions the next day. However, Bayes factors showed no evidence to support the behavioural tagging predictions: that novelty would improve memory, particularly for shallowly encoded words, and this improvement would differentially affect familiarity versus recollection.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T12:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221082491
       
  • Representation of others’ synchronous and asynchronous sentences
           interferes with sentence production

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      Authors: Chiara Gambi, Joris Van de Cavey, Martin J Pickering
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In dialogue, people represent each other’s utterances to take turns and communicate successfully. In previous work, speakers who were naming single pictures or picture pairs represented whether another speaker was engaged in the same task (vs a different or no task) concurrently but did not represent in detail the content of the other speaker’s utterance. Here, we investigate the co-representation of whole sentences. In three experiments, pairs of speakers imagined each other producing active or passive descriptions of transitive events. Speakers took longer to begin speaking when they believed their partner was also preparing to speak, compared to when they did not. Interference occurred when speakers believed their partners were preparing to speak at the same time as them (synchronous production and co-representation; Experiment 1), and also when speakers believed that their partner would speak only after them (asynchronous production and co-representation; Experiments 2a and 2b). However, interference was generally no greater when speakers believed their partner was preparing a different compared to a similar utterance, providing no consistent evidence that speakers represented what their partners were preparing to say. Taken together, these findings indicate that speakers can represent another’s intention to speak even as they are themselves preparing to speak, but that such representation tends to lack detail.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T12:56:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221080766
       
  • The company a word keeps: The role of neighbourhood density in verbal
           short-term memory

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      Authors: David J Greeno, Bill Macken, Dylan M Jones
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Psycholinguistic information plays an important role in verbal short-term memory (vSTM). One such linguistic feature is neighbourhood density (ND)—the number of words that can be derived from a given word by changing a single phoneme or single letter—with vSTM performance typically better when word sequences are from dense rather than sparse neighbourhoods. This effect has been attributed to higher levels of supportive activation among dense neighbourhood words. Generally, it has been assumed that lexical variables influence item memory but not order memory, and we show that the typical vSTM advantage for dense neighbourhood words in serial recall is eliminated when using serial recognition. However, we also show that the usual effect of ND is reversed—for both serial recall and serial recognition—when using a subset of those same words. The findings call into question the way in which ND has been incorporated into accounts of vSTM that invoke mutual support from long-term representations on either encoding or retrieval.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T12:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221080398
       
  • Observational evaluative conditioning is sensitive to relational
           information

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      Authors: Sarah Kasran, Sean Hughes, Jan De Houwer
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Social learning represents an important avenue via which evaluations can be formed or changed. Rather than learning slowly through trial and error, we can instead observe how another person (a “model”) interacts with stimuli and quickly adjust our own behaviour. We report five studies (n = 912) that focused on one subtype of social learning, observational evaluative conditioning (OEC), and how it is moderated by relational information (i.e., information indicating how a stimulus and a model’s reactions are related). Participants observed a model reacting positively to one stimulus and negatively to another, and were either told that these reactions were genuine, faked, or opposite to the model’s actual feelings. Stimulus evaluations were then indexed using ratings and a personalised Implicit Association Test (pIAT). When the model’s reactions were said to be genuine, OEC effects emerged in the expected direction. When the model’s reactions were said to be faked, the magnitude of self-reported, but not pIAT, effects was reduced. Finally, stating that the model’s reactions were opposite to his actual feelings eliminated or reversed self-reported effects and eliminated pIAT effects. We consider how these findings relate to previous work as well as mental-process theories.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T12:36:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221080471
       
  • Translating words into actions in working memory: The role of
           spatial-motoric coding

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      Authors: Guangzheng Li, Richard J Allen, Graham J Hitch, Alan D Baddeley
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Research from a working memory perspective on the encoding and temporary maintenance of sequential instructions has established a consistent advantage for enacted over verbal recall. This is thought to reflect action planning for anticipated movements at the response phase. We describe five experiments investigating this, comparing verbal and enacted recall of a series of action–object pairings under different potentially disruptive concurrent task conditions, all requiring repetitive movements. A general advantage for enacted recall was observed across experiments, together with a tendency for concurrent action to impair sequence memory performance. The enacted recall advantage was reduced by concurrent action for both fine and gross concurrent movement with the degree of disruption influenced by both the complexity and the familiarity of the movement. The results are discussed in terms of an output buffer store of limited capacity capable of holding motoric plans for anticipated action.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T12:34:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221079848
       
  • The fruits of our labour: Interpersonal coordination generates commitment
           by signalling a willingness to adapt

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      Authors: Luke McEllin, Annalena Felber, John Michael
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Countless everyday activities require us to coordinate our actions and decisions with others. Coordination not only enables us to achieve instrumental goals, but has also been shown to boost commitment, leading people to persevere with an interaction even when their motivation wavers. So far, little is known about the mechanism by which coordination generates commitment. To investigate this, we conducted two experiments that represented very different coordination problems: coordination of movement timing on a joint drumming task (Experiment 1) and coordination of decision-making on a joint object matching task (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the similarity of the participant and partner was manipulated by varying whether or not they had perceptual access to the participant’s workspace, and the participants’ attribution of (un)willingness to invest effort into the joint action by adapting was manipulated by varying whether or not the participant believed their partner had perceptual access. As a measure of commitment, we registered how much participants’ persisted on a boring and effortful task to earn points for their partners. Participants were significantly less committed to earning points for unadaptive partners than for adaptive partners, but only when they believed that their partner was unwilling to adapt rather than unable to adapt. This demonstrates that coordination can generate commitment insofar as it provides a cue that one’s partner is willing to invest effort to adapt for the good of the interaction. Moreover, we demonstrate that this effect generalises across different kinds of coordination.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T12:32:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221079830
       
  • Are there task-specific effects in morphological processing' Examining
           semantic transparency effects in semantic categorisation and lexical
           decision

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      Authors: Qian Wen Chee, Melvin J Yap
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Current theories of morphological processing include form-then-meaning accounts, form-with-meaning accounts, and connectionist theories. Form-then meaning accounts argue that the morphological decomposition of complex words is based purely on orthographic structure, while form-with meaning accounts argue that decomposition is influenced by the semantic properties of the stem. Connectionist theories, however, argue that morphemes are encoded as statistical patterns of occurrences between form and meaning. The weight of evidence from the literature thus far suggests that morphological decomposition is best explained by form-then-meaning accounts. That said, conflicting empirical findings exist, and more importantly, semantic transparency effects in morphological processing have been examined almost exclusively with the lexical decision task, in which participants discriminate between words and nonwords. Consequently, the extent to which observed results reflect the specific demands of the lexical decision task remains unclear. The present study extends previous work by testing whether the processing dynamics of early morphological processing are moderated by task requirements. Using the masked morphological priming paradigm, this hypothesis was tested by examining semantic transparency effects for a common set of words across semantic categorisation and lexical decision. In both tasks, priming was stronger for transparent (e.g., painter-PAINT) than opaque (e.g., corner-CORN) prime–target pairs; these results speak against form-then-meaning accounts. These findings further inform theories of morphological processing and underscore the importance of examining the interplay between task-general and task-specific mechanisms.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T12:54:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221079269
       
  • Representing social categories based on shared cultural knowledge in
           adults

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      Authors: Katalin Oláh, Ildikó Király
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The study investigated whether adults rely on the cues of shared cultural knowledge when forming social category representations. We used a modified version of the memory confusion paradigm, where participants are presented with the photographs of people differing along social category distinctions while listening to utterances associated with the pictures. In the test phase, the task is to match the utterances to the photographs. When category representations are formed, more within-category errors than between-category errors are expected. Experiment 1 contrasted two cues in social category representations: race and shared cultural knowledge. In Experiment 2, categorisation based on shared cultural knowledge was tested without any competing cue. Experiment 3 replicated previous results about automatic race encoding when no competing social distinction was available. Experiment 4 contrasted gender with cultural category membership. The results indicate that people encode information about race, gender, and cultural background; however, the latter two are more fundamental dimensions of social categorisation.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T12:48:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221079206
       
  • “Be careful what you recall”: Retrieval-induced forgetting of genuine
           real-life autobiographical memories

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      Authors: Eszter Somos, Giuliana Mazzoni, Daniele Gatti, Tjeerd Jellema
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Which episodes from our lives will be remembered and which will be forgotten, and why' This question has still not been answered satisfactorily by research into autobiographical memory. Previous work has shown that retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) might be a factor responsible for forgetting parts of the autobiographical memory content. However, none of the previous studies assessed RIF in memories for recent, controlled, personal events. We report here the results of an experiment in which autobiographical memories of real-life events were induced in a controlled, but fully naturalistic, manner under the disguise of team-building exercises, while an adapted RIF paradigm was applied to these memories. Results clearly showed the influence of RIF on autobiographical memory retrieval. These findings demonstrate conclusively that RIF occurs in everyday life when remembering personal events.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T10:54:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221078499
       
  • Is a boat bigger than a ship' Null results in the investigation of
           vowel sound symbolism on size judgements in real language

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      Authors: David M Sidhu, Penny M Pexman
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Sound symbolism is the phenomenon by which certain kinds of phonemes are associated with perceptual and/or semantic properties. In this article, we explored size sound symbolism (i.e., the mil/mal effect) in which high-front vowels (e.g., /i/) show an association with smallness, while low-back vowels (e.g., /ɑ/) show an association with largeness. This has previously been demonstrated with nonwords, but its impact on the processing of real language is unknown. We investigated this using a size judgement task, in which participants classified words for small or large objects, containing a small- or large-associated vowel, based on their size. Words were presented auditorily in Experiment 1 and visually in Experiment 2. We did not observe an effect of vowel congruence (i.e., between object size and the size association of its vowel) in either of the experiments. This suggests that there are limits to the impact of sound symbolism on the processing of real language.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T10:52:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221078299
       
  • The Rubber Hand Illusion: Top-down attention modulates embodiment

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      Authors: Rémi Thériault, Mathieu Landry, Amir Raz
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) creates distortions of body ownership through multimodal integration of somatosensory and visual inputs. This illusion largely rests on bottom-up (automatic multisensory and perceptual integration) mechanisms. However, the relative contribution from top-down factors, such as controlled processes involving attentional regulation, remains unclear. Following previous work that highlights the putative influence of higher-order cognition in the RHI, we aimed to further examine how modulations of working memory load and task instructions—two conditions engaging top-down cognitive processes—influence the experience of the RHI, as indexed by a number of psychometric dimensions. Relying on exploratory factor analysis for assessing this phenomenology within the RHI, our results confirm the influence of higher-order, top-down mental processes. Whereas task instruction strongly modulated embodiment of the rubber hand, cognitive load altered the affective dimension of the RHI. Our findings corroborate that top-down processes shape the phenomenology of the RHI and herald new ways to improve experimental control over the RHI.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T01:07:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221078858
       
  • High-frequency first syllables facilitate name–face association
           learning

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      Authors: Bianca A Headen, Jenna M Venuto, Lori E James
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It is harder to learn a proper name than a common noun in association with a new face, and low-frequency (LF) or rare surnames are harder to learn than high-frequency (HF) or common surnames. A separate body of research has shown that words containing HF phonological components can be easier to retrieve and produce than words with LF phonological components. This study tested for a “downstream” benefit of increased syllable frequency (independent of name frequency) on name–face association learning: surnames with HF first syllables were predicted to be learned more easily than those with LF first syllables. Participants were tasked with learning 5 names with HF first syllables and 5 names with LF first syllables in association with 10 unfamiliar faces over repeated testing rounds with feedback. People learned more names containing HF than LF first syllables, demonstrating a benefit of increased phonological frequency to name learning. Findings support an interactive activation model that accounts for name–face association learning as well as phonological frequency effects on production, along with many other aspects of memory and language.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T12:21:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221078851
       
  • Effects of conflict in cognitive control: Evidence from mouse tracking

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      Authors: Wenting Ye, Markus F Damian
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      It has long been debated whether the “congruency sequence effect (CSE)” in conflict tasks such as Flanker could reflect adaptive control. The current study used “mouse tracking” to tackle the issue in a combination of three conflict tasks (i.e., Flanker, Simon, and Spatial Stroop tasks). Congruency effects from previous and current trials emerged in latencies as well as curvature of movement trajectories in all three tasks. Critically, movement initiation times were affected only by congruency on previous but not on current trials. A further analysis showed that even when initiation time on the previous trials was taken into account, a subtle but highly significant effect of conflict arising from trial N–1 on initiation times remained. Although not necessarily implying “conflict adaptation,” i.e., a dynamic up- and downregulation of cognitive control in response to a recent conflict, our finding indicates a specific sensitivity to the presence or absence of recent “conflict” in the cognitive environment.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T12:20:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221078265
       
  • Is action understanding an automatic process' Both cognitive and
           perceptual processing are required for the identification of actions and
           intentions

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      Authors: Emma L Thompson, Emily L Long, Geoffrey Bird, Caroline Catmur
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The ability to identify others’ actions and intentions, “action understanding,” is crucial for successful social interaction. Under direct accounts, action understanding takes place without the involvement of inferential processes, a claim that has yet to be tested using behavioural measures. Using a dual-task paradigm, the present study aimed to establish whether the identification of others’ actions and intentions depends on automatic or inferential processing, by manipulating working memory load during performance of a task designed to target the identification of actions and intentions. Experiment 1 tested a novel action understanding task targeting action identification and intention identification. This task was then combined with two working memory manipulations (cognitive: Experiment 2; perceptual: Experiment 3) to determine whether action identification and intention identification are disrupted by concurrent cognitive or perceptual load. Both action identification and intention identification were impaired by concurrent cognitive and perceptual processing, indicating that action understanding requires additional perceptual and cognitive resources. These findings contradict a direct account of action understanding.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T08:55:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221078019
       
  • Phonological abstraction before lexical access: New evidence from rime
           priming

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      Authors: Sophie Dufour, Lucie Fléchard, Noël Nguyen
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we focused on the rime priming effect and examined whether the frequency of rimes influences the size of the effect. Using the lexical decision task, we observed that the rime priming effect interacted with rime frequency with a stronger priming effect when the target words contained low-frequency rimes, in comparison with target words containing high-frequency rimes. Moreover, for both target words with low- and high-frequency rimes, a priming effect of similar magnitude was observed whether the primes and targets were pronounced by the same speaker or by different speakers. All together, these findings provide additional support for all the studies that plead for the existence of prelexical units and, in a more general way, for phonological abstraction prior to lexical access.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T08:50:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221077917
       
  • Distinct abilities associated with matching same identity faces versus
           discriminating different faces: Evidence from individual differences in
           prosopagnosics and controls

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      Authors: Amy Berger, Regan Fry, Anna K Bobak, Angela Juliano, Joseph DeGutis
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous face matching studies provide evidence that matching same identity faces (match trials) and discriminating different face identities (non-match trials) rely on distinct processes. For example, instructional studies geared towards improving face matching in applied settings have often found selective improvements in match or non-match trials only. In addition, a small study found that developmental prosopagnosics (DPs) have specific deficits in making match but not non-match judgements. In the current study, we sought to replicate this finding in DPs and examine how individual differences across DPs and controls in match versus non-match performance relate to featural versus holistic processing abilities. In all, 43 DPs and 27 controls matched face images shown from similar front views or with varied lighting or viewpoint. Participants also performed tasks measuring featural (eyes/mouth) and holistic processing (part–whole task). We found that DPs showed worse overall matching performance than controls and that their relative match versus non-match deficit depended on image variation condition, indicating that DPs do not consistently show match- or non-match-specific deficits. When examining the association between holistic and featural processing abilities and match versus non-match trials in the entire group of DPs and controls, we found a very clear dissociation: Match trials significantly correlated with eye processing ability (r = .48) but not holistic processing (r = .11), whereas non-match trials significantly correlated with holistic processing (r = .32) but not eye processing ability (r = .03). This suggests that matching same identity faces relies more on eye processing while discriminating different faces relies more on holistic processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T08:52:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221076817
       
  • The influence of three-dimensional cues on body size judgements

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      Authors: Georgia Turnbull, Joanna Alexi, Georgina Mann, Yanqi R Li, Manja Engel, Donna Bayliss, Simon Farrell, Jason Bell
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Research has shown that body size judgements are frequently biased, or inaccurate. Critically, judgement biases are further exaggerated for individuals with eating disorders, a finding that has been attributed to difficulties integrating body features into a perceptual whole. However, current understanding of which body features are integrated when judging body size is lacking. In this study, we examine whether individuals integrate three-dimensional (3D) cues to body volume when making body size judgements. Computer-generated body stimuli were presented in a 3D Virtual Reality environment. Participants (N = 412) were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions: in one condition, the to-be-judged body was displayed binocularly (containing 3D cues to body volume); in the other, bodies were presented monocularly (two-dimensional [2D] cues only). Across 150 trials, participants were required to make a body size judgement of a target female body from a third-person point of view using an unmarked visual analogue scale (VAS). It was found that 3D cues significantly influenced body size judgements. Namely, thin 3D bodies were judged smaller, and overweight 3D bodies were judged larger, than their 2D counterpart. Furthermore, to reconcile these effects, we present evidence that the two perceptual biases, regression to the mean and serial dependence, were reduced by the additional 3D feature information. Our findings increase our understanding of how body size is perceptually encoded and creates testable predictions for clinical populations exhibiting integration difficulties.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T09:03:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221076850
       
  • Does physical weight alter the mental representation of the body'
           Evidence from motor imagery in obesity

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      Authors: Federica Scarpina, Clara Paschino, Massimo Scacchi, Alessandro Mauro, Anna Sedda
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Obesity is a clinical condition that impacts severely the physical body. However, evidence related to the mental representation of the body in action is scarce. The few available studies only focus on avoiding obstacles, rather than participants imagining their own body. To advance knowledge in this field, we assessed the performance of 22 individuals with obesity compared with 30 individuals with a healthy weight in two tasks that implied different motor (more implicit vs. more explicit) imagery strategies. Two tasks were also administered to control for visual imagery skills, to rule out confounding factors. Moreover, we measured body uneasiness, through a standard questionnaire, as body image negativity could impact on other body representation components. Our findings do not show differences in the motor imagery tasks between individuals with obesity and individuals with healthy weight. On the other hand, some differences emerge in visual imagery skills. Crucially, individuals with obesity did report a higher level of body uneasiness. Despite a negative body image and visual imagery differences, obesity per se does not impact on the representation of the body in action. Importantly, this result is independent from the level of awareness required to access the mental representation of the body.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T09:00:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221075038
       
  • Don’t blame yourself: Conscious source monitoring modulates feedback
           control during speech production

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      Authors: Matthias K Franken, Robert J Hartsuiker, Petter Johansson, Lars Hall, Andreas Lind
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Sensory feedback plays an important role in speech motor control. One of the main sources of evidence for this is studies in which online auditory feedback is perturbed during ongoing speech. In motor control, it is therefore crucial to distinguish between sensory feedback and externally generated sensory events. This is called source monitoring. Previous altered feedback studies have taken non-conscious source monitoring for granted, as automatic responses to altered sensory feedback imply that the feedback changes are processed as self-caused. However, the role of conscious source monitoring is unclear. The current study investigated whether conscious source monitoring modulates responses to unexpected pitch changes in auditory feedback. During the first block, some participants spontaneously attributed the pitch shifts to themselves (self-blamers) while others attributed them to an external source (other-blamers). Before Block 2, all participants were informed that the pitch shifts were experimentally induced. The self-blamers then showed a reduction in response magnitude in Block 2 compared with Block 1, while the other-blamers did not. This suggests that conscious source monitoring modulates responses to altered auditory feedback, such that consciously ascribing feedback to oneself leads to larger compensation responses. These results can be accounted for within the dominant comparator framework, where conscious source monitoring could modulate the gain on sensory feedback. Alternatively, the results can be naturally explained from an inferential framework, where conscious knowledge may bias the priors in a Bayesian process to determine the most likely source of a sensory event.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T06:26:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221075632
       
  • “Run to the hills”: Specific contributions of anticipated energy
           expenditure during active spatial learning

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      Authors: Simon Lhuillier, Pascale Piolino, Serge Nicolas, Valérie Gyselinck
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Grounded views of cognition consider that space perception is shaped by the body and its potential for action. These views are substantiated by observations such as the distance-on-hill effect, described as the overestimation of visually perceived uphill distances. An interpretation of this phenomenon is that slanted distances are overestimated because of the integration of energy expenditure cues. The visual perceptual processes involved are, however, usually tackled through explicit estimation tasks in passive situations. The goal of this study was to consider instead more ecological active spatial processing. Using immersive virtual reality and an omnidirectional treadmill, we investigated the effect of anticipated implicit physical locomotion cost by comparing spatial learning for uphill and downhill routes, while maintaining actual physical cost and walking speed constant. In the first experiment, participants learnt city layouts by exploring uphill or downhill routes. They were then tested using a landmark positioning task on a map. In the second experiment, the same protocol was used with participants who wore loaded ankle weights. The results from the first experiment showed that walking uphill routes led to a global underestimation of distances compared with downhill routes. This inverted distance-of-hill effect was not observed in the second experiment, where an additional effort was applied. These results suggest that the underestimation of distances observed in Experiment 1 emerged from recalibration processes whose function was to solve the transgression of proprioceptive predictions linked with uphill energy expenditure. The results are discussed in relation to constructivist approaches on spatial representations and predictive coding theories.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221076533
       
  • People’s preferences for different types of rational numbers in
           linguistic contexts

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      Authors: Xiaoming Yang, Yunqi Wang
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Rational numbers, like fractions, decimals, and percentages, differ in the concepts they prefer to express and the entities they prefer to describe as previously reported in display-rational number notation matching tasks and in math word problem compiling contexts. On one hand, fractions and percentages are preferentially used to express a relation between two magnitudes, while decimals are preferentially used to represent a magnitude. On the other hand, fractions and decimals tend to be used to describe discrete and continuous entities, respectively. However, it remains unclear whether these reported distinctions can extend to more general linguistic contexts. It also remains unclear which factor, the concept to be expressed (magnitudes vs. relations between magnitudes) or the entity to be described (countable vs. continuous), is more predictive of people’s preferences for rational number notations. To explore these issues, two corpus studies and a number notation preference experiment were administered. The news and conversation corpus studies detected the general pattern of conceptual distinctions across rational number notations as observed in previous studies; the number notation preference experiment found that the concept to be expressed was more predictive of people’s preferences for number notations than the entity to be described. These findings indicate that people’s biased uses of rational numbers are constrained by multiple factors, especially by the type of concepts to be expressed, and more importantly, these biases are not specific to mathematical settings but are generalizable to broader linguistic contexts.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T10:19:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221076398
       
  • Can arrows change the subjective perception of space': Exploring
           symbolic attention repulsion

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      Authors: Rebecca K Lawrence, Lucas R Schneider, Jay Pratt
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The attention repulsion effect (ARE) refers to distortions in the perception of space for areas near the focus of attention. For instance, when attending to the right-hand side of the visual field, objects in central vision may appear as though they are shifted to the left. The phenomenon is likely caused by changes in visual cell functioning. To date, research on the ARE has almost exclusively used exogenous manipulations of attention. In contrast, research exploring endogenous attention repulsion has been mixed, and no research has explored the effects of nonpredictive arrow cues on this phenomenon. This gap in the literature is unexpected, as symbolic attention appears to be a unique form of attentional orienting compared with endogenous and exogenous attention. Therefore, this study explored the effects of symbolic orienting on spatial repulsion and compared it with an exogenously generated ARE. Across four experiments, both exogenous and symbolic orienting resulted in AREs; however, the magnitude of the symbolic ARE was smaller than the exogenous ARE. This difference in magnitude persisted, even after testing both phenomena using stimulus timing parameters known to produce optimal effects in traditional attentional cueing paradigms. Therefore, compared with symbolic attention, it appears that exogenous manipulations may tightly constrict attention resources on the cued location, in turn, potentially influencing the functioning of visual cells for enhanced perceptual processing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T10:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221076135
       
  • The psychological role of music and attentional control for religious
           experiences in worship

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      Authors: Yoshija Walter, Andreas Altorfer
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the psychological dynamics during worship experiences under the influence of different music conditions. In total, 60 believers were recruited to participate in experiments where they were asked to engage in worship and to connect with God while continuously ranking how strongly they sensed the presence of the divine. After each condition, they were asked to rate how well they were able to focus on God during the worship procedure. Based on a previously published Feedback Loop Model that portrays global psychological mechanisms in worship, we deduced two hypotheses: (1) the ability to focus on God is positively associated with how strong the subjective religious experience becomes, and (2) the different musical conditions yield varying degrees in the intensity of the felt presence of God. Our statistical analyses on the current sample demonstrate that both alternative hypotheses can be accepted. For the latter thesis, two further assumptions were at play: (1) we speculated that religious worship songs were associated with stronger divine experiences than with secular ones, and (2) it was assumed that if they could worship to their own selection of songs, the experience would be more powerful than with the ones that were provided by the research team. Whereas upon our investigation the former assumption can be deemed correct, the latter shows a positive but insignificant association.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T10:15:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221075330
       
  • Task demands moderate the effect of emotion on attentional capture

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      Authors: Louise Humphreys, Sarah Higgins, Emma V Roberts
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      The current experiment examined the effect of task demands on attention to emotional images. Eighty participants viewed pairs of images, with each pair consisting of an emotional (negative or positive) and a neutral image, or two neutral images. Participants’ eye movements were recorded during picture viewing, and participants were either asked (1) which picture contains more colour' (colour task), (2) are the images equally pleasant' (pleasantness task), (3) which picture do you prefer' (preference task), or (4) were given no task instructions (control task). Although the results did not suggest that emotional images strongly captured attention, emotional images were looked at earlier than neutral images. Importantly, the pattern of results was dependent on the task instructions; while the preference and colour task conditions showed early attentional biases to emotional images, only positive images were looked at earlier in the pleasantness task condition, and no early attentional biases were observed in the control task. Moreover, total fixation duration was increased for positive images in the preference task condition, but not in the other task conditions. It was concluded that attention to emotional stimuli can be modified by the demands of the task during viewing. However, further research should consider additional factors, such as the cognitive load of the viewing tasks and the content of the images used.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T10:13:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221075146
       
  • Effects of acute exercise intensity on source episodic memory and
           metamemory accuracy

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      Authors: Paul Loprinzi, Brandon Rigdon, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, William L. Kelemen
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Prior research suggests that behavioural (e.g., exercise) and psychological factors (e.g., metamemory; monitoring and control of one’s memory processes) may influence memory function. However, there is conflicting results on the optimal intensity of acute exercise to enhance memory and whether acute exercise can also enhance metamemory. Furthermore, very limited research has evaluated whether acute exercise can influence source episodic memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there is an intensity-specific effect of acute exercise on source episodic memory and metamemory accuracy. Thirty young adults participated in a three-condition (control/moderate/vigorous-intensity exercise), within-subject counterbalanced experimental study. After each intervention, participants completed source episodic memory and metamemory tasks. Results demonstrated that acute exercise, relative to control, was effective in enhancing source episodic memory, but not metamemory accuracy. Vigorous-intensity acute exercise was the most optimal intensity to enhance source episodic memory. Overall, our findings suggest that there is an intensity-specific effect of acute exercise on source episodic memory. Furthermore, when exercise-related improvements in memory occur, young adults may be unaware of these memory benefits from exercise.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T04:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211069856
       
  • Age-related differences when searching in a real environment: The use of
           semantic contextual guidance and incidental object encoding

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      Authors: Hanane Ramzaoui, Sylvane Faure, Sara Spotorno
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Visual search is a crucial, everyday activity that declines with ageing. Here, referring to the environmental support account, we hypothesised that semantic contextual associations between the target and the neighbouring objects (e.g., a teacup near a tea bag and a spoon), acting as external cues, may counteract this decline. Moreover, when searching for a target, viewers may encode information about the co-present distractor objects, by simply looking at them. In everyday life, where viewers often search for several targets within the same environment, such distractor objects may often become targets of future searches. Thus, we examined whether incidentally fixating a target during previous trials, when it was a distractor, may also modulate the impact of ageing on search performance. We used everyday object arrays on tables in a real room, where healthy young and older adults had to search sequentially for multiple objects across different trials within the same array. We showed that search was quicker (1) in young than older adults; (2) for targets surrounded by semantically associated objects than unassociated objects, but only in older adults; and (3) for incidentally fixated targets than for targets that were not fixated when they were distractors, with no differences between young and older adults. These results suggest that older viewers use both environmental support based on object semantic associations and object information incidentally encoded to enhance efficiency of real-world search, even in relatively simple environments. This reduces, but does not eliminate, search decline related to ageing.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T11:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211064887
       
  • High bladder pressure reduces the ability to filter out interference from
           distractors in low perceptual load condition

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      Authors: Hasan Gunduz, Turan Gunduz, Arzu Ozkan Ceylan
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      According to the load theory of attention, an active cognitive control mechanism is needed to ensure that behaviour is controlled by target-relevant information when distractors are also perceived. Although the active cognitive control mechanism consists of working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition components, predictions regarding the load effects of this mechanism were derived mostly from studies on working memory. We aimed to test whether these predictions are also valid for an inhibition component. The inhibitory load was manipulated physiologically by creating different bladder pressure and its effects on distractor interference were examined under low and high perceptual load conditions. The results indicated that the availability of inhibitory control resources was important for decreasing the interference of distractors in the low perceptual load condition and that the high perceptual load reduced the effects of distractors independently from the availability of inhibitory resources. The results were consistent with the predictions of load theory, and to the best of our knowledge, the study provided the first piece of evidence in terms of the load effect of inhibition component on distractor interference.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T06:12:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211068828
       
  • Working memory capacity and dual mechanisms of cognitive control: An
           experimental-correlational approach

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      Authors: Kevin P Rosales, Jean-Paul Snijder, Andrew RA Conway, Corentin Gonthier
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Working memory is thought to be strongly related to cognitive control. Recent studies have sought to understand this relationship under the prism of the dual mechanisms of control (DMC) framework, in which cognitive control is thought to operate in two distinct modes: proactive and reactive. Several authors have concluded that a high working memory capacity is associated with a tendency to engage the more effective mechanism of proactive control. However, the predicted pattern of proactive control use has never been observed; correlational evidence is made difficult to interpret by the overall superiority of participants with a high working memory capacity: they tend to perform better even when proactive control should be detrimental. In two experiments, we used an experimental-correlational approach to experimentally induce the use of reactive or proactive control in the AX-CPT. The relation between working memory capacity and performance was unaffected, incompatible with the hypothesis that the better performance of participants with a high working memory capacity in the task is due to their use of proactive control. It remains unclear how individual differences in working memory capacity relate to cognitive control under the DMC framework.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T06:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211066410
       
  • Do cognitive load and ADHD traits affect the tendency to prioritise social
           information in scenes'

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      Authors: Astrid Priscilla Martinez-Cedillo, Kevin Dent, Tom Foulsham
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      We report two experiments investigating the effect of working memory (WM) load on selective attention. Experiment 1 was a modified version of Lavie et al. and confirmed that increasing memory load disrupted performance in the classic flanker task. Experiment 2 used the same manipulation of WM load to probe attention during the viewing of complex scenes while also investigating individual differences in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits. In the image-viewing task, we measured the degree to which fixations targeted each of two crucial objects: (1) a social object (a person in the scene) and (2) a non-social object of higher or lower physical salience. We compared the extent to which increasing WM load would change the pattern of viewing of the physically salient and socially salient objects. If attending to the social item requires greater default voluntary top-down resources, then the viewing of social objects should show stronger modulation by WM load compared with viewing of physically salient objects. The results showed that the social object was fixated to a greater degree than the other object (regardless of physical salience). Increased salience drew fixations away from the background leading to slightly increased fixations on the non-social object, without changing fixations on the social object. Increased levels of ADHD-like traits were associated with fewer fixations on the social object, but only in the high-salient, low-load condition. Importantly, WM load did not affect the number of fixations on the social object. Such findings suggest rather surprisingly that attending to a social area in complex stimuli is not dependent on the availability of voluntary top-down resources.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T06:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211066475
       
  • Using relative-speed-of-processing to explain the shielding function of
           task rules

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      Authors: Liang Huang, Bingxin Li, Panjie Yan, Chen Xu, Xueyin Tian, Chengyang Han, Xiangqian Li
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      In choice reaction tests, applying task rules instead of responding associatively can help participants shield against interference from distractors. However, the mechanism of such shielding functions remains unclear. Through four experiments, we show how the shielding function can be explained by the relative-speed-of-processing theory. Experiment 1A demonstrated that applying task rules can reduce the relative processing advantage of the distractor by facilitating the target processing speed, thereby eliminating the interference effect. In Experiment 1B and 1C, we manipulated the relative processing advantage between targets and distractors by adjusting the temporal sequence of the presence of the targets and distractors: stimuli appearing first would gain more relative processing advantage. The results showed that when the relative processing advantage of a distractor was large enough, applying task rules cannot help participants shield against the interference. Contrarily, when the relative processing advantage of the distractor was small, even without applying task rules, participants did not experience the interference. In Experiment 2, we directly manipulated the processing speed of the targets and the distractor, so that participants who responded associatively would facilitate target processing speed, but participants who applied task rules would not. Contrary to previous studies but in line with our prediction, in Experiment 2, only participants who applied task rules had interference effects. Our results suggested that applying the task rule might not help shield against the interference directly. Instead, applying task rules improves target processing speed, which in turn reduces the relative processing advantage of the distractor and eliminates the interference.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T04:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211069484
       
  • Fooling System 1 in the field of perception: Failure to intuitively detect
           attribute substitution in the flushtration count illusion

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      Authors: Cyril Thomas, Marion Botella, André Didierjean
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      To facilitate our interactions with the surroundings, the human brain sometimes reshapes the situations that it faces to simplify them. This phenomenon has been widely studied in the context of reasoning, especially through the attribute substitution error. It has however been given much less attention in the field of perception. Recent research on the bat-and-ball problem suggests that reasoners are able to intuitively detect attribute substitution errors. Using a perceptual illusion drawn from the field of magic, we investigate the extent to which a perceptual form of attribute substitution depends on executive resources and can be detected. We also investigate the relationship between susceptibility to attribute substitution error in the flushtration count illusion and in a French adaptation of the bat-and-ball problem. Finally, we investigate the link between the intuitive cognitive style (assessed by the cognitive reflection test) and the susceptibility to the flushtration count illusion. Our results suggest that participants do not detect perceptual attribute substitution error, that this phenomenon could be independent of the executive resources allocated to the task, and could rest on mechanisms distinct from those that produce errors in reasoning. We discuss differences between these two phenomena, and factors that may explain them.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T04:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218211069381
       
  • Are animates special' Exploring the effects of selective attention and
           animacy on visual statistical learning

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      Authors: Jolene A Cox, Timothy W Cox, Anne M Aimola Davies
      First page: 1746
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Our visual system is built to extract regularities in how objects in our visual environment appear in relation to each other across time and space (“visual statistical learning”). Existing research indicates that visual statistical learning is modulated by selective attention. Our attentional system prioritises information that enables adaptive behaviour; for example, animates are prioritised over inanimates (the “animacy advantage”). The present study examined the effects of selective attention and animacy on visual statistical learning in young adults (N = 284). We tested visual statistical learning of attended and unattended information across four animacy conditions: (1) living things that can self-initiate movement (animals); (2) living things that cannot self-initiate movement (fruits and vegetables); (3) non-living things that can generate movement (vehicles); and (4) non-living things that cannot generate movement (tools and kitchen utensils). We implemented a 4-point confidence rating scale as an assessment of participants’ awareness of the regularities in the visual statistical learning task. There were four key findings. First, selective attention plays a critical role by modulating visual statistical learning. Second, animacy does not play a special role in visual statistical learning. Third, visual statistical learning of attended information cannot be exclusively accounted for by unconscious knowledge. Fourth, performance on the visual statistical learning task is associated with the proportion of stimuli that were named or labelled. Our findings support the notion that visual statistical learning is a powerful mechanism by which our visual system resolves an abundance of sensory input over time.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T08:43:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221074686
       
  • Cognition and affect in imagined and recalled scenarios as a function of a
           specificity manipulation: An experience sampling study

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      Authors: Darya L Zabelina, Peyton E Jennings, Jennifer C Veilleux
      First page: 1763
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous work has examined the effect of specificity and temporal focus (i.e., memory vs. imagination) on people’s cognition and associated affect. Here, using experience sampling methods, we take these previously addressed questions out of the laboratory into daily-life settings. Participants (N = 228) were randomly assigned to a specificity or control condition, and recorded imagined or recalled scenarios twice a day for 1 week. Results revealed a main effect of specificity where specificity prompts resulted in written scenarios that were rated by independent judges as more creative, more positive, less negative, more coherent, and incorporated more sensory content. Specificity had few direct influences on affect, though an interaction showed that imagined scenarios with specificity prompts resulted in reduced self-reported anxiety. Implications and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T12:31:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221078869
       
  • Book review: Experiencing the impossible: The science of magic

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      Authors: Gabriel E Andrade
      First page: 1790
      Abstract: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T10:06:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17470218221104711
       
 
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