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Sexual Abuse A Journal of Research and Treatment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.314
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 48  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1079-0632 - ISSN (Online) 1573-286X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Investigating Trauma Symptomology as a Mediator of the Relationships
           Between Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual and Non-Sexual Delinquency

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      Authors: Rebecca L. Bosetti
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Maltreatment is a risk factor for both sexual and non-sexual delinquency. Little is known about how specific forms of maltreatment relate to the distinct offending outcomes. Though trauma symptoms have been associated with maltreatment and delinquency, the intervening role of trauma symptoms in pathways from maltreatment to offending is not well understood. The goal of the current study was to test social learning and general strain theory explanations for sexual and non-sexual delinquency in adolescence, exploring trauma symptoms as a mediator between the four major types of maltreatment and offending outcomes. Data were collected via surveys of 136 incarcerated youth at seven residential treatment and community corrections facilities in a Midwestern state. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to establish a measurement model, and structural equation modeling was employed to test direct and indirect pathways from maltreatment to offending. Individual forms of maltreatment had differential relationships with offending outcomes, with neglect having a significant association with non-sexual delinquency, and sexual abuse having a significant direct relationship with sexual delinquency. Trauma symptomology did not mediate these relationships. Future research should explore developmentally appropriate proxies for measuring childhood trauma. Practice and policy should consider the role of maltreatment victimization history in the inception of delinquency behaviors, prioritizing therapeutic alternatives to detention and incarceration.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-25T05:22:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231172156
       
  • The Risk, Need, and Responsivity Relevance of Working Alliance in a Sexual
           Offense Treatment Program: Its Intersection With Psychopathy, Diversity,
           and Treatment Change

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      Authors: Mark E. Olver, Keira C. Stockdale, Emily K. Riemer
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined the self-reported working alliance of men attending a high intensity sexual offense treatment program and its associations with psychopathy, sexual violence risk, treatment change, and recidivism, in a Canadian sample of 317 incarcerated men followed up an average of approximately 10 years post release. Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1989) self-reported total, Task, Bond, and Goal scores were positively correlated with treatment related changes in risk, and inversely associated with Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991; Wang & Hare, 2003) scores. The Affective facet of the PCL-R, representing the callous-unemotional features of the syndrome, uniquely predicted lower Bond and Goal scores controlling for the other facets. Cox regression survival analyses demonstrated that sexual violence risk predicted increased sexual recidivism while change predicted decreased sexual recidivism controlling for PCL-R total score; however, WAI scores (particularly the Goal component) were also unexpectedly associated with increased sexual recidivism. For violent recidivism, psychopathy, risk, and change incremented the prediction of general violence, while the WAI was not significantly associated with this outcome. A set of parallel analyses, stratified by Indigenous ethnocultural heritage, demonstrated some continuity, but also potential areas of difference, in substantive findings. Risk, need, responsivity implications of the working alliance for the treatment of high psychopathy correctional clientele, and how this may intersect with Indigenous heritage, are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-24T03:15:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231172161
       
  • Learning From Consumers of Mandated Sex-Offending Programs: “It’s Not
           Treatment, I Wish It Was.”

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      Authors: Jill S. Levenson, Melissa D. Grady, Heike Lasoski, Kyle T. Collins
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore clients’ perceptions of sex-offending treatment. The sample included 291 people required to register as sex offenders in the U.S. who answered an open-ended question in an online survey asking them to describe their positive and negative experiences in mandated treatment. Using qualitative analysis, three overarching themes (with several subthemes) were identified: (1) positive and (2) negative treatment experiences and (3) the affiliation between the criminal justice system and clinical services. Experiences in sex offending treatment were viewed as positive when clients had opportunities to learn about themselves, experience group cohesion, build a positive alliance with a caring therapist, learn tools and skills for emotional health, explore the roots of offense behavior, and create healthy life plans to reduce risk for re-offending. Negative themes emerged when treatments were viewed as coercive, confrontational, or demeaning; when therapists seemed inexperienced or unqualified; and when seemingly outdated or unscientific methods were emphasized without explanation or dialogue. The entanglement between court-mandated treatment providers and the criminal justice system led to concerns about confidentiality, conflicts of interest, and role ambiguity. Drawing upon literature related to therapeutic alliance, trauma-informed care, and Risk-Need-Responsivity models, we offer suggestions for integrating client feedback to improve treatment responsivity and prevent re-offending.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-20T11:59:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231172158
       
  • Sexual Misconduct: What Does a 20-Year Review of Cases in Quebec Reveal
           about the Characteristics of Professionals, Victims, and the Disciplinary
           Process'

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      Authors: Geneviève Manuela Martin, Isabelle Beaulieu
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      While there is a considerable body of literature on sexual aggression, we know much less about the violation of sexual boundaries within professional relationships. To address this knowledge gap, the characteristics of cases of sexual misconduct in the province of Quebec were extracted, based on a search of published disciplinary decisions between 1998 and 2020, using the legal databases CANLII and SOQUIJ. The search yielded 296 decisions including 249 male and 47 female members from 22 professional orders, and involving 470 victims. Results indicate that male professionals approaching mid-career accounted for a greater proportion of cases of sexual misconduct. Moreover, physical and mental health professionals were overrepresented in cases, as were female adult victims. Acts of sexual misconduct concerned mostly sexual touching and intercourse and occurred during consultations. Female professionals were more inclined to establish romantic and sexual relationships with clients than their male counterparts. Of the 92.0% of professionals found guilty of at least one count of sexual misconduct, two thirds eventually returned to practice. Following the guilty verdict, few faced rehabilitative measures. Recommendations are provided for the prevention of sexual recidivism and the accompaniment of victims of sexual misconduct throughout the disciplinary process.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-20T03:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231170818
       
  • Dynamic Individual Risk Networks: Personalized Network Modelling Based on
           Experience Sampling Data

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      Authors: Wineke J. Smid, Edwin C. Wever, Nathalie Van den Heuvel
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Following a network perspective, risk of sexual reoffending can be understood as a construct that emerges from the interactions between risk factors. If these interrelationships are validly mapped out, this leads to an increased understanding of the risk and thus may contribute to more effective and/or more efficient interventions. This paper reports on personalized network modeling mapping the interrelationships of dynamic risk factors for an individual convicted of sexual offenses, using experience sampling (ESM) based on Stable-2007 items. The longitudinal character of ESM enables both the assessment of interrelations between risk factors within a timeframe and the relationships between risk factors over time. Networks are calculated and compared to the clinical assessment of interrelationships between the risk factors.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-19T09:34:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231170823
       
  • A Descriptive Model of Voyeuristic Behavior

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      Authors: Victoria P. M. Lister, Theresa A. Gannon
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Over the last 50 years, there has been a plethora of research exploring sexual offending with a recent focus on online offending. However, little research has focused on voyeurism despite convictions and media awareness growing rapidly. Currently, there is sparse theoretical or empirical literature to guide research and practice for individuals engaging in voyeuristic behaviors. As such, 17 incarcerated men with a conviction of voyeurism in the UK were interviewed on the cognitive, affective, behavioral, and contextual factors leading up to and surrounding their offense(s). Grounded theory analyses were used to develop a temporal model from background factors to post-offense factors; the Descriptive Model of Voyeuristic Behavior (DMV). The model highlights vulnerability factors for men engaging in voyeuristic behaviors in this sample. Following this, the same 17 men were plotted through the model and three key pathways were identified: Sexual Gratification, Maladaptive Connection Seeking, and Access to Inappropriate Person(s). The characteristics of each pathway are discussed, and treatment implications considered.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T10:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231168072
       
  • Relationships Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Emotional States in
           Individuals With Sexual Convictions

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      Authors: Marije Keulen-de Vos, Geertje Giesbers, Julia Hülsken
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This study seeks to add to the existing knowledge and available literature on schema therapy elements in forensic inpatient samples. Early maladaptive schemas and emotional states were assessed in Dutch individuals with sexual convictions and compared to individuals with nonsexual violent convictions. Self-ratings of the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Schema Mode Inventory of 95 patients with either convictions for child sexual abuse (N = 30), sexual violence against adults (N = 34), and nonsexual violent convictions (N = 31) were examined using one-way multivariate ANOVAs. Regardless of victim type, forensic patients convicted for sexual offending, and patients with convictions for nonsexual violent offending, seem to make equal use of specific maladaptive cognitive schemas and schema modes during mandated inpatient care. Other studies have shown that people with sexual offense histories are typically characterized by insecure attachment, overvigilance towards women, or a child-like self-concept. Our study indicates that forensic patient in Dutch mandated care may be qualitatively different from typical patients with sexual offense histories and that Dutch patients with violent or sexual offense histories are more similar than they are dissimilar.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T05:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231153635
       
  • Moderators of Sexual Recidivism as Indicator of Treatment Effectiveness in
           Persons With Sexual Offense Histories: An Updated Meta-analysis

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      Authors: Lisa Holper, Andreas Mokros, Elmar Habermeyer
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The present meta-analysis is an update of the meta-analysis by Schmucker and Lösel [Campbell Syst. Rev. 2017; 13: 1–75], which synthesized evidence on sexual recidivism as an indicator of treatment effectiveness in persons with sexual offense histories. The updated meta-analysis includes 37 samples comprising a total of 30,394 individuals with sexual offense histories, which is nearly three times the sample size reported by Schmucker and Lösel (2017: 28 samples, N = 9781). In line with Schmucker and Lösel (2017), the mean treatment effect was small with an odds ratio of 1.54 [95% CI 1.22, 1.95] (p < .001). A moderator analysis suggested three predictors of importance, i.e., risk level, treatment specialization, and author confounding. Greater treatment effectiveness was suggested in high- and medium-compared to low-risk individuals and in specialized compared to non-specialized treatments.
      Authors affiliated with treatment programs reported larger effectiveness than independent authors. These findings were overall in line with Schmucker and Lösel (2017), though the effects of risk level and treatment specialization were stronger in the current meta-analysis. The findings of the updated meta-analysis reinforce the evidence for the first and second principle of the Risk-Need-Responsivity model. The results may support researchers and decision-makers in interpreting the current evidence on sexual recidivism as an indicator of treatment effectiveness, and, based on that, implement and carry out informative, methodologically sound evaluations of ongoing treatment programs in persons with sexual offense histories.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-03-16T08:29:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231159071
       
  • Factors Associated With Contact Sexual Offending Among a Non-Forensic
           Sample of Women With Sexual Interest in Children – Results From an
           Anonymous Online Survey

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      Authors: Viola Erkan, Johanna Schröder, Peer Briken, Safiye Tozdan
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed at assessing the extent to which factors associated with male child sexual offending may also be applicable to women with a self-identified sexual interest in children. Participants (n = 42) took part in an anonymous online survey covering questions about general characteristics, general sexuality, sexual interest in children, and previously-perpetrated contact child sexual abuse. Group comparisons between women who reported committing contact child sexual abuse compared to those who had not were conducted in terms of sample characteristics. Furthermore, the two groups were compared regarding the factors of high sexual activity, use of child abuse material, indication of ICD-11 pedophilic disorder diagnosis, exclusivity of sexual interest in children, emotional congruence with children, and childhood maltreatment. Our results revealed that high sexual activity, indication of ICD-11 pedophilic disorder diagnosis, exclusivity of sexual interest in children, and emotional congruence with children were associated with previous contact child sexual abuse perpetration. We recommend further research on potential risk factors relating to child sexual abuse on the part of women.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-03-13T10:55:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231159076
       
  • A Grounded Theory Model of Relationship Decision-Making in Non-Offending
           Partners of Individuals Accused of Sexual Offending

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      Authors: Lea C. Kamitz, Theresa A. Gannon
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Non-offending partners of individuals who have committed sexual offenses often choose to end their relationship given the many negative consequences they face as a result of their partner’s offending behavior. Despite a focus on relationships in rehabilitation frameworks and the importance of the relationship for the individual who has offended and their partner, research has thus far failed to examine the process underlying why non-offending partners decide to stay in or leave their relationship following an offense. In this study we developed the first descriptive model of relationship decision-making in non-offending partners. Twenty-three individuals whose current or previous partners were accused of sexual offending were interviewed about affective, behavioral, cognitive, and contextual factors contributing to their decision to stay with or leave their partner. Participants’ narrative accounts were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Our resulting model consists of four main periods: (1) background factors, (2) relationship factors, (3) finding out, and (4) relationship decision-making. Clinical implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-03-10T02:31:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231159075
       
  • The Impact of Mental Illness and Intellectual Disability Information on
           General Public Perceptions of a Person Convicted of a Child Sex Offence

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      Authors: Zara P. Brodie, Kirsty Shirlaw, Christopher J. Hand
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      A person convicted of sex offences (PCSO) is confronted with several challenges upon re-entry to the community, often facing difficulties accessing housing and employment, and experiencing stigmatisation, hostility and harassment from community members. Given the importance of community support for successful reintegration, we examined differences in public (N = 117) attitudes toward a PCSO against a child (PCSO-C) with mental illness or intellectual disability compared to a neurotypical PCSO-C in an online survey. At present, differences in attitudes towards these groups has not been explored. Results indicated the PCSO-Cs with intellectual disability or mental illness were seen to pose less risk of sexual reoffending and prompted higher levels of reintegration comfort than the neurotypical PCSO-C. Participants’ prior personal exposure to mental illness or intellectual disability was unrelated to attitudes, but those who believed that PCSOs in general have a low capacity for change attributed greater risk of sexual reoffending, greater risk of future harm to children, higher levels of blame and lower reintegration comfort, regardless of MI and ID information. Female participants also perceived greater risk of future harm to adults, and older participants estimated higher risk of sexual reoffending than younger participants. Findings have implications for community acceptance of PCSO-Cs and jury decision-making processes and highlight the importance of public education regarding neurodiverse PCSO-Cs and PCSO capacity for change to encourage knowledge-based judgements.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-02-21T09:26:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231159072
       
  • Evaluating a Theory-Based Online Program for Preventing Sexual Aggression:
           An Experimental-Longitudinal Study With German University Students

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      Authors: Paulina Tomaszewska, Isabell Schuster, Barbara Krahé
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This pre-registered study evaluated an intervention designed to reduce sexual aggression perpetration and victimization by changing risky scripts for consensual sexual interactions and corresponding risky sexual behavior, and by improving sexual self-esteem, refusal assertiveness, and initiation assertiveness. In a four-wave longitudinal study covering 23 months, 1181 university students in Germany (762 female) were randomly assigned to an intervention and a no-intervention control group. The intervention group completed six weekly modules addressing the targeted theory-based risk and vulnerability factors of sexual aggression perpetration and victimization. Controlling for baseline levels (T1), the intervention group showed less risky sexual scripts one week post-intervention (T2), which predicted less risky sexual behavior nine months later (T3), which predicted lower odds of sexual aggression perpetration and victimization 12 months later (T4). No direct intervention effects on rates of sexual aggression perpetration and victimization at T3 and T4 were found. No indirect intervention effect on sexual aggression was found via sexual self-esteem and sexual assertiveness. However, sexual self-esteem at T2, which was higher in the intervention group, predicted lower odds of sexual aggression victimization at T3 via higher initiation assertiveness at T3. Implications for reducing sexual aggression and conceptualizing risk and vulnerability factors of sexual aggression are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-02-06T12:14:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221146498
       
  • The Predictive Validity of the Revised Screening Scale for Pedophilic
           Interests (SSPI-2)

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      Authors: Martina Faitakis, Skye Stephens, Michael C. Seto
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The Revised Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interests (SSPI-2) is a five-item measure that assesses for pedohebephilia (sexual attraction to prepubescent and pubescent children) based on child victim characteristics. We aimed to replicate findings by Seto, Sandler et al. (2017) by examining the predictive validity of the SSPI-2 in an independent sample of 626 men referred for a sexological assessment because of sexual offending against children. SSPI-2 scores were associated with an increased likelihood of sexual recidivism but were not significantly associated with non-sexually violent or non-violent recidivism. When they were entered together, the SSPI-2 did not contribute additional variance to the Static-99R in the prediction of sexual recidivism. Results are consistent with the findings of Seto, Sandler et al. (2017) and suggest that higher scores on the SSPI-2 may be indicative of an increased risk for sexual recidivism in individuals who have sexually offended against children.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-02-02T12:52:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221149696
       
  • Understanding the Risk of Sexual Reoffending in Adult Men: A Network-Based
           Model

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      Authors: Jan Willem van den Berg, Daan J. van Beek, Yvonne H. A. Bouman, Erick Janssen, Wineke J. Smid, Luk Gijs
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The predominant approach to understand dynamic risk factors of sexual reoffending has been referred to as the Propensities Model (Thornton, 2016). According to this model, dynamic risk factors can be conceptualized as latent constructs whose change alters the risk of sexual reoffending. Despite its strengths and contributions to research, this model does not offer answers to the question of how dynamic risk factors contribute to the risk of sexual reoffending, or of how sustained change in risk might take place. In this paper we introduce the Network-Based Model of Risk of Sexual Reoffending (NBM-RSR), which addresses several limitations and constraints of the Propensities Model and offers empirically testable propositions regarding the nature and development of the risk of sexual reoffending. The NBM-RSR considers risk of sexual reoffending to involve a self-sustaining network of causally connected dynamic risk factors. Consistent with this, an increased risk of sexual reoffending is characterized through a network that contains more and stronger interconnected dynamic risk factors with a higher strength. Sustained change in risk of sexual reoffending occurs when activity in the network exceeds a critical point resulting in a new self-sustaining network. Propositions based on the NBM-RSR are introduced and translated into testable hypotheses. These propositions revolve around (a) risk of sexual reoffending resulting from the construction of a network of causally connected dynamic risk factors, (b) network stability, sudden changes, and critical transitions, and (c) dynamic risk factors’ relative influence on risk of sexual reoffending.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-02-02T10:04:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231153633
       
  • Same Score, Different Audience, Different Message: Perceptions of Sex
           Offense Risk Depend on Static-99R Risk Level and Personality Factors of
           the Recipient

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      Authors: Robert J. B. Lehmann, Thomas Schäfer, L. Maaike Helmus, Julia Henniges, Monika Fleischhauer
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      There are multiple ways to report risk scale results. Varela et al. (2014) found that Static-99R results were interpreted differently by prospective jurors based on risk level (high vs low) and an interaction between risk level and risk communication format (categorical, absolute estimate, and risk ratio). We adapted and extended Varela et al.’s (2014) study using updated Static-99R norms, recruiting a population-wide sample (n = 166), and adding variables assessing the personality factors ‘cognitive motivation’ (i.e., need for cognition) and ‘attitudinal affect’ (i.e., attitudes toward sex offenders, authoritarianism). We found a main effect of risk level and no effect of either communication format or the interaction between the two. Adding the personality variables increased explained variance from 9% to 34%, suggesting risk perception may be more about the personality of the person receiving the information than the information itself. We also found an interaction between attitudes toward sex offenders and risk level. Our results suggest risk perception might be better understood if personality factors are considered, particularly attitudes toward sex offenders. Because biases/personality of the person receiving the information are unknown in real world settings we argue that sharing multiple methods for communicating risk might be best and more inclusive.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T04:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221148667
       
  • Online Communities for Child-Attracted Persons as Informal Mental Health
           Care: Exploring Self-Reported Wellbeing Outcomes

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      Authors: L. M. J. Bekkers, E. R. Leukfeldt, T. J. Holt
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Online support communities are gaining attention among child-attracted persons (CAPs). Though research has largely focused on the negative consequences these environments create for potential offending, they may also provide a beneficial alternative to more formal treatment settings. To assess the utility for clinical and therapeutic purposes, this analysis focused on subcultural dynamics to examine self-reported wellbeing outcomes of participation in a Dutch forum for CAPs. A total of 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted with moderators, members and mental health professionals involved in the community. Thematic analyses demonstrated that by means of informal social control, bonds of trust and social relational education, the network aims to regulate the behavior and enhance the wellbeing of its marginalized participants. Key outcomes include a decreased sense of loneliness and better coping with stigma, to the point that participants experience less suicidal thoughts. Association with prosocial peers also helps to set moral boundaries regarding behavior towards children, although we cannot fully rule out potential adverse influences. Online support networks offer a stepping stone to professional care that fits individual needs of CAPs, while also providing an informal environment that overcomes limitations of physical therapy and that extents principles of existing prevention and desistance approaches.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-01-31T11:56:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231154882
       
  • Are Sex Offending Allegations Viewed Differently' Exploring the Effect of
           Offense Type and Conviction Status on Criminal Stigmatization

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      Authors: Craig A. Harper, Philip N. S. Rumney, Deborah A. Sackey
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Attitudes towards individuals with sexual convictions play a major role in the formation of legislative action, including sentencing policies and registration and notification procedures. However, there is little research about stigmatization directed at those who are accused of such offenses prior to conviction. In this work we explored this gap by comparing stigmatization (e.g., a desire for social distance, and negative personality attributions) towards people accused of a range of crimes (sexual, violent, and acquisitive), and whether this was further impacted by whether or not allegations led to a conviction. We recruited 403 community-based participants for a between-subjects experimental survey. We found support for the conclusion that people accused of and convicted for sexual offenses are more heavily stigmatized than allegations related to other crime types, and especially so when allegations involved child victims. Stigmatization took the form of greater levels of support for police-initiated notifications about allegations before conviction, increased desires for social distance, and attributions of negative personality traits. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings in relation to stigma research and issues related to anonymity for those accused of sexual offenses.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T11:04:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231154168
       
  • Sexual Recidivism During Treatment: Impact on Therapists

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      Authors: Michel Raymond, Jean Proulx, Geneviève Ruest, Sébastien Brouillette-Alarie
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      There are few studies of therapists’ reactions to working with individuals who have committed sexual offenses, and almost none on reactions following sexual recidivism by a patient who is currently in treatment. Consequently, the aim of the current study was to analyze the cognitive and emotional reactions, as well as the intervention strategies, of therapists who have learned of the sexual recidivism of a patient. A total of 59 participants from the province of Quebec (Canada) completed a questionnaire on their reactions to this event. Participants’ responses to their patient’s recidivism varied as a function of gender, experience, and the way they learned of the recidivism. The most common cognitions reported were thinking of the victim and thinking about the consequences of further judicialization for the patient and those close to them. The most common emotions reported were sadness for the victim and fear that the patient would reoffend again. The most common intervention strategies were being sensitive to the experience of the patient and asking the patient what drove them to offend. Support measures for therapists working with individuals who have committed sexual offenses during treatment are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T04:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632231153636
       
  • Protectors of Society: Understanding the Impact of Courtesy Stigma on the
           Experiences of Volunteers Working With Individuals Convicted of Sexual
           Offences

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      Authors: Jessica Parkes, Dr. Debra Gray, Dr. Lynn McKeague
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Volunteers are integral to the criminal justice system. For some, this involves providing support in the community to those convicted of sexual offences, which has been found to reduce the risk of reoffending. Currently, the impact on volunteers of working within this context is not well understood, despite the significant stigmatisation of those convicted of sexual offences. This study aimed to address this gap through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, focusing on how ‘courtesy stigma’ (Goffman, 1968), a type of stigma-by-association, impacted on this experience. Eleven volunteers within one organisation were interviewed. Volunteers strongly identified with the volunteer role, and stigma served to strengthen their role identity as individuals who helped those no-one else would help. Participants also exhibited some maladaptive coping strategies and symptoms indicative of burnout. These results contribute significantly to the small body of work on volunteer role identity, stigmatisation, and the social and psychological impacts of volunteer association with a highly stigmatised population.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-12-23T10:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221146496
       
  • “Falling Through the Cracks”: A Retrospective Exploration of the
           Barriers to Help-Seeking Among Men Convicted of Sexual Crimes

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      Authors: Helen Swaby, Rebecca Lievesley
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The prevalence and impact of sexual abuse is of global concern, and the alarming rates of victimization have inspired a focus on its prevention. Whilst research has begun to explore the experiences of non-offending individuals to inform prevention initiatives, there is limited exploration of those who have struggled with their sexual interests and go on to commit sexual crime. Arguably these individuals hold key information about gaps in service provision, which may inform approaches to crime prevention. This study aimed to provide a phenomenological exploration of the pre-offense experiences of convicted individuals’ beliefs about help-seeking, their desires for support, and any barriers that might have prevented them from coming forward for help. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 individuals convicted of sexual offenses (n = 13 against children; n = 1 sexually motivated violence), and interpretative phenomenological analysis elicited three superordinate themes: Desperation, Barriers to Help-seeking and A Way Forward. The findings shed light on the distressing experience of living with sexual interests that are so openly rejected by society and the many ways participants attempted to cope with this, including multiple failed attempts to seek help. Implications and limitations are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-12-20T02:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221146501
       
  • General Criminal Dynamic Risk and Strength Factors Predict Short-Term
           General Recidivism Outcomes Among People Convicted of Sexual Crime During
           Community Supervision

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      Authors: Melissa S. de Roos, Caleb D. Lloyd, Ralph C. Serin
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      There are clinical practice and operational reasons why it may be appropriate to primarily focus on general risk factors when supervising people convicted of sexual crime in the community. General risk domains may be particularly relevant when supervision officers engage in frequent reassessment of acute dynamic risk factors. We tested the ability of a case management tool, the Dynamic Risk Assessment for Offender Re-entry, to discriminate community based, short-term general (all outcome) recidivism versus nonrecidivism among people convicted of sexual crime (n = 562). We tested the predictive discrimination validity of each DRAOR item and then subscale scores in univariate and multivariate models (also controlling for general static risk). DRAOR scores were associated with general recidivism outcomes and effect sizes were generally similar or stronger compared to models with people convicted of nonsexual crime (n = 2854). DRAOR Acute scores were consistently and incrementally related to general recidivism outcomes beyond other scores. In practice, case managers should remain aware that people convicted of sexual crime are at risk for nonsexual recidivism outcomes and assess problematic functioning broadly alongside problems in sexual domains. Clinically, interconnection among domains potentially provides multiple avenues for effective intervention.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-12-17T08:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221146499
       
  • “I Know It’s Hard to Believe, But the Monster Who Abused Me is My
           Mother:” Experiences of Being Sexually Abused as a Child by a Female

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      Authors: Ateret Gewirtz-Meydan, Attrash-Najjar Afnan, Dana Lassri, Carmit Katz
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study we sought to shed light on the experience of adults who were sexually abused by females. Narratives in the current study were chosen from a large set of narratives (n = 505) that were submitted to the Israeli Independent Public Inquiry on CSA. Twenty-eight (n = 28) narratives of adults who experienced CSA committed by females were included in the study and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Two main themes were identified: (1) adults who as children experienced CSA committed by females, and (2) personal, interpersonal, and social constructions of the abuse. Most of the narratives included intrafamilial abuse, with half of the participants reporting that their mother was the one who committed the CSA, which often occurred during daily routine activities, with the main abuse scene being the shower/bathroom. Participants described various abuse experiences including the experience of powerlessness, “standing together,” and captivity. Finally, participants discussed how social constructions of gender impacted how they understood and experienced the abuse. Child sexual abuse committed by females was described by the participants as having serious consequences for their lives. Participants shared how perceived gender roles and social scripts have an important role in casting doubt on the existence and reliability of CSA experiences committed by females. Findings from the current study help to identify key characteristics of sexual abuse that was conducted by females, and suggests social mechanisms that may help explain why perpetration by females is understood and treated differently than perpetration by males.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-12-16T01:28:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221146497
       
  • A Qualitative Examination of School Counselors’ Experiences of
           Sextortion Cases of Female Students in Israel

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      Authors: Michal Dolev-Cohen, Inbar Nezer, Anwar Abu Zumt
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sextortion (a portmanteau of “sexual” and “extortion”) is a relatively new phenomenon of sexual exploitation, which occurs when a person threatens another with the distribution of sexual content on the Internet, to obtain more pictures or videos, money, or have some other demand met. The current study examined how school counselors in Israel perceive the phenomenon of online sextortion. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study based on 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews with school counselors working in middle schools and high schools in Israel, who treated adolescent girls blackmailed over the Internet on sexual grounds. Findings indicate that the school counselors had difficulty in identifying and defining the cases they treated as instances of sextortion, and that in their view the harm was slight. Findings also indicate that school counselors associated the causes of sextortion with the victims and their backgrounds. We found differences between the Arab and secular and national-religious state education in the way Jewish counselors treated the victims and involved additional actors such as the victim’s parents and the police. This underscores the importance of providing educational staff with adequate knowledge and tools that are culturally suited to the victims.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-12-13T08:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221145925
       
  • Sexual Offense Disclosure Assessment in Youth Referred to Community
           Treatment: A Latent Class Analysis

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      Authors: David J. Kolko, Katherine T. Foster, Eunice Torres, Jonathan Hart, Jeff Rounds, Kevin Rumbarger
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This study seeks to extend research evaluating tools to assess the disclosure of sexually abusive behavior. The subjects were 239 male youth (ages 10–20 years) who were court-ordered to participate in a community-based collaborative intervention for sexual offending that includes outpatient and probationary services. All youth participated in an interview to capture referral incident details about admission, responsibility, empathy, and remorse at intake, during intervention, and at discharge. Intake, treatment, discharge, and recidivism measures were also collected from multiple sources. Latent class analysis identified three classes based on the intake interview: Empathetic Admitters (22%), Unempathetic Admitters (38%), and Unempathetic Deniers (40%). Significant class differences were found on intake (e.g., use of physical force, caregiver denial of youth responsibility), treatment (e.g., any sanctions/violations), and discharge measures (e.g., successful treatment, probation officer ratings), but not in recidivism rates. The findings extend efforts to identify and target different disclosure patterns whose clinical monitoring may support a comprehensive intervention.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T01:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221139165
       
  • Predictive Validity of Static-99R Among 8,207 Men Convicted of Sexual
           Crimes in South Korea: A Prospective Field Study

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      Authors: Seung C. Lee, R. Karl Hanson, Jeong Sook Yoon
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The accuracy of risk assessment tools for Asian populations has received relatively little research attention. This study evaluated one of the most widely used static risk assessment tools - Static-99R - for assessing the likelihood of recidivism among men convicted of a sexual crime in South Korea. Overall, this South Korean sample (N = 8207) appeared to have a higher risk (more paraphilic interests, more sexual/general criminality) than the Static-99R normative samples (who were mostly White individuals from Western countries). Despite the differences, Static-99R was able to discriminate recidivists from nonrecidivists in South Korea, with AUC values similar to that observed in the normative samples (e.g., 0.72 for sexual recidivism). In terms of calibration, the observed sexual recidivism rates of the current sample were higher than the international routine/complete normative samples but lower than the high-risk/high-need normative samples (E/O = 0.75 and 1.26, respectively). Consequently, evaluators in South Korea can have reasonable confidence in the ability of Static-99R to rank individuals according to their relative likelihood of sexual recidivism.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T04:11:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221139173
       
  • Long Term Recidivism Rates Among Individuals at High Risk to Sexually
           Reoffend

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      Authors: R. Karl Hanson, Seung C. Lee, David Thornton
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Preventive detention provisions in the US and Canada assume we can identify, in advance, individuals at high risk for sexual recidivism. To test this assumption, 377 adult males with a history of sexual offending were followed for 20 years using Canadian national criminal history records and Internet searches. Using previously collected information, a high risk/high need (HRHN) subgroup was identified based on an unusually high levels of criminogenic needs (n = 190, average age of 38 years; 83% White, 13% Indigenous, 4% other). A well above average subgroup of 99 individuals was then identified based on high Static-99R (6+) and Static-2002R (7+) scores. In the HRHN group, 40% reoffended sexually. STATIC HRHN norms overestimated sexual recidivism at 5 years (Static-99R, E/O = 1.44; Static-2002R, E/O = 1.72) but were well calibrated for longer follow-up periods (20 years: Static-99R, E/0 = 1.00; Static-2002R, E/O = 1.16). The overall sexual recidivism rate for the well above average subgroup was 52.1% after 20 years, and 74.3% for any violent recidivism. The highest risk individuals (top 1%) had rates in the 60%–70% range. We conclude that some individuals present a high risk for sexual recidivism, and can be identified using currently available methods.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T10:25:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221139166
       
  • Open Versus Closed Group Treatment of Men with a History of Sexual
           Offenses

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      Authors: Emily K Stevenson, Stuart DM Thomas, Michael Daffern
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Treatment programs for people with histories of sexual violence form a critical part of criminal justice service rehabilitation. Completion of these programs is often a precondition of release. Meta-analytic reviews suggest moderate benefit is associated with treatment completion, although effect sizes vary. This study examined whether commencement of open versus closed group programs was associated with treatment completion and recidivism. Participants were 426 adult men who commenced treatment between April 1, 2014, and December 31, 2017. Participants were followed-up until June 30, 2018. Programs varied by type (open versus closed), location (in-custody versus in-community) and intensity (moderate versus high). No significant differences were observed between open and closed programs for treatment completion but men who were treated in-custody were more likely to complete treatment when compared to those men who commenced treatment in the community. No significant differences were observed between open and closed programs for sexual or for any recidivism.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T07:33:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221139175
       
  • Do Sanctions Affect Undetected Sexual Offending'

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      Authors: Sharon M. Kelley, Rachel E. Kahn, James C. Mundt, Robert M. Barahal
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Undetected sexual offending creates challenges for risk assessment since estimated sexual recidivism rates are based on documented charges or convictions. Courts and other stakeholders may be primarily interested in the true risk for sexual reoffense and not simply risk for detected sexual offenses. Attempts to study and quantify the rate of undetected sexual offending have resulted in a wide variety of estimates. In this study, we explore whether sanctions imposed for detected sexual offenses increase the detection rate of subsequent offenses, and thereby suppress undetected sexual offending in an exceptionally high-risk sample who were ultimately committed as Sexually Violent Persons. Results indicate the detection rate of sexual offenses increased following an initial sanction, subsequently decreasing the proportion of undetected to detected offending. This effect only occurred after the first sanction. Overall, the sample had a high detection rate and spent little time in the community before subsequent arrests. These results differ from other reports that high rates of sexual offenses go undetected.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T09:13:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221139178
       
  • Modus Operandi in Sexual Assaults of Female Strangers Does Not Change Over
           Time

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      Authors: Eric Beauregard, Julien Chopin, Martin Andresen
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Criminological theories and widespread assumptions about crime suggest that the modus operandi involved in sexual crimes should have changed over time given various contextual changes, such as better criminological knowledge (e.g., forensic awareness) as well as improved investigative techniques (e.g., forensic evidence analysis). The aim of this study was to test whether the modus operandi patterns of individuals having committed a sexual assault against female strangers have changed over time during the period of 2003–2017. More specifically, the study has identified changes in the trends of monthly counts and (relative) participations for sexual assaults during the study period in France. The measure of participations – a concept borrowed from the field of criminal career – was used to overcome the inherent limitations associated with this type of data. Results show that despite some significant changes in the modus operandi involved in sexual crimes, overall the modus operandi patterns appear to be fairly stable over time. The findings are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T02:46:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221139174
       
  • Comparison of Community and Expert Samples in the Perceived Risk of
           Individuals Who Have Sexually Offended

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      Authors: Emily A. Calobrisi, Raymond A. Knight
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Public and clinician attitudes are important to consider when studying the reentry of individuals who sexually offend. Uninformed public attitudes drive the continued use of ineffective policies like registries and residential restrictions in the United States, and experts must assess risk to decide what level of supervision and control to recommend upon release from prison. This study investigated whether actuarial feedback could change participant attitudes about recidivism risk and disposition. Association for the Treatment and Prevention of Sexual Abuse (ATSA) members and a sample from MTurk completed a survey using vignettes to assess recidivism risk and dispositional outcomes of individuals who had sexually offended and varied in their risk to reoffend. They received feedback about the individuals' Static-99R risk levels and adjusted their initial ratings. ATSA members were less punitive than MTurk participants, initially predicted risk that was more consistent with actuarial data, and adjusted when incorrect. MTurk participants held more negative attitudes towards individuals who sexually offend, as measured by the ATS-21. They adjusted their risk ratings more than ATSA members, though their estimates were still higher than the ATSA members after feedback. Implications for US public policy, including the recommendation to use actuarials across the country, are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-11-08T09:51:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221139176
       
  • Investigating the Effect of Post-Release Housing Mobility on Recidivism:
           Considering Individuals Convicted of Sexual Offenses

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      Authors: Jason Rydberg, Beth M. Huebner, Eric Grommon, Amanda Miller
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      It is widely understood that stable housing is a key element in the transition from prison to the community. However, many persons under correctional supervision face substantial barriers in securing and maintaining housing, a fact that is heightened among individuals with a sexual offense conviction. Although frequent movement is commonplace among people on parole, it is unclear how housing changes affect recidivism outcomes and whether such mobility uniquely impacts individuals with a sexual offense conviction. In the present study, we use a quasi-experimental propensity score weighting design to compare a sample of individuals paroled from prison in Michigan for sexual and non-sexual crimes (N = 3930) to consider the role of housing mobility on the likelihood of rearrests and technical revocation, with attention to disaggregating sexual crimes against adults and children. Results suggest that increased movement was distinctly associated with a higher hazard of rearrest for individuals with a sexual offense conviction, and a strong predictor of technical return hazard for both individuals with sexual and non-sexual convictions.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-10-27T02:21:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221127980
       
  • Implementation of a Treatment Program for Individuals Imprisoned for Sex
           Offenses in Uruguay: Achievements, Problems and Challenges

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      Authors: Olga Sánchez de Ribera, Nicolás Trajtenberg, Ana Martínez-Catena, Santiago Redondo-Illescas
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Treatment for individuals convicted of sex offenses has substantially improved in developed countries in recent decades, providing practitioners with an extensive literature to guide the implementation of effective programs to reduce sexual reoffending. Nevertheless, sexual offending rehabilitation is still in its infancy in Latin American countries such as Uruguay, so little is known about the transference and implementation of evidence-based programs. The current study examines the strengths, barriers, and challenges of implementing a sex offenses treatment program in Uruguay. The findings suggest some achievements of the program, but also several problems with implementation. Some problems are universal among different countries (e.g., scarce resources and facilities, insufficiently trained staff, and unexpected changes in the organization), but others were particularly relevant in the Uruguayan context (e.g., government policy alien to a rehabilitation approach, lack of appropriate prison facilities, lack of training for therapists from a cognitive-behavioral perspective). All these difficulties must be anticipated and solved for successful generalizability of rehabilitation programs to different correctional systems.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-10-10T07:44:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221127976
       
  • Etiological Pathways to the Emergence of Preteen Problematic Sexual
           Behavior: An Exploratory Mediational Model

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      Authors: Brian Allen
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Studies examining the etiology of problematic sexual behavior (PSB) among pre-teen children often rely on identifying correlational relationships without examining potential causal mechanisms. This study describes an exploratory analysis of a potential mediational model where child sexual abuse (CSA) and child physical abuse (CPA) predict the onset of PSB through their impact on the emergence of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and self-dysregulation. The caregivers of 189 children between the ages of 3 and 11 years presenting for mental health treatment in the United States completed a battery of measures designed to assess each of the variables in the model. Cross-sectional, regression-based mediational analyses showed that the overall model performed adequately (R = 0.33, R2 = 0.11, F = 3.07, p = .004). CSA exerted a direct effect on PSB that was not mediated through either PTS or self-dysregulation. However, no direct effect for CPA was found. Rather, CPA exerted a significant effect on the display of self-dysregulation, which in turn was associated with PSB. These results are discussed in light of clinical implications and directions for further research.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T05:35:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221128313
       
  • Multiple-Perpetrator and Solo-Offender Sexual Assaults Between Strangers:
           Differences and Predictive Variables

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      Authors: Andrea Gimenez-Salinas Framis, Meritxell Perez Ramirez, Jose Luis Gonzalez Alvarez, Juan Enrique Soto Castro
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Multiple-perpetrator rape is an under-studied topic, but there has been a recent increase in studies on the differences between multiple-perpetrator sexual offenses and the ones perpetrated by solo offenders. This study aims to have a deeper understanding of the differences between multiple-perpetrator and solo-offender sexual assaults committed by strangers, from a sample of 400 sexual aggressions reported to the Spanish police in 2010. Differences were explored on variables related to characteristics of perpetrators, the assault (approach, control, maintenance, termination, and sexual behavior), and the victims. Data were obtained from police files on sexual assaults committed around the country. Significant differences found were similar to other studies conducted in other countries and proved that multiple perpetrator assaults committed by strangers are a different subtype. Additionally, four predictive variables of multiple-perpetrator rape were identified: older age (OR = 0.943, 95% CI = [0.92, 0.97]), alcohol or drug use (OR = 2.499, 95% CI = [1.50, 4.32]), non-Spanish nationals (OR = 1.980, 95% CI = [1.14, 3.45]), and use of violence to control the victim (OR = 2.465, 95% CI = [1.03, 5.90]). The cultural and leisure characteristics of Spanish society provide facilitating opportunities for multiple-perpetrator rapes and prevention strategies should be urgently addressed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-09-06T07:29:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221120381
       
  • Psychological and Developmental Correlates of Paraphilic and Normophilic
           Sexual Interests

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      Authors: Ashley Brown, Edward D. Barker, Qazi Rahman
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The classification of sexual fantasies and behaviors (here referred to as ‘sexual interests’) has historically been divided into ‘paraphilic’ and ‘normophilic’. However, studies on paraphilic interests are often limited to clinical or forensic samples and normophilic interests are rarely assessed in tandem. Previous research has found mixed results for psychological and other correlates of sexual interests, potentially due to inconsistency in operationalism and measurement of fantasies and behaviors. The aim of the current study was to quantify correlates of sexual interests via the Sexual Fantasies and Behaviors Inventory, containing factors related to general fantasies/behaviors, normophilia, power dynamics, sadomasochism, and courtship paraphilias, using a large (N = 4280) non-clinical sample. Psychological, developmental, sexual, and demographic correlates were investigated via bivariate correlations, mean difference testing, and multiple regression. Sexual interest domains were largely unrelated to psychopathology and developmental factors. Sociosexuality and more accepting attitudes towards sadomasochism was generally related to more arousal to/engagement in normophilic and paraphilic domains. More autism spectrum disorder traits were related to decreased normophilic interests. Psychopathic traits, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual compulsivity were related to paraphilia dimensions, especially courtship paraphilias and domination/sadism; the former was also associated with negative attitudes about establishing consent. Men, non-monogamous, and non-heterosexual participants indicated greater sexual fantasies and behaviors compared to women (except in the case of submission and masochism), monogamous, and heterosexual participants, respectively.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T05:34:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221120013
       
  • Paraphilic Interests Versus Behaviors: Factors that Distinguish
           Individuals Who Act on Paraphilic Interests From Individuals Who Refrain

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      Authors: Lauryn Vander Molen, Scott T. Ronis, Aryn A. Benoit
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Little is known about distinct factors linked with acting on paraphilic interests or refraining from engaging in paraphilic behaviors. Participants from Canada and the United States (N = 744), aged 19–42 years (M = 29.2; SD = 3.18), were recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Participants completed questionnaires about their paraphilic interests and behaviors, as well as potential key factors linked to behavioral engagement (i.e., perceptions of consent, sexual excitation/inhibition, impulsivity, moral disengagement, empathy). Results indicated that higher moral disengagement and impulsivity, lower sexual control (i.e., high sexual excitation, low sexual inhibition), and maladaptive understandings of consent were best able to differentiate individuals who reported highly stigmatized (e.g., hebephilia, pedophilia, coprophilia) or Bondage and Dicipline, Dominance and Submission, Sadism and Masochism(BDSM)/Fetish paraphilic interests and engagement in the paraphilic behaviours associated with these interests relative to individuals who did not report such paraphilic interests or behaviors. Moreover, higher moral disengagement, impulsivity, and maladaptive perceptions of consent were best able to differentiate non-consensual paraphilic interests and behaviours (e.g., voyeurism, exhibitionism) compared to individuals who did not report these paraphilic interests or behaviours. These results provide future directions for the exploration of mechanisms that may contribute to engagement in paraphilic behaviors and may be targets for intervention aimed at preventing engagement in potentially harmful paraphilias.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T03:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221108949
       
  • Development and Validation of the Beliefs About Revenge Pornography
           Questionnaire

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      Authors: Craig A. Harper, Lorraine Smith, Jessie Leach, Neil A. Daruwala, Dean Fido
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The non-consensual sharing of private sexual images (so-called ‘revenge pornography’) has become an increasingly prominent topic in social and legislative discussions about sexual crime but has received relatively little attention within psychological research. Here, we leveraged existing theorizing in the area of sexual offending proclivity to systematically develop and validate a measure of beliefs about this type of offending. There is currently a lack of validated assessment tools in this area, and these are important to better understand the role of offense-supportive cognition in predicting both proclivity of these offenses and judgements of both victims and perpetrators. Using an international community sample (N = 511) we found our ‘Beliefs about Revenge Pornography Questionnaire (BRPQ)’ to be comprised of four underpinning domains: ‘Victims as Promiscuous’, ‘Victim Harm’, ‘Avoiding Vulnerable Behaviors’ and ‘Offense Minimization’. Concurrent validity is demonstrated through relationships with trait empathy, belief in a just world, dark personality traits and rape myth acceptance. Randomly dividing the sample, we also show that the BRPQ was associated with both proclivity (n = 227) and social judgements of this type of offending (n = 232). Implications and future directions are discussed. An open-access preprint is available at https://psyarxiv.com/6qr7t/.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T02:40:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221082663
       
  • Managing Romantic and Sexual Feelings Towards Clients in the Psychotherapy
           Room in Flanders (Belgium)

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      Authors: Lara Vesentini, Hubert Van Puyenbroeck, Dirk De Wachter, Frieda Matthys, Johan Bilsen
      First page: 263
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      It is important that therapists manage adequately their romantic and sexual feelings toward clients as it can negatively affect the psychotherapeutic relationship and may even pose a risk of sexual abuse. This study explores how psychotherapists in Flanders (Belgium) manage such feelings, by conducting both a survey (using 105 of 786 respondents for analyses, as they reported romantic feelings) and focus groups (with a total of 36 participants). Results show that most therapists never consider starting a romantic relationship with a client. They reflect profoundly on their feelings, dwell on possible consequences, while maintaining strict boundaries. Although therapists themselves highly recommend referring the client to a colleague if feelings become too intense, this rarely happens in practice. Most therapists consider talking about their romantic and sexual feelings towards clients as something very important, but only a third have disclosed their feelings in supervision, peer-supervision, or in personal therapy. Therapists indicate there is still hesitance about this due to fear of condemnation.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T10:19:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221098357
       
  • A Qualitative Exploration of Sleep-Related Sexual Interests: Somnophilia
           and Dormaphilia

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      Authors: Elizabeth T. Deehan, Ross M. Bartels
      First page: 288
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Somnophilia is an under-researched paraphilia. Consequently, there are discrepancies in its definition and conceptual understanding. Also, literature regarding the sexual interest in being asleep during sexual activity (dormaphilia) is even more limited. As such, there is a need to understand these paraphilias more deeply. This study recruited 232 participants online to discuss the content, origin, sexual appeal, emotional appraisal, and behavioural enactment of their somnophilic and dormaphilic interests and fantasies. A Thematic Analysis led to the identification of four main themes: (1) Relevance of Sleep State; (2) Roles within Sleep Sex; (3) Enactment of Sleep Paraphilia and (4) Lack of Consent and Awareness. These four themes spanned across both those reporting somnophilic and dormaphilic fantasies. The Discussion explores the multi-faceted nature of the interests, and implications for the understanding of somnophilia and dormaphilia. This study provides the first qualitative exploration of sleep-related paraphilias, opening avenues for future research and practice.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T06:15:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221098359
       
  • Power-Related Emotions, Alcohol Intoxication, and Nonconsensual Sex
           Intentions: The Role of Fear of Intimacy

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      Authors: Elizabeth C. Neilson, Daniel W. M. Maitland, William H. George
      First page: 313
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The problem of alcohol-involved sexual assault against women highlights the need to identify how the presence of alcohol interacts with risk factors associated with sexual assault perpetration. One risk factor for sexual assault perpetration is fear of intimacy, the inhibited capacity to exchange vulnerable thoughts and emotions with a valued individual. Men who have perpetrated sexual violence report higher fear of intimacy and alcohol use than those who have not. However, little research has investigated how fear of intimacy may contribute to sexual assault perpetration in the context of alcohol intoxication. This study examined alcohol intoxication, fear of intimacy, proximal power-related emotions, and nonconsensual sex intentions. Non-monogamous, male social drinkers (N = 94) completed measures and were randomly assigned to an alcohol condition (alcohol [BrAC = .10%] versus control). Participants then read a sexual assault analogue scenario depicting sexual assault against a hypothetical woman and reported power-related emotions and nonconsensual sex intentions. Self-reported fear of intimacy differed across types of past perpetration. Results found that for intoxicated men only, fear of intimacy was positively associated with power-related emotions, and power-related emotions were positively associated with nonconsensual sex intentions. These associations were not observed for men in the control condition who did not consume alcohol. Future research should examine intimacy-related interventions for sexual assault prevention programming.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T10:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221096420
       
  • Pedohebephilia and Perceived Non-coercive Childhood Sexual Experiences:
           Two Non-matched Case-Control Studies

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      Authors: Sara Jahnke, Alexander F. Schmidt, Jürgen Hoyer
      First page: 340
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Research on the link between childhood sexual abuse experiences (CSAE) and pedohebephilia is limited by its focus on events that the respondents rate as abusive. We asked 199 German-speaking (Study 1) and 632 English-speaking (Study 2) men with and without self-reported pedohebephilia to complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and scales to assess perceived non-coercive childhood sexual experiences with adults (PNCSE-A), and peers (PNCSE-P, only Study 2). A substantial number of participants with PNCSE-A disagreed with all items of the CTQ Sexual Abuse subscale (e.g., 35% and 26% of pedohebephilic men in Studies 1 and 2, 38% of teleiophilic men in Study 2). While pedohebephilic men reported more CSAE than teleiophilic men, the effects for PNCSE-A did not consistently point in the expected direction. In Study 2, conviction status for sexual offenses among pedohebephilic men was linked to higher rates of CSAE, PNCSE-A, PNCSE-P, physical neglect, and physical abuse. Pedohebephilic men in Study 2 also reported more PNCSE-P than teleiophilic men. Our results highlight the importance of assessing different (positive or neutral) perceptions of CSAE. Better controlled designs (e.g., matched case-control studies) are needed to substantiate whether and how perceived non-coercive childhood sexual experiences relate to pedohebephilia and sexual offending.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T02:09:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221098341
       
  • Correspondence of Child Age and Gender Distribution in Child Sexual
           Exploitation Material and Other Child Content With Age and Gender of Child
           Sexual Assault Victims

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      Authors: Angela W. Eke, Michael C. Seto
      First page: 375
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Accessing child sexual exploitation material (CSEM; child pornography in legal statutes) can indicate sexual interest in children. It logically follows then that the age and gender of the depicted children may reflect specific interests in those age/gender groups, and if so, may correspond to age and gender of any known contact offending victims. We had data on CSEM characteristics and child victims for 71 men convicted of CSEM offenses who also had contact sexual offenses against children; some had also sexually solicited children online. Sixty-four men had 134 prior or concurrent child victims, and 14 men reoffended directly against 17 children during follow-up. There were significant, positive associations (with moderate to large effect sizes) between age and gender of children depicted in CSEM and age and gender of child contact or solicitation victims. Examining future offending, though with only 14 recidivists, all men who sexually reoffended against a girl had more girl CSEM content, and all men who sexually reoffended against a boy had more boy CSEM content. Our results suggest that CSEM characteristics can reflect child preferences. This information can be relevant in clinical settings, police investigations, and community risk management, though it does not rule out interest in, or offending against, victims of other ages or gender. We discuss these findings in the context of other evidence regarding victim cross-over, and suggest future research.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T09:41:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632221108951
       
 
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