A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
New Ideas in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
New School Psychology Bulletin     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Occupational Health Science     Hybrid Journal  
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Open Journal of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Neuroimaging Journal     Open Access  
Open Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Pensando Psicología     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Persona     Open Access  
Persona : Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Persona Studies     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Personnel Assessment and Decisions     Open Access  
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectives on Behavior Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives On Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Perspectives Psy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology and Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Philosophical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
physiopraxis     Hybrid Journal  
PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Poiésis     Open Access  
Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Porn Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Possibility Studies & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PPmP - Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Practice Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie     Hybrid Journal  
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century     Open Access  
Professional Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psic : Revista de Psicologia da Vetor Editora     Open Access  
Psico     Open Access  
Psicoanalisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicobiettivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicoespacios     Open Access  
Psicogente     Open Access  
Psicol?gica Journal     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Prática     Open Access  
Psicologia da Educação     Open Access  
Psicologia della salute     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicología desde el Caribe     Open Access  
Psicologia di Comunità. Gruppi, ricerca-azione, modelli formativi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia e Saber Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia e Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Psicologia em Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia em Revista     Open Access  
Psicologia Ensino & Formação     Open Access  
Psicologia Hospitalar     Open Access  
Psicologia Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia para América Latina     Open Access  
Psicologia USP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad     Open Access  
Psicologia, Saúde e Doenças     Open Access  
Psicooncología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicoperspectivas     Open Access  
Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane     Full-text available via subscription  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
Psikohumaniora : Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi     Open Access  
Psisula : Prosiding Berkala Psikologi     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Psych     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PsyCh Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PSYCH up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psych. Pflege Heute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychê     Open Access  
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychiatrie et violence     Open Access  
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatrische Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 387)
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis, Self and Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Psychoanalytic Dialogues: The International Journal of Relational Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Psychoanalytic Review The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychodynamic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychologia : Advances de la Disciplina     Open Access  
Psychologica     Open Access  
Psychologica Belgica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Psychological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 250)
Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Psychological Perspectives: A Semiannual Journal of Jungian Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Psychological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 229)
Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324)
Psychological Science and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science and Education psyedu.ru     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science In the Public Interest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Psychological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychological Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Psychologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologische Rundschau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology     Open Access  
Psychology & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal  
Psychology and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Psychology in Russia: State of the Art     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology in Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychology Learning & Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Consciousness : Theory, Research, and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Language and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Leaders and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychology of Men and Masculinity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Psychology of Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Psychology of Popular Media Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Psychology of Women Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychology Research and Behavior Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology, Community & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Psychology, Health & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychomusicology : Music, Mind, and Brain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Psychopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
psychopraxis. neuropraxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychosomatic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychosomatic Medicine and General Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychotherapeut     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Politics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Psychotherapy in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
PsychTech & Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psyecology - Bilingual Journal of Environmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psyke & Logos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psykhe (Santiago)     Open Access  
Quaderni di Gestalt     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderns de Psicologia     Open Access  
Qualitative Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Qualitative Research in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Quality and User Experience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Quantitative Methods for Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Reading Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rehabilitation Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Psychopharmacology
Number of Followers: 15  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-2072 - ISSN (Online) 0033-3158
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Facial mimicry is not modulated by dopamine D2/3 and opioid receptor
           antagonism

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale According to theories of embodied cognition, facial mimicry — the spontaneous, low-intensity imitation of a perceived emotional facial expression — is first an automatic motor response, whose accompanying proprioceptive feedback contributes to emotion recognition. Alternative theoretical accounts, however, view facial mimicry as an emotional response to a rewarding stimulus, and/or an affiliative signal, and thus reject the view of an automatic motor copy. Objectives To contribute to this debate and further investigate the neural basis of facial mimicry, as well as its relation to reward processing, we measured facial reactions to dynamic happy and angry faces after pharmacologically manipulating the opioid and dopamine systems — respectively, thought to subserve ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ of rewards. Methods In a placebo-controlled, double-blind experiment, 130 volunteers received in a between-subjects design 50 mg of the opioidergic antagonist naltrexone, 400 mg of the dopaminergic antagonist amisulpride, or placebo. Results Clear occurrence of facial mimicry, measured 4 h after drug intake with electromyography (EMG) of the zygomaticus major and corrugator supercilii muscles, was found. However, facial mimicry was not affected by either compound, as shown with both frequentist statistics, and a Bayesian asymptotic regression model. Conclusions This null finding does not support the hypothesis that facial mimicry (of happiness) reflects an emotional response to a rewarding stimulus, leaving open the possibility of facial mimicry being an automatic motor copy. The results are relevant to the discussion about the psychological nature and the neural basis of facial mimicry, although they should be considered preliminary, given the challenges of interpreting null findings when targeting a novel effect of unknown size.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Alcohol and morality: one alcoholic drink is enough to make people declare
           to harm others and behave impurely

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract We aimed to understand if alcohol intoxication affects the willingness to violate moral foundations (care, fairness, authority, loyalty, and purity). We conducted a laboratory study (N = 387) with three randomized groups: alcohol intoxication, placebo, and control, measuring the sacralization of moral foundations via the Moral Foundations Sacredness Scale. The study showed intoxicated participants sacralized moral foundations of care and purity more often than participants from control and placebo groups. It means participants declared more willing to physically harm other people and animals and behave impurely, e.g., doing deviant sexual behaviors or selling their souls. No differences related to fairness, authority, and loyalty were found. Our study helps to understand the decision processes underlying immoral behaviors, including crimes. We showed that even one drink makes people change their judgments about what is right and wrong (in the cases of harmful and impure behaviors), and because this kind of judgment precedes immoral behaviors, our results may help explain why some people under the influence of alcohol break the rules by doing things which they would never do when sober.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • A head-to-head comparison of two DREADD agonists for suppressing operant
           behavior in rats via VTA dopamine neuron inhibition

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) are a tool for “remote control” of defined neuronal populations during behavior. These receptors are inert unless bound by an experimenter-administered designer drug, commonly clozapine-n-oxide (CNO). However, questions have emerged about the suitability of CNO as a systemically administered DREADD agonist. Objectives Second-generation agonists such as JHU37160 (J60) have been developed, which may have more favorable properties than CNO. Here we sought to directly compare effects of CNO (0, 1, 5, & 10 mg/kg, i.p.) and J60 (0, 0.03, 0.3, & 3 mg/kg, i.p.) on operant food pursuit. Methods Male and female TH:Cre + rats and their wildtype (WT) littermates received cre-dependent hM4Di-mCherry vector injections into ventral tegmental area (VTA), causing inhibitory DREADD expression in VTA dopamine neurons of TH:Cre + rats. All rats were trained to stably lever press for palatable food on a fixed ratio 10 schedule, and doses of both agonists were tested on separate days in counterbalanced order. Results All three CNO doses reduced operant rewards earned in rats with DREADDs, and no CNO dose had behavioral effects in WT controls. The highest J60 dose tested significantly reduced responding in DREADD rats, but this dose also increased responding in WTs, indicating non-specific effects. The magnitude of CNO and J60 effects in TH:Cre + rats were correlated and were present in both sexes. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the usefulness of directly comparing DREADD agonists when optimizing behavioral chemogenetics, and highlight the importance of proper controls, regardless of the DREADD agonist employed.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Characterization of behavioral changes in T-maze alternation from dopamine
           D1 agonists with different receptor coupling mechanisms

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Dopamine D1 receptor agonists have been shown to improve working memory, but often have a non-monotonic (inverted-U) dose–response curve. One hypothesis is that this may reflect dose-dependent differential engagement of D1 signaling pathways, a mechanism termed functional selectivity or signaling bias. Objectives and methods To test this hypothesis, we compared two D1 ligands with different signaling biases in a rodent T-maze alternation task. Both tested ligands (2-methyldihydrexidine and CY208243) have high intrinsic activity at cAMP signaling, but the former also has markedly higher intrinsic activity at D1-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin. The spatial working memory was assessed via the alternation behavior in the T-maze where the alternate choice rate quantified the quality of the memory and the duration prior to making a choice represented the decision latency. Results Both D1 drugs changed the alternate rate and the choice latency in a dose-dependent manner, albeit with important differences. 2-Methyldihydrexidine was somewhat less potent but caused a more homogeneous improvement than CY208243 in spatial working memory. The maximum changes in the alternate rate and the choice latency tended to occur at different doses for both drugs. Conclusions These data suggest that D1 signaling bias in these two pathways (cAMP vs β-arrestin) has complex effects on cognitive processes as assessed by T-maze alternation. Understanding these mechanisms should allow the identification or discovery of D1 agonists that can provide superior cognitive enhancement.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Supraspinal neuroinflammation and anxio-depressive-like behaviors in
           young- and older- adult mice with osteoarthritis pain: the effect of
           morphine

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Asteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of chronic pain in the elderly population and is often associated with emotional comorbidities such as anxiety and depression. Despite age is a risk factor for both OA and mood disorders, preclinical studies are mainly conducted in young adult animals. Objectives Here, using young adult (11-week-old) and older adult (20-month-old) mice, we evaluate in a monosodium-iodoacetate-(MIA)-induced OA model the development of anxio-depressive-like behaviors and whether brain neuroinflammation may underlie the observed changes. We also test whether an effective pain treatment may prevent behavioral and biochemical alterations. Methods Mechanical allodynia was monitored throughout the experimental protocol, while at the end of protocol (14 days), anxio-depressive-like behaviors and cognitive dysfunction were assessed. Neuroinflammatory condition was evaluated in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Serum IFNγ levels were also measured. Moreover, we test the efficacy of a 1-week treatment with morphine (2.5 mg/kg) on pain, mood alterations and neuroinflammation. Results We observed that young adult and older adult controls (CTRs) mice had comparable allodynic thresholds and developed similar allodynia after MIA injection. Older adult CTRs were characterized by altered behavior in the tests used to assess the presence of depression and cognitive impairment and by elevated neuroinflammatory markers in brain areas compared to younger ones. The presence of pain induced depressive-like behavior and neuroinflammation in adult young mice, anxiety-like behavior in both age groups and worsened neuroinflammation in older adult mice. Morphine treatment counteracted pain, anxio-depressive behaviors and neuroinflammatory activation in both young adult and older adult mice. Conclusions Here, we demonstrated that the presence of chronic pain in young adult mice induces mood alterations and supraspinal biochemical changes and aggravates the alterations already evident in older adult animals. A treatment with morphine, counteracting the pain, prevents the development of anxio-depressive disorders and reduces neuroinflammation.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • A systematic review of the role of clozapine for severe borderline
           personality disorder

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Clozapine is a unique medication with a potential role in the treatment of severe borderline personality disorder (BPD). Objectives The review examines the effectiveness of clozapine as a medication for management for severe BPD with high risk of suicide, violence or imprisonment, and aims to help guide clinical practice in managing severe BPD. Methods A database search of the terms “Clozapine” AND “BPD”; “Antipsychotics” AND “BPD”; “Clozapine” AND “Borderline Personality Disorder”; and “Antipsychotics” AND “Borderline Personality Disorder” were performed in CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Full-text articles of clinical clozapine use for BPD were included for review. Results A total of 24 articles consisting of 1 randomised control trial, 10 non-controlled trials, and 13 case reports were identified. Most of the studies reported benefits from clozapine when used for severe BPD. Many of the studies focused on clozapine use in BPD patients at high risk of suicide. Results from these non-controlled and case reports support the use of clozapine in patients with severe BPD at high risk of suicide. Conclusion There may be a role for clozapine in treating severe treatment refractory BPD, especially for those patients at high risk of suicide and frequent hospitalisations.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Neonatal phencyclidine as a model of sex-biased schizophrenia
           symptomatology in adolescent mice

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Sex-biased differences in schizophrenia are evident in several features of the disease, including symptomatology and response to pharmacological treatments. As a neurodevelopmental disorder, these differences might originate early in life and emerge later during adolescence. Considering that the disruption of the glutamatergic system during development is known to contribute to schizophrenia, we hypothesized that the neonatal phencyclidine model could induce sex-dependent behavioral and neurochemical changes associated with this disorder during adolescence. C57BL/6 mice received either saline or phencyclidine (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) on postnatal days (PN) 7, 9, and 11. Behavioral assessment occurred in late adolescence (PN48-50), when mice were submitted to the open field, social interaction, and prepulse inhibition tests. Either olanzapine or saline was administered before each test. The NMDAR obligatory GluN1 subunit and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) were evaluated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus at early (PN30) and late (PN50) adolescence. Neonatal phencyclidine evoked dose-dependent deficits in all analyzed behaviors and males were more susceptible. Males also had reduced GluN1 expression in the frontal cortex at PN30. There were late-emergent effects at PN50. Cortical GluN1 was increased in both sexes, while phencyclidine increased cortical and decreased hippocampal PSD-95 in females. Olanzapine failed to mitigate most phencyclidine-evoked alterations. In some instances, this antipsychotic aggravated the deficits or potentiated subthreshold effects. These results lend support to the use of neonatal phencyclidine as a sex-biased neurodevelopmental preclinical model of schizophrenia. Olanzapine null effects and deleterious outcomes suggest that its use during adolescence should be further evaluated.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Effort-related effects of chronic administration of the DA D2 receptor
           antagonist haloperidol via subcutaneous programmable minipumps: Reversal
           by co-administration of the adenosine A2A antagonist istradefylline

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Long-acting antipsychotics such as haloperidol decanoate are becoming more commonly used. Long-acting depot formulations have several advantages, but secondary negative effects of prolonged delivery, including motivational dysfunctions, could have debilitating effects. Assessing the behavioral changes that emerge during chronic antipsychotic administration in rats could provide insight regarding the development of motivational dysfunctions and drug tolerance. Objectives Acute administration of dopamine D2 antagonists such as haloperidol induce motivational deficits in rats, as marked by a shift towards a low-effort bias during effort-based choice tasks. In the present studies, programmable subcutaneous infusion pumps provided continuous and controlled drug delivery of haloperidol. Animals were assessed using a fixed ratio (FR) 5 lever pressing schedule and the FR5/chow feeding test of effort-based choice. The adenosine A2A antagonist istradefylline was studied for its ability to reverse the effects of chronic haloperidol. Results Continuous chronic infusions of haloperidol produced significant reductions in FR5 performance and a shift from lever pressing to chow intake in rats tested on FR5/chow feeding choice, with no evidence of tolerance over the 4-week infusion period. Behavior returned to baseline during the vehicle-infusion washout period. Istradefylline significantly reversed the effects of haloperidol, increasing lever pressing and decreasing chow intake in haloperidol-treated rats. Conclusions These studies provide an important behavioral characterization of the effects of chronically infused haloperidol, and demonstrate that A2A antagonism reverses the effects of chronic haloperidol. This research could contribute to the understanding and treatment of motivational dysfunctions seen in schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and other disorders involving dopamine.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Single-dose effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on functional
           connectivity during an n-back task in boys with ADHD

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Working memory deficits and associated neurofunctional abnormalities are frequently reported in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate and atomoxetine improve working memory performance and increase activation of regions under-functioning in ADHD. Additionally, methylphenidate has been observed to modulate functional networks involved in working memory. No research, however, has examined the effects of atomoxetine or compared the two drugs. Objectives This study aimed to test methylphenidate and atomoxetine effects on functional connectivity during working memory in boys with ADHD. Methods We tested comparative effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on functional connectivity during the n-back task in 19 medication-naïve boys with ADHD (10–15 years old) relative to placebo and assessed potential normalisation effects of brain dysfunctions under placebo relative to 20 age-matched neurotypical boys. Patients were scanned in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over design under single doses of methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and placebo. Controls were scanned once, unmedicated. Results Patients under placebo showed abnormally increased connectivity between right superior parietal gyrus (rSPG) and left central operculum/insula. This hyperconnectivity was not observed when patients were under methylphenidate or atomoxetine. Furthermore, under methylphenidate, patients showed increased connectivity relative to controls between right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG) and cingulo-temporo-parietal and striato-thalamic regions, and between rSPG and cingulo-parietal areas. Interrogating these networks within patients revealed increased connectivity between both rMFG and rSPG and right supramarginal gyrus under methylphenidate relative to placebo. Nonetheless, no differences across drug conditions were observed within patients at whole brain level. No drug effects on performance were observed. Conclusions This study shows shared modulating effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on parieto-insular connectivity but exclusive effects of methylphenidate on connectivity increases in fronto-temporo-parietal and fronto-striato-thalamic networks in ADHD.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Operant novelty seeking predicts cue-induced reinstatement following
           cocaine but not water reinforcement in male rats

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale An important facet of cocaine addiction is a high propensity to relapse, with increasing research investigating factors that predispose individuals toward uncontrolled drug use and relapse. A personality trait linked to drug addiction is high sensation seeking, i.e., a preference for novel sensations/experiences. In an animal model of sensation seeking, operant novelty seeking predicts the acquisition of drug self-administration. Objective The primary goal of this research was to evaluate the hypothesis that sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of novel sensory stimuli predicts more intensive aspects of drug-taking behaviors, such as relapse. Methods Rats were first tested for Operant Novelty Seeking, during which responses resulted in complex visual/auditory stimuli. Next, rats were trained to respond to water/cocaine reinforcers signaled by a cue light. Finally, rats were exposed to extinction in the absence of discrete cues and subsequently tested in a single session of cue-induced reinstatement, during which active responses resulted in cues previously paired with water/cocaine delivery. Results The present study showed operant responses to produce novel sensory stimuli positively correlate with responding for cocaine during self-administration and during discrete cue-induced reinstatement, but no association with performance during extinction. A different pattern of associations was observed for a natural reward, in this case, water reinforcement. Here, the degree of novelty seeking also correlated with responding to water reinforcement and extinction responding; however, operant novelty seeking did not correlate with responding to water cues during testing of cue-induced reinstatement. Taken together, the incongruence of relationships indicates an underlying difference between natural and drug reinforcers. Conclusion In summary, we found a reinforcer-dependent relationship between operant novelty seeking (i.e., sensation seeking) and responsivity to extinction and discrete cues signaling availability for cocaine (i.e., craving), demonstrating the validity of the operant novelty seeking model to investigate drug seeking and relapse.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • The effects of cannabidiol on worry and anxiety among high trait worriers:
           a double-blind, randomized placebo controlled trial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Evidence suggests cannabidiol (CBD) displays broad therapeutic potential in the context of anxiety; however, no study has examined the effects of CBD on worry, a defining, cognitive feature of anxiety. Additionally, no study has examined the effects of an acute, single dose of CBD compared to repeated CBD administration. Objectives Within a sample of 63 individuals with elevated trait worry, the current study aimed to assess the effects of an empirically-derived high dose of CBD (i.e., 300mg) compared to a commercially-derived dose of CBD (i.e., 50mg) versus placebo on worry severity and anxiety symptoms after an acute dose and after a 2-week administration period. Results Results indicated no effect of acute CBD dosing on worry severity or anxiety symptoms. Repeated CBD administration similarly did not impact worry severity; however, 300mg of CBD reduced anxiety symptoms across the 2-week administration period compared to placebo. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest 300mg of oral CBD does not attenuate cognitive symptoms of anxiety (i.e., worry), following both acute and repeated administration. Some evidence for repeated administration of 300mg on physical symptoms of anxiety was obtained. Findings from the current study suggest CBD’s modest anxiolytic effects may be specific to the physical aspects of anxious arousal.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • The rostromedial tegmental nucleus RMTg is not a critical site for
           ethanol-induced motor activation in rats

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Opioid drugs indirectly activate dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through a disinhibition mechanism mediated by mu opioid receptors (MORs) present both on the GABA projection neurons located in the medial tegmental nucleus/tail of the VTA (RMTg/tVTA) and on the VTA GABA interneurons. It is well demonstrated that ethanol, like opioid drugs, provokes VTA DA neuron disinhibition by interacting (through its secondary metabolite, salsolinol) with MORs present in VTA GABA interneurons, but it is not known whether ethanol could disinhibit VTA DA neurons through the MORs present in the RMTg/tVTA. Objectives The objective of the present study was to determine whether ethanol, directly microinjected into the tVTA/RMTg, is also able to induce VTA DA neurons disinhibition. Methods Disinhibition of VTA DA neurons was indirectly assessed through the analysis of the motor activity of rats. Cannulae were placed into the tVTA/RMTg to perform microinjections of DAMGO (0.13 nmol), ethanol (150 or 300 nmol) or acetaldehyde (250 nmol) in animals pre-treated with either aCSF or the irreversible antagonist of MORs, beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA; 2.5 nmol). After injections, spontaneous activity was monitored for 30 min. Results Neither ethanol nor acetaldehyde directly administered into the RMTg/tVTA were able to increase the locomotor activity of rats at doses that, in previous studies performed in the posterior VTA, were effective in increasing motor activities. However, microinjections of 0.13 nmol of DAMGO into the tVTA/RMTg significantly increased the locomotor activity of rats. These activating effects were reduced by local pre-treatment of rats with beta-FNA (2.5 nmol). Conclusions The tVTA/RMTg does not appear to be a key brain region for the disinhibiting action of ethanol on VTA DA neurons. The absence of dopamine in the tVTA/RMTg extracellular medium, the lack of local ethanol metabolism or both could explain the present results.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • The efficacy and tolerability of inhaled nitrous oxide in major depressive
           disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Background Nitrous oxide (N2O) has been initially confirmed by clinical trials to benefit to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there needs to be a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and tolerability of N2O in MDD. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies up to Jan 1st, 2023. The meta-analysis mainly compared the outcome of the change in depression severity scores, response, remission, and adverse events in patients with MDD receiving 50% N2O and placebo. Results Four studies with 133 patients were eventually identified. We found that the N2O group and control group showed an overall significant difference in the change in depression severity score for patients at 2 h, 24 h, and 2 weeks or more (2 h, SMD =  − 0.64, 95% CI − 0.01 to − 0.28, p < 0.0001) (24 h, SMD =  − 0.65, 95% CI − 1.01 to − 0.29, p < 0.0001) (2 weeks, SMD =  − 0.76, 95% CI − 1.16 to − 0.36, p < 0.0001). For the response and remission rate, the long-term effect of N2O was also statistically significant (for the response, RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.44, p = 0.01) (for the remission, RR = 4.68, 95% CI 1.49 to 14.68, p = 0.008). For safety outcomes, patients treated with N2O had higher odds of nausea or vomiting (RR = 10.15, 95% CI 1.96 to 52.59, p = 0.009). Conclusion Our study suggested that N2O has a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effect in patients with MDD. However, the efficacy of lower or titrated concentration of N2O should be further investigated.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Effect of the mGlu4 positive allosteric modulator ADX-88178 on
           parkinsonism, psychosis-like behaviours and dyskinesia in the
           MPTP-lesioned marmoset

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate type 4 (mGlu4) receptors is a promising strategy to alleviate parkinsonian disability and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) induced dyskinesia. ADX-88178 is a highly selective mGlu4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that previously enhanced the anti-parkinsonian action of L-DOPA in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objectives We sought to explore the effects of ADX-88178 on psychosis-like behaviours (PLBs) in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned marmoset. We also aimed to determine the effect of ADX-88178 on parkinsonism and dyskinesia. Methods Six MPTP-lesioned marmosets were administered L-DOPA chronically to induce stable PLBs and dyskinesias. They were then administered ADX-88178 (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg) or vehicle, in combination with L-DOPA/benserazide (15/3.75 mg/kg), both sub-cutaneously, in a randomised fashion. PLBs, parkinsonism and dyskinesia were then measured. Results ADX-88178 mildly worsened global PLBs at the dose of 1 mg/kg (by 13%, P = 0.020). L-DOPA alone conferred 158 min of on-time, while the duration of on-time was 212 min (34% increase, P = 0.011), after adding ADX-88178 1 mg/kg to L-DOPA. Accordingly, ADX-88178 1 mg/kg reduced global parkinsonian disability, by 38% (P = 0.0096). ADX-88178 1 mg/kg diminished peak dose dyskinesia by 34% (P = 0.015). Minimal effects were provided by lower doses. Conclusions Whereas these results provide additional evidence of the anti-parkinsonian and anti-dyskinetic effects of mGlu4 positive allosteric modulation as an adjunct to L-DOPA, they also suggest that ADX-88178 may exacerbate dopaminergic psychosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate this possible adverse effect of mGlu4 PAMs on PD psychosis.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Clinical efficacy of escitalopram combined with botulinum toxin A in
           patients with generalized anxiety disorder and comorbid headache

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common mental disorder that happens comorbidly with other diseases. Headache is a common anxiety comorbidity. Previous reports have shown that the selection of therapeutic drugs for GAD patients and comorbid headache is challenging. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of escitalopram combined with botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) in patients with GAD and comorbid headache and seek an alternative treatment strategy for the comorbidity of GAD and headache. Methods A prospective, randomized controlled, double-blind study was performed. The eligible GAD patients with comorbid headache were randomly assigned to the BoNT/A group and the placebo group. All the patients were given oral escitalopram therapy (10–20 mg/day) for the whole duration of the study. The BoNT/A group was given local injections of BoNT/A (50 U per person), whereas the placebo group was given local saline (0.9% NaCl) injections at the beginning and 3 months after the experiments. All participants were followed up for 6 months and relevant information was collected at months 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6. Primary outcomes included the following: (1) the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7); (2) the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS); (3) the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scales (HAMA); (4) days with headache per month; (5) visual analogue scale (VAS). Results A total of 101 patients (the sex ratio of female to male: 3.39:1) were finally included. Compared with the placebo group, the BoNT/A group showed a significant decrease in GAD-7 scores, SAS scores, HAMA scores, days with headache per month, and VAS scores at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 of follow-up (all p < 0.05). The average time to complete remission of anxiety symptoms (HAMA< 7 points) in the BoNT/A group was less than the placebo group (2 months vs. 3 months). At the same time, the results of the survival analysis showed a clear beneficial effect of BoNT/A relative to placebo on the time to remission of anxiety (log-rank test, p < 0.001). Mean daily doses of escitalopram at the sixth month in the BoNT/A group was smaller than the placebo group (12.5 mg vs. 16.04 mg, p < 0.001). The number of patients who relapsed (HAMA total score ≥ 14 points) at 6 months of follow-up in the BoNT/A group was less than the placebo group (2.2% vs. 14.9%, p < 0.05). The rates of response (HAMA subtraction rate ≥ 50%) were 93.8% for the BoNT/A group and 75.5% for the placebo group (p < 0.05), and the rates of remission (HAMA < 7 points) were 87.5% for the BoNT/A group and 64.2% for the placebo group (p < 0.01) at the sixth month. Conclusion The combination of escitalopram with BoNT/A is a significantly effective intervention in improving clinical efficacy and reducing the recurrence in patients with GAD and comorbid headache, and we believe that this approach will be an additional treatment strategy for future treatment of comorbid headache in GAD. Therefore, we recommend that escitalopram combined with BoNT/A should be given as early as possible in GAD patients and comorbid headache.
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
       
  • Cross state-dependent memory retrieval between tramadol and ethanol:
           involvement of dorsal hippocampal GABAA receptors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Tramadol and ethanol, as psychoactive agents, are often abused. Discovering the molecular pathways of drug-induced memory creation may contribute to preventing drug addiction and relapse. Objective The tramadol- and ethanol-induced state-dependent memory (SDM) and cross-SDM retrieval between tramadol and ethanol were examined in this study. Moreover, because of the confirmed involvement of GABAA receptors and GABAergic neurotransmission in memory retrieval impairment, we assessed cross-SDM retrieval between tramadol and ethanol with a specific emphasis on the role of the GABAA receptors. The first hypothesis of this study was the presence of cross-SDM between tramadol and ethanol, and the second hypothesis was related to possible role of GABAA receptors in memory retrieval impairment within the dorsal hippocampus. The cannulae were inserted into the hippocampal CA1 area of NMRI mice, and a step-down inhibitory avoidance test was used to evaluate state dependence and memory recovery. Results The post-training and/or pre-test administration of tramadol (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) and/or ethanol (0.5 and 1 g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia, which was restored after the administration of the drugs 24 h later during the pre-test period, proposing ethanol and tramadol SDM. The pre-test injection of ethanol (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg, i.p.) with tramadol at an ineffective dose (1.25 mg/kg) enhanced tramadol SDM. Moreover, tramadol injection (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg) with ethanol at the ineffective dose (0.25 g/kg) promoted ethanol SDM. Furthermore, the pre-test intra-CA1 injection of bicuculline (0.0625, 0.125, and 0.25 μg/mouse), a GABAA receptor antagonist, 5 min before the injection of tramadol (5 mg/kg) or ethanol (1 g/kg) inhibited tramadol- and ethanol-induced SDM dose-dependently. Conclusion The findings strongly confirmed cross-SDM between tramadol and ethanol and the critical role of dorsal hippocampal GABAA receptors in the cross-SDM between tramadol and ethanol.
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
       
  • Inhibition of fatty acid binding protein-5 in the basolateral amygdala
           induces anxiolytic effects and accelerates fear memory extinction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale The endocannabinoid (eCB) system critically controls anxiety and fear-related behaviours. Anandamide (AEA), a prominent eCB ligand, is a hydrophobic lipid that requires chaperone proteins such as Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs) for intracellular transport. Intracellular AEA transport is necessary for degradation, so blocking FABP activity increases AEA neurotransmission. Objective To investigate the effects of a novel FABP5 inhibitor (SBFI-103) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on anxiety and fear memory. Methods We infused SBFI-103 (0.5 μg—5 μg) to the BLA of adult male Sprague Dawley rats and ran various anxiety and fear memory behavioural assays, neurophysiological recordings, and localized molecular signaling analyses. We also co-infused SBFI-103 with the AEA inhibitor, LEI-401 (3 μg and 10 μg) to investigate the potential role of AEA in these phenomena. Results Acute intra-BLA administration of SBFI-103 produced strong anxiolytic effects across multiple behavioural tests. Furthermore, animals exhibited acute and long-term accelerated associative fear memory extinction following intra-BLA FABP5 inhibition. In addition, BLA FABP5 inhibition induced strong modulatory effects on putative PFC pyramidal neurons along with significantly increased gamma oscillation power. Finally, we observed local BLA changes in the phosphorylation activity of various anxiety- and fear memory-related molecular biomarkers in the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk signaling pathways. At all three levels of analyses, we found the functional effects of SBFI-103 depend on availability of the AEA ligand. Conclusions These findings demonstrate a novel intra-BLA FABP5 signaling mechanism regulating anxiety and fear memory behaviours, neuronal activity states, local anxiety-related molecular pathways, and functional AEA modulation.
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
       
  • Expectancy for Adderall influences subjective mood and drug effects
           regardless of concurrent caffeine ingestion: A randomized controlled trial
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Nonmedical prescription stimulant use (NPS; use without a prescription or in ways other than prescribed) is common among college students. Despite the potential for negative consequences, students continue engaging in NPS for cognitive enhancement purposes, which may be maintained by expectancy and placebo effects. Objectives This study examined if a placebo administered under the guise of Adderall influenced subjective mood/drug effects and cognitive performance. Furthermore, this study examined if concurrent caffeine ingestion incrementally enhanced Adderall-related placebo effects. Methods Undergraduate students with features that put them at elevated risk for NPS (N = 121) completed measures of mood and drug effects and cognitive assessments on two separate laboratory visits in this parallel randomized controlled trial. Visit 1 was a baseline control visit, on which no drug was expected or received. On visit 2, subjects were randomized to: (1) expect/receive no drug (control); (2) expect Adderall/receive placebo; or (3) expect Adderall/receive 200 mg caffeine. Results There were several significant condition × visit interactions for subjective effects, including amphetamine effects, energy and efficiency effects, and feeling high. In most cases, participants who expected Adderall reported greater positive subjective effects on visit 2 compared to controls; however, there were generally not incremental enhancements for those ingesting caffeine compared to placebo. There were no significant effects for any cognitive tests. Conclusions Expectation for prescription stimulant effects influenced subjective outcomes in a sample of high-risk college students. These findings may inform expectancy challenge interventions to reduce NPS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03648684.
      PubDate: 2023-09-23
       
  • Frontostriatal circuitry and the tryptophan kynurenine pathway in major
           psychiatric disorders

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale An imbalance of the tryptophan kynurenine pathway (KP) commonly occurs in psychiatric disorders, though the neurocognitive and network-level effects of this aberration are unclear. Objectives In this study, we examined the connection between dysfunction in the frontostriatal brain circuits, imbalances in the tryptophan kynurenine pathway (KP), and neurocognition in major psychiatric disorders. Methods Forty first-episode medication-naive patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), fifty patients with bipolar disorder (BD), fifty patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and forty-two healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma levels of KP metabolites were measured, and neurocognitive function was evaluated. Frontostriatal connectivity and KP metabolites were compared between groups while controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Canonical correlation analyses were conducted to explore multidimensional relationships between frontostriatal circuits-KP and KP-cognitive features. Results Patient groups shared hypoconnectivity between bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and left insula, with disorder-specific dysconnectivity in SCZ related to PFC, left dorsal striatum hypoconnectivity. The BD group had higher anthranilic acid and lower xanthurenic acid levels than the other groups. KP metabolites and ratios related to disrupted frontostriatal dysconnectivity in a transdiagnostic manner. The SCZ group and MDD group separately had high-dimensional associations between KP metabolites and cognitive measures. Conclusions The findings suggest that KP may influence cognitive performance across psychiatric conditions via frontostriatal dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
       
  • Voluntary wheel running during adolescence prevents the increase in
           ethanol intake induced by social defeat in male mice

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Rationale Exposure to social defeat (SD) induces a depressive phenotype, increased ethanol seeking and consumption, accompanied by activation of the neuroinflammatory response. However, a resilient response can be potentiated through physical exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running (VWR) during or after exposure to social stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether physical exercise during adolescence prior to being exposed to SD can enhance resilience to the increase in ethanol intake. Methods Male mice had access to VWR during adolescence and the effects of social defeat (4 sessions every 72 h) on oral ethanol self-administration (SA) was evaluated. Based on the social interaction test, mice were classified as resilient or susceptible to depressive-like behavior. Two weeks after the last encounter, mice were subjected to the drinking in the dark and oral ethanol SA paradigms. Mice were then sacrificed to measure brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the striatum and hippocampus. Results As expected, susceptible mice increased ethanol intake in the oral SA protocol. However, susceptible mice in the exercise condition did not increase ethanol intake, showing similar consumption and motivation for ethanol than the control and resilient groups. On the other hand, decreased BDNF levels were observed in susceptible mice in both experimental conditions compared to the control groups after ethanol SA. Conclusions The pre-exposure of VWR prevented the increase in consumption and motivation for ethanol induced by SD in susceptible mice. On the other hand, it appears that VWR did not exhibit any significant long-term effects on BDNF signaling, which is mainly affected in susceptible mice after ethanol intake.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.192.254.173
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-