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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
New School Psychology Bulletin     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Occupational Health Science     Hybrid Journal  
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Open Journal of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Neuroimaging Journal     Open Access  
Open Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Pensando Psicología     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Persona     Open Access  
Persona : Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Persona Studies     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Personnel Assessment and Decisions     Open Access  
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectives on Behavior Science     Hybrid Journal  
Perspectives On Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Perspectives Psy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Phenomenology & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Philosophical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
physiopraxis     Hybrid Journal  
PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Poiésis     Open Access  
Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Porn Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
PPmP - Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Practice Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie     Hybrid Journal  
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century     Open Access  
Professional Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psic : Revista de Psicologia da Vetor Editora     Open Access  
Psico     Open Access  
Psicoanalisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicobiettivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicoespacios     Open Access  
Psicogente     Open Access  
Psicol?gica Journal     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Prática     Open Access  
Psicologia da Educação     Open Access  
Psicologia della salute     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicología desde el Caribe     Open Access  
Psicologia di Comunità. Gruppi, ricerca-azione, modelli formativi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia e Saber Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia e Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Psicologia em Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia em Revista     Open Access  
Psicologia Ensino & Formação     Open Access  
Psicologia Hospitalar     Open Access  
Psicologia Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia para América Latina     Open Access  
Psicologia USP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad     Open Access  
Psicologia, Saúde e Doenças     Open Access  
Psicooncología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicoperspectivas     Open Access  
Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane     Full-text available via subscription  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
Psikohumaniora : Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi     Open Access  
Psisula : Prosiding Berkala Psikologi     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Psych     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PsyCh Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PSYCH up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psych. Pflege Heute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychê     Open Access  
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychiatrie et violence     Open Access  
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatrische Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 357)
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis, Self and Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychoanalytic Dialogues: The International Journal of Relational Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychoanalytic Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Psychoanalytic Review The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychodynamic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychologia : Advances de la Disciplina     Open Access  
Psychologica     Open Access  
Psychologica Belgica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Psychological Perspectives: A Semiannual Journal of Jungian Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Psychological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Psychological Science and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science and Education psyedu.ru     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science In the Public Interest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Psychological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychological Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Psychologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologische Rundschau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology     Open Access  
Psychology & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychology and Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal  
Psychology and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychology in Russia: State of the Art     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology in Society     Open Access  
Psychology Learning & Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Consciousness : Theory, Research, and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Language and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Leaders and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Psychology of Men and Masculinity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Psychology of Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Psychology of Popular Media Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Psychology of Women Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychology Research and Behavior Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology, Community & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Psychology, Health & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychomusicology : Music, Mind, and Brain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
psychopraxis. neuropraxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychosomatic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychosomatic Medicine and General Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychotherapeut     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Politics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Psychotherapy in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
PsychTech & Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Psyecology - Bilingual Journal of Environmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psyke & Logos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psykhe (Santiago)     Open Access  
Quaderni di Gestalt     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderns de Psicologia     Open Access  
Qualitative Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Qualitative Research in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Quality and User Experience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quantitative Methods for Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Reading Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rehabilitation Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Religion, Brain & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Perspectives On Psychological Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.26
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 36  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1745-6916 - ISSN (Online) 1745-6924
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Advancing the Study of Resilience to Daily Stressors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anthony D. Ong, Kate A. Leger
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Historically, studies of childhood and adult resilience have typically focused on adaptation to chronic life adversities, such as poverty and maltreatment, or isolated and potentially traumatic events, such as bereavement and serious illness. Here, we present a complementary view and suggest that stressors experienced in daily life may also forecast individual health and well-being. We argue that daily process approaches that incorporate intensive sampling of individuals in natural settings can provide powerful insights into unfolding adaptational processes. In making this argument, we review studies that link intraindividual dynamics with diverse health-related phenomena. Findings from this research provide support for a multiple-levels-analysis perspective that embraces greater unity in pivotal resilience constructs invoked across childhood and adult literatures. Drawing on insights and principles derived from life-span theory, we conclude by outlining promising directions for future work and considering their broader implications for the field of resilience.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T08:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211071092
       
  • Why Warmth Matters More Than Competence: A New Evolutionary Approach

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      Authors: Adar B. Eisenbruch, Max M. Krasnow
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Multiple lines of evidence suggest that there are two major dimensions of social perception, often called warmth and competence, and that warmth is prioritized over competence in multiple types of social decision-making. Existing explanations for this prioritization argue that warmth is more consequential for an observer’s welfare than is competence. We present a new explanation for the prioritization of warmth based on humans’ evolutionary history of cooperative partner choice. We argue that the prioritization of warmth evolved because ancestral humans faced greater variance in the warmth of potential cooperative partners than in their competence but greater variance in competence over time within cooperative relationships. These each made warmth more predictive than competence of the future benefits of a relationship, but because of differences in the distributions of these traits, not because of differences in their intrinsic consequentiality. A broad, synthetic review of the anthropological literature suggests that these conditions were characteristic of the ecologies in which human social cognition evolved, and agent-based models demonstrate the plausibility of these selection pressures. We conclude with future directions for the study of preferences and the further integration of social and evolutionary psychology.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T08:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211071087
       
  • Leveraging the Strengths of Psychologists With Lived Experience of
           Psychopathology

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      Authors: Sarah E. Victor, Jessica L. Schleider, Brooke A. Ammerman, Daniel E. Bradford, Andrew R. Devendorf, June Gruber, Lisa A. Gunaydin, Lauren S. Hallion, Erin A. Kaufman, Stephen P. Lewis, Dese’Rae L. Stage
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Psychopathology is a common element of the human experience, and psychological scientists are not immune. Recent empirical data demonstrate that a significant proportion of clinical, counseling, and school psychology faculty and graduate students have lived experience, both past and present, of psychopathology. This commentary compliments these findings by leveraging the perspectives of the authors and signatories, who have personal lived experience of psychopathology, to improve professional inclusivity in these fields. By “coming out proud,” the authors aim to foster discussion, research, and inclusion efforts as they relate to psychopathology experiences in psychological science. To that end, the authors describe considerations related to disclosure of lived experience, identify barriers to inclusion, and provide concrete recommendations for personal and systemic changes to improve recognition and acceptance of psychopathology lived experience among psychologists.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T02:05:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211072826
       
  • Only Human: Mental-Health Difficulties Among Clinical, Counseling, and
           School Psychology Faculty and Trainees

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      Authors: Sarah E. Victor, Andrew R. Devendorf, Stephen P. Lewis, Jonathan Rottenberg, Jennifer J. Muehlenkamp, Dese’Rae L. Stage, Rose H. Miller
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      How common are mental-health difficulties among applied psychologists' This question is paradoxically neglected, perhaps because disclosure and discussion of these experiences remain taboo within the field. This study documented high rates of mental-health difficulties (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) among faculty, graduate students, and others affiliated with accredited doctoral and internship programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology. More than 80% of respondents (n = 1,395 of 1,692) reported a lifetime history mental-health difficulties, and nearly half (48%) reported a diagnosed mental disorder. Among those with diagnosed and undiagnosed mental-health difficulties, the most common reported concerns were depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Participants who reported diagnosed mental disorders endorsed, on average, more specific mental-health difficulties and were more likely to report current difficulties than were undiagnosed participants. Graduate students were more likely to endorse both diagnosed and undiagnosed mental-health difficulties than were faculty, and they were more likely to report ongoing difficulties. Overall, rates of mental disorders within clinical, counseling, and school-psychology faculty and trainees were similar to or greater than those observed in the general population. We discuss the implications of these results and suggest specific directions for future research on this heretofore neglected topic.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T01:59:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211071079
       
  • More What Duchenne Smiles Do, Less What They Express

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      Authors: Eva G. Krumhuber, Arvid Kappas
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We comment on an article by Sheldon et al. from a previous issue of Perspectives (May 2021). They argued that the presence of positive emotion (Hypothesis 1), the intensity of positive emotion (Hypothesis 2), and chronic positive mood (Hypothesis 3) are reliably signaled by the Duchenne smile (DS). We reexamined the cited literature in support of each hypothesis and show that the study findings were mostly inconclusive, irrelevant, incomplete, and/or misread. In fact, there is no single (empirical) article that would unanimously support the idea that DSs function solely as indicators of felt positive affect. Additional evidence is reviewed, suggesting that DSs can be—and often are—displayed deliberately and in the absence of positive feelings. Although DSs may lead to favorable interpersonal perceptions and positive emotional responses in the observer, we propose a functional view that focuses on what facial actions—here specifically DSs—do rather than what they express.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T08:44:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211071083
       
  • Is Psychological Science Self-Correcting' Citations Before and After
           Successful and Failed Replications

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      Authors: Paul T. von Hippel
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In principle, successful replications should enhance the credibility of scientific findings, and failed replications should reduce credibility. Yet it is unknown how replication typically affects the influence of research. We analyzed the citation history of 98 articles. Each was published by a selective psychology journal in 2008 and subjected to a replication attempt published in 2015. Relative to successful replications, failed replications reduced citations of replicated studies by only 5% to 9% on average, an amount that did not differ significantly from zero. Less than 3% of articles citing the original studies cited the replication attempt. It does not appear that replication failure much reduced the influence of nonreplicated findings in psychology. To increase the influence of replications, we recommend (a) requiring authors to cite replication studies alongside the individual findings and (b) enhancing reference databases and search engines to give higher priority to replication studies.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T04:11:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211072525
       
  • Wrecked by Success' Not to Worry

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      Authors: Harrison J. Kell, Kira O. McCabe, David Lubinski, Camilla P. Benbow
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the wrecked-by-success hypothesis. Initially formalized by Sigmund Freud, this hypothesis has become pervasive throughout the humanities, popular press, and modern scientific literature. The hypothesis implies that truly outstanding occupational success often exacts a heavy toll on psychological, interpersonal, and physical well-being. Study 1 tested this hypothesis in three cohorts of 1,826 high-potential, intellectually gifted individuals. Participants with exceptionally successful careers were compared with those of their gender-equivalent intellectual peers with more typical careers on well-known measures of psychological well-being, flourishing, core self-evaluations, and medical maladies. Family relationships, comfort with aging, and life satisfaction were also assessed. Across all three cohorts, those deemed occupationally outstanding individuals were similar to or healthier than their intellectual peers across these metrics. Study 2 served as a constructive replication of Study 1 but used a different high-potential sample: 496 elite science/technology/engineering/mathematics (STEM) doctoral students identified in 1992 and longitudinally tracked for 25 years. Study 2 replicated the findings from Study 1 in all important respects. Both studies found that exceptionally successful careers were not associated with medical frailty, psychological maladjustment, and compromised interpersonal and family relationships; if anything, overall, people with exceptionally successful careers were medically and psychologically better off.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T12:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211055637
       
  • Bias, Fairness, and Validity in Graduate-School Admissions: A Psychometric
           Perspective

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      Authors: Sang Eun Woo, James M. LeBreton, Melissa G. Keith, Louis Tay
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      As many schools and departments are considering the removal of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) from their graduate-school admission processes to enhance equity and diversity in higher education, controversies arise. From a psychometric perspective, we see a critical need for clarifying the meanings of measurement “bias” and “fairness” to create common ground for constructive discussions within the field of psychology, higher education, and beyond. We critically evaluate six major sources of information that are widely used to help inform graduate-school admissions decisions: grade point average, personal statements, resumes/curriculum vitae, letters of recommendation, interviews, and GRE. We review empirical research evidence available to date on the validity, bias, and fairness issues associated with each of these admission measures and identify potential issues that have been overlooked in the literature. We conclude by suggesting several directions for practical steps to improve the current admissions decisions and highlighting areas in which future research would be beneficial.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T06:34:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211055374
       
  • Epistemic Oppression, Construct Validity, and Scientific Rigor: Commentary
           on Woo et al. (2022)

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      Authors: Jennifer M. Gómez
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      In this commentary, I highlight flaws in the article by Woo and colleagues (this issue) that undermine its credibility and utility as rigorous science that contributes to the field. I do so by discussing (a) the concept of epistemic oppression regarding the glaring exclusion of multiple germane bodies of research and (b) the importance of including construct validity within a psychometric article regarding the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). I conclude with a plea to the authors that the matter of anti-Black violence and murder, which they reference, is one to be taken respectfully, seriously, and somberly.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T06:34:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211072830
       
  • Improving Graduate-School Admissions by Expanding Rather Than Eliminating
           Predictors

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      Authors: Christopher D. Nye, Ann Marie Ryan
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The article by Woo et al. (this issue) reviews the existing research on graduate-school admissions measures. The goal of this commentary is to expand on their review and suggest several ways of supplementing the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) to both increase the predictive validity of admissions decisions and improve the diversity of a graduate program. We rely on several decades of research to suggest assessing both conscientiousness and vocational interests and combining the scores from these predictors with the GRE to inform admissions decisions. In addition, we also propose several ways of expanding recruitment efforts to attract qualified underrepresented minority applicants to improve the diversity of the applicant pool.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T06:34:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916221081873
       
  • Constructs, Tape Measures, and Mercury

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      Authors: C. Malik Boykin
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      This is a Lewinian-field-theory approach to understanding the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) in the context of racism to contribute to the debate about whether graduate schools should remove GRE scores from admissions processes. Woo and colleagues (this issue; p. ♦♦♦) review the empirical literature on bias from a psychometric perspective. In this commentary, I challenge the definition of the underlying construct measured by the GRE and offer alternative definitions of what is measured. Next, drawing on an analogy from genome-wide association studies, I discuss how genomic models predicting height that are trained on data from European ancestral populations systematically underpredict the height of West Africans. Our access to data from tape measures, and their correlation with height, provide objective opportunities to audit our prediction. I discuss the implications of this when the criterion variable for validating the GRE is first-year grades. I then probe an analogy used by Woo and colleagues in which they assert that blaming the GRE for disparities in scores across groups is akin to blaming the thermometer for global warming. I describe racism as context for a field-theory approach to thinking about the limitations of this misguided analogy. Finally, I suggest pathways forward.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T06:33:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916221098078
       
  • What Was Not Said and What to Do About It

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      Authors: Nathan R. Kuncel, Frank C. Worrell
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The Woo et al. review (this issue) provides a foundation for considering the larger goals of higher education. We step back to consider the broader goals and ideals of higher education. Fundamentally, we want to admit a diverse set of students into graduate school and then produce the most accomplished scientists, artists, leaders, and innovators. In a world with inequality in preparation and finite resources, these ideals end up in tension without any easy resolution. The inability to provide opportunities and develop talent across all groups up to early adulthood is the fundamental problem we face. It is tempting to ignore it. We would be delighted if test and grade differences could be easily dismissed. Instead, we know that a great deal of potential is being wasted, and this waste represents a terrible loss for individuals, communities, and society. We believe that the greatest change will come from better and expanded investment in expanded gifted-and-talented programs, increasing the flow of underrepresented students into these programs, greatly improved assessment of psychosocial skills and talents at all levels, and career counseling and mentoring that begins early and continues through higher education.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T06:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916221100461
       
  • What Do We Know About Aging and Emotion Regulation'

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      Authors: Derek M. Isaacowitz
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Older adults report surprisingly positive affective experience. The idea that older adults are better at emotion regulation has emerged as an intuitively appealing explanation for why they report such high levels of affective well-being despite other age-related declines. In this article, I review key theories and current evidence on age differences in the use and effectiveness of emotion-regulation strategies from a range of studies, including laboratory-based and experience sampling. These studies do not yet provide consistent evidence for age differences in emotion regulation and thus do not clearly support the assertion that older adults are better at emotion regulation. However, current approaches may be limited in describing and testing possible age-related changes in emotion regulation. Future work will need to more directly investigate individual trajectories of stability and change in emotion-regulation strategy use and effectiveness over time and also consider the possible roles of context, physiological reactivity, neural changes, acceptance, and personality.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T08:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211059819
       
  • Intervention Tournaments: An Overview of Concept, Design, and
           Implementation

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      Authors: Boaz Hameiri, Samantha L. Moore-Berg
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      A large portion of research in the social sciences is devoted to using interventions to combat societal and social problems, such as prejudice, discrimination, and intergroup conflict. However, these interventions are often developed using the theories and/or intuitions of the individuals who developed them and evaluated in isolation without comparing their efficacy with other interventions. Here, we make the case for an experimental design that addresses such issues: an intervention tournament—that is, a study that compares several different interventions against a single control and uses the same standardized outcome measures during assessment and participants drawn from the same population. We begin by highlighting the utility of intervention tournaments as an approach that complements other, more commonly used approaches to addressing societal issues. We then describe various approaches to intervention tournaments, which include crowdsourced, curated, and in-house-developed intervention tournaments, and their unique characteristics. Finally, we discuss practical recommendations and key design insights for conducting such research, given the existing literature. These include considerations of intervention-tournament deployment, characteristics of included interventions, statistical analysis and reporting, study design, longitudinal and underlying psychological mechanism assessment, and theoretical ramifications.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T07:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211058090
       
  • You Think Failure Is Hard' So Is Learning From It

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      Authors: Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Ayelet Fishbach
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Society celebrates failure as a teachable moment. But do people actually learn from failure' Although lay wisdom suggests people should, a review of the research suggests that this is hard. We present a unifying framework that points to emotional and cognitive barriers that make learning from failure difficult. Emotions undermine learning because people find failure ego-threatening. People tend to look away from failure and not pay attention to it to protect their egos. Cognitively, people also struggle because the information in failure is less direct than the information in success and thus harder to extract. Beyond identifying barriers, this framework suggests inroads by which barriers might be addressed. Finally, we explore implications. We outline what, exactly, people miss out on when they overlook the information in failure. We find that the information in failure is often high-quality information that can be used to predict success.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T07:11:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211059817
       
  • Why Antibias Interventions (Need Not) Fail

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      Authors: Toni Schmader, Tara C. Dennehy, Andrew S. Baron
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      There is a critical disconnect between scientific knowledge about the nature of bias and how this knowledge gets translated into organizational debiasing efforts. Conceptual confusion around what implicit bias is contributes to misunderstanding. Bridging these gaps is the key to understanding when and why antibias interventions will succeed or fail. Notably, there are multiple distinct pathways to biased behavior, each of which requires different types of interventions. To bridge the gap between public understanding and psychological research, we introduce a visual typology of bias that summarizes the process by which group-relevant cognitions are expressed as biased behavior. Our typology spotlights cognitive, motivational, and situational variables that affect the expression and inhibition of biases while aiming to reduce the ambiguity of what constitutes implicit bias. We also address how norms modulate how biases unfold and are perceived by targets. Using this typology as a framework, we identify theoretically distinct entry points for antibias interventions. A key insight is that changing associations, increasing motivation, raising awareness, and changing norms are distinct goals that require different types of interventions targeting individual, interpersonal, and institutional structures. We close with recommendations for antibias training grounded in the science of prejudice and stereotyping.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T07:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211057565
       
  • The Cooperation Databank: Machine-Readable Science Accelerates Research
           Synthesis

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      Authors: Giuliana Spadaro, Ilaria Tiddi, Simon Columbus, Shuxian Jin, Annette ten Teije, Daniel Balliet
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Publishing studies using standardized, machine-readable formats will enable machines to perform meta-analyses on demand. To build a semantically enhanced technology that embodies these functions, we developed the Cooperation Databank (CoDa)—a databank that contains 2,636 studies on human cooperation (1958–2017) conducted in 78 societies involving 356,283 participants. Experts annotated these studies along 312 variables, including the quantitative results (13,959 effects). We designed an ontology that defines and relates concepts in cooperation research and that can represent the relationships between results of correlational and experimental studies. We have created a research platform that, given the data set, enables users to retrieve studies that test the relation of variables with cooperation, visualize these study results, and perform (a) meta-analyses, (b) metaregressions, (c) estimates of publication bias, and (d) statistical power analyses for future studies. We leveraged the data set with visualization tools that allow users to explore the ontology of concepts in cooperation research and to plot a citation network of the history of studies. CoDa offers a vision of how publishing studies in a machine-readable format can establish institutions and tools that improve scientific practices and knowledge.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T07:06:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211053319
       
  • Taking Stock and Moving Forward: A Personalized Perspective on Mixed
           Emotions

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      Authors: Melody M. Moore, Elizabeth A. Martin
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Research on mixed emotions is flourishing but fractured. Several psychological subfields are working in parallel and separately from other disciplines also studying mixed emotions, which has led to a disorganized literature. In this article, we provide an overview of the literature on mixed emotions and discuss factors contributing to the lack of integration within and between fields. We present an organizing framework for the literature of mixed emotions on the basis of two distinct goals: solving the bipolar–bivariate debate and understanding the subjective experience of mixed emotions. We also present a personalized perspective that can be used when studying the subjective experience of mixed emotions. We emphasize the importance of assessing both state and trait emotions (e.g., momentary emotions, general levels of affect) alongside state and trait context (e.g., physical location, culture). We discuss three methodological approaches that we believe will be valuable in building a new mixed-emotions literature—inductive research methods, idiographic models of emotional experiences, and empirical assessment of emotion-eliciting contexts. We include recommendations throughout on applying these methods to research on mixed emotions, and we conclude with avenues for future interdisciplinary research. We hope that this perspective will foster research that results in the organized accumulation of knowledge about mixed emotions.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T04:39:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211054785
       
  • Adopted Utility Calculus: Origins of a Concept of Social Affiliation

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      Authors: Lindsey J. Powell
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      To successfully navigate their social world, humans need to understand and map enduring relationships between people: Humans need a concept of social affiliation. Here I propose that the initial concept of social affiliation, available in infancy, is based on the extent to which one individual consistently takes on the goals and needs of another. This proposal grounds affiliation in intuitive psychology, as formalized in the naive-utility-calculus model. A concept of affiliation based on interpersonal utility adoption can account for findings from studies of infants’ reasoning about imitation, similarity, helpful and fair individuals, “ritual” behaviors, and social groups without the need for additional innate mechanisms such as a coalitional psychology, moral sense, or general preference for similar others. I identify further tests of this proposal and also discuss how it is likely to be relevant to social reasoning and learning across the life span.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T04:35:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211048487
       
  • Neoliberalism and the Ideological Construction of Equity Beliefs

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      Authors: Shahrzad Goudarzi, Vivienne Badaan, Eric D. Knowles
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers across disciplines, including psychology, have sought to understand how people evaluate the fairness of resource distributions. Equity, defined as proportionality of rewards to merit, has dominated the conceptualization of distributive justice in psychology; some scholars have cast it as the primary basis on which distributive decisions are made. The present article acts as a corrective to this disproportionate emphasis on equity. Drawing on findings from different subfields, we argue that people possess a range of beliefs about how valued resources should be allocated—beliefs that vary systematically across developmental stages, relationship types, and societies. By reinvigorating notions of distributive justice put forth by the field’s pioneers, we further argue that prescriptive beliefs concerning resource allocation are ideological formations embedded in socioeconomic and historical contexts. Fairness beliefs at the micro level are thus shaped by those beliefs’ macro-level instantiations. In a novel investigation of this process, we consider neoliberalism, the globally dominant socioeconomic model of the past 40 years. Using data from more than 160 countries, we uncover evidence that neoliberal economic structures shape equity-based distributive beliefs at the individual level. We conclude by advocating an integrative approach to the study of distributive justice that bridges micro- and macro-level analyses.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T03:27:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211053311
       
  • Toward a New Science of Psychedelic Social Psychology: The Effects of MDMA
           (Ecstasy) on Social Connection

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      Authors: Sonja Lyubomirsky
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Psychedelic science has generated hundreds of compelling published studies yet with relatively little impact on mainstream psychology. I propose that social psychologists have much to gain by incorporating psychoactive substances into their research programs. Here I use (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as an example because of its documented ability in experiments and clinical trials to promote bonding, love, and warmth. Social connection is a fundamental human need, yet researchers still possess few tools to effectively and durably boost it. MDMA allows investigators to isolate the psychological mechanisms—as well as brain pathways—underlying felt social connection and thus reveal what should be targeted in future (nondrug) studies. Accordingly, I introduce a conceptual model that presents the proximal psychological mechanisms stimulated by MDMA (lowered fear, increased sociability, more chemistry), as well as its potential long-term impacts (improved relationships, reduced loneliness, stronger therapeutic alliances). Finally, I discuss further questions (e.g., whether using MDMA for enhancing connection can backfire) and promising research areas for building a new science of psychedelic social psychology. In sum, psychopharmacological methods can be a useful approach to illuminate commonly studied social-psychological processes, such as connectedness, prejudice, or self, as well as inform interventions to directly improve people’s lives.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T03:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211055369
       
  • Understanding the Magnitude of Psychological Differences Between Women and
           Men Requires Seeing the Forest and the Trees

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      Authors: Alice H. Eagly, William Revelle
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Whether women and men are psychologically very similar or quite different is a contentious issue in psychological science. This article clarifies this issue by demonstrating that larger and smaller sex/gender differences can reflect differing ways of organizing the same data. For single psychological constructs, larger differences emerge from averaging multiple indicators that differ by sex/gender to produce scales of a construct’s overall typicality for women versus men. For example, averaging self-ratings on personality traits more typical of women or men yields much larger sex/gender differences on measures of the femininity and masculinity of personality. Sex/gender differences on such broad-gauge, thematic variables are large relative to differences on their component indicators. This increased effect magnitude for aggregated scales reflects gains in both their reliability and validity as indicators of sex/gender. In addition, in psychological domains such as vocational interests that are composed of many variables, at least some of which differ by sex/gender, the multivariate distance between women and men is typically larger than the differences on the component variables. These analyses encourage recognition of the interdependence of sex/gender similarity and difference in psychological data.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T03:09:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211046006
       
  • A Community-Embedded Implementation Model for Mental-Health Interventions:
           Reaching the Hardest to Reach

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      Authors: Eve S. Puffer, David Ayuku
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The mental-health-care treatment gap remains very large in low-resource communities, both within high-income countries and globally in low- and middle-income countries. Existing approaches for disseminating psychological interventions within health systems are not working well enough, and hard-to-reach, high-risk populations are often going unreached. Alternative implementation models are needed to expand access and to address the burden of mental-health disorders and risk factors at the family and community levels. In this article, we present empirically supported implementation strategies and propose an implementation model—the community-embedded model (CEM)—that integrates these approaches and situates them within social settings. Key elements of the model include (a) embedding in an existing, community-based social setting; (b) delivering prevention and treatment in tandem; (c) using multiproblem interventions; (d) delivering through lay providers within the social setting; and (e) facilitating relationships between community settings and external systems of care. We propose integrating these elements to maximize the benefits of each to improve clinical outcomes and sustainment of interventions. A case study illustrates the application of the CEM to the delivery of a family-based prevention and treatment intervention within the social setting of religious congregations in Kenya. The discussion highlights challenges and opportunities for applying the CEM across contexts and interventions.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T06:49:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211049362
       
  • Psychological Selfishness

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      Authors: Ryan W. Carlson, Chance Adkins, M. J. Crockett, Margaret S. Clark
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Selfishness is central to many theories of human morality, yet its psychological nature remains largely overlooked. Psychologists often draw on classical conceptions of selfishness from evolutionary biology (i.e., selfish gene theory), economics (i.e., rational self-interest), and philosophy (i.e., psychological egoism), but such characterizations offer limited insight into the psychology of selfishness. To address this gap, we propose a novel framework in which selfishness is recast as a psychological construction. From this view, selfishness is perceived in ourselves and others when we detect a situation-specific desire to benefit the self that disregards others’ desires and prevailing social expectations for the situation. We argue that detecting and deterring such psychological selfishness in both oneself and others is crucial in social life—facilitating the maintenance of social cohesion and close relationships. In addition, we show how using this psychological framework offers a richer understanding of the nature of human social behavior. Delineating a psychological construct of selfishness can promote coherence in interdisciplinary research on selfishness and provide insights for interventions to prevent or remediate the negative effects of selfishness.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T07:06:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211045692
       
  • Well-Being Science for Teaching and the General Public

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      Authors: William Tov, Derrick Wirtz, Kostadin Kushlev, Robert Biswas-Diener, Ed Diener
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Research on well-being has exploded in recent years to more than 55,000 relevant publications annually, making it difficult for psychologists—including key communicators such as textbook authors—to stay current with this field. Moreover, well-being is a daily concern among policymakers and members of the general public. Well-being science is relevant to the lives of students—illustrating the diverse methods used in the behavioral sciences, presenting highly replicated findings, and demonstrating the diversity of individuals and cultures. Therefore, in this article, we present eight major findings that teachers and authors should seriously consider in their coverage of this field. These topics include processes such as adaptation, influences such as income, the benefits of well-being, and cultural and societal diversity in well-being and its causes. We also examine how much these topics were covered in 15 of the most popular introductory psychology textbooks. Although some topics such as social relationships and well-being were discussed in nearly all textbooks, others were less frequently covered, including the validity of self-reported well-being, the effects of spending on happiness, and the impact of culture and society on well-being. We aim to ensure more complete coverage of this important area in psychology courses.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T07:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211046946
       
  • Measuring Racial Discrimination Remotely: A Contemporary Review of
           Unobtrusive Measures

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      Authors: Samantha J. Kellar, Erika V. Hall
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Social-science researchers have increasingly moved from conducting their studies in a face-to-face format to an online format. Although new and innovative remote platforms afford researchers generalizability and scale, many of these platforms also tend to solicit socially desirable responses. This pattern of socially desirable responding is evident in examinations of racial discrimination, in which participants are particularly determined to present themselves as ethical and moral. In the current article, we rectify the concern between remote platforms and inauthentic participant responses by reviewing unobtrusive measures of racial discrimination. First, we conceptualize unobtrusive measures as measurements that assess a participant’s discriminatory action without the participant’s knowledge that the specific discriminatory action is under observation. Next, we review the landscape of unobtrusive studies conducted within three broad categories—audit, helping, and friendly interaction—and discuss how these measures have changed over time. Finally, we discuss how to adapt classic face-to-face measures to remote platforms and provide recommendations for implementing unobtrusive measures into remote examinations of discrimination.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T03:10:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211045691
       
  • The Sweet Spot: When Children’s Developing Abilities, Brains, and
           Knowledge Make Them Better Learners Than Adults

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      Authors: Samantha Gualtieri, Amy S. Finn
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Cognitive development is marked by age-related improvements across a number of domains, as young children perform worse than their older counterparts on most tasks. However, there are cases in which young children, and even infants, outperform older children and adults. So when, and why, does being young sometimes confer an advantage' This article provides a comprehensive examination of the peculiar cases in which younger children perform better. First, we outline the specific instances in which younger is better across domains, including mastering language, using probabilistic information, detecting causal relations, remembering certain information, and even solving problems. We then examine how children’s reduced cognitive abilities, ongoing brain development, more limited prior knowledge, and heightened tendency to explore benefits their learning, reasoning, perception, and memory from a mechanistic perspective. We hold that considering all of these factors together is essential for understanding the ways in which children’s learning is unique and that science has much to learn from a careful consideration of childhood.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T08:21:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211045971
       
  • Where’s My Consciousness-Ometer' How to Test for the Presence and
           Complexity of Consciousness

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      Authors: Tam Hunt, Marissa Ericson, Jonathan Schooler
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Tools and tests for measuring the presence and complexity of consciousness are becoming available, but there is no established theoretical approach for what these tools are measuring. This article examines several categories of tests for making reasonable inferences about the presence and complexity of consciousness (defined as the capacity for phenomenal/subjective experience) and also suggests ways in which different theories of consciousness may be empirically distinguished. We label the various ways to measure consciousness the measurable correlates of consciousness (MCC) and include three subcategories in our taxonomy: (a) neural correlates of consciousness, (b) behavioral correlates of consciousness, and (c) creative correlates of consciousness. Finally, we reflect on how broader philosophical views about the nature of consciousness, such as materialism and panpsychism, may also be informed by the scientific process.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T10:01:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211029942
       
  • Kinds of Replication: Examining the Meanings of “Conceptual
           Replication” and “Direct Replication”

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      Authors: Maarten Derksen, Jill Morawski
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Although psychology’s recent crisis has been attributed to various scientific practices, it has come to be called a “replication crisis,” prompting extensive appraisals of this putatively crucial scientific practice. These have yielded disagreements over what kind of replication is to be preferred and what phenomena are being explored, yet the proposals are all grounded in a conventional philosophy of science. This article proposes another avenue that invites moving beyond a discovery metaphor of science to rethink research as enabling realities and to consider how empirical findings enact or perform a reality. An enactment perspective appreciates multiple, dynamic realities and science as producing different entities, enactments that ever encounter differences, uncertainties, and precariousness. The axioms of an enactment perspective are described and employed to more fully understand the two kinds of replication that predominate in the crisis disputes. Although the enactment perspective described here is a relatively recent development in philosophy of science and science studies, some of its core axioms are not new to psychology, and the article concludes by revisiting psychologists’ previous calls to apprehend the dynamism of psychological reality to appreciate how scientific practices actively and unavoidably participate in performativity of reality.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T08:32:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211041116
       
  • A Case for Translation From the Clinic to the Laboratory

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      Authors: M. Alexandra Kredlow, Lycia D. de Voogd, Elizabeth A. Phelps
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Laboratory procedures have been used for decades as analogues for clinical processes with the goal of improving our understanding of psychological treatments for emotional disorders and identifying strategies to make treatments more effective. This research has often focused on translation from the laboratory to the clinic. Although this approach has notable successes, it has not been seamless. There are many examples of strategies that work in the laboratory that fail to lead to improved outcomes when applied clinically. One possible reason for this gap between experimental and clinical research is a failure to focus on translation from the clinic to the laboratory. Here, we discuss potential benefits of translation from the clinic to the laboratory and provide examples of how this might be implemented. We first consider two well-established laboratory analogues (extinction and cognitive reappraisal), identify critical aspects of the related clinical procedures (exposure and cognitive restructuring) that are missing from these analogues, and propose variations to better capture the clinical process. Second, we discuss two clinical procedures that have more recently been brought into the laboratory (eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing and imagery rescripting). We conclude by highlighting potential implications of this proposed shift in focus for translational research.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T08:25:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211039852
       
  • The Pandemic as a Portal: Reimagining Psychological Science as Truly Open
           and Inclusive

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      Authors: Alison Ledgerwood, Sa-kiera Tiarra Jolynn Hudson, Neil A. Lewis, Keith B. Maddox, Cynthia L. Pickett, Jessica D. Remedios, Sapna Cheryan, Amanda B. Diekman, Natalia B. Dutra, Jin X. Goh, Stephanie A. Goodwin, Yuko Munakata, Danielle J. Navarro, Ivuoma N. Onyeador, Sanjay Srivastava, Clara L. Wilkins
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Psychological science is at an inflection point: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated inequalities that stem from our historically closed and exclusive culture. Meanwhile, reform efforts to change the future of our science are too narrow in focus to fully succeed. In this article, we call on psychological scientists—focusing specifically on those who use quantitative methods in the United States as one context for such conversations—to begin reimagining our discipline as fundamentally open and inclusive. First, we discuss whom our discipline was designed to serve and how this history produced the inequitable reward and support systems we see today. Second, we highlight how current institutional responses to address worsening inequalities are inadequate, as well as how our disciplinary perspective may both help and hinder our ability to craft effective solutions. Third, we take a hard look in the mirror at the disconnect between what we ostensibly value as a field and what we actually practice. Fourth and finally, we lead readers through a roadmap for reimagining psychological science in whatever roles and spaces they occupy, from an informal discussion group in a department to a formal strategic planning retreat at a scientific society.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T08:06:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211036654
       
  • A Psychology of Ideology: Unpacking the Psychological Structure of
           Ideological Thinking

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      Authors: Leor Zmigrod
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The psychological study of ideology has traditionally emphasized the content of ideological beliefs, guided by questions about what people believe, such as why people believe in omniscient gods or fascist worldviews. This theoretical focus has led to siloed subdisciplines separately dealing with political, religious, moral, and prejudiced attitudes. The fractionation has fostered a neglect of the cognitive structure of ideological worldviews and associated questions about why ideologies—in all their forms—are so compelling to the human mind. Here I argue that it is essential to consider the nature of ideological cognition across a multitude of ideologies. I offer a multidimensional, empirically tractable framework of ideological thinking, suggesting it can be conceptualized as a style of thinking that is rigid in its adherence to a doctrine and resistance to evidence-based belief-updating and favorably oriented toward an in-group and antagonistic to out-groups. The article identifies the subcomponents of ideological thinking and highlights that ideological thinking constitutes a meaningful psychological phenomenon that merits direct scholarly investigation and analysis. By emphasizing conceptual precision, methodological directions, and interdisciplinary integration across the political and cognitive sciences, the article illustrates the potential of this framework as a catalyst for developing a rigorous domain-general psychology of ideology.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T10:53:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211044140
       
  • Beyond Experiments

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      Authors: Ed Diener, Robert Northcott, Michael J. Zyphur, Stephen G. West
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      It is often claimed that only experiments can support strong causal inferences and therefore they should be privileged in the behavioral sciences. We disagree. Overvaluing experiments results in their overuse both by researchers and decision makers and in an underappreciation of their shortcomings. Neglect of other methods often follows. Experiments can suggest whether X causes Y in a specific experimental setting; however, they often fail to elucidate either the mechanisms responsible for an effect or the strength of an effect in everyday natural settings. In this article, we consider two overarching issues. First, experiments have important limitations. We highlight problems with external, construct, statistical-conclusion, and internal validity; replicability; and conceptual issues associated with simple X causes Y thinking. Second, quasi-experimental and nonexperimental methods are absolutely essential. As well as themselves estimating causal effects, these other methods can provide information and understanding that goes beyond that provided by experiments. A research program progresses best when experiments are not treated as privileged but instead are combined with these other methods.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T08:25:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211037670
       
  • The “Golden Age” of Behavior Genetics'

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      Authors: Evan Charney
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The search for genetic risk factors underlying the presumed heritability of all human behavior has unfolded in two phases. The first phase, characterized by candidate-gene-association (CGA) studies, has fallen out of favor in the behavior-genetics community, so much so that it has been referred to as a “cautionary tale.” The second and current iteration is characterized by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability estimates, and polygenic risk scores. This research is guided by the resurrection of, or reemphasis on, Fisher’s “infinite infinitesimal allele” model of the heritability of complex phenotypes, first proposed over 100 years ago. Despite seemingly significant differences between the two iterations, they are united in viewing the discovery of risk alleles underlying heritability as a matter of finding differences in allele frequencies. Many of the infirmities that beset CGA studies persist in the era of GWASs, accompanied by a host of new difficulties due to the human genome’s underlying complexities and the limitations of Fisher’s model in the postgenomics era.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T07:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211041602
       
  • Women Get Worse Sex: A Confound in the Explanation of Gender Differences
           in Sexuality

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      Authors: Terri D. Conley, Verena Klein
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Gender differences in sexuality have gained considerable attention both within and outside of the scientific community. We argue that one of the main unacknowledged reasons for these differences is simply that women experience substantially worse sex than men do. Thus, in examinations of the etiology of gender differences in sexuality, a confound has largely been unacknowledged: Women and men are treated to different experiences of what is called “sexuality” and “having sex.” We discuss four arenas in which women’s experience of sexuality may often be worse than men’s: (a) anatomical differences, (b) sexual violence, (c) stigma, and (d) masculine cultures of sexuality. Then we consider how each disparity might explain well-known gender differences in sexuality.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T07:59:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211041598
       
  • Outside the “Cultural Binary”: Understanding Why Latin American
           Collectivist Societies Foster Independent Selves

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      Authors: Kuba Krys, Vivian L. Vignoles, Igor de Almeida, Yukiko Uchida
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Cultural psychologists often treat binary contrasts of West versus East, individualism versus collectivism, and independent versus interdependent self-construal as interchangeable, thus assuming that collectivist societies promote interdependent rather than independent models of selfhood. At odds with this assumption, existing data indicate that Latin American societies emphasize collectivist values at least as strongly as Confucian East Asian societies, but they emphasize most forms of independent self-construal at least as strongly as Western societies. We argue that these seemingly “anomalous” findings can be explained by societal differences in modes of subsistence (herding vs. rice farming), colonial histories (frontier settlement), cultural heterogeneity, religious heritage, and societal organization (relational mobility, loose norms, honor logic) and that they cohere with other indices of contemporary psychological culture. We conclude that the common view linking collectivist values with interdependent self-construal needs revision. Global cultures are diverse, and researchers should pay more attention to societies beyond “the West” and East Asia. Our contribution concurrently illustrates the value of learning from unexpected results and the crucial importance of exploratory research in psychological science.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T07:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211029632
       
  • Significance-Quest Theory

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      Authors: Arie W. Kruglanski, Erica Molinario, Katarzyna Jasko, David Webber, N. Pontus Leander, Antonio Pierro
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Even though the motivation to feel worthy, to be respected, and to matter to others has been identified for centuries by scholars, the antecedents, consequences, and conditions of its activation have not been systematically analyzed or integrated. The purpose of this article is to offer such an integration. We feature a motivational construct, the quest for significance, defined as the need to have social worth. This need is typically fulfilled by a sense of measuring up to the values one shares with significant others. Our significance-quest theory (SQT) assumes that the need for significance is universal, whereas the means of satisfying it depend on the sociocultural context in which one’s values are embedded. Those means are identified in a narrative supported and validated by one’s network, or reference group. The quest for significance is activated by significance loss and/or the opportunity for significance gain. It motivates behavior that aims to affirm, realize, and/or show commitment to an important value. The SQT is consistent with large bodies of prior research and supported by novel studies in multiple laboratory and field settings. It transcends prior understandings and offers guidance for further study of this essential human motivation.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T07:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211034825
       
  • Balancing the Freedom–Security Trade-Off During Crises and Disasters

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      Authors: Nathan N. Cheek, Elena Reutskaja, Barry Schwartz
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      During crises and disasters, such as hurricanes, terrorist threats, or pandemics, policymakers must often increase security at the cost of freedom. Psychological science, however, has shown that the restriction of freedom may have strong negative consequences for behavior and health. We suggest that psychology can inform policy both by elucidating some negative consequences of lost freedom (e.g., depression or behavioral reactance) and by revealing strategies to address them. We propose four interlocking principles that can help policymakers restore the freedom–security balance. Careful consideration of the psychology of freedom can help policymakers develop policies that most effectively promote public health, safety, and well-being when crises and disasters strike.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T09:39:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211034499
       
  • Toward a Psychology of Consent

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      Authors: Vanessa K. Bohns
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Consent is central to many of today’s most pressing social issues: What counts as sexual assault' Whom are the police allowed to search' Can they use people’s data like that' Yet despite the fact that consent is in many ways an inherently psychological phenomenon, it has not been a core topic of study in psychology. Although domain-specific research on consent—most commonly, informed consent and sexual consent—is regularly published in specialty journals (e.g., methods and sex-research journals), consent has been largely ignored as a generalizable psychological phenomenon. This has meant that consent has been mostly excluded from “mainstream” psychology as a core topic of study. This omission is particularly striking given that psychologists have paid broad attention to related constructs, such as compliance, obedience, persuasion, free will, and autonomy, and that scholars in other fields, such as law and philosophy, have paid considerably more attention to the topic of consent, despite its uniquely psychological qualities. In this article, I argue that psychologists should embrace consent—in particular, the subjective experience of consent—as a core topic of study.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T07:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211040807
       
  • The Limitations of Social Science as the Arbiter of Blame: An Argument for
           Abandoning Retribution

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      Authors: Alexa M. Tullett
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      The U.S. criminal-justice system has consequentialist and retributivist goals: It considers what is best for society as well as how to punish people in a manner proportional to their crimes. In deciding on the degree of retribution that is called for, the system attempts to determine the blameworthiness—or culpability—of the people involved, weighing factors such as their ability to think rationality, their freedom from coercion, and whether their actions were out of character. These determinations hinge on social-scientific research that is not strong enough to justify such decisions. In this article, I challenge the social-scientific basis for determining culpability on three grounds: replicability, generalizability, and inferential strength. In light of the limitations of this research, I argue that the criminal-justice system should abandon its retributive goals and pursue a more consequentialist—and more reparative—form of justice.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T08:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211033284
       
  • Adaptive Empathy: A Model for Learning Empathic Responses in Response to
           Feedback

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      Authors: Simone G. Shamay-Tsoory, Uri Hertz
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      Empathy is usually deployed in social interactions. Nevertheless, common measures and examinations of empathy study this construct in isolation from the person in distress. In this article we seek to extend the field of examination to include both empathizer and target to determine whether and how empathic responses are affected by feedback and learned through interaction. Building on computational approaches in feedback-based adaptations (e.g., no feedback, model-free and model-based learning), we propose a framework for understanding how empathic responses are learned on the basis of feedback. In this framework, adaptive empathy, defined as the ability to adapt one’s empathic responses, is a central aspect of empathic skills and can provide a new dimension to the evaluation and investigation of empathy. By extending existing neural models of empathy, we suggest that adaptive empathy may be mediated by interactions between the neural circuits associated with valuation, shared distress, observation-execution, and mentalizing. Finally, we propose that adaptive empathy should be considered a prominent facet of empathic capabilities with the potential to explain empathic behavior in health and psychopathology.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T06:58:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211031926
       
  • Mental Health During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review and
           Recommendations for Moving Forward

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      Authors: Lara B. Aknin, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Elizabeth W. Dunn, Daisy E. Fancourt, Elkhonon Goldberg, John F. Helliwell, Sarah P. Jones, Elie Karam, Richard Layard, Sonja Lyubomirsky, Andrew Rzepa, Shekhar Saxena, Emily M. Thornton, Tyler J. VanderWeele, Ashley V. Whillans, Jamil Zaki, Ozge Karadag, Yanis Ben Amor
      Abstract: Perspectives on Psychological Science, Ahead of Print.
      COVID-19 has infected millions of people and upended the lives of most humans on the planet. Researchers from across the psychological sciences have sought to document and investigate the impact of COVID-19 in myriad ways, causing an explosion of research that is broad in scope, varied in methods, and challenging to consolidate. Because policy and practice aimed at helping people live healthier and happier lives requires insight from robust patterns of evidence, this article provides a rapid and thorough summary of high-quality studies available through early 2021 examining the mental-health consequences of living through the COVID-19 pandemic. Our review of the evidence indicates that anxiety, depression, and distress increased in the early months of the pandemic. Meanwhile, suicide rates, life satisfaction, and loneliness remained largely stable throughout the first year of the pandemic. In response to these insights, we present seven recommendations (one urgent, two short-term, and four ongoing) to support mental health during the pandemic and beyond.
      Citation: Perspectives on Psychological Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T02:23:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17456916211029964
       
 
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