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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 983 journals)
Showing 601 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
New School Psychology Bulletin     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
OA Autism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Occupational Health Science     Hybrid Journal  
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture     Open Access  
Open Journal of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Neuroimaging Journal     Open Access  
Open Psychology Journal     Open Access  
Organisational and Social Dynamics: An International Journal of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Organizational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)     Open Access  
Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Papeles del Psicólogo     Open Access  
Pastoral Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pensamiento Psicologico     Open Access  
Pensando Familias     Open Access  
Pensando Psicología     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Perception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Persona     Open Access  
Persona : Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Persona Studies     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Personnel Assessment and Decisions     Open Access  
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectives on Behavior Science     Hybrid Journal  
Perspectives On Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Perspectives Psy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Phenomenology & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Philosophical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
physiopraxis     Hybrid Journal  
PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Poiésis     Open Access  
Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Porn Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
PPmP - Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Practice Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie     Hybrid Journal  
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century     Open Access  
Professional Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psic : Revista de Psicologia da Vetor Editora     Open Access  
Psico     Open Access  
Psicoanalisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicobiettivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicoespacios     Open Access  
Psicogente     Open Access  
Psicol?gica Journal     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia : Teoria e Prática     Open Access  
Psicologia da Educação     Open Access  
Psicologia della salute     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicología desde el Caribe     Open Access  
Psicologia di Comunità. Gruppi, ricerca-azione, modelli formativi     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia e Saber Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia e Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Psicologia em Pesquisa     Open Access  
Psicologia em Revista     Open Access  
Psicologia Ensino & Formação     Open Access  
Psicologia Hospitalar     Open Access  
Psicologia Iberoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicologia para América Latina     Open Access  
Psicologia USP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad     Open Access  
Psicologia, Saúde e Doenças     Open Access  
Psicooncología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psicoperspectivas     Open Access  
Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane     Full-text available via subscription  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
Psikohumaniora : Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi     Open Access  
Psisula : Prosiding Berkala Psikologi     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Psych     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PsyCh Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PSYCH up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psych. Pflege Heute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychê     Open Access  
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychiatrie et violence     Open Access  
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatrische Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 357)
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis, Self and Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychoanalytic Dialogues: The International Journal of Relational Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychoanalytic Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Psychoanalytic Review The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Psychodynamic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychologia : Advances de la Disciplina     Open Access  
Psychologica     Open Access  
Psychologica Belgica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Psychological Perspectives: A Semiannual Journal of Jungian Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Psychological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Psychological Science and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science and Education psyedu.ru     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Science In the Public Interest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Psychological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychological Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Psychologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychologische Rundschau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology     Open Access  
Psychology & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychology and Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology and Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal  
Psychology and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychology in Russia: State of the Art     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology in Society     Open Access  
Psychology Learning & Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Consciousness : Theory, Research, and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Language and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Psychology of Leaders and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Psychology of Men and Masculinity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Psychology of Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Psychology of Popular Media Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Psychology of Women Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychology Research and Behavior Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Psychology, Community & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Psychology, Health & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Psychometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychomusicology : Music, Mind, and Brain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Psychopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
psychopraxis. neuropraxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychosomatic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychosomatic Medicine and General Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Psychotherapeut     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Psychotherapy and Politics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Psychotherapy in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Psychotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
PsychTech & Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Psyecology - Bilingual Journal of Environmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psyke & Logos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psykhe (Santiago)     Open Access  
Quaderni di Gestalt     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderns de Psicologia     Open Access  
Qualitative Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Qualitative Research in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Quality and User Experience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quantitative Methods for Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Reading Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rehabilitation Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Religion, Brain & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
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Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.999
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 148  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-1672 - ISSN (Online) 1552-7433
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Deontology and Utilitarianism in Real Life: A Set of Moral Dilemmas Based
           on Historic Events

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anita Körner, Roland Deutsch
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Moral dilemmas are frequently used to examine psychological processes that drive decisions between adhering to deontological norms and optimizing the outcome. However, commonly used dilemmas are generally unrealistic and confound moral principle and (in)action so that results obtained with these dilemmas might not generalize to other situations. In the present research, we introduce new dilemmas that are based on real-life events. In two studies (a European student sample and a North American MTurk sample, total N = 789), we show that the new factual dilemmas were perceived to be more realistic and less absurd than commonly used dilemmas. In addition, factual dilemmas induced higher participant engagement. From this, we draw the preliminary conclusion that factual dilemmas are more suitable for investigating moral cognition. Moreover, factual dilemmas can be used to examine the generalizability of previous results concerning action (vs. inaction) and concerning a wider range of deontological norms.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T04:46:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221103058
       
  • Strategic Mindsets and Support for Social Change: Impact Mindset Explains
           Support for Black Lives Matter Across Racial Groups

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      Authors: Preeti Vani, Shilaan Alzahawi, Jennifer E. Dannals, Nir Halevy
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How does the self-relevance of a social movement shape individuals’ engagement with it' We examined the decision-making processes that underlie support for Black Lives Matter (BLM) among Black, Hispanic, Asian, and White Americans. We find significant between-group differences in levels of support for BLM, both in terms of past behavior (Study 1) and in terms of future intentions to support the movement (Study 2). These differences notwithstanding, thinking about how one’s decisions impact others - which we label impact mindset - explains support for BLM across racial groups, cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally (over 8 months later). Our findings underscore the equivalence of the impact mindset construct across racial groups and its predictive power in the context of BLM. We conclude that, although the struggle for racial justice has different meanings for different racial groups, the same mindset underlies both in-group advocacy and allyship in the context of BLM.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T04:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221099710
       
  • Individual Differences in Implicit Bias Can Be Measured Reliably by
           Administering the Same Implicit Association Test Multiple Times

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      Authors: Thomas P. Carpenter, Alexandra Goedderz, Calvin K. Lai
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The use of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of individual differences is stymied by insufficient test–retest reliability for assessing trait-level constructs. We assess the degree to which the IAT measures individual differences and test a method to improve its validity as a “trait” measure: aggregating across IATs. Across three studies, participants (total n = 960) completed multiple IATs in the same session or across multiple sessions. Using latent-variable models, we found that half of the variance in IAT scores reflects individual differences. Aggregating across multiple IATs approximately doubled the variance explained with explicit measures compared with a single IAT D-score. These findings show that IAT scores contain considerable noise and that a single IAT is inadequate to estimate trait bias. However, aggregation across multiple administrations can correct this and better estimate individual differences in implicit attitudes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T04:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221099372
       
  • Spontaneous Trait Inferences From Behavior: A Systematic Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Antonia Bott, Larissa Brockmann, Ivo Denneberg, Espen Henken, Niclas Kuper, Felix Kruse, Juliane Degner
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that people spontaneously infer traits from behavioral information, thus forming impressions of actors’ personalities. Such spontaneous trait inferences (STI) have been examined in a wide range of studies in the last four decades. Here, we provide the first systematic meta-analysis of this vast literature. We included data from k = 86 publications, with overall N = 13,630 participants. The average STI effect was moderate to large (dz = 0.59) and showed substantial heterogeneity. The type of experimental paradigm significantly moderated the STI effect size, with larger effects in long-term memory–based paradigms compared with working memory–based paradigms. Generally, STI effects were robust to various methodological variations and also to potential concerns of publication bias. Contrary to expectations, cultural background (independent vs. interdependent) did not emerge as a significant moderator of STI effects. We discuss these findings with respect to their theoretical relevance and derive implications for future research and theorizing.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T03:51:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221100336
       
  • A Bias Toward Kindness Goals in Performance Feedback to Women (vs. Men)

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      Authors: Lily Jampol, Aneeta Rattan, Elizabeth Baily Wolf
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      While research has documented positivity biases in workplace feedback to women versus men, this phenomenon is not fully understood. We take a motivational perspective, theorizing that the gender stereotype of warmth shapes feedback givers’ goals, amplifying the importance placed on kindness when giving critical feedback to a woman versus a man. We found support for this hypothesis in a survey of professionals giving real developmental feedback (Study 1, N = 4,842 raters evaluating N = 423 individuals) and five experiments with MBA students, lab participants, and managers (Studies 2–5, N = 1,589). Across studies, people prioritized the goal of kindness more when they gave, or anticipated giving, critical feedback to a woman versus a man. Studies 1, 3, and 5 suggest that this kindness bias relates to gendered positivity biases, and Studies 4a and 4b tested potential mechanisms and supported an indirect effect through warmth. We discuss implications for the study of motivation and workplace gender bias.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T03:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221088402
       
  • Emotion Appraisals and Coping with Secrets

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      Authors: Zaijia Liu, Elise K. Kalokerinos, Michael L. Slepian
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Secrecy is both common and consequential. Recent work suggests that personal experiences with secrets (i.e., mind-wandering to them outside of concealment contexts), rather than concealment (within conversations), can explain the harms of secrecy. Recent work has also demonstrated that secrecy is associated with emotions that center on self-evaluation—shame and guilt. These emotions may help explain the harms of secrecy and provide a point of intervention to improve coping with secrecy. Four studies with 800 participants keeping over 10,500 secrets found that shame surrounding a secret is associated with lower perceived coping efficacy and reduced well-being. Moreover, shifting appraisals away from shame improved perceptions of efficacy in coping with secrets, which was linked with higher well-being. These studies suggest that emotions surrounding secrets can harm well-being and highlight avenues for intervention.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T03:48:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221085377
       
  • Connection Heals Wounds: Feeling Listened to Reduces Speakers’
           Loneliness Following a Social Rejection Disclosure

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      Authors: Guy Itzchakov, Netta Weinstein, Dvori Saluk, Moty Amar
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Memories of rejection contribute to feeling lonely. However, high-quality listening that conveys well-meaning attention and understanding when speakers discuss social rejection may help them to reconnect. Speakers may experience less loneliness because they feel close and connected (relatedness) to the listener and because listening supports self-congruent expression (autonomy). Five experiments (total N = 1,643) manipulated listening during visualized (Studies 1, 4, 5) and actual (Studies 2, 3) conversations. We used different methods (video vignettes; in-person; computer-mediated; recall; written scenarios) to compare high-quality with regular (all studies) and poor (Study 1) listening. Findings across studies showed that high-quality listening reduced speakers’ state loneliness after they shared past experiences of social rejection. Parallel mediation analyses indicated that both feeling related to the listener and autonomy satisfaction (particularly its self-congruence component; Study 5) mediated the effect of listening on loneliness. These results provide novel insights into the hitherto unexplored effect of listening on state loneliness.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T09:48:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221100369
       
  • Connecting Attitude Position and Function: The Role of Self-Esteem

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      Authors: Thomas I. Vaughan-Johnston, Devin I. Fowlie, Jill A. Jacobson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Attitude position and function often are discussed as though they are distinct aspects of attitudes, but scholars have become increasingly interested in how they may interface. We extend existing work showing that people view their positive attitudes as more self-defining than their negative attitudes (i.e., the positivity effect). All datasets support that the positivity effect emerged most strongly among high self-esteem individuals and was attenuated, eliminated, or even reversed among low self-esteem individuals. Furthermore, Study 4 uses a broad array of individual difference measures to triangulate that the higher self-enhancement motivation associated with high self-esteem, rather than merely the positive self-worth of high self-esteem people, is responsible for moderating the positivity effect. In sum, the present work establishes boundary conditions for an important phenomenon in the attitudes literature, develops understanding of the far-ranging implications of trait self-esteem, and illuminates the psychological motivations that connect attitude position and function.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T09:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221100866
       
  • Perceiving People With Physical Disabilities as Overcoming Adversity Warps
           Mind Perception

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      Authors: Mattea Sim, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across six studies, we tested how people with physical disabilities were ascribed mental faculties. People with physical disabilities were seen as more capable of mental agency (e.g., thinking), but not more capable of experience (e.g., pain), compared to nondisabled people (Study 1). People with physical disabilities were also seen as more capable of supernatural mental agency (e.g., seeing the future, reading minds; Study 2). Believing that people with physical disabilities were more mentally agentic than nondisabled people was unrelated to Beliefs in a Just World (Study 3) but was related to beliefs about hardship (Study 4). Narratives of overcoming adversity, common in portrayals of the disabled community, increased the perceived mental sophistication of people with physical disabilities (Study 5). Finally, hardship narratives also affected helping behavior toward people with physical disabilities (Study 6). Thus, hardship stories surrounding individuals with disabilities may contribute to beliefs that they have particularly sophisticated minds.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T10:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221099378
       
  • The Progressive Values Scale: Assessing the Ideological Schism on the Left

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      Authors: Travis Proulx, Vlad Costin, Elena Magazin, Natalia Zarzeczna, Geoffrey Haddock
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Progressivism has increasingly challenged traditional liberalism as the dominant influence within left-wing ideology. Across four studies, we developed a measure—the Progressive Values Scale (PVS)—that characterizes distinctly progressive values within the left-wing. In Study 1, left-wing participants evaluated divisive issues, with four scale factors emerging. In Study 2, we confirmed this factor structure and included a battery of personality and values measures to explore individual differences among those who maintain a progressive worldview. In Study 3, we achieved final confirmation of the factor structure and validated the ability of the PVS to assess a distinctly progressive perspective, insofar as progressives generated prototypical faces for Liberals and Conservatives that were markedly distinct from those generated by traditional liberals. In Study 4, we distinguished the PVS from measures of left-wing authoritarianism and demonstrated that it is a better predictor of progressive political preferences and social judgments.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T06:38:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221097529
       
  • Effects of Mass Shootings on Mental Illness Stigma in the United States

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      Authors: Miranda L. Beltzer, Robert G. Moulder, Casey Baker, Kara Comer, Bethany A. Teachman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although the vast majority of people with mental illness (PWMI) are not violent, Americans tend to think they are more dangerous than the general population. Because negative media portrayals may contribute to stigma, we used time-series analyses to examine changes in the public’s perceived dangerousness of PWMI around six mass shootings whose perpetrators were reported to have a mental illness. From 2011 to 2019, 38,094 U.S. participants completed an online study assessing implicit and explicit perceived dangerousness of PWMI. There were large, upward spikes in perceived dangerousness the week of the Sandy Hook mass shooting that were relatively short-lived. However, there was not a consistent pattern of effects for other events analyzed, and any other spikes observed were smaller. Effects tended to be larger for explicit versus implicit perceived dangerousness. Sandy Hook seemed to temporarily worsen perceived dangerousness of PWMI, but this pattern was not observed for other mass shootings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T07:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221097180
       
  • Dismissing Attachment and Global and Daily Indicators of Subjective
           Well-Being: An Experience Sampling Approach

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      Authors: Keely A. Dugan, Faaiza Khan, R. Chris Fraley
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research examined whether a dismissing attachment style (i.e., being high in attachment avoidance and low in attachment anxiety) is a risk factor for low subjective well-being (SWB). Specifically, we examined the associations between dismissing attachment and two indicators of SWB: global life satisfaction and daily affect. Self-reports of attachment and overall life satisfaction were collected from 257 adults at an initial lab session. Afterward, experience sampling methodology was used to gather repeated measures of positive and negative affect, as well as social context, from the sample for 8 days. Our findings indicate that, on average, dismissing people reported fairly modest levels of overall life satisfaction. Moreover, they experienced relatively low levels of both negative affect and positive affect across the 8-day study period. Overall, our results suggest that dismissing people have a “muted” or dull emotional life.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T12:10:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221089781
       
  • Cultural Differences in Rumination and Psychological Correlates: The Role
           of Attribution

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      Authors: Jeong Ha (Steph) Choi, Yuri Miyamoto
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Cross-cultural research suggests that rumination may have weaker maladaptive effects in Eastern than in Western cultural contexts. This study examines a mechanism underlying cultural differences in mental health correlates of rumination from sociocultural cognitive perspective. We propose that cultures differ in how people attribute rumination, which can lead to cultural differences in the link between rumination and mental health correlates. We developed the Attribution of Rumination scale, tested cultural differences (Study 1), and examined its relationship with theoretically related constructs (Study 2). In Study 3, self-doubt attribution moderated the association between rumination and mental health, partly explaining cultural differences in the rumination–mental health link. Study 4 replicated self-doubt attribution moderating the link between rumination and mental health among Asians. Furthermore, greater exposure to American culture was associated with self-doubt attribution. This work provides a novel approach to understanding cultural differences in the association between rumination and negative psychological correlates.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T12:06:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221089061
       
  • Intolerance of Transgressive Protest Actions: The Differential Roles of
           Deontological and Utilitarian Morality

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      Authors: Maykel Verkuyten, Levi Adelman, Kumar Yogeeswaran
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current research examines intolerance of protest actions by focusing on two major questions: (a) How intolerant are people of transgressive protest actions of their least-liked versus most-liked groups' and (b) how do individual differences in deontological and utilitarian moral predisposition relate to intolerance of transgressive protest actions by these two groups' In two survey-embedded experiments using nationally representative samples from two West European countries (Germany, Netherlands), we found that people were overwhelmingly intolerant of morally transgressive protest actions by both their most-liked and least-liked groups, although slightly less so for the former. In addition, deontological moral predisposition was related to increased intolerance of protest actions regardless of whether it was committed by a most-liked or least-liked group. Individual difference in utilitarian moral predisposition was related to increased acceptance of protest actions regardless of group, but especially when the actions were perceived as serving the greater good.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T11:53:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221099709
       
  • Don’t Go Chasing Narcissists: A Relational-Based and Multiverse
           Perspective on Leader Narcissism and Follower Engagement Using a Machine
           Learning Approach

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      Authors: Dritjon Gruda, Dimitra Karanatsiou, Paul Hanges, Jennifer Golbeck, Athena Vakali
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although research interest in leader narcissism has been on the rise over the past few years, prior literature has predominantly discussed leader narcissism from a leader-centric perspective. In this article, we provide a relational-based perspective of leader narcissism by examining the interaction between follower personality traits and leader narcissism on follower engagement in an online context. We combine a machine learning (ML) approach and multiverse analysis to predict the personality traits of a large sample of leaders and engaged followers across 18 created multiverses and analyze hypothesized interactions using multilevel regressions, also accounting for leader gender moderation effects. We find that the interaction between leader narcissism and follower agreeableness and follower neuroticism positively predicts follower engagement, whereas the interaction between leader narcissism and follower openness negatively predicts follower engagement. In addition, we find that leader gender plays an important moderating role. Limitations and implications are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T01:59:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221094976
       
  • Collaborative Cheating in Hierarchical Teams: Effects of Incentive
           Structure and Leader Behavior on Subordinate Behavior and Perceptions of
           Leaders

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      Authors: Simon Tobias Karg, Minjae Kim, Panagiotis Mitkidis, Liane Young
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What facilitates collaborative cheating in hierarchical teams, and what are its outcomes for those engaged' In two preregistered studies (N = 724), we investigated how subordinates are influenced by leaders signaling a willingness to engage in collaborative cheating, and how subordinates perceive such leaders. Participants performed a task in which they could either report their performance honestly, or cheat for financial gain. Each participant was assigned a leader who could choose to check the report’s veracity. In Study 1, leaders who checked less often were perceived as more moral, trustworthy, competent, and psychologically closer than leaders who checked more often. This trustworthiness bonus translated to investments in a subsequent trust game. Study 2 revealed that these relationship benefits specifically arise for collaborative cheating, compared to competitive cheating (at the leader’s expense). We conclude that collaborative cheating in subordinate–leader dyads strengthens in-group bonds, bringing people closer together and cultivating trust.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T01:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221090859
       
  • Religious Afterlife Beliefs Decrease Behavioral Avoidance of Symbols of
           Mortality

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      Authors: Xiaoyue Fan, Tianyu Gao, Siyang Luo, Michele J. Gelfand, Shihui Han
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      An astonishing cultural phenomenon is where, far away from or close to a city center, people in different societies localize cemeteries that function as both sites of memory of lost ones and symbols of mortality. Yet a psychological account of such differences in behavioral responses to symbols of mortality is lacking. Across five studies (N = 1,590), we tested a psychological model that religious afterlife beliefs decrease behavioral avoidance of symbols of mortality (BASM) by developing and validating a word-position task for quantifying BASM. We showed evidence that religious believers, including Christians, Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists, exhibited decreased BASM relative to nonbelievers. We also provide evidence for a causal relationship between religious afterlife beliefs and reduced BASM. Our findings provide new insight into the functional role of religious afterlife beliefs in modulating human avoidance behavior in response to symbols of mortality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T05:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221096281
       
  • Differentiating Between Belief-Indicative and Status-Indicative Groups
           Improves Predictions of Intergroup Attitudes

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      Authors: Lusine Grigoryan, Bethan H. Jones, J. Christopher Cohrs, Klaus Boehnke, Matthew J. Easterbrook
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Ingroup bias is often treated as the default outcome of intergroup comparisons. We argue that the mechanisms of impression formation depend on what information people infer from groups. We differentiate between belief-indicative groups that are more informative of beliefs and affect attitudes through ingroup bias and status-indicative groups that are more informative of status and affect attitudes through a preference for higher status. In a cross-cultural factorial experiment (Ntotal = 1,281), we demonstrate that when information about targets’ multiple group memberships is available, belief-indicative groups affect attitudes via ingroup bias, whereas status-indicative groups—via preference for higher status. These effects were moderated by social-structural context. In two follow-up studies (Ntotal = 451), we develop and validate a measure of belief- and status-indicativeness (BISI) of groups. BISI showed expected correlations with related constructs of entitativity and essentialism. Belief-indicativeness of groups was a better predictor of ingroup bias than entitativity and essentialism.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T06:14:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221092852
       
  • Protected by the Emotions of the Group: Perceived Emotional Fit and
           Disadvantaged Group Members’ Activist Burnout

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      Authors: Daan Vandermeulen, Siwar Hasan Aslih, Eric Shuman, Eran Halperin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Psychological processes that hamper activism, such as activist burnout, threaten social change. We suggest that perceived emotional fit (i.e., perceiving to experience similar emotions as other disadvantaged group members) may buffer activist burnout by mitigating the deleterious effects of stressors that are associated with partaking in collective action. We investigated the relation between perceived emotional fit and activist burnout using three-wave longitudinal survey data of Palestinians in the context of the Palestinian–Israeli conflict. We hypothesized that both higher general tendencies to fit emotionally with the ingroup (general perceived emotional fit) and increases over time in perceived emotional fit (change perceived emotional fit) would relate negatively to activist burnout. Supporting our hypotheses, both aspects of emotional fit were associated with lower activist burnout, even when controlling for classical predictors of collective action. This research highlights perceived emotional fit as an additional dimension to the role of emotions for sustainable collective action.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T08:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221092853
       
  • Gratitude Is Morally Sensitive

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      Authors: Hongbo Yu, Yubo Zhou, Anne-Marie Nussberger
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Helping acts, however well intended and beneficial, sometimes involve immoral means or immoral helpers. Here, we explore whether help recipients consider moral evaluations in their appraisals of gratitude, a possibility that has been neglected by existing accounts of gratitude. Participants felt less grateful and more uneasy when offered immoral help (Study 1, N = 150), and when offered morally neutral help by an immoral helper (Study 2, N = 172). In response to immoral help or helpers, participants were less likely to accept the help and less willing to strengthen their relationship with the helper even when they accepted it. Study 3 (N = 276) showed that recipients who felt grateful when offered immoral help were perceived as less likable, less moral, and less suitable as close relationship partners than those who felt uneasy by observers. Our results demonstrate that gratitude is morally sensitive and suggest this might be socially adaptive.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T02:40:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221092273
       
  • Negotiator Consistency, Counterpart Consistency, and Reciprocity in
           Behavior Across Partners: A Round-Robin Study

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      Authors: Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Jared R. Curhan, Noah Eisenkraft
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research takes a new perspective on the long-standing mystery of personality in negotiation, which has seen decades of null and inconsistent findings. Grounded in interactionist theories defining personality as consistency in behaviors when placed multiple times in the same situation, the investigation examines consistency in individuals’ behavioral profiles across negotiation partners. Such consistency supports efforts to identify enduring dispositions that can predict objective and subjective outcomes. A comprehensive set of behaviors related to negotiation was coded in a round-robin study using groups of four negotiators who each took turns working with each other person. Analysis using Kenny’s Social Relations Model revealed evidence for extensive actor effects (indicating consistency in negotiators’ behavior), as well as moderate partner effects (indicating consistency in counterparts’ behavior) and dyadic reciprocity (indicating similarity in the behavior of negotiators and counterparts). We conclude with optimism for investigating the effects of personality in negotiation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T04:36:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086197
       
  • The Unintentional Nonconformist: Habits Promote Resistance to Social
           influence

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      Authors: Asaf Mazar, Guy Itzchakov, Alicea Lieberman, Wendy Wood
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research tests a novel source of resistance to social influence—the automatic repetition of habit. In three experiments, participants with strong habits failed to align their behavior with others. Specifically, participants with strong habits to drink water in a dining hall or snack while working did not mimic others’ drinking or eating, whereas those with weak habits conformed. Similarly, participants with strong habits did not shift expectations that they would act in line with descriptive norms, whereas those with weak habits reported more normative behavioral expectations. This habit resistance was not due to a failure to perceive influence: Both strong and weak habit participants’ recalled others’ behavior accurately, and it was readily accessible. Furthermore, strong habit participants shifted their normative beliefs but not behavior in line with descriptive norms. Thus, habits create behavioral resistance despite people’s recognition and acceptance of social influence.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T09:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086177
       
  • People See Political Opponents as More Stupid Than Evil

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      Authors: Rachel Hartman, Neil Hester, Kurt Gray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Affective polarization is a rising threat to political discourse and democracy. Public figures have expressed that “conservatives think liberals are stupid, and liberals think conservatives are evil.” However, four studies (N = 1,660)—including a representative sample—reveal evidence that both sides view political opponents as more unintelligent than immoral. Perceiving the other side as “more stupid than evil” occurs both in general judgments (Studies 1, 3, and 4) and regarding specific issues (Study 2). Study 4 also examines “meta-perceptions” of how Democrats and Republicans disparage one another, revealing that people correctly perceive that both Democrats and Republicans see each other as more unintelligent than immoral, although they exaggerate the extent of this negativity. These studies clarify the way everyday partisans view each other, an important step in designing effective interventions to reduce political animosity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:41:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221089451
       
  • To Lead, or to Follow' How Self-Uncertainty and the Dark Triad of
           Personality Influence Leadership Motivation

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      Authors: Laura Guillén, Philippe Jacquart, Michael A. Hogg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Under uncertainty, leaders who possess dark triad personality traits seem able to attain leadership positions. We draw on uncertainty-identity theory and dark triad research to explore the effect of self-uncertainty on leadership motivation. Uncertainty-identity theory predicts that people can reduce self-uncertainty by identifying with groups and following their leaders, which suggests that self-uncertainty reduces people’s own leadership motivation. However, individuals high in dark triad traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) have such a powerful drive for dominance over others that their leadership motivation may be unaffected by self-uncertainty. To test these predictions, we conducted four studies (Ns = 2,641, 421, 513, and 400). We found that self-uncertainty reduced leadership motivation for individuals low in the dark triad. In contrast, those high in the dark triad had an elevated leadership motivation that remained unaltered when they were self-uncertain. These effects were mediated by participants’ negative affect. We discuss the implications of these findings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:38:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086771
       
  • The Effects of Partner Extraversion and Agreeableness on Trust

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      Authors: Olga Stavrova, Anthony M. Evans, Ilja van Beest
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research has documented the social benefits (i.e., higher popularity and liking) of extraversion and agreeableness. Do these positive reputational consequences extend to social dilemma situations that require trust' We found that people do not trust extraverts more than introverts. Instead, people’s trust decisions are guided by their partner’s level of agreeableness. In a trust game (Studies 1 and 2), individuals were more likely to trust a partner who was described as agreeable (vs. disagreeable); and, in a laboratory study of work groups, participants trusted more (vs. less) agreeable group members (Study 3). Individuals anticipated others’ preferences for agreeable partners and tried to come across as more agreeable, but not more extraverted, in social dilemmas (Study 4). These findings suggest that the social benefits of agreeableness (but not extraversion) extend to social interactions involving trust and highlight the importance of target personality traits in shaping trust decisions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086768
       
  • Support for Social Change Among Members of Advantaged Groups: The Role of
           a Dual Identity Representation and Accepting Intergroup Contact

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      Authors: Lisa Katharina Frisch, Simone Sebben, Luisa Liekefett, Nurit Shnabel, Emilio Paolo Visintin, Johannes Ullrich, Tabea Hässler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This preregistered research analyzed survey data from ethnic and religious advantaged groups in 12 countries (N = 2,304) to examine the interplay between two determinants of support for social change toward intergroup equality. Drawing on the needs-based model and the common-ingroup identity model, we hypothesized that the experience of accepting intergroup contact and the endorsement of a dual identity representation of intergroup relations would be associated with greater support for equality. Furthermore, integrating the logic of both models, we tested the novel hypothesis that the positive effect of accepting contact on support for equality would be stronger under a high (vs. low) dual identity representation. While the predicted main effects received empirical support, we found no evidence for the expected interaction. These findings suggest that interventions to foster support for social change among advantaged group members can promote accepting contact and a dual identity representation independently of each other.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086380
       
  • The Maintenance of the U.S. Racial Hierarchy Through Judgments of
           Multiracial People Based on Proximity to Whiteness

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      Authors: Maria M. Garay, Jennifer M. Perry, Jessica D. Remedios
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has argued that a growing multiracial population will blur boundaries between racial groups, reducing racism and improving interracial relations. However, this is unlikely to happen if multiracial groups are judged according to their proximity to Whiteness. We examined how having White ancestry shapes status perceptions of multiracial groups. Studies 1 and 2 showed that multiracial groups with White ancestry (e.g., Black/White) are considered higher status than dual minority multiracial (e.g., Black/Latinx) and monoracial minority (e.g., Black) groups. Study 3 revealed that multiracial groups with White ancestry are perceived as more competent and warmer than monoracial minority and dual minority multiracial groups, leading to higher status perceptions for multiracial groups with White ancestry. Thus, multiracial people, like other racial minorities, may be judged according to White, Eurocentric standards. The results imply that, without anti-racist intervention, the treatment of multiracial people will reinforce, rather than challenge, the existing racial hierarchy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T10:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086175
       
  • Perceived and Ideal Inequality in University Endowments in the United
           States

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      Authors: Martin V. Day, Michael I. Norton
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Whether and which university to attend are among the most financially consequential choices most people make. Universities with relatively larger endowments can offer better education experiences, which can drive inequality in students’ subsequent outcomes. We first explore three interrelated questions: the current educational inequality across U.S. universities, people’s perceptions of this inequality, and their desired inequality. Educational inequality is large: the top 20% of universities have 80% of the total university endowment wealth while the bottom 20% have around 1%. Studies 1 to 3 demonstrated that people underestimate university endowment inequality and desire more equality. These perceptions and ideals were mostly unaffected by contextual factors (e.g., salience of endowment consequences, distribution range) and were not well explained by participants’ demographics. Finally, Study 4 revealed that learning about current endowment inequality decreased tolerance of the distribution of university wealth. We discuss the implications of awareness of educational inequality for behaviors and educational policies.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T12:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221083766
       
  • Routines and Meaning in Life: Does Activity Content or Context Matter'

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      Authors: Fahima Mohideen, Samantha J. Heintzelman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People feel that their lives are more meaningful while engaging in behaviors more closely aligned with their routines. Does the behavioral content of these routines and the contextual factors surrounding their enactment matter for this relationship' In two experience sampling studies (N = 93, 1,512 episodes; N = 97, 1,629 episodes), we test whether the relationship between routines and meaning in life (MIL) depends on the content of the activities. We found that the degree to which one’s current activity is a routine positively related to momentary MIL beyond other meaningful features (e.g., relationships, goals, prosociality) of that activity. We conducted Study 2 in the context of mass routine disruptions of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found even stronger relationships between routine enactment and concurrent MIL in this context which held controlling for factors, including perceived chaos, mood, and anxiety. These findings suggest that routines uniquely relate to MIL, beyond the meaningfulness of their content and across contexts.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T04:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221085797
       
  • Everyday Perceiver-Context Influences on Impression Formation: No Evidence
           of Consistent Effects

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      Authors: Sally Y. Xie, Sabrina Thai, Eric Hehman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Facial impressions (e.g., trustworthy, intelligent) vary considerably across different perceivers and targets. However, nearly all existing research comes from participants evaluating faces on a computer screen in a lab or office environment. We explored whether social perceptions could additionally be influenced by perceivers’ experiential factors that vary in daily life: mood, environment, physiological state, and psychological situations. To that end, we tracked daily changes in participants’ experienced contexts during impression formation using experience sampling. We found limited evidence that perceivers’ contexts are an important factor in impressions. Perceiver context alone does not systematically influence trait impressions in a consistent manner—suggesting that perceiver and target idiosyncrasies are the most powerful drivers of social impressions. Overall, results suggest that perceivers’ experienced contexts may play only a small role in impressions formed from faces.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T01:02:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221085088
       
  • The Apple Doesn’t “Feel” Far From the Tree: Mother–Child
           Socialization of Intergroup Empathy

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      Authors: Shira Ran, Michal Reifen Tagar, Maya Tamir, Eran Halperin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Like adults, children experience less empathy toward some groups compared with others. In this investigation, we propose that mothers differ in how much empathy they want their children to feel toward specific outgroups, depending on their political ideology. We suggest that how mothers want their children to feel (i.e., the motivation for their child’s empathy), in turn, is correlated with children’s actual experience of empathy toward the outgroup. Across four studies in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (NTotal = 734), the degree of empathy mothers wanted their children to experience in the intergroup context varied as a function of their political ideology. Mothers’ motivation for their child’s empathy toward the outgroup (but not in general) was further associated with how they chose to communicate messages to their children in a real-life context and how children actually felt toward the outgroup. We discuss implications for the socialization of intergroup empathy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T04:59:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211047373
       
  • Affectionate Touch Promotes Shared Positive Activities

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      Authors: Brett K. Jakubiak, Julian D. Fuentes, Brooke C. Feeney
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Shared positive activities, such as engaging conversations and interactive play, enhance relationships and buffer the consequences of negative interactions. The current research tested whether affectionate touch (a prime target for intervention) encourages people to prioritize other shared positive activities and to view shared activities more positively. In a pre-registered dyadic diary study of married couples (Study 1), greater affectionate touch on one day predicted increases in shared positive activities concurrently and prospectively. In a pre-registered dyadic experiment (Study 2), a brief affectionate touch intervention increased self-reported (but not observer-rated) shared positive activities immediately and increased shared positive activities over the following week for people who do not typically engage in such activities. Participants assigned to touch (particularly those low in attachment anxiety) also perceived their partners more positively during shared activities. These results suggest that touch may facilitate positive relationship experiences broadly and supports a theoretical model of affectionate touch.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T07:02:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221083764
       
  • Personality Traits Predict Social Network Size in Older Adults

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      Authors: Jasmine Rollings, Jérôme Micheletta, Darren Van Laar, Bridget M. Waller
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Humans live in unusually large groups, where relationships are thought to be maintained through complex socio-communicative abilities. The size and quality of social networks are associated with health and well-being outcomes throughout life. However, how some individuals manage to form larger social networks is not well understood. If socio-communicative traits evolved to form and maintain relationships, personality traits should be associated with variation in network size. Here, using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we investigate the impact of extraversion, agreeableness, and verbal communication on network size (N = 5,202) and network size change over time (N = 1,511) in later life for kin and friend networks. Higher levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with greater social network sizes but did not predict network size change over 14 years. The findings are discussed considering the evolutionary hypothesis that communicative and affiliative traits may have evolved to support the maintenance of social networks.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T09:05:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221078664
       
  • Categorizing a Face and Facing a Category: The Constructive Impacts of
           Ambiguity and Uncertainty in Racial Categorization

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      Authors: Aharon Levy, Christine Nguyen, Michael L. Slepian, Sarah Gaither, Kristin Pauker, John F. Dovidio
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The past generation has seen a dramatic rise in multiracial populations and a consequent increase in exposure to individuals who challenge monolithic racial categories. We examine and compare two potential outcomes of the multiracial population growth that may impact people’s racial categorization experience: (a) exposure to racially ambiguous faces that visually challenge the existing categories, and (b) a category that conceptually challenges existing categories (including “biracial” as an option in addition to the monolithic “Black” and “White” categories). Across four studies (N = 1,810), we found that multiple exposures to faces that are racially ambiguous directly lower essentialist views of race. Moreover, we found that when people consider a category that blurs the line between racial categories (i.e., “biracial”), they become less certain in their racial categorization, which is associated with less race essentialism, as well. Importantly, we found that these two effects happen independently from one another and represent two distinct cognitive processes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T10:41:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221084537
       
  • Does Connectedness Need Satisfaction Diminish or Promote Social Goal
           Striving'

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      Authors: Jianning Dang, Li Liu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People pursue social goals primarily to satisfy their innate need for affiliation; however, there is no consensus regarding how the successful fulfillment of affiliation need—social connectedness—influences striving for social goals. To address this issue, we proposed a dual-pathway model postulating both a negative effect of social connectedness on social goal striving via decreased emotional distress and a positive effect via increased social self-efficacy. Six studies (total N = 1,849), using cross-sectional, experimental, and daily diary methods, provided support for this model at both the between- and within-person levels. Furthermore, by distinguishing between approach and avoidance social goal strivings, and between deficit-reduction and growth connectedness need orientations, we found that the relative strength with which each path operates differed. The dual-pathway model generates theoretical and practical implications for need satisfaction and goal striving.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T07:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221084539
       
  • Restless in an Unequal World: Economic Inequality Fuels the Desire for
           Wealth and Status

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      Authors: Zhechen Wang, Jolanda Jetten, Niklas K. Steffens
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Building on theories explaining social outcomes of economic inequality, our research examined the psychological impact of inequality on the desire for wealth and status. Our studies provide both experimental (Studies 1 and 3, Ns = 321 and 596) and correlational (Study 2; N = 141,477 from 73 countries and regions) evidence that higher inequality heightens people’s desire for wealth and status. Notably, this effect of inequality on desire is independent of the influence of societal wealth. Moreover, our results reveal social class differences in why inequality fuels motivations: Lower-class individuals are more likely to respond to higher inequality with a heightened desire reflecting self-improvement concerns, whereas upper-class individuals are more likely to respond with a heightened desire reflecting social comparison concerns. These findings suggest that higher inequality creates an environment of restlessness in which both the poor and the rich feel obliged to seek wealth and status, albeit for different reasons.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T06:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221083747
       
  • How Relationships Foster Growth: Compassionate Goals Predict
           Growth-Seeking Through Perceived Available Support Independent of
           Relationship Security

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      Authors: Tao Jiang, Amy Canevello, Jennifer Crocker
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Growth-seeking refers to a general tendency to pursue growth when facing challenges. The current studies examined whether and how benevolent intentions to support others and not harm them (i.e., compassionate goals in relationships) predict growth-seeking and whether this association is independent of relationship security, which may also predict growth-seeking. Two cross-sectional studies (Studies 1a and 1b, N = 1,032) and two longitudinal studies (Study 2: 3-wave weekly survey, N = 404; Study 3: 12-wave weekly survey, N = 230) showed that compassionate goals correlate with growth-seeking and predict increased growth-seeking over time through perceived available support. The results hold after controlling for participants’ (Studies 1–3) and their partners’ (Study 3) relationship security, which suggests that compassionate goals may foster growth-seeking through perceived available support independent of relationship security. In addition, Study 3 suggests an intrapersonal process (i.e., projected perceptions) underlying the link between compassionate goals and perceived available support.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T06:46:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221080949
       
  • Making Diversity Work for Everybody' The Double-Edged Sword of
           All-Inclusive Diversity

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      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T03:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211073161
       
  • Are You Listening to Me' The Negative Link Between Extraversion and
           Perceived Listening

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      Authors: Francis J. Flynn, Hanne Collins, Julian Zlatev
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Extraverts are often characterized as highly social individuals who are highly invested in their interpersonal interactions. We propose that extraverts’ interaction partners hold a different view—that extraverts are highly social, but not highly invested. Across six studies (five preregistered; N = 2,456), we find that interaction partners consistently judge more extraverted individuals to be worse listeners than less extraverted individuals. Furthermore, interaction partners assume that extraversion is positively associated with a greater ability to modify one’s self-presentation. This behavioral malleability (i.e., the “acting” component of self-monitoring) may account for the unfavorable lay belief that extraverts are not listening.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T12:55:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211072815
       
  • Restoring Honor by Slapping or Disowning the Daughter

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      Authors: Ashwini Ashokkumar, William B. Swann
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The psychological processes underlying honor violence against kin are poorly understood. We assumed that honor violence against daughters who violate a gendered norm is designed to uphold family honor and nurture positive links to the community. Four studies with Indian men supported this formulation. As expected, endorsement of honor violence (i.e., slapping or disowning the daughter) increased insofar as perceived community awareness of the violation increased. Moreover, endorsement of honor violence was especially common among those whose identities were closely aligned (“fused”) with their community. Finally, a desire to restore threatened family honor, rather than a motivation to prevent future dishonor, motivates honor violence against daughters; conversely, a desire to prevent future dishonor motivates constructive activities such as advising. Ironically, a benign, culturally universal desire to maintain positive ties to the community can encourage community members to endorse violence toward transgressive kin.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T09:55:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221079106
       
  • Fallibility Salience Increases Intellectual Humility: Implications for
           People’s Willingness to Investigate Political Misinformation

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      Authors: Jonah Koetke, Karina Schumann, Tenelle Porter, Ilse Smilo-Morgan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The spread of online political misinformation has ramifications for political polarization, trust in political systems, and the functioning of democracy. In this article, we advance findings on investigative behaviors—actions aimed at determining the veracity of information encountered online—in response to political misinformation. Across three preregistered studies (N = 889), we find that investigative behaviors increase accuracy discernment of political misinformation (Study 1), that intellectual humility reliably predicts investigative behaviors in this context (Study 2), and test a novel fallibility salience manipulation to increase intellectual humility (Study 3). We discuss the implications of these findings for reducing the impacts of political misinformation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T08:56:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221080979
       
  • Partner Accuracy in Humor Perception and Associations With Relationship
           Satisfaction

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      Authors: Mariah F. Purol, William J. Chopik
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Do people accurately perceive their partner’s humor style' The current study extends work on partner perception by examining accuracy and bias in people’s perception of their partners’ humor styles—a subjective, evaluative, and important factor in relationship satisfaction. We recruited 337 heterosexual couples (N = 674 individuals, Mage = 65.71 years, SD = 12.107) who completed self-reports and partner-reports of humor styles. Truth and Bias modeling revealed that, although bias varied across humor styles, participants consistently demonstrated accuracy in their judgments of their partner’s humor styles. Bias forces were moderated by relationship satisfaction such that assumed similarity biases were stronger among those in particularly satisfying relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T09:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221080950
       
  • Boring People: Stereotype Characteristics, Interpersonal Attributions, and
           Social Reactions

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      Authors: Wijnand A. P. van Tilburg, Eric R. Igou, Mehr Panjwani
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Unfortunately, some people are perceived as boring. Despite the potential relevance that these perceptions might have in everyday life, the underlying psychological processes and consequences of perceiving a person as “boring” have been largely unexplored. We examined the stereotypical features of boring others by having people generate (Study 1) and then rate (Study 2) these. We focused on occupations (e.g., data analytics, taxation, and accounting), hobbies (e.g., sleeping, religion, and watching TV), and personal characteristics (e.g., lacking humor and opinions, being negative) that people ascribed to stereotypically boring others. Experiments then showed that those who were ascribed boring characteristics were seen as lacking interpersonal warmth and competence (Study 3), were socially avoided (Study 4), and enduring their company required compensation (Study 5). These results suggest that being stereotyped as a bore may come with substantially negative interpersonal consequences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T10:02:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221079104
       
  • The Terror Management Function of Descendent Continuity: Evidence That
           Descendent Continuity Acts as a Distal and Proximal Defense

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      Authors: Jiawei Qi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous researches showed that offspring can function as a distal defense, we presented seven studies to further explore the role of offspring in terror management for Chinese people based on their unique fertility culture. Both Studies 1a and 1b found that mortality salience increased desire for children. Study 2 showed that offspring salience reduced the effect of mortality salience on social transgressions judgments. Study 3 revealed that disruption of procreation strivings increased death-thought accessibility. Study 4 demonstrated that conscious responses to worldview threats overwhelmed the unconscious compensation effect of worldview threats on desire for children. Study 5a and Study 5b found that offspring salience decreased death anxiety for parents and nonparents. Taken together, these findings expand terror management theory, emphasizing descendent continuity not only as a related yet separate distal defense from the cultural worldviews, self-esteem, and close relationship but also as a proximal defense, especially for Chinese.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T06:52:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221081270
       
  • Defensive Confidence and Certainty in Unchanged Attitudes: The Role of
           Affect–Cognition Matching

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      Authors: Wei Jie Reiner Ng, Chi Bu, Ya Hui Michelle See
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Despite much prior research on matching appeals to the affective–cognitive orientation of attitudes, little attention has focused on the consequences of affect–cognition (mis)matching when individuals resist persuasion. We propose that unlike a matched attack, an attack that is mismatched to the affective–cognitive orientation of attitudes would result in low defensive confidence individuals holding onto their unchanged attitudes with less certainty than high defensive confidence individuals. As hypothesized, low defensive confidence participants were less certain after an affective than a cognitive attack for a cognitive issue (Study 1), and the opposite was true for an affective issue (Study 2). Both patterns occurred again when the affective–cognitive orientation of attitudes was manipulated (Study 3) or measured as an individual difference (Study 4). Moreover, perceived knowledge mediated the effects on attitude certainty (Study 4). We end by discussing implications for our understanding of affect–cognition matching and attitude certainty.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T08:56:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074102
       
  • Population Migration Damages the Natural Environment: A Multilevel
           Investigation of the Relationship Between Residential Mobility and
           Pro-Environmental Behaviors

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      Authors: Shijiang Zuo, Pan Cai, Niwen Huang, Fang Wang, Pujue Wang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Residential mobility is increasing worldwide, and it objectively boosts economic strength. However, frequent moves create a specific habitat in which environmental degradation is aggravated. This research explored the relationship between residential mobility and pro-environmental behavior (PEB) from the perspective of environmental adaptation. We conducted five studies to test the hypothesis that high residential mobility decreased private-sphere PEBs at both personal and regional levels. The results showed that high personal residential mobility (Study 1) and high regional residential mobility (Study 2) were negatively correlated with self-reported private-sphere PEBs. Study 3 suggested that individuals primed with a high (vs. low) residential mobility mindset showed less actual private-sphere PEBs. Studies 4 and 5 further demonstrated that the preference for collective benefits played a mediating role in this relationship. These findings extend the adverse impacts of residential mobility to natural environments and highlight the role of social habitat changes in understanding environmental degradation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T06:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221079451
       
  • Anxiety, Cognitive Availability, and the Talisman Effect of Insurance

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      Authors: Robert M. Schindler, Mathew S. Isaac, Eric Dolansky, Grant C. Adams
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across four experiments (N = 1,923), this research provides converging evidence of a talisman effect of insurance—consumers who have an insurance policy feel that the covered mishap is less likely to occur. Although such an effect has previously been proposed, empirical evidence for it is limited, in part because the talisman effect has often been conflated with a related but distinct magical-thinking phenomenon, the tempting-fate effect. By disentangling these two effects, we are better able to isolate the talisman effect and show that it is a robust phenomenon in its own right. We also provide support for a mechanism underlying the talisman effect: Insurance reduces anxiety and repetitious thoughts related to the mishap; with fewer thoughts about the mishap, its cognitive availability is lower and so it seems less likely to occur.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T09:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077791
       
  • Life History Strategies, Prestige, and Dominance: An Evolutionary
           Developmental View of Social Hierarchy

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      Authors: Jon K. Maner, Connor R. Hasty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although evidence documents the use of prestige and dominance for navigating group hierarchies, little is known about factors that explain people’s orientation toward prestige versus dominance. The current research applied a life history perspective to assess the role life history strategies play in prestige and dominance. Four studies document associations between adopting a slow life history strategy and having an orientation toward prestige. We also saw some (less consistent) evidence that people’s orientation toward prestige is rooted in exposure to predictable childhood environments, a known antecedent of slow life history strategies. Although we observed some evidence that exposure to unpredictable childhood environments was associated with dominance, there was little direct evidence that this relationship was explained by a fast life history strategy. Findings suggest that an orientation toward prestige is likely to be observed in people with a slow life history, who adopt a long-term time horizon for planning and decision-making.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T07:53:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221078667
       
  • How Attitudes Impact the Continued Influence Effect of Misinformation: The
           Mediating Role of Discomfort

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      Authors: Mark W. Susmann, Duane T. Wegener
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Past research suggests that people continue believing retracted misinformation more when it is consistent versus inconsistent with their attitudes. However, the psychological mechanism responsible for this phenomenon remains unclear. We predicted that retractions of attitude-consistent misinformation produce greater feelings of discomfort than retractions of attitude-inconsistent misinformation and that this discomfort predicts continued belief in and use of the misinformation. We report combined analyses across 10 studies testing these predictions. Seven studies (total N = 1,323) used a mediational framework and found that the more consistent misinformation was with participants’ attitudes, the more discomfort was elicited by a retraction of the misinformation. Greater discomfort then predicted greater continued belief in the misinformation, which, in turn, predicted greater use of the misinformation when participants made relevant inferences. Three additional studies (total N = 574) utilized misattribution paradigms to demonstrate that the relation between discomfort and belief in misinformation is causal in nature.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T07:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077519
       
  • Cultural Differences in the Perception of Daily Stress Between European
           Canadian and Japanese Undergraduate Students

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      Authors: Hajin Lee, Takahiko Masuda, Keiko Ishii, Yuto Yasuda, Yohsuke Ohtsubo
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current research examines cross-cultural differences in people’s daily stress experiences and the role of social orientations in explaining their experiences. Using a situation sampling method, Study 1 collected European Canadian and Japanese undergraduates’ examples of stressful interpersonal and non-interpersonal situations they experienced, measuring participants’ perception of the intensity and frequency of each type of situation. Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of culture on participants’ reports of stress symptoms under the situations. Study 3 assessed the mediating effects of independence and interdependence between culture and perceived stress. These studies indicated that the situational context moderates the effect of culture on perceptions of stress, showing a different amount of stress from interpersonal situations between Japanese and European Canadian undergraduates. Mediational analyses revealed that independent orientation partially explains the relationship between culture and stress from interpersonal situations. The implications of these results for culture and daily stress are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T05:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070360
       
  • What Drives Daily Perseverance and Passion' Grit, Conscientiousness,
           and Goal Pursuit Experiences

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      Authors: Wen Jiang, Xin Tang, Jingyan Ye, Jiang Jiang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies were conducted to further the understanding of daily experiences of perseverance and passion and the influences of personality traits (e.g., grit and conscientiousness) and contextual factors. Study 1 applied the experience sampling method (n = 116; observations = 5,187) and found that perseverance of effort (PE) predicted passion when controlling for conscientiousness. Study 2 used the day reconstruction method (n = 468; observations = 1,872) and found that both PE and consistency of interest (CI) had effects, although CI was a stronger predictor than PE. In both studies, PE was moderated only by instrumentality of the activity, whereas CI was moderated only by perceived difficulty. We also found mediating effects of instrumentality, (lower) perceived difficulty, and (fewer) intrusive thoughts on the pathways between traits and perseverance and passion. These results deepen our knowledge on why and how perseverance-related traits impact daily experiences of perseverance and passion.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T09:37:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221076970
       
  • The Holy Father (and Mother)' Multiple Tests of the Hypothesis That
           Parenthood and Parental Care Motivation Lead to Greater Religiosity

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      Authors: Nicholas Kerry, Marjorie L. Prokosch, Damian R. Murray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Parenting is a universal element of human life. However, the motivational and attitudinal implications of parenthood remain poorly understood. Given that many major religions prescribe parent-benefiting norms restricting sexual promiscuity and socially disruptive behavior, we hypothesized that both parenthood and parental care motivation would predict higher levels of religiosity. Studies 1 to 3 (N>2,100 U.S. MTurkers; two preregistered) revealed that parental status and motivation were robustly associated with religiosity in Americans, and that age-related increases in religiosity were mediated by parenthood. Study 4a (376 students) found a moderated experimental effect, such that emotionally engaged participants showed increases in religiosity in response to a childcare manipulation. Study 4b then replicated this effect in recoded data from Studies 1 and 2. Study 5 used data from the World Values Survey (N = 89,565) and found further evidence for a relationship between parenthood and religiosity. These findings support functional accounts of the relationship between parenthood and mainstream religiosity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T09:36:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221076919
       
  • Walk This Way: Ingroup Norms Determine Voting Intentions for Those Who
           Lack Sociopolitical Control

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      Authors: Anna Potoczek, Marcin Bukowski, Soledad de Lemus, Gloria Jiménez-Moya, Álvaro Rodríguez-López, Katarzyna Jasko
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Even though taking part in elections is one of the most direct tools to influence the sociopolitical system, many people choose not to vote. Research shows that this problem is especially prevalent among those citizens who do not believe they have control over social and political issues, but the question remains as to what could encourage their voting behavior. We predicted that individuals who experience low levels of control can be more susceptible to ingroup norms regarding participation in political elections than those with a high sense of sociopolitical control (SPC). Across six studies, we found consistent support for this hypothesis. Specifically, people who experience decreased SPC were more likely to vote when descriptive norms (measured or manipulated) were conducive to voting. The results have important theoretical and applied implications, illuminating the boundary conditions under which people deprived of control can still be motivated to participate in a political sphere.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T05:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070070
       
  • In the Face of Opportunities: Facial Structures of Scientists Shape
           Expectations of STEM Environments

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      Authors: Mansi P. Joshi, E. Paige Lloyd, Amanda B. Diekman, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Impressions of role leaders provide information about anticipated opportunities in a role, and these perceptions can influence attitudes about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pathways. Specifically, the facial structures of role leaders influenced perceived affordances of working with that person, such as the availability of communal and agentic opportunities (e.g., mentorship; achievement). STEM faculty with trustworthy (relative to dominant) faces were seen as valuing communal goals (Studies 1–3), and in turn, perceived as affording both communal and agentic opportunities in their research groups (Studies 2–3b). These heightened goal opportunities aligned with perceptions that trustworthy-faced advisors would enact more group-supportive behaviors (Study 2). Consequently, students anticipated fairer treatment and reported greater interest in labs directed by trustworthy- than dominant-faced leaders (Studies 3a–4a), even when images were accompanied by explicit information about leaders’ collaborative behavior (Study 4b). The faces of leaders can thus function as the “face” of that role and the surrounding culture.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T09:06:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077801
       
  • A Closer Look on the Relation Between Nostalgia and Risk-Taking

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      Authors: Lau Lilleholt, Ingo Zettler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Building on the work of Zou et al. we (re-)investigated the relation between nostalgia and financial risk-taking across three preregistered, well-powered studies (overall N = 2,804). In Studies 1 and 2, we first tested whether nostalgia fosters or hampers dysfunctional or functional financial risk-taking. Finding no evidence to suggest that nostalgia fosters or hampers neither functional nor dysfunctional financial risk-taking, we tested in Study 3 if the link between nostalgia and financial risk-taking reported by Zou et al. could be replicated and extended to other domains of risk-taking. By and large, the relation between nostalgia and financial risk-taking could not be replicated nor extended to any other domains of risk-taking. Combined, the results nourish doubt on the robustness of the link between nostalgia and risk-taking observed by Zou et al.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T09:03:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074113
       
  • When and Why People Prefer Higher Educated Politicians: Ingroup Bias,
           Deference, and Resistance

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      Authors: Jochem van Noord, Toon Kuppens, Bram Spruyt, Russell Spears
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      When choosing between political candidates of different educational levels, do voters show ingroup bias or base their vote choice on candidates’ perceived competence' We aim to investigate how (fictional) political candidates of different educational levels are evaluated and voted for, how this is affected by voters’ educational level, and the role of perceived (Study 1) and manipulated competence (Study 2). Higher educated participants preferred higher to less educated candidates over and above their level of competence, particularly when they identified strongly with their educational level. This reflects ingroup bias among the higher educated. Less educated participants preferred higher educated candidates in Study 1, but did not prefer higher educated candidates when competence was manipulated independently from education in Study 2. The less educated, unlike the higher educated, therefore, seem to show deference to the assumed competence of the higher educated, because it disappears when more reliable competence information is available.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T01:44:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077794
       
  • A Small Price to Pay: National Narcissism Predicts Readiness to Sacrifice
           In-Group Members to Defend the In-Group’s Image

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      Authors: Bjarki Gronfeldt, Aleksandra Cislak, Anni Sternisko, Irem Eker, Aleksandra Cichocka
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Collective narcissism is a belief in one’s in-group greatness that is underappreciated by others. Across three studies conducted in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we found that collective narcissism, measured with respect to the national group, was related to support of policies that protect the national image at the expense of in-group members’ health. In Study 1, British national narcissism was related to opposing cooperation with the European Union (EU) on medical equipment. In Study 2, American national narcissism predicted opposition to COVID-19 testing to downplay the number of cases. In Study 3, American national narcissism was related to support for releasing an untested COVID-19 vaccine, to beat other countries to the punch. These relationships were mediated by concern about the country’s reputation. Our studies shed light on collective narcissism as a group-based ego-enhancement strategy in which a strong image of the group is prioritized over members’ well-being.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T01:39:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074790
       
  • Cultural Inertia: Framework of Change and Intergroup Relations

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      Authors: Angel Armenta, Miriam J. Alvarez, Rafael Aguilera, Robert Hitlan, Christopher Federico, Michael A. Zárate
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Cultural change is theorized to generate intergroup hostility. Three experiments apply the Cultural Inertia Model to test the effects of change on intergroup relations. Two predictions of cultural inertia were tested: (a) cultures at rest tend to stay at rest and (b) individual difference variables function as psychological anchors. In static societies, perceived change leads to greater threat (Experiment 1), endorsement of anti-immigration legislation (Experiment 1), and collective angst (Experiments 1 and 2). Perceptions of change in static societies lead to more fear-related emotional reactions (Experiment 3). Framing cultural change as continuous rather than abrupt may be a solution for reducing negative reactions caused by cultural change (Experiments 2 and 3). Individual difference factors function as anchors that cement individuals in a state of uniformity (Experiments 2). The findings demonstrate that social interactions rely on perceptions toward change and individual difference factors that anchor one’s willingness to accept change.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T09:33:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221076209
       
  • Constructing Explicit Prejudice: Evidence From Large Sample Datasets

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      Authors: Kent M. Lee, Kristen A. Lindquist, B. Keith Payne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How does implicit bias contribute to explicit prejudice' Prior experiments show that concept knowledge about fear versus sympathy determines whether negative affect (captured as implicit bias) predicts antisocial outcomes (Lee et al.). Concept knowledge (i.e., beliefs) about groups may similarly moderate the link between implicitly measured negative affect (implicit negative affect) and explicit prejudice. We tested this hypothesis using data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) 2008 Time Series Study (Study 1) and Project Implicit (Study 2). In both studies, participants high in implicit negative affect reported more explicit prejudice if they possessed negative beliefs about Black Americans. Yet, participants high in implicit negative affect reported less explicit prejudice if they possessed fewer negative beliefs about Black Americans. The results are consistent with psychological constructionist and dynamic models of evaluation and offer a more ecologically valid extension of our past laboratory work.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T09:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221075926
       
  • Gender Backlash and the Moderating Role of Shared Racial Group Membership

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      Authors: Vivian L. Xiao, Brian S. Lowery, Amelia Stillwell
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that White women often experience more gender backlash than women of color in response to expressions of agency. We consider whether this differential in backlash is driven by the match or mismatch of the race of both perceivers and targets. Much of the existing work in this space examines the perspective of White perceivers, which might underestimate racial minority women’s susceptibility to backlash if backlash occurs primarily in same-race interactions. We examine how the racial group memberships of targets and perceivers jointly affect backlash against gender-norm violating women. In analyses of Dr. Christine Blasey-Ford’s accusations of sexual assault against Brett Kavanaugh and Anita Hill’s accusations against Clarence Thomas during their respective U.S. Supreme Court confirmation hearings, an archival analysis of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and two experiments, we find that perceivers of different races tend to express more backlash toward racial in-group than out-group women.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T09:19:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074543
       
  • Misplaced Intuitions in Interventions to Reduce Attractiveness-Based
           Discrimination

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      Authors: Jordan R. Axt, Juanyu Yang, Harshadaa Deshpande
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals and organizations are increasing efforts to address discrimination. Nonexperts may lack awareness of, or are resistant to, scientifically informed strategies for reducing discrimination, instead relying on intuition. Five studies investigated the accuracy of nonexperts’ intuitions about reducing discrimination concerning physical attractiveness. In Studies 1a to 1c (N = 902), participants predicted the effectiveness of six interventions to reduce attractiveness-based favoritism on a judgment task. Studies 2a and 2b (N = 6,292) investigated the effectiveness of these interventions. Although two interventions reduced discrimination, intuitions were poorly aligned with actual results; fewer than 1% of participants identified the combination of interventions that did, versus did not, impact judgment, and responses were more likely to be below than above chance when predicting each intervention’s effectiveness. Although follow-up work should investigate the accuracy of intuition in other forms of discrimination, these results further stress the need for greater development and adoption of evidence-based strategies for combating discrimination.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T10:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074748
       
  • Sociotropic and Personal Threats and Authoritarian Reactions During
           COVID-19

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      Authors: Gizem Arikan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The authoritarianism literature is divided over whether perceived threats to normative social order (sociotropic threats) or threats to the individual’s well-being (personal threats) activate authoritarian predispositions. In addition, while some approaches claim that perceived threats primarily trigger those high in authoritarianism, others claim that those who are low in authoritarianism are more sensitive to threats. Given the centrality of authoritarianism and threat on support for extraordinary policies in the context of COVID-19, this article sought to test to what extent different types of threats moderated the effect of authoritarianism on support for tough law and order policies and harsh punishments to contain the spread of coronavirus. Data from two preregistered survey experiments indicates that those high in authoritarianism were more willing to support tough law and order policies when primed with sociotropic threats while those low in authoritarianism became more willing to support such policies when primed with personal threats.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070923
       
  • Meaning in Life and Coping With Everyday Stressors

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      Authors: Sarah Ward, Jake Womick, Liudmila Titova, Laura King
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Meaning in life (MIL) has been proposed to improve coping and resilience. Yet MIL’s association with coping has primarily been investigated in the context of extreme stressors and trauma, often using varied measures of MIL. Is MIL associated with varied coping strategies, coping self-efficacy, and distress in relation to commonly experienced, everyday challenges' Using diverse methodological designs, five studies (total N = 1,646) investigated the association between MIL and coping strategies/appraisals pertaining to varied challenging, stressful events. Across recalled (Studies 1 and 2), anticipated (Study 3), and experienced stressors (Studies 3–5), MIL was consistently associated with positive reinterpretation, proactive planning, coping self-efficacy, and stress. MIL was inconsistently related to threat/emotion-coping.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211068910
       
  • “Proof Under Reasonable Doubt”: Ambiguity of the Norm Violation as
           Boundary Condition of Third-Party Punishment

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      Authors: Daniel Toribio-Flórez, Julia Saße, Anna Baumert
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In six studies, we consistently observed costly third-party punishment (3PP) to decrease under ambiguity of the norm violation. Our research suggests that, under ambiguity, some people experience concerns about punishing unfairly. Those with higher (vs. lower) other-oriented justice sensitivity (Observer JS) reduced 3PP more pronouncedly (in Studies 1–3 and 4b, but not replicated in Studies 4–5). Moreover, those who decided to resolve the ambiguity (hence, removing the risk of punishing unfairly) exceeded the 3PP observed under no ambiguity (Study 4). However, we did not consistently observe these concerns about punishing unfairly to affect 3PP (Studies 4–5). We further considered whether people could use ambiguity as justification for remaining passive—thus, avoiding the costs of 3PP. We did not find conclusive evidence supporting this notion. Taken together, ambiguity entails a situational boundary of 3PP that sheds light on the prevalence of this behavior and, potentially, on its preceding decision-making.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T08:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211067675
       
  • The Empowering Function of the Belief in a Just World for the Self:
           Trait-Level and Experimental Tests of Its Association With Positive and
           Negative Affect

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      Authors: Jonathan Bartholomaeus, Nicholas Burns, Peter Strelan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Belief in a just world for the self (BJW-self) is a resource that promotes adaptive functioning. We theorize that BJW-self has such an effect because it is empowering. This article reports on four studies (N = 967) testing whether BJW-self encourages more positive and less negative affect indirectly through empowerment. There was support for this hypothesis at a trait level across all studies, and specifically in Study 1. Experimental evidence, however, was more complex. Study 2 demonstrated the causal effect of the mediator, empowerment, on affect. Study 3 demonstrated that affirming BJW-self enhanced empowerment with an associated increase in positive affect and reduced negative affect. Study 4 showed that enhancing empowerment did not significantly influence the effect of affirmed BJW-self on affect, but blocking empowerment did, although this finding is qualified by no significant effect on empowerment. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings, and the challenges of experimentally manipulating BJW-self.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:36:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211072823
       
  • The Making of a Radical: The Role of Peer Harassment in Youth Political
           Radicalism

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      Authors: Marta Miklikowska, Katarzyna Jasko, Ales Kudrnac
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although political radicalism is one of the major societal threats, we have limited understanding of how it is formed. While there are reasons to expect that harassment experienced in adolescence increase the propensity for radicalism, this relationship has not yet been investigated. This five-wave study of Swedish adolescents (N = 892) examined the role of peer harassment in radical political behavior. The results revealed that within-person fluctuations in harassment were positively related to fluctuations in radicalism. Individual-level (but not class-level) harassment also predicted differences between adolescents: youth who experienced more harassment had higher levels of and a more pronounced decrease in radicalism. In addition, adolescents who had more supportive teachers or parents were less affected by harassment than youth with less-supportive adults. The findings suggest that personal experiences of harassment increase the risk of radicalism but supportive relationships can mitigate their negative consequences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070420
       
  • Temporary Self-Deprivation Can Impair Cognitive Control: Evidence From the
           Ramadan Fast

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      Authors: Mostafa Salari Rad, Morteza Ansarinia, Eldar Shafir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      During Ramadan, people of Muslim faith fast by not eating or drinking between sunrise and sunset. This is likely to have physiological and psychological consequences for fasters, and societal and economic impacts on the wider population. We investigate whether, during this voluntary and temporally limited fast, reminders of food can impair the fasters’ reaction time and accuracy on a non-food-related test of cognitive control. Using a repeated measures design in a sample of Ramadan fasters (N = 190), we find that when food is made salient, fasters are slower and less accurate during Ramadan compared with after Ramadan. Control participants perform similarly across time. Furthermore, during Ramadan performances vary by how recently people had their last meal. Potential mechanisms are suggested, grounded in research on resource scarcity, commitment, and thought suppression, as well as the psychology of rituals and self-regulation, and implications for people who fast for religious or health reasons are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070385
       
  • What Motives Do People Most Want to Know About When Meeting Another
           Person' An Investigation Into Prioritization of Information About
           Seven Fundamental Motives

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      Authors: Matthew I. Billet, Hugh C. McCall, Mark Schaller
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What information about a person’s personality do people want to know' Prior research has focused on behavioral traits, but personality is also characterized in terms of motives. Four studies (N = 1,502) assessed participants’ interest in information about seven fundamental social motives (self-protection, disease avoidance, affiliation, status, mate seeking, mate retention, kin care) across 12 experimental conditions that presented details about the person or situation. In the absence of details about specific situations, participants most highly prioritized learning about kin care and mate retention motives. There was some variability across conditions, but the kin care motive was consistently highly prioritized. Additional results from Studies 1 to 4 and Study 5 (N = 174) showed the most highly prioritized motives were perceived to be stable across time and to be especially diagnostic of a person’s trustworthiness, warmth, competence, and dependability. Findings are discussed in relation to research on fundamental social motives and pragmatic perspectives on person perception.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T07:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211069468
       
  • Do People Know How Their Romantic Partner Views Their Emotions'
           Evidence for Emotion Meta-Accuray and Links with Momentary Romantic
           Relationship Quality

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      Authors: Hasagani Tissera, Jennifer L. Heyman, Lauren J. Human
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Do people know how their romantic partner (i.e., the perceiver) views the self’s (i.e., the metaperceiver’s) emotions, displaying emotion meta-accuracy' Is it relevant to relationship quality' Using a sample of romantic couples (Ncouples = 189), we found evidence for two types of emotion meta-accuracy across three different interactions: (a) normative emotion meta-accuracy, knowing perceivers’ impressions of metaperceivers’ emotions that are in line with how the average person may feel, and (b) distinctive emotion meta-accuracy, knowing perceivers’ unique impression of metaperceivers’ emotions. Furthermore, across interactions, normative emotion meta-accuracy was positively related to momentary relationship quality for metaperceivers and perceivers and this link was especially strong in the conflict interaction. Distinctive emotion meta-accuracy was negatively related to momentary relationship quality across interactions for perceivers and in the conflict interaction for metaperceivers. Overall, it may be adaptive for metaperceivers to accurately infer perceivers’ normative impressions and to remain blissfully unaware of their unique impressions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T09:58:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211068225
       
  • Guns Are Not Faster to Enter Awareness After Seeing a Black Face: Absence
           of Race-Priming in a Gun/Tool Task During Continuous Flash Suppression

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      Authors: Timo Stein, Tommaso Ciorli, Marte Otten
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In the Weapon Identification Task (WIT), Black faces prime the identification of guns compared with tools. We measured race-induced changes in visual awareness of guns and tools using continuous flash suppression (CFS). Eighty-four participants, primed with Black or Asian faces, indicated the location of a gun or tool target that was temporarily rendered invisible through CFS, which provides a sensitive measure of effects on early visual processing. The same participants also completed a standard (non-CFS) WIT. We replicated the standard race-priming effect in the WIT. In the CFS task, Black and Asian primes did not affect the time guns and tools needed to enter awareness. Thus, race priming does not alter early visual processing but does change the identification of guns and tools. This confirms that race-priming originates from later post-perceptual memory- or response-related processing.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T09:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211067068
       
  • Choice Set Size Shapes Self-Expression

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      Authors: Nathan N. Cheek, Barry Schwartz, Eldar Shafir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across six studies (total N = 3,549), we find that participants who were randomly assigned to choose from larger assortments thought their choices were more self-expressive, an effect that emerged regardless of whether larger sets actually enabled participants to better satisfy their preferences. Studies examining the moderating role of choice domain and cultural context show that the effect of choice set size on perceived self-expression may be particular to contexts in which choices have some initial potential to express choosers’ identities. We then test novel predictions from this theoretical perspective, finding that self-expression mediates the effect of choice set size on choice satisfaction, the likelihood of publicly sharing choices, and the perceived importance of choices. Together, these studies show that choice set size shapes perceived self-expression and illustrate how this meaning-based theoretical lens provides both novel explanations for existing effects and novel predictions for future research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T12:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211064112
       
 
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