Authors:Arber ZEQİRAJ; Altin GJEVORİ, Artan LLOZANA, Naim SYLA, Fisnik ALİAJ Abstract: Experimental densities, viscosities, refractive indices, and sound speeds at temperature 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure are reported for the binary liquid mixtures of ethanol + benzene, ethanol + pyridine, and benzene + pyridine. From these experimental data, various thermodynamic excess and deviation properties were calculated and fitted by the Redlich-Kister polynomial to determine the adjustable coefficients and the standard deviations. The number of Redlich-Kister coefficients for significantly representing each thermodynamic property was optimized by applying the F-test. The variation of thermodynamic excess and deviation properties with composition has been interpreted in terms of molecular interactions between components of the mixture and structural effects. Furthermore, several theoretical and semi-empirical models were used to predict the refractive indices and sound speeds of the investigated mixtures. The predicting ability of each model was ascertained in terms of mean absolute percentage deviation between experimental and calculated data. PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +030

Authors:G. DHAMEJA; L. KHALSA, Vinod VARGHESE Abstract: The paper discusses the solution of an interior-boundary value problem of one-dimensional time-fractional Cattaneo-type heat conduction and its stress fields for a rigid ball. The interior value problem describes the dependence of the boundary conditions within the ball's inner plane at any instant with a prescribed temperature state, in contrast to the exterior value problem, which relates the known surface temperature to boundary conditions. A single-phase-lag equation with Caputo fractional derivatives is proposed to model the heat equation in a medium subjected to time-dependent physical boundary conditions. The application of the finite spherical Hankel and Laplace transform technique to heat conduction is discussed. The influence of the fractional-order parameter and the relaxation time is examined on the temperature fields and their related stresses. The findings show that the slower the thermal wave, the bigger the fractional-order setting, and the higher the period of relaxation, the slower the heat flux propagates. PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +030

Authors:Ulrich KÖBLER Abstract: For the conventional superconductors it will be shown that not only the superconducting energy gap, Egap(T=0), and the critical field, Bc(T=0), but also the London penetration depth, λL(T=0), scale in a reasonable approximation with the superconducting transition temperature, TSC, as ~TSC, ~TSC2 and ~T-1/2, respectively. From these scaling relations the conclusion obtained earlier, using a completely different method, is confirmed that the London penetration depth corresponds to the diameter of the Cooper-pairs. As a consequence, only one layer of Cooper pairs is sufficient to shield an external magnetic field completely. The large diamagnetism of the superconductors is caused by the large orbital area of the Cooper-pairs. From the fact that, in the zero-field ground state, the temperature dependence of the superconducting heat capacity is given above and below TSC by power functions of absolute temperature it follows that the only critical point is T=0. The superconducting transitions of the element superconductors, therefore, are all within the critical range at T=0. As a consequence, above and below TSC there is short-range order only. As we know from Renormalization Group (RG) theory, in the critical range the dynamics is the dynamics of a boson field, exclusively. Evidently, the Cooper-pairs have to be considered as the short-range ordered units created by this boson field. It is reasonable to assume that the relevant bosons in the superconducting state are identical with the bosons giving rise to the universal linear-in-T electronic heat capacity above TSC. Plausibility arguments will be given that these bosons must be electric quadrupole radiation generated by the non-spherical charge distributions in the soft zones between the metal atoms. The radiation field emitted by an electric quadrupole can be assumed to be essentially curled or circular. In the ordered state below TSC, the bosons are condensed in resonating spherical modes which encapsulate the two Cooper-pair electrons and shield their charge perfectly. PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +030

Authors:P. SAMUİ; Santosh BHOJANE, Brıj SINGH, Swarup RAKSHİT Abstract: The SrO–Nb2O5 system, especially Sr5Nb4O15 compound is of interest for their use as an electroceramics. In this work, Sr5Nb4O15 compound was synthesized by solid-state reaction and characterised by XRD. Thermodynamic properties like heat capacity, enthalpy of formation and Gibbs energy of formation of Sr5Nb4O15 have been measured. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of Sr5Nb4O15(s) was determined using an oxide melt solution high temperature calorimeter. Based on these experimental data, a self-consistent thermodynamic function of this compound was also generated. This thermodynamic data is essential for the optimization of synthesis conditions for materials and for the evaluation of their stability under appropriate technological operating conditions. PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +030

Authors:Rahul KUMAR; A. K. THAKUR, A. KULABHİ, A. MİSHRA Abstract: The solubility data of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in organic solvents is an essential for pharmaceutical crystallization and drug formulation. In this work, two semi-empirical correlations- the Yaws model and λ-h model- and two thermodynamic models – Wilson Model and the Non-random two-liquid model- are used to estimate the solubility of lornoxicam in ethanol and water. The model parameters and correlations coefficients are calculated by optimizing the average relative deviation. The values of these parameters will be helpful to estimate the solubility of lornoxicam at different temperatures where the experimental solubility data is not available. The predicted solubility data of lornoxicam can be further utilized in the pharmaceutical crystallization and drug formulation. PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +030

Authors:Kosrat KAKA; Rebaz OMER, Salam TAHER, Wali M. Hamad HAMAD Abstract: The dissociation constant is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution. This study examines dissociation constant for the series substituted acids like Ortho-alkoxy-4-formylbenzoic acid. The use of (2-methoxy ethanol) as a solvent contributed to the study expected to form free ions or solvent separated ion pair which has been studied with the use conductometric method at different temperatures ranged from 293.15 to 318.15K. The study aims at figuring out dissociation constant, equivalent conductance at infinity dilution, and Walden product by minimization technique using Fuoss-Hsia for both (Modified and Complete) equations. It has been found in the results that the calculated values based on statistical sum square (different between practical and theoretical values) is equivalent conductance at infinity dilution and dissociation constant. It has also been observed that increase the temperature leads to the increase of the molar conductance at infinity dilution, and the increase in association. Moreover, the substituted alkoxy group also affected dissociation of compounds. In this study, the thermodynamic parameters (Ho, Go and So) have also been evaluated and discussed. Finally, the effect of substituent groups on rate of dissociation was studied and explained with agreement to the principles of mesomeric(M) and Inductive effect(I) of substituent groups on dissociation constant. PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +030