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 Showing 1 - 50 of 50 Journals sorted alphabetically Advances in Optics and Photonics       (Followers: 18) Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science       (Followers: 1) APL Photonics Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems       (Followers: 1) EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics       (Followers: 3) EPJ Nuclear Sciences & Technologies       (Followers: 3) EPL Europhysics Letters       (Followers: 8) Fusion Science and Technology       (Followers: 4) IEEE Nanotechnology Express       (Followers: 18) International Journal of Quantum Chemistry       (Followers: 5) Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology       (Followers: 2) Journal of Nuclear and Particle Physics       (Followers: 14) Journal of Nuclear Materials       (Followers: 12) Journal of Physics G : Nuclear and Particle Physics       (Followers: 16) Journal of Quantum Chemistry       (Followers: 1) Kerntechnik Nano Energy       (Followers: 11) NanoImpact Nanotechnology Development       (Followers: 21) Nanotechnology, Science and Applications       (Followers: 7) Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings       (Followers: 3) Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment       (Followers: 18) Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms       (Followers: 17) Nuclear Materials and Energy       (Followers: 1) Nuclear Physics A       (Followers: 5) Nuclear Physics B       (Followers: 3) Nuclear Physics News       (Followers: 2) Nuclear Science and Engineering       (Followers: 7) Nuclear Technology       (Followers: 5) Nukleonika Particles Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures       (Followers: 1) Physica Medica       (Followers: 4) Physical Biology       (Followers: 4) Physical Review A       (Followers: 24) Physical Review Accelerators and Beams       (Followers: 4) Physical Review B       (Followers: 32) Physical Review D       (Followers: 13) Physical Review E       (Followers: 42) Physical Review Letters       (Followers: 161) Physics of Atomic Nuclei       (Followers: 10) Physics of Particles and Nuclei       (Followers: 2) Physics of Particles and Nuclei Letters       (Followers: 1) Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics       (Followers: 2) Radiation Detection Technology and Methods       (Followers: 1) The European Physical Journal D - Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics       (Followers: 29) The European Physical Journal Special Topics       (Followers: 1) World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology       (Followers: 4)
Similar Journals
 Physics of Atomic NucleiJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.327 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 10      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1562-692X - ISSN (Online) 1063-7788 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2467 journals]
• Environmental Fluxes of Thermal Neutrons and Geophysics

Abstract: Environmental fluxes of thermal neutrons originate from two sources: cosmic rays and natural radioactivity. Owing to a long lifetime of free neutrons, they are able to propagate over rather long distances in surrounding media prior to undergoing absorption, provided that these media do not contain elements that have large cross sections for neutron capture. The real lifetime of free neutrons and distances that they travel are determined by the properties of the medium with which they are in a dynamical equilibrium. At rather large depths under the ground, natural radioactivity associated with $$(\alpha,n)$$ reactions on light nuclei of the Earth’s crust is the main source of neutrons. Radioactive gaseous radon, especially its long-lived isotope $${}^{222}\textrm{Rn}$$ , which is able to migrate over significant distances (several tens of meters in soil and several kilometers in the Earth’s atmosphere) plays a great role in this process. This means that the changes in the medium that are caused by various geophysical processes or by Moon–Solar–Earth phenomena should also be reflected in the neutron flux escaping from the Earth’s crust. The present article gives a brief survey of studies devoted to this subject and a discussion on them.
PubDate: 2022-12-07

• Interaction of Solar Neutrinos with 98Mo and 100Mo Nuclei

Abstract: The process of neutrino interaction with $${}^{98}\mathrm{Mo}$$ and $${}^{100}\mathrm{Mo}$$ nuclei is studied with allowance for the effect of charge-exchange resonances. The results obtained by calculating the cross section for solar-neutrino capture by the isotopes $${}^{98}$$ Mo and $${}^{100}$$ Mo, $$\sigma(E_{\nu})$$ , are presented. Use is made of both experimental data obtained for the strength functions $$S(E)$$ in ( $$p,n$$ ) and ( $${}^{3}$$ He, $$t$$ ) charge-exchange reactions and the strength functions $$S(E)$$ calculated within the theory of finite Fermi systems. The effect of the resonance structure of $$S(E)$$ on the calculated cross sections for solar-neutrino capture is studied, and the contribution of each high-lying resonance to the capture cross section $$\sigma(E_{\nu})$$ is isolated. The contributions of all components of the solar neutrino spectrum are calculated. The contribution of background solar neutrinos to the double-beta decay of $${}^{100}$$ Mo nuclei is estimated.
PubDate: 2022-12-07

• Instabilities in Technical Superconductors upon AC Input

PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Selective Sputtering of Steel EK-181 (Rusfer)

Abstract: Reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFMS) are considered not only as structural but also, under certain conditions, as plasma-facing materials for fusion installations. The base material of RAFMS is iron. These steels also contain 8–12 wt % Cr and 1–2 wt % W. In a certain energy range during ion irradiation of RAFMS, there are conditions under which iron and chromium are sputtered, but tungsten is not. This phenomenon is called selective sputtering. In this work, for the first time, the selective sputtering of the domestic RAFMS EK-181 (Rusfer) under irradiation with deuterium plasma with an ion energy of 100 eV has been studied in detail. The sputtering coefficient was determined from the weight loss of the samples. In the course of sputtering, outgrowths are formed on the surface, the height of which increases with increasing irradiation dose and reaches several hundred nanometers. Data were obtained on sputtering and relief formation at a sample temperature of 440 K in the irradiation dose range of 3 × 1024–7 × 1025 ion/m2, as well as in the temperature range of 350–700 K at a fixed irradiation dose of 3 × 1024 ion/m2. The distribution of elements over the surface and in the cross section of the sample obtained by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) indicates a significant enrichment of the surface in tungsten, especially pronounced in the protruding parts of the surface. Studies of the elemental composition by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) also showed an increase in the concentration of tungsten in the surface layer with an increase in the radiation dose. At the maximum irradiation dose, the concentration of tungsten on the surface, averaged over the area of the analyzing beam of 1.7 mm2, increased by about 10 times and reached 4.5 at %.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Cryogenic Targets of Shock Ignition: Modeling of Diffusive Filling with a
Hydrogen Fuel

Abstract: Currently, within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the coordination research project “Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion: Materials Research and Technology Development” has been started [1]. The Lebedev Physical Institute takes part in this project under contract no. 24154. The aim of the research is to develop technologies for mass production of cryogenic fuel targets of shock ignition having a low initial aspect ratio. These targets are assumed to be more hydrodynamically stable during the implosion [2, 3]. A key aspect of the research is the creation of methods and technologies that are functional in a high-repetition mode [1]. For this purpose, the Lebedev Physical Institute proposes to use a unique free-standing target (FST) method [4, 5], which works with free-standing and line-moving targets. This makes it possible to economically produce a required number of cryogenic targets and inject them at the required rate into the focus of a powerful laser facility or an inertial confinement fusion reactor. The preparatory stage before the formation of any targets is their filling with a fuel, which is deuterium (D2) or deuterium–tritium mixture (D–T). In world practice, it is customary to carry out the filling stage either by diffusion of gaseous fuel through the target shell wall or by injecting liquid fuel through a thin capillary (several tens of microns) built into the shell wall. This work, for the first time, presents the results of modeling the project targets filling up to pressures of 1250 atm at 300 K for various materials of the target shell. The issues of implementation of an optimal filling procedure on the basis of a ramp filling regime with a constant pressure are discussed. It is based on a ramp filling regime with a constant pressure gradient, which allows one to avoid mechanical destruction of the targets during the entire filling cycle.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Study of Complex Effect of Intense Flows of Argon Ions and Pulsed Laser

PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Assessment of the Readiness Level of Tritium Cycle Technologies in Russia
Exemplified by the Project of the DEMO-FNS Hybrid Reactor

Abstract: This article describes the development of the DEMO-FNS hybrid (fusion–fission) reactor with DT fusion capacity of 40 MW in Russia. Operation of the reactor requires the development of systems of the fusion fuel cycle (FC). They are based on technologies of tritium and deuterium handling, which are being developed and applied in various fields of science and engineering. The necessity to improve the tritium technologies in Russia is dictated by conversion to radically higher gas flows and tritium reserves in the fuel cycle of hybrid and fusion systems under conditions of limited import of dual purpose technologies. In order to select reliable technologies and intensify developments in critical issues of FC, it is required to analyze the technology readiness level. We have estimated the readiness of existing technologies of tritium and deuterium handling in Russia for use in the fuel cycle of DEMO-FNS. The analysis is based on the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) method, according to which each technology is assigned a readiness level from TRL 1 (basic technology principles have been demonstrated) to TRL 9 (technology has been verified by successful operation). The technologies of membrane separation of hydrogen-containing gas mixtures, cryogenic hydrogen rectification, chromatographic separation of hydrogen isotopes, cryogenic adsorption separation, gas detritiation in scrubber, and CECE process (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) have been discussed. Other FC technologies will be considered in our further publications. The listed technologies have been verified in Russia and are used in various fields of industry and science. However, operational conditions of the technologies differ from the planned parameters of the DEMO-FNS fuel cycle, for which most technologies are at the stage of development (TRL 4–6); some technologies, such as cryogenic adsorption separation and chromatographic processes, comply with the research stage (TRL 1–3). The state of these technologies is “below” or “complies with the world level.” Further development of the considered technologies requires specialized facilities and test benches, which would make it possible to optimize their combined use under conditions simulating operation of a fusion facility.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Receiver Calorimeter of Fast Atom Beam Injector in Megawatt Range

Abstract: The receiver calorimeter (RC) is one of the main elements of the beam path of an atomic beam injector with ballistic focusing. A water-cooled RC developed for an injector of a focused beam of fast deuterium atoms with a beam power of more than 1 MW and pulse duration of 2 s [1] installed at the variable configuration tokamak (TCV) in Lausanne (Switzerland) is considered. The design of the RC includes receiving plates with liquid flow swirlers installed in them to enhance heat transfer and pipe-in-pipe collectors of water inlet and water outlet that provide the movement into a vacuum. These technical solutions made it possible to achieve good energy efficiency of the device with very small overall dimensions and mass flow of the coolant. The design of the main elements of the calorimeter is described. The results of simulation of the coolant flow and heat transfer and some experimental data are presented.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Application of the Dispersed Low-Pressure Gas-Liquid Flow in the Cooling
System of Lithium Divertor Plates of the Tokamak

Abstract: The selection of the coolant and design of the heat removal system is a key problem in the development of an alternative version of the divertor of a stationary tokamak reactor based on lithium capillary-porous systems. The article discusses the design solution of the lithium divertor target plate of the Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material Testing (KTM) with a thermal stabilization system based on the use of a dispersed low-pressure gas-liquid flow. The methodology is described, and the first results of the experimental study of the cooling process performed in support of the proposed design on a simulated model of the divertor plate are analyzed. Data on calibration of the heat flow source based on an electric-arc gas-plasma torch for densities up to 3 MW/m2, the cooling system operating parameters, and the obtained heat transfer coefficients are presented. It is concluded that the proposed design of the divertor target plate with a finely dispersed gas-liquid coolant for a tokamak with a stationary plasma discharge is promising for further research.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

Superconducting Magnetic Systems

PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Using Dispersed Gas Fluid Flow for Cooling of Energy Stressed Elements of
Tokamak Structure

Abstract: Selection of the cooling method for energy stressed elements, such as the divertor, limiter, and blanket, upon impact of powerful heat flows is an important issue for all research fusion reactors. At present, these elements are cooled by water under pressure, which can involve serious problems in an emergency situation related to poor tightness of elements of cooling system. This work considers an alternative cooling method of such structural elements using a two-component dispersed flow of coolant. Heating of the working segment under conditions close to stationary loads of the ITER first wall has been simulated at the test bench of the Department of General Physics and Nuclear Fusion of the National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute. Cooling of the working section is performed by dispersed flow of coolant over the inner surface. The temperature distribution over the wall thickness of working section has been obtained. The thermal conductivity of the material of the working section has been assessed. It is demonstrated that the proposed cooling method makes it possible to perform efficient heat removal under thermal loads in the range of 0.7–3.2 MW/m2.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Parametric Studies of a Globus-3 Spherical Tokamak with Various Options of
Electromagnetic Systems Based on Copper Alloys Using the GLOBSYS Code

Abstract: The engineering part of the GLOBSYS code is presented, and the parameters of the Globus-3 facility, which is a development of the Globus program, are analyzed. The facility is primarily designed to provide a long pulse, a large toroidal magnetic field and strong heating. The concepts of searching for Globus-3 parameters under physical and engineering limitations are described. Obviously that reliable confinement and a large part of noninductive current are necessary to ensure existence of a plasma for a long time. Engineering constraints are involved in the choice of parameters in a more complex way: in some cases, it is overheating of the coils, in other cases, it is the total power supply, or the limit on the flux provided by the ohmic solenoid, or the strength of the constructions. The parameters of the Globus-3 spherical tokamak were preliminarily selected for the cases of a “warm” copper EMS (Electromagnetic system) and the EMS precooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. The exceeding of the duration of the plasma current plateau Δtplateau over the characteristic settling time of the plasma profiles τL/R was chosen as the key condition. At values of the toroidal magnetic field Bt0 = 3 T, the condition Δtplateau > τL/R cannot be attained even for precooled EMS. At Bt0 = 2 T, only options with precooled EMS can be considered acceptable, but the facility dimensions are fairly large. For the field Bt0 = 1.5 T, the options with “warm” EMS correspond to the duration of the plasma current plateau ~3 s (Δtplateau/τL/R ~ 1–1.5). In the case of precooled EMS, the duration of the plateau can increase to 12–13 s (Δtplateau/τL/R ~ 5). In the latter case, as a basis for further development of the Globus-3 facility, options with the following geometric dimensions are reasonable: R0 ~ 0.6–0.7 m, a ~ 0.35–0.4 m, А ≤ 1.7–1.8, k95 ~ 1.7–1.8. The minimum allowable value of the plasma current $${{I}_{{{\text{p}}{\text{,min}}}}}$$ under the condition of effective absorption of the input power of neutral injection has been calculated. In the Globus-3 facility, Ip ≈ 0.8 MA was chosen as the base value.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Transport Models for Plasma Heating with Second Harmonic of
Electron-Cyclotron Frequency

Abstract: The optical thickness of plasma is often insufficient to absorb completely electromagnetic waves when heated at the second harmonic of the electron-cyclotron frequency. The analysis of experiments at the T-10 tokamak allowed us to find the criterion of complete absorption and to provide a transport model for complete and incomplete absorption of waves. The conditions for the equivalence of discharges in different tokamaks, as well as in a pair of tokamak–stellarator W7-X are formulated. For equivalent discharges, calculations using the model for the T-15MD tokamak meet the measurements of electron and ion temperatures in the W7-X in a wide range of plasma densities. The confirmed model is used to analyze future T-15MD pulses.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Characteristics of Pygmy and Giant Resonances within a Microscopic Model
for Taking into Account Complex Configurations: Formalism

Abstract: Expressions for describing characteristics of pygmy dipole and giant multipole resonances (PDR and GMR, respectively) were obtained within the microscopic model developed in [1] for taking into account complex configurations. This was done via formulating an equation for the density matrix and deriving an expression for the polarization operator. The results obtained in this way make it possible to calculate the energies and excitation probabilities for PDR and GMR levels, including their fine structure. A comparison of the present approach with the well-known two-phonon model based on replacing a particle–hole pair by a phonon revealed a significant distinction between these two approaches.
PubDate: 2022-10-01
DOI: 10.1134/S1063778822050052

• Shakeoff Effect on the Rate of Neutrinoless Double-Electron Capture in
$${}^{{164}}$$ Er

Abstract: Traditionally, neutrinoless double-electron capture is treated as a resonance process. The probabilities for shakeoff followed by electron-shell ionization occurring in the case of $${}^{164}$$ Er are calculated in the present study. The inclusion of the shakeoff effect in the calculation removes the resonance requirement, leading to an increase in the capture rate. The contribution of this new mechanism increases the capture rate by a factor of 5.6 in relation to that based on the traditional resonance-fluorescence mechanism. The contribution of the former also increases the probability for electron capture from higher lying shells, and one should take this into account in experimental investigations. Moreover, the list of nuclear candidates for performing experiments might become wider upon taking shakeoff into account.
PubDate: 2022-10-01
DOI: 10.1134/S1063778822050064

• New Evaluated Data on Photoneutron Reaction Cross Sections for $${}^{60}$$
Ni Nuclei

Abstract: The reliability of the cross sections obtained for ( $$\gamma,1n$$ ) and ( $$\gamma,2n$$ ) partial photoneutron reactions on $${}^{60}$$ Ni nuclei in experiments with beams of both bremsstrahlung gamma radiation and quasimonoenergetic annihilation photons was studied by means of objective physical criteria. It is found that data obtained using bremsstrahlung gamma radiation do not satisfy these physical criteria and are obviously unreliable. At the same time, the reliability of data obtained using quasimonoenergetic photons is questionable. Partial reaction cross sections for $${}^{60}$$ Ni that satisfy the above physical criteria were evaluated by means of the experimental–theoretical method within which one employs experimental data only on the neutron yield cross section and the results obtained by calculating partial reaction cross sections on the basis of the combined photonuclear reaction model, which are independent of the problems of experimentally determining neutron multiplicities. It is shown that the discrepancies between the evaluated and experimental cross sections are due to systematic uncertainties appearing in experimental data because of determining the multiplicities of neutrons by their measured energies. It is also found that the competitions of evaluated and experimental data for the neighboring nuclei $${}^{60}$$ Ni and $${}^{58}$$ Ni differ significantly, which is caused by special features of the processes of their photodisintegration—first of all, by significant distinctions between the energy thresholds and absolute values of the cross sections of ( $$\gamma,1n1p$$ ) and ( $$\gamma,2n$$ ) reactions on these nuclei.
PubDate: 2022-10-01
DOI: 10.1134/S1063778822050106

• Effects of Electromagnetic Radiative Corrections in the Production of
Lepton Pairs in Photon–Photon Fusion at LHC

Abstract: One-loop electromagnetic radiative corrections to dilepton production in hadron–hadron collisions via photon–photon fusion are studied; particular attention is given to hard bremsstrahlung. The reaction in question accompanies the Drell–Yan process, its investigation being a task of great importance in the experimental program for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A detailed numerical analysis of effects of electromagnetic radiative corrections to observed cross sections is performed over a wide kinematical region, including that of the CMS experiment in the LHC Run3/HL mode, which corresponds to ultrahigh energies and dilepton invariant masses.
PubDate: 2022-10-01
DOI: 10.1134/S106377882205012X

• Search for Nucleon Charge-Exchange Processes in the Fragmentation of
Carbon Ions at an Energy of 300 MeV per Nucleon

Abstract: The results of searches for nucleon charge-exchange processes in the fragmentation of carbon ions are presented. The respective experimental data were obtained by means of the FRAGM facility at the TWAC-ITEP multipurpose accelerator complex with a 300-MeV/nucleon beam incident to a thin beryllium target. The experimental setup used, which was oriented at an angle of 3.5 $${}^{\circ}$$ with respect to the ion beam, possessed a hodoscope system, which ensured an accuracy of 0.4 $$\%$$ in momentum measurements. The differential cross sections for the yields of isotopes $${}^{11}$$ Be and $${}^{12}$$ B produced upon single nucleon charge exchange were measured as a function of the fragment momentum. These experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions of two models of ion–ion interactions: the binary cascade (BC) model and the intranuclear cascade (INCL) model. In the above energy range, processes of nucleon charge exchange were measured for the first time.
PubDate: 2022-10-01
DOI: 10.1134/S1063778822050076

• Insight into History of GCR Heavy Nuclei Fluxes by Their Tracks in
Meteorites

Abstract: The OLIMPIYA project investigates tracks of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in olivine crystals from two meteorites-pallasites of different exposure ages. Extended statistics (up to 21 743 processed tracks) enabled to reveal a difference between the charge spectra of heaviest nuclei registered in these pallasites versus those from detectors mounted on near-Earth orbit satellites, as well as a difference between the GCR spectra registered in the meteorites themselves. Comparison of the $$r$$ -element abundances in these spectra points that GCR fluxes from at least two rare cosmic nucleosynthesis events with enhanced production of these elements reached the Solar System during the exposition age of the older meteorite. Correlations of the experimental results with parameters of supernovae, asymptotic giant branches stars and neutron star mergers (NSM) are also discussed.
PubDate: 2022-10-01
DOI: 10.1134/S1063778822050039

• Quark Condensate in QCD at Nonzero Magnetic Field and Temperature

Abstract: The basic form of the quark condensate for arbitrary values of the quark mass, external magnetic field and temperature, is derived using the field equations with account of confinement. The resulting expression of the chiral condensate is shown to be proportional to square of the singlet $$q\bar{q}$$ ground state wave function at origin, $${ \phi_{0}(0) }^{2}$$ . For light quarks without magnetic field the condensates are proportional to $$\sigma^{3/2}$$ ( $$\sigma$$ is the string tension). Numerical results are presented in 5 Tables and shown to be in good agreement with the lattice data, both for nonzero magnetic field $$eB$$ and temperature $$T$$ in the range $$0<T<120$$ MeV, $$0<eB<4$$ GeV $${}^{2}$$ .
PubDate: 2022-10-01
DOI: 10.1134/S106377882205009X

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