Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
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HYDROLOGY (29 journals)

Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Hydrological Sciences Journal - Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Hydrology : Regional Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hydrogeology and Hydrologic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology X     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anais Hidrográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
HydroResearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discover Water     Open Access  
Hydrosphere. Hazard processes and phenomena     Open Access  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Hidrobiológica     Open Access  
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Discover Water
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ISSN (Online) 2730-647X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Variation of tap-water isotope ratios and municipal water sources across
           Kyiv city, Ukraine

    • Abstract: Stable isotopes of water allow researchers to examine water pathways and better understand spatial and temporal variability in mixtures of municipal water sources. In regions such as Kyiv (Ukraine), with a water supply that is vulnerable to the effects of climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflict, such understanding is critical for effective water management. Trends in stable isotope values and water sources can function as a confirmation of municipal data. Additionally, these data can provide an early signal for the effects of climate change on these sources, reducing uncertainty from physical measurements. For this study, tap water, surface water, and groundwater were collected over 14 months in Kyiv and nearby Boryspil, Brovary, and Boyarka and measured for hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) stable isotopes. The stable isotope values from the tap water for each district show a general seasonal trend in water sources, with more groundwater used in the supply in the winter for most districts. Spatially, groundwater use increases from south to north in the left-bank districts in Kyiv city and groundwater use generally decreases from south to north in the right-bank districts. As precipitation patterns shift and temperatures increase, the reliance on particular water sources may need to shift as well. Overall, δ2H and δ18O data provide a baseline expectancy for current water use throughout the year and, from this, deviations can be assessed early.
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
  • Cloudburst analysis in the Nainital district, Himalayan Region, 2021

    • Abstract: Some areas of Uttarakhand faced heavy rainfall during October 17-19th, 2021. In October, rainfall hit its all-time high. A sudden heavy rainfall occurred due to this, which has affected the daily life of humans. More than 50 casualties were recorded during this study period. The main focus of this study was to monitor the Uttarakhand flood event using satellite observations. The Nainital and Almora districts of the state were mainly affected by this sudden heavy rainfall. On October 18th, Nainital received the maximum rainfall of about 21.51 mm at 11:00 am (UTC). The Nainital district has recorded a cumulative rainfall of more than 300 mm on October 18th, 2021. From the observation, we find out that this heavy rainfall occurred due to a sudden cloud burst at Ramgarh in Nainital district. This sudden extreme rainfall further caused a flash flood in the study area. The rainfall pattern has moved towards Assam after it caused a flash flood in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand, India.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
  • Groundwater and agriculture potential mapping of Mewat District, Haryana,

    • Abstract: Groundwater is one of the most valuable natural resources on the planet, sustaining all human activity. It is necessary not just for human survival, but also for a region’s economic and social advancement. Also, agriculture and allied businesses provide a living for more than half of India’s population. Long-term advantages from sustainable agriculture will be necessary to achieve sustainable resource development and management. For successful agricultural and groundwater management, it is vital to assess the groundwater and agricultural potential of an area. This research work may contribute to optimizing the choice of location for future drilling and increase the chances to take water from productive structures which will satisfy the ever-increasing water demand of the local population, especially for agriculture. The current study is an attempt to assess the groundwater and agriculture potential zones in Haryana’s southern region of Mewat district. In order to achieve the objectives, thematic layers such as geology, geomorphology, lineament density, slope, drainage density, soil, and land use/land cover of the research region are prepared for the mapping of groundwater potential zones. For agriculture potential thematic layers such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Slope, Rainfall, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Soil Moisture Index (SMI) were prepared. To combine all thematic layers, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) assessment approach is applied. Individual themes and their accompanying categories are awarded a knowledge base weightage ranging from 1 to 5 according to their suitability to hold groundwater and potential for agriculture. All thematic maps are combined into a composite groundwater potential and agriculture potential map of the research region using the weighted overlay function. The groundwater potential map and the agriculture potential map were further subdivided into four categories, ranging from very low to excellent potential zones. It has been found that 69% and 60% of the area has moderate to good groundwater and agriculture potential, respectively, and 20% and 22% of the area has excellent and agriculture potential, respectively. This groundwater and agriculture potential information will help identify acceptable places for water extraction and efficient farming practices.
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
  • Optimization of furrow irrigation decision variables: the case of wonji
           shoa sugar estate, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Surface irrigation type is one of the most widely used in the world due to its low cost investment. However it is complex method of applying water to soil, because of extreme difficult to achieve good control over the highly variable nature of the movement of water across a soil surface and its infiltration into the soil over a season. This study is attempted to optimize furrow irrigation decision variables at Wonji Shoa sugar estate using field experiment and two simulation models. The field data of experimental site was measured as input for models and simulated using the SIRMOD software and WinSRFR software package. Furrow lengths of 32 m, 48 m and 64 m, slopes of 0.05%, 0.075% and 0.1%and flow rates of 3 l/sec, 4 l/sec and 5 l/sec were analyzed with three replication using volume balance method and two simulation models. The study found optimum decision variables that gave maximum application efficiency and distribution uniformity were slope of 0.1%, furrow length of 32 m and inflow rate of 4 l/sec at cut-off time of 15.79 min. Thus, to improve the performance of furrow irrigation practice, optimal furrow length, inflow rates and cut-off time found by this study should be adopted. Findings from the study would serve as a source of information for use by policy makers and planners during the design and Operation of irrigation development programs. It does not focus on yield related optimization. So, it is open for the future research to conduct yield related optimization of the decision variables.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
  • Adsorption of Cd2+ from synthetic wastewater by modified leaves of
           Eupatorium adenophorum and Acer oblongum: thermodynamics, kinetics and
           equilibrium studies

    • Abstract: Heavy metals cause outrageous ecological risks when released into the environment from many point and non-point sources. Biosorbents prepared from the leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum (AEA) and Acer oblongum (AAO) were used as practical solutions to remove the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd2+) from wastewater. Biosorption of Cd2+ was investigated using AEA and AAO biomass under batch conditions. The effect of operating variables like temperature, contact time, the pH impact, and initial metal concentration and biosorbent portion on Cd2+ removal has been studied. The optimal pH and the sorbent dosage were found to be 7.0 and 2.0 g L−1, respectively, and removal efficiency attained was 93.3% with an equilibrium removal time of 90 min. The equilibrium uptake of Cd2+ was evaluated by Freundlich, Langmuir, and Temkin isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model was proved fit confirming single layer of sorption. The biosorption of Cd2+ onto activated AEA and AAO biomass achieved were 45.45 mg g−1 and 44.64 mg g−1 respectively. The adsorption affinity of AEA toward Cd2+ was discovered a lot more prominent than AAO biomass. The kinetic data of Cd2+ biosorption onto activated AEA and AAO, fitted with a pseudo-second-order well with higher values of R2 (> 0.99). Thermodynamics disclosed that the adsorption process was spontaneous (∆G0 < 0), endothermic (∆H0 > 0), and feasible (ΔS0 > 0). The adsorption of Cd2+ onto AEA was more exothermic and spontaneous than the AAO biosorbent. Additionally, FT-IR and SEM analysis uncovered that Cd2+ were adsorbed onto selected biomassdue to –NH–, –COOH, –OH, and –NH2 groups. Ionic, coordination bond formation, and electrostatic interaction with Cd2+ demonstrated that they were promising biosorbent for wastewater treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
  • Effect of demographic disparities on the use of the JMP ladders for water,
           sanitation, and hygiene services in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Reducing inequalities in all its forms is one of the key principles of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG). However, the 2030 SDG Agenda has been a real challenge in addressing inequalities in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) services. There is a disparity in the use of WASH services in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify demographic factors affecting the use of Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) ladders for WASH services. In this study, a total of 5350 households were included. Households having heads with vocational education levels were 2.9 times higher in use of basic drinking-water services ((Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.9 with 95% CI 1.6–5.1) than household having heads who could not read and write. Besides, households living in urban areas were 21.7 times more likely to use basic drinking-water services (AOR = 21.7 with 95% CI 16–30) than in rural parts. Further, households with merchants’ heads were 2.1 times higher to use basic sanitation services (AOR = 2.1 with 95% CI 1.5, 3.1) than households with farmers’ heads. Moreover, households having higher monthly income per head were 2.9 times higher in utilizing basic sanitation services (AOR = 2.9 with 95% CI 2.32–3.58) than the poorest households. Similarly, households with female heads were 1.5 times higher in using the JMP ladder for basic hygiene services (AOR = 1.5 with 95% CI 1.24–1.71) than households with male heads. Additionally, respondents who live in urban areas had 2.8 times higher use of basic hygiene services (AOR = 2.8 with 95% CI 2.26–3.54) than those in rural areas. Many demographic factors that influence the use of the JMP ladders for water, sanitation, and hygiene services were identified. The use of surface water, open defecation practice, unimproved sanitation, and no hygiene services were positively associated with illiteracy. The findings suggest that state authorities should initiate firm WASH policies and strategies to achieve the SDG 6 and 10. Additionally, the government should apply effective WASH interventions that consider demographic disparities.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-022-00017-7
  • Study of water quality, socio-economic status and policy intervention in
           spring ecosystems of Tripura, Northeast India

    • Abstract: Spring is vital in all hilly areas. Without question, springs have aided in the advancement of human civilization. Mountain springs supply water to rural families in the Northeast. This spring ecological study was conducted in Dhalai, Tripura, with socio-economic policy significance. The springs chosen were Jamircherra (JS) and Govindabari (GS). The seasonal features of each spring were studied. The monsoon season is used to bring the life-giving flow of perennial springs. Several water quality indicators like WT, pH, EC, TDS, Turb, TH, DO, BOD, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl−, No3, Po4 were examined to assess the risk of spring contamination. The most common aberrant results are samples having excessive phosphate (PO42−) and turbidity levels compared to norms. The spring's water quality was tested using the weighted arithmetic index methodology. The water quality at the two springs was adequate but not great throughout the year, causing human deaths from water-borne diseases. Thus, policy implementation was emphasized to save the spring and human life. A physicochemical evaluation of both springs was used to describe a techno-legal component of Environmental regulations.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-022-00015-9
  • Flood hazard management in a multiple hazard context: a systematic review
           of flood hazard management during the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa

    • Abstract: Result-oriented research can uncover hidden flood management obstacles and propose solutions that, if combined with political will, appropriate technology, and resources, can overcome the majority of Africa’s future flood calamities. In view of this, it is critical to examine researchers' findings on flood hazard management, particularly now that the continent is struggling with COVID-19 and other hazards. This study employed a systematic review approach to critically analyze 103 contextually detailed studies with a set of criteria that were not only meant to keep the focus on floods and the COVID-19 pandemic but also to understand the context of managing floods during COVID-19 and other hazards at the same time on the continent. I found that the authors strongly recommend how institutions should create non-structural enabling environments for managing combined hazards. Also, researchers paid little attention to recommending ecosystem-based measures for flood management during the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. Future research should study how different countries in Africa are preparing to manage multiple future hazards, including the comparative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of individual countries’ planning and preparation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-022-00014-w
  • Biosurfactant, a green and effective solution for bioremediation of
           petroleum hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment

    • Abstract: When pollutants like petroleum hydrocarbons as one of the major origins of aquatic pollution, enter the environment, they alter the biological and/or physicochemical characteristics of the aforementioned sites due to their potential of bioaccumulation, biomagnification, and resistance against biodegradation besides its toxicity and carcinogenicity in nature. Thus, the importance of degradation, deterioration and remediation of these pollutants from environments such as aquatic environments via a green method such as bioremediation is undeniable. Biosurfactants as secondary metabolites of microorganisms, enhance the bioremediation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using oleophilic microorganisms with the capability of biosurfactant production which this paper calls "potential microorganisms" in a bioremediation system is promising. This article reviews the effective factors on bioremediation and the share of biosurfactants on the rate of bioremediation process, chemical surfactants and their limiting factors as biosurfactant's chemical counterpart, the rising market of biosurfactant and its promising future, various types of biosurfactants, and the requirements to develop an optimized biosurfactant-base bioremediation system. Furthermore, this paper based on former studies suggests a novel in-situ biosurfactant-based bioremediation system integrated with Biochar called “Potential Microorganisms Immobilized on Biochar system” (PMIBC system) as a cost-effective in-situ bioremediation system for decontamination of aquatic environments like groundwater, lakes, marshes, etc. from petroleum hydrocarbons and oil spills which requires further study.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-022-00013-x
  • Comparative studies for the treatment of industrial effluents employing
           advanced processes: towards enhancement of environmental performance

    • Abstract: The investigation was inspired by the declaration of critically polluted industrial zones in India. It was also reported that most of the Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) are non-compliant due to higher COD values in discharge than regulatory norms. Furthermore, most of the literature has not reported the efficacy of advanced wastewater technologies for real industrial effluent. Thus, this research focused on field trials of scalable advanced wastewater technologies in Vatva Industrial Estate (VIE), Ahmedabad. The potential of physico-chemical and advanced treatment processes are explored for applicability in industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, for this research, three industries from each sector, i.e., textile processing, dyes, and dye intermediates, a total of nine different industries were chosen. A sufficient volume of effluent was collected from each industry for detailed investigations. The initial COD loading observed was in the range of 68 to 7074, 30 to 896, and 100 to 1541 kg COD/day for textile processing, dyes, and dye intermediates, respectively, with significant variation in the qualitative profiles. The collected effluent was treated by electrocoagulation and Fenton's reagent in batch scale reactors. The batch scale reactors for both the technologies were of 1L size. The results of treatability studies represented that Fenton's reagent performed better than the electrocoagulation process for most of the industries selected in this study. This research provides insight for improvement in the environmental performance of the individual industries in general and CETPs in particular.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-022-00012-y
  • Determination of the water-soluble polymer poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) in
           wastewater effluents by continuous-flow off-line pyrolysis-GC/MS

    • Abstract: High production rates and wide areas of application of water-soluble polymers indicate their potential occurrence in wastewater. Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is such a water-soluble and poorly biodegradable polymer with non-ionic, non-sticky, non-toxic and thermosensitive properties. Its field of applications covers being a constituent in aerosol sprays, pump sprays, and lotions as well as its usage as flocculant in wastewater treatment plants. However, although discharged into sewage treatment plants at high amounts, analytical methods for determining water soluble polymers, in particular PNVCL, in environmental samples are still missing. Therefore, this study aims at developing an efficient analytical method for detecting trace levels of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) in wastewaters by applying continuous-flow off-line Py-GC/MS for the first time. The approach was based on the identification of specific off-line pyrolysis products (ε-caprolactam, N-vinylcaprolactam) that haven been used in the following for a calibration process that allowed a quantitative determination. An evaluation including specificity, linearity, sensitivity and reproducibility characterized this approach as very suitable for detection of this polymer in complex environmental matrices such as wastewaters. Finally, the transferability has been checked by analyzing a real wastewater from a sewage treatment plant effluent. Here limitations especially due to matrix effects are lowering the sensitivity of the pyrolysis-based method. Nevertheless, a contamination with approx. 70 µg/L of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) was determined pointing to a huge emission of PNVCL into the aquatic environment and a general high environmental relevance of this synthetic polymer. Noteworthy, this is the first report on the occurrence of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) in environmental samples.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-022-00010-0
  • Delineating springs safeguard zones with DISCO-URBAN index: a valuable
           tool for groundwater vulnerability mapping in local-scale urban areas

    • Abstract: Assessing groundwater vulnerability to contamination is vital worldwide, particularly in sustainable water resources management. That is mainly a concern in fractured media in urban areas due to a large diversity of contaminant sources and the complexity of recharge pathways. Thus, groundwater vulnerability assessment is essential to delineate groundwater protection zones around springs or wellheads. Furthermore, it considers the groundwater system’s heterogeneity and the surrounding hydrogeological conditions, as well as provides suitable solutions to protect the resource and mitigate potential hazards. DISCO-URBAN index focused on urban areas was applied to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability in fractured media in the surroundings of Penafiel city (NW Portugal). The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of each evaluation factor. Furthermore, multi-criteria indexes were applied: GOD‐S, DRASTIC‐Fm, SI DISCO and DISCO-URBAN. Low to moderate vulnerability classes dominate in the combined approach of the vulnerability indexes. However, very high vulnerability classes occur in DISCO and DISCO-URBAN, corroborated by the water-enriched nitrates. Therefore, the DISCO-URBAN method highlights a better delineation of groundwater safeguard zones. In fact, the DISCO-URBAN index is reliable in urban areas to be integrated as a tool to develop local site hydrogeological investigations related to springs safeguard zones.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-022-00011-z
  • Comparative geomorphometric approach to understand the hydrological
           behaviour and identification of the Erosion prone areas of a coastal
           watershed using RS and GIS tools

    • Abstract: Assessment of the geomorphometric parameters using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools forms an important part in routing the runoff and other hydrological processes. The current study uses a geospatial model based on geomorphometric parameters for the categorization of surface runoff and identification of the erosion-prone areas in the watershed of the Kuttiyadi River. The 4th order Kuttiyadi river is dominated by a dendritic to semi-dendritic drainage pattern in the subwatersheds. The linear aspect of the subwatersheds indicates towards the presence of permeable surface and subsurface materials with uniform lithology. The aerial and relief aspects of the subwatersheds shows fine drainage texture, gentle slopes, delayed peak flow, flatter hydrograph, and large concentration time which shows that subwatersheds are quite capable of managing flash floods during storm events. The estimated values of surface runoff (Q) and sediment production rate (SPR) are range from 2.13 to 32.88 km2-cm/km2 and 0.0004–0.017 Ha-m/100km2/year respectively and suggest that Subwatershed 1 (SW1) will generate more surface runoff and is prone to soil erosion followed by subwatershed 2 (SW2) in comparison to other subwatersheds. This paper aims to fill the knowledge gap regarding categorization of flow and erosion dynamics in a coastal river watershed. We believe that our work may work help in providing the crucial information for decision-makers and policymakers responsible for establishing suitable policies and sustainable land use practices for the watershed.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-021-00009-z
  • A survey of irrigation water and soil quality that likely impacts paddy
           rice yields in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    • Abstract: In this study, the impacts of irrigation water quality and soil characteristics on paddy rice yields were investigated. Standard spectroscopy and spectrometry methods were used to analyze irrigation water and irrigated soil samples. The irrigation water had sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values ranging from 0 to 3. The corresponding electrical conductivity (EC) values were between 0.2 and 0.7 dS/m and accounted for 14% of all samples—posing slight to moderate infiltration problem. Neither Na+ nor Cl− levels were high enough to cause toxicity problems in the irrigation water. For B, 54% of the samples were found to have moderate toxicity whereas ~ 14% of the samples indicated severe B toxicity in the irrigation water. For bicarbonate, about 86 and 14% of the irrigation water indicated slight-to-moderate and severe potential detrimental effect to plant growth, respectively. All trace elements in the irrigation water were too low to cause any harmful effect. Although soil EC, organic carbon (OC), and pH indicated favorable level, there were high standard deviation (SD) values in soil Fe and Zn. The mean value of Fe in soils was 19.8 mg/kg, indicating signs of Fe-deficiency. High SD values were also found in the total N (TN) content of the studied soils. Furthermore, a low soil K content was observed in the analyzed soil samples. Appropriate fertilizer application for improving nutrient deficiencies in the study area is highly recommended. Furthermore, on-farm management practices need to be guided by scientific findings from the present as well as other studies.
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-021-00008-0
  • Spatiotemporal dynamics of glacial lakes (1990–2018) in the Kashmir
           Himalayas, India using Remote Sensing and GIS

    • Abstract: This study is perhaps the first attempt to use satellite data (1990–2018) to analyze spatiotemporal changes in glacial lakes over the Kashmir Himalayas supplemented by field studies. Landsat images were used to delineate the spatial extent of glacial lakes at four-time points, i.e., 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018. The total count of lakes as well as their spatial extent showed a discernible increase. The number increased from 253 in 1990 to 324 in 2018, with a growth rate of 21.4%. The area has increased from 18.84 ± 0.1 km2 in 1990 to 22.13 ± 0.12 km2 in 2018 with a growth rate of 14.7%. The newly formed glacial lakes, including supraglacial lakes, were greater in number than the lakes that disappeared over the study period. All glacial lakes are situated at elevations of 2700 m asl and 4500 m asl. More than 78% of lake expansion in the study region is largely due to the growth of existing glacial lakes. Through area change analysis, our findings reveal that certain lakes show rapid expansion needing immediate monitoring and observation. The analysis of the meteorological variables reveals that minimum and maximum temperatures in the Jhelum basin have shown an increasing trend. Tmax showed an increase of 1.25 °C, whereas Tmin increased to 0.7 °C from 1980 to 2020. On the other hand, precipitation has shown a decreasing trend, which can be attributed to one of the major causes of glacier recession and the expansion of glacial lakes in the Upper Jhelum basin. Consequently, this study could play a significant role in devising a comprehensive risk assessment plan for potential Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) and developing a mechanism for continuous monitoring and management of lakes in the study region.
      PubDate: 2021-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-021-00007-1
  • Study the optical properties of drinking water supply by KUKL and KVWSIP
           in Kathmandu Valley

    • Abstract: The optical properties of two water supply samples Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) and Kathmandu Valley Water Supply Improvement Project (KVWSIP) in the Kupondole Area, Lalitpur, Nepal show that the transmittance of light is higher for KVWSIP sample water than for KUKL. A large amount of work has been done to test the purities of KUKL and KVWSIP water supplies (chemically), but even their optical properties have not been studied. This method has no hazardous side effects or requires chemical method testing. In comparing the optical properties, the authors recommended that the public take KVWSIP water for good health and wealth rather than KUKL if they have an option.This is because KUKL is more contaminated and has more total dissolved solids (TDS) particles, while KVWSIP has fewer TDS particles. Therefore, if people take KVWSIP water in their daily life, they obtain relief from different types of water-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-021-00006-2
  • Application of multivariate statistical analysis and water quality index
           for quality characterization of Parbati River, Northwestern Himalaya,

    • Abstract: The present study is an attempt to accomplish the understanding of the factors impacting Parbati river water quality in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. The main objective is to assess the overall water quality, to explore its hydrogeochemical characteristics including major ion contents and other chemical parameters using Water Quality Index (WQI), statistical techniques (principal component analysis) and conventional graphical representation such as Piper trilinear diagram, Durov. Eighteen surface water samples were collected from different altitudinal sites to analyze physico-chemical parameters for June 2019 and September 2019. Analytical outcomes of thirty-six surface water samples collected in Pre-monsoon and Post-monsoon seasons are well within the permissible limits as per BIS, 2012 and WHO 2011 for drinking and domestic purposes. Water quality characterization for the assigned use shows that maximum surface water samples fall under excellent to good water quality index and are suitable for drinking without conventional treatment. The Piper trilinear diagram classified 100% of surface water samples for both seasons’ falls in the fields of Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3− water type indicating temporary hardness. Abundance of ions in the water samples is in the order: anions HCO3−>Cl−>SO42−>NO3− and cations Mg2+>Ca2+>Na+>K+. PCA identifies that the surface water chemistry is influenced by natural factors as well as minor anthropogenic activities in both the seasons. The correlation matrix has been prepared to analyse and observe the significance of the factors on the assessment of river water quality. Periodic assessment of surface water samples of the Parbati river and adjoining areas should be carried out. This approach will help in finding out any contamination of water occurring due to rapid socio-economic development as well as explosion of tourism industry in the region. Present study will work as baseline database for any future work in the region.
      PubDate: 2021-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-021-00005-3
  • Structural diversity of organic contaminants in sewage sludge: a
           comparison of sewage fingerprints from Germany and China

    • Abstract: Sewage sludge is formed during wastewater treatment and in recent years, the amount of sewage sludge increased rapidly all over the world. This sewage sludge is attractive for usage in agriculture as an inexpensive nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. However, there is only very limited knowledge about the spectrum of organic pollutants that might occur in sewage sludge and is probably posing a threat to the environment. We therefore conducted GC–MS based non-target screening analyses in order to identify a wide spectrum of organic contaminants in sludge samples from several wastewater treatment plants and to figure out corresponding finger-prints of pollution. The plants are located in Germany and China and have various capacities ranging from 35,000 to 1.1 million population equivalents. The special focus was to reveal information on the structural variety of individual organic compounds in sludge samples from the two countries. Several emerging pollutants including some fragrances, pharmaceutical educts, vitaminoids, technical additives were identified accompanied by compounds of biogenic origin. Some of these compounds have rarely been reported as constituents of sewage sludge to date and, consequently, are relevant candidates for more specific assessments including the ecotoxicological long-term effects. Based on the results of this study, it seems mandatory to establish non-target screening analyses on a regularly base as a tool for a comprehensive identification of the variety of anthropogenic organic constituents. Following, such contaminant spectrum can act as basis for further environmental risk assessments as well as to provide individual fingerprints for evaluation of impacts on ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-021-00004-4
  • Heavy metals risk assessment of water and sediments collected from
           selected river tributaries of the Mara River in Tanzania

    • Abstract: This study investigated the levels of Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd, and As in water and sediments from the tributaries of the Mara River, Tanzania. Pollution risk of water and sediments was investigated using seven indices and five metals. During the dry period, the highest concentration of Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd, and As in sediments was 17.45 ± 1.22, 0.01, 1.56 ± 0.5, 1.3 ± 0.09, and 30.81 ± 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. During the wet period, the highest concentration of Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd, and As in sediments was 4.37 ± 0.28, 0.012, 2.58 ± 0.57, 2.25 ± 0.35, and 53 ± 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. For surface water, the respective highest concentrations of Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd, and As were 0.76 ± 0.09, 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.09, 0.74 ± 0.1, and 0.47 ± 0.06 mg/L for the dry period. The wet period max concentrations for Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd, and As in surface water were 0.56, 0.03, 0.55 ± 0.03, 0.48 ± 0.03, and 0.4 ± 0.03 mg/L, respectively. Principal component analysis results indicated dominant loadings for Pb and As in sediments during the dry period. Comparison of sediment concentrations with sediment quality guidelines revealed that As and Cd were enriched. Correlation coefficient results indicated that As had a strong negative correlation with the rest of the elements in sediments during the dry period. In the wet period, As had a significant correlation with Cd (r = 0.92, p < 0.01) in sediments. The analysis of environmental risks indicated significant enrichment of sediments with As and Cd. It is important to put in place relevant control mechanisms targeting metals in the studied tributaries, with a focus on As and Cd.
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-021-00003-5
  • Borehole inventory, groundwater potential and water quality studies in
           Ayede Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria

    • Abstract: This study aims at determining the state of government provided boreholes, evaluating groundwater potential and quality assessment within the Ayede Ekiti community. 12 Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were conducted using Schlumberger array in order to determine geoelectric layers and fracture attributes. Also, 12 water samples were collected from the study area to evaluate physicochemical characteristics of the groundwater. The study revealed average values of total depth of boreholes, static water levels and water column in the boreholes to be 18.77 m, 6.77 m and 11.99 m respectively. 70% of the boreholes are either abandoned, damaged or with evidence of corrosion and encrustation. Geophysical investigation revealed weathered layer thickness ranging from 1.3 to 34.7 m with two regimes of fracture at 40–50 and 75–80 m. The frequency of curve types obtained shows 16.67%, 33.33%, 25%, 8.33%, 8.33% and 8.33% for AK, HA, KH, AA, QH and HK respectively while weathered and fractured basement are identified as the two types of aquifer unit. Results of water analysis unveiled that dominance cations are in order Ca2+ > Na+ > K+ > Mg2+while anions are in the order of HCO3− > Cl− > SO42−. Three types of hydrochemical facies present are CaHCO3 > NaHCO3 > CaCl in 66.67%, 25% and 8.33% respectively. The Wilcox plot suggests the suitability of the groundwater samples for irrigation purposes when compared with the World Health Organization standards. Despite potential for groundwater and good quality of analyzed samples, the problem of water in this community is traceable to inadequacy in exploration, shallow boreholes with consequent seasonal water availability.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s43832-020-00001-z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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