Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
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HYDROLOGY (29 journals)

Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Hydrological Sciences Journal - Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Hydrology : Regional Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hydrogeology and Hydrologic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology X     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anais Hidrográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
HydroResearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discover Water     Open Access  
Hydrosphere. Hazard processes and phenomena     Open Access  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Hidrobiológica     Open Access  
Similar Journals
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Water Conservation Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-3340 - ISSN (Online) 2364-5687
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Implications of Watershed Management Programs for Sustainable Development
           in Rural Scenario—A Case Study from Foothills of Punjab State, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Watershed management programs (WMP) are widely adopted across the globe for judicious use of natural resources. It can help us to achieve UN sustainable goals by 2030 also in a sytematic way. These programs help in preserving environmental and ecological balance by maintaining the natural and anthropogenic pressures in the watershed. WMPs have enabled sustainable management in typical rural scenarios where land degradation is predominant at an alarming rate due to intensive agricultural cum anthropogenic activities. A huge amount of central and state government funds have been utilized for construction of check dams, silt detention structures, gabion structures, afforestation schemes, capacity building programs for rural lively hoods, etc. to elevate the region from the poverty line. This necessitates for monitoring of these activities; and the present study demonstrates use of geospatial technology in monitoring effects of WMPs in the rural landscape of Punjab, India. High-resolution satellite images were used for monitoring the conservation measures at grass root level and analyzing the implications in the region. Field investigation and growth in net productivity of the region also clearly indicated that there is significant improvement in the selected watershed due to augmentation of the conservation measures, infrastructure facilities, and socio-economic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
       
  • Treatment of Acidic Wastewater Effluents and Defluoridation by Lime
           Materials

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      Abstract: Abstract Lime treatment is an important technique for softening of drinking water, treating the municipal-based wastewaters, and treating wastewater discharged from industries and inorganic-based hazardous wastes liquid in nature. Lime treatment is also considered a most applicable technology in terms of economics and efficiency for treating effluents of acidic mine drainage compared to different advanced physical and biological treatment methods. These acidic waste effluents are rich in toxic metals, metalloids, and hazardous/toxic wastes and contaminants (Cu, Cd, Pb, Mn, Zn, Fe, As, Si, SO42−, etc.) due to oxidation and dissolution of pyrite, pyrrhotite, and other sulphidic materials and must undergo suitable eco-friendly treatment(s) before disposing in a landfill or into the impoundment along with tailings. Neutralization is the perquisite for the elimination of these toxic metals and contaminants from wastewater of acidic nature followed by the precipitation and co-precipitation reactions. Lime treatment of acidic wastewaters brings a change in pH (alkalization) resulting in the insolubility of these toxic metals that leads to the formation of minuscule particles due to precipitation reactions. These precipitates are then separated to achieve clear effluents by forming a low-density sludge (LDS) or a high-density sludge (HDS) depending upon the separation methods. The HDS had an advantage over LDS in terms of handling and disposability due to high density, less volume, and better particulate characteristics. The produced sludge as a result of solid/liquid separation should be disposed of by eco-friendly approaches/strategies or recycled or reused for other industrial or manufacturing processes. Nevertheless, diverse lime materials like calcite-enriched powdered oyster shell might have the potential for reducing concentrations of toxicants within permissible limits; however, these are expensive and less efficient for defluoridation from hemihydrated gypsum (CaSO4·0.5H2O) produced from recyclable dihydrated gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) by heating at 130–180 °C. Therefore, more cost-effective strategies such as deployment of resultant sludge need to be tested for the defluoridation and stabilization of CaSO4·0.5H2O. The present manuscript reviews the science of lime treatment of acidic waste water effluents and defluoridation techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
       
  • Viability of Pressure-Reducing Valves for Leak Reduction in Water
           Distribution Systems

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      Abstract: Abstract Since water distribution systems are so important to public health and many are leaking in unknown locations, a modeling study was performed to investigate the feasibility of installing pressure-reducing valves (PRVs) in various locations throughout several systems. A PRV was tried in each pipe, one by one, and the total cost (energy costs plus opportunity costs of losing water that could have been sold) was calculated. It was found that installing a PRV in the upstream pipes reduced costs the most and that putting a PRV in some pipes actually lost money due to the high cost of the PRV and associated fittings. Also, a PRV on the upstream portion of a large branch saved water leakage. Energy is saved when a PRV is placed near a pump for systems with high energy consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
       
  • Removal Process of a Metal-Dye Mixture Using Beauveria bassiana

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      Abstract: Abstract Metals and dyes are the general concomitant pollutants of wastewater. In the present study, the cadmium and reactive orange uptake capacity of Beauveria bassiana were evaluated. It was observed that at 30 mgL−1 of cadmium concentration, up to 63% removal of cadmium was attained. As the concentration of cadmium increases from 30 to 100 mg L−1, the removal percentage of cadmium decreases from 63 to 21%. Further, almost 100% removal was observed for reactive orange at 200 mgL−1. However, a decrease in dye removal from 92 to 82% was noticed at 400 and 500 mgL−1 concentration of dye, respectively. When both metal and dye were present simultaneously, the removal efficacy of B. bassiana was decreased. At 20 mgL−1 (metal to dye—1:1), maximum removal of reactive orange (100%) and cadmium (98%) was recorded. However, at 100 mgL−1, 62% and 37% removal were obtained for reactive orange and cadmium, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature was studied at 40 mg L−1 (metal to dye—1:1) with temperatures ranging from 30 to 40 °C and pH ranging from 4 to 7. Maximum removal was obtained at a temperature of 30 °C and pH-7. Further, TEM-HAADF B. bassiana showed a uniform accumulation of cadmium inside the cytoplasm. Under control conditions (without metal), B. bassiana cells showed a well-defined cell membrane with intact cells, highlighting a clear demarcation of cytoplasm and cell organelles. The EDX analysis confirms the presence of cadmium inside B. bassiana cells.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
       
  • Georesistivity Modelling and Mapping of Aquifer Geometry and Hydraulic
           Characteristics in a Sedimentary Environment

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      Abstract: Abstract This study presents a successful application of the surface resistivity method in mapping of aquifer geometries and hydraulic characteristics in five counties in southern Nigeria. Thirteen vertical electrical soundings (VES) were made in the area using the Schlumberger electrode array with maximum current electrode separation of 400 m. The results of the data interpretation show that the area comprises 3 to 4 layers with lithological sequence of fine-coarse to gravelly sands and minor clay intercalations at some locations as constrained by available borehole information. The third layer is the major aquifer and occurs at a depth of 3.2 and 79.8 m. The aquifer thickness varies between 14.9 and 81.7 m. The aquifer layer is adjudged to have high recharge ability based on the values of estimated transverse resistance and permeability. Based on the estimated aquifer transmissivity and overburden total longitudinal conductance, the study area is shown to have moderate to high groundwater potential ratings (GWPR) and poor/weak to moderate aquifer protectivity ratings (APR) respectively. The zones of these classes of ratings have been demarcated in the image maps generated. These findings are very essential in the planning of an effective groundwater management and exploitation strategies in the area.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
       
  • Flash Flood Risk Assessment of the Great Kwa River Basin Using Analytical
           Hierarchy Process

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the physiographic as well as meteorological characteristics of the Great Kwa River Basin (GKRB), with the following objectives: to assess the influence of the drainage characteristics of the GKRB to flash flooding, to produce a composite flash flood risk map of the GKRB using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and to proffer flash flooding mitigation and management strategies for the GKRB. The flash flooding indicators evaluated were as follows: rainfall, absolute height, slope, distance from flow path, soil, land use, and land cover. The various input variables were analyzed using Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) software while the drainage characteristics were extracted using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The weights of the various criteria were determined using the AHP. The weighted linear combination method was adopted for the determination of the composite flash flood hazard index. The composite flash flood index map was prepared with three categories: high (≥ 0.4), moderate (0.3–0.4), low (≤ 0.3) flash flood hazard areas. The results revealed that the GKRB has an above average potential to flash flooding considering the proportion of order 1 streams to all the stream orders within the drainage network. The composite flood risk map revealed that the upper and middle catchments are prone to moderate-to-high flash flooding risks while a low-to-moderate potentiality to flash flooding in the lower catchment was obtained. The understanding of the roles of the flash flooding indicators provides useful information for the effective management of the flooding hazard for the GKRB.
      PubDate: 2022-10-07
       
  • Correction to: Performance Evaluation of Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme: a
           

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      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00165-w
       
  • Assessing Farm Water Management and Performance of Koga Irrigation Scheme:
           a Case Study of Inguti Unit, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: The principal objective of this study was to assess field water management and performance of Koga irrigation scheme specifically Inguti unit using performance indicators based on the selected performance indicators such as conveyance efficiency, application efficiency, distribution efficiency, storage efficiency, and deep percolation ratio. Primary data such as discharge, soil moisture content, field surveys, and group discussions among the farmers/beneficiaries and Water User Associations (WUA) and secondary data such as crop data, climate data, and design documents were collected. CROPWAT 8.0 models and GIS were used for data analysis in this research. Average conveyance efficiency values ranged from 81 to 86.5% for lined (secondary and tertiary canals) and about 64% for unlined tertiary canals. The maximum water losses observed were 0.19 and 0.2 l/s/m on lined (secondary and tertiary) canals, respectively. The maximum water loss observed in unlined tertiary canals was 0.26 l/s/m. The average distribution uniformity, field storage efficiency, and field water application efficiency were 79.6%, 78.9%, and 53.5%, respectively. Average values of the scheme, cropped area ratio, and infrastructural effectiveness were 94% and 96.2%, which was good sustainability based on the standards. The overall efficiency of scheme in the Inguti unit was found to be 46.3%. In general, the performance of the irrigation scheme was weak due to poor field water managements as indicated by the above indicators due to illegal water abstraction, unequal distribution of irrigation water, sedimentation of canals and lack of institutional support service, and inadequate operation and canal maintenance.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00162-z
       
  • Fluoride Toxicity in Rajasthan, India: Water Filter Distribution,
           Monitoring and User Perception

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the dissemination of porous cement water filters (PCWFs) to 99 households and their on-field efficiency. The water filters used cement and sand as the primary material with sugarcane bagasse and activated carbon as filler. For the study, the district of Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India, was chosen. Water quality parameters like pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, and fluoride were monitored for the village water sources. While all the village samples had TDS exceeding 500 mg/l, only Dheendhwa Aguna had a pH exceeding 8.5. For all the water sampled, the recorded hardness was below 200 mg/l. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the lower margins of 1 mg/l but were within the permissible threshold of 1.5 mg/l. Of the 99 households, 42 relied primarily on a common village source, whereas 57 participants had access to discretely owned tube wells. Also, 26.3% (n = 26) of households had access to an advanced water treatment system constituting Jeeni (31.57%), Dheendhwa Aguna (22.22%), and Ramnath Pura (50%). In a similar vein, the PCWF’s performance was investigated after 3 and 6 months of distribution using pH, TDS, hardness, and fluoride as qualitative indicators. Designed for ease of operation, maintenance, and disposal, the filters can function even in the absence of electricity or continuous water flow. Constant communication with the study area participants before, during, and after the filter distribution successfully comprehended the participant’s demand for potable water and the adaptability of the filter. Comprehensively, the PCWF generated a favorable verdict from the participants, primarily women.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00163-y
       
  • Effective Adsorption of Pb2+ on Porous Carbon Derived from Functional
           Octadecahedron ZIF-8

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      Abstract: Abstract An adsorbent ZO (oxidized ZIF-8-derived carbon) was prepared on the ZIF-8-derived carbon (ZC) by modified Hummer’s method. The removal rate and adsorption amount of Pb2+ were measured on the different molar ratios of 2-Hmim to 2, 2′-bipyridine in ZO, including 1:1 (1:1 ZO) and 1:2 (1:2 ZO). The adsorption experiments show that the best condition to adsorb Pb2+ in Pb2+ solution for 1:1 ZO is an adsorbent dosage of 20 mg, adsorption time of 16 h, initial Pb2+concentration of 15 mg/L, and pH = 3; that for 1:2 ZO is the adsorbent dosage of 15 mg, adsorption time of 18 h, initial Pb2+ concentration of 15 mg/L, and pH = 4. The adsorption data fits the quasi-second-order kinetics (R2 = 0.99998), indicating that chemical adsorption plays a leading role. The fitted isotherm adsorption curve is more consistent with the Langmuir adsorption model (1:1 ZO, R2 = 0.95058; 1:2 ZO, R2 = 0.97488). The competitive adsorption results show that the removal rate of Pb2+ by 1:1 ZO and 1:2 ZO is more than 98%, indicating that 1:1 ZO and 1:2 ZO have a superior selectivity for Pb2+ competing with Cu2+ and Fe2+. The maximum adsorption amount of Pb2+ is 15.52 mg/g by 1:1 ZO and 18.09 mg/g by 1:2 ZO. This study shows that 1:2 ZO is more helpful for the removal of Pb2+ than 1:1 ZO.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00164-x
       
  • Land Use and Climate Change Impacts on Streamflow Using SWAT Model, Middle
           Awash Sub Basin, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Assessing the impact of land use and climate change on streamflow is important for watershed management. This study aims to examine the possible impacts of land use and climate change on the streamflow of the Jewaha catchment. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is used to simulate streamflow by integrating complex interactions between climate and land use/cover. The past land-use changes were determined by classifying the Landsat images from 1990, 2000, and 2018 with Earth Resource Development System (ERDAS) Imagine 2015. The potential of climate change impact was examined under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios for 2041–2070 time horizon with the baseline 1971–2000. Climate change scenarios over the catchment indicated an increasing trend in temperature, in both RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5, and variability in rainfall patterns in the catchment. The average annual temperature will increase by 0.1 °C and 0.15 °C for the RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively. Generally, the result indicated that in the future summer streamflow highly increases due to climate and land-use change and a decrease in the dry season because of the changes in the climate variables.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00135-2
       
  • Sediment Yield Modeling and Evaluation of Best Management Practices Using
           the SWAT Model of the Daketa Watershed, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract High soil erosion rates, sediment transport, and loss of agricultural nutrients have been caused by poor land-use practices and management systems. This study mainly focuses on sediment yield modeling and evaluation of best management practices of the Daketa sub-basin using the SWAT model. Calibration and validation were done using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in Daketa sub-basin. The coefficient of determination (R2), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (ENS), and percent bias (PBIAS) were used to evaluate the model performance. During the calibration and validation, monthly sediment yield R2 values of 0.80 and 0.85, ENS values of 0.74 and 0.81, and PBIAS values of 0.0829 and 0.124 were obtained. The mean annual sediment yield of the Daketa watershed is 14.43 t/ha/year. Basin management scenarios were applied to reduce sediment production in the sub-basins. Four scenarios were developed such as (i) baseline, (ii) 5 and 10 m wide filter strip, (iii) waterway grass, and (iv) terraces to select the best management practices in the basin. The result shows that grassy waterway reduces sediment yield with an efficiency of 74.6% relative to the baseline scenario. Generally, the results indicated that grass waterways have a high potential for reducing the volume and velocity of runoff, sediments, and agrochemicals from agricultural catchments.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00142-3
       
  • An Innovative Approach for Groundwater Quality Assessment with the
           Integration of Various Water Quality Indexes with GIS and Multivariate
           Statistical Analysis—a Case of Ujjain City, India

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      Abstract: Abstract In India, a majority of the populace relies on groundwater for drinking. For this, the determination of groundwater quality (GWQ) is of great importance. The water quality index (WQI) is an effective technique that determines the suitability of water for drinking. In the present study, 54 groundwater samples consisting of eight physicochemical parameters were evaluated to assess water quality using four indexing methods: Numerow’s pollution index (NPI), Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index (WA WQI), Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI), and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI). A Geographic Information System (GIS) was employed to outline the spatial distribution maps of eight physicochemical parameters and WQI maps using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) technique. Multivariate statistical analysis such as correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CA) were used for the evaluation of large and complicated groundwater quality data sets in the study. The results of the WQI indicate that 43% (NPI), 96% (WAWQI), 74% (GWQI), and 94% (CCME WQI) of groundwater samples had poor to unsuitable drinking water quality. Using Karl Pearson’s correlation matrix, correlation analysis reveals a strong positive correlation of 0.9996 between EC and TDS. The application of PCA resulted in three major factors with a total variance of 72.5%, explaining the causes of water quality degradation. With the help of dendrogram plots, CA classifies eight groundwater parameters and 54 sampling locations into three major clusters with similar groundwater characteristics. According to the integrated approach of different water quality indexes with GIS, it is concluded that samples from wards 20, 44, and 47 are the most common and in the excellent-to-good category, and samples from wards 17, 34, and 43 are the most common and in the poor-to-very poor category. In view of the above, it is recommended to monitor the physicochemical parameters on a regular basis in order to safeguard groundwater resources and to prioritize management strategies in order to maintain the drinking quality of water.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00145-0
       
  • Evaluation of Blue and Green Water Using Combine Stream Flow and Soil
           Moisture Simulation in Wunna Watershed, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Quantitative assessment of water availability using blue and green water will enhance water resource management at the local scale. Wunna watershed is a crucial water resource of the Godavari river basin. Calibration and validation are the essential procedure for hydrological modelling assessment. This current study used the combined monthly streamflow and reanalysis derived soil moisture data to estimate blue and green water availability and spatial and temporal variability using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and percent of bias (PBIAS) were used to assess the model performance. It was found that monthly observed streamflow and soil moisture data were well simulated during calibration and validation with NSE greater than 0.50 and less PBIAS value. Blue water and green water storage has been increased from 2001 to 2016, whereas green water flow declined from 2001 to 2016. A higher amount of blue water and green water storage was observed in the southeast region except green water flow and less in the northwest area. This study promotes the use of soil moisture for sustainable water management.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00138-z
       
  • Evaluation of Hydraulic Performances Modeling of Water Distribution
           Systems and Physicochemical Water Quality Analysis, in the Case of Dangila
           Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract The existing water distribution system was insufficient for all parts of the study town due to rapid population growth, hydraulic performance issues, and water quality of Dangila town. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic performance modeling of water distribution systems and physicochemical water quality analysis of Dangila town using WaterGEMS and on-site and off-site water quality analyses. Sampling sizes of physicochemical water quality analysis were 240 at twelve distribution network stations from different pipes, high- and low-pressure zones using systematic random sampling techniques. The results of this study indicate that the water loss of the systems is 34%, which is very high. However, the average daily per capital water consumption was 18.1 l/c/d and the level of connections per family was 41.4%. Simulation of existing water distribution systems at nodes and pipes have 19% and 28.7% of lower pressures and velocities during peak hourly consumption, respectively. Hydraulic performances of distribution systems were evaluated by calibration and validation models of pressure, tank level, and link flow. The values of R2 during calibration and validation of pressure, tank level, and link flow were 0.98, 0.96, and 0.988%, respectively. The results of all physicochemical water quality parameters were within the acceptable limits of WHO and Ethiopia standards, except turbidity, total dissolved solid, and residual chlorine from some station during the dry and wet seasons. In general, the results of this study indicated that simulation of the hydraulic performance of existing distribution networks and water quality were inadequate.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00140-5
       
  • Coupled Analysis of Seepage and Slope Stability: a Case Study of Ribb
           Embankment Dam, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract An earth-fill dam must be stable against seepage and slope failure for its intended function to be sustained throughout its service life. This study assesses the seepage and slope stability of the Ribb embankment dam. The stability of an embankment dam is determined by its shape, components, materials, qualities of each component, and thus the forces to which it is subjected. PLAXIS 2D software was used to conduct the analyses. The analysis covers the entire dam body, including 20 m of foundation depth, and the Mohr–Coulomb criterion was used to explain the behavior of both the body and the foundation of the dam. At various critical loading circumstances, the factor of safety, the quantity of seepage through the main body of the dam, and the foundation were tested. The flow rate, pore water distribution, and location of the phreatic line were all determined in this investigation. The phreatic line has appeared beneath the dam’s toe. This suggests that the dam is not vulnerable to sloughing difficulties, which are the most common cause of dam failure downstream. According to the simulation results, the average rate of seepage through the dam’s body at normal pool level was 5.05*10–6 m3/s/m, and the average rate of seepage through the dam’s foundation was 3.00*10–6 m3/s/m. The seepage results are within the permissible range, according to Look (2014). The results of the factor of safety were deemed insufficient due to the wide range of loading situations. The factor of safety values for both static and dynamic stability analyses at the end of construction were 1.3063 and 1.2226, respectively. Static stability analysis yielded a factor of safety of 1.2604 for steady-state conditions, and dynamic stability analysis yielded a factor of safety of 1.1803. The rapid drawdown condition is analyzed with a normal pool level of 1940 m lowered to 1900 m or rapidly reduced by 57% of the reservoir water. The static and dynamic evaluations revealed that the factor of safety was 1.2021 and 1.0662, respectively. The slope stability study of the Ribb embankment dam is safe under all critical loading circumstances, according to different approved design standards: United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), British Dam Society (BDS), and Canadian Dam Association (CDA).
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00143-2
       
  • Evaluating Moisture Distribution and Salinity Dynamics in Sugarcane
           Subsurface Drip Irrigation

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      Abstract: Abstract The average sugarcane cultivation area in Iran’s southwestern farms is 12,000 hectares wherein irrigation is by the furrow method and the average water consumption is about 30,000 m3 per hectare. Therefore, the feasibility of subsurface irrigation method was examined to reduce the water consumption in this area. As records of earlier researches have shown that the subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) can be useful for the sustainable development of agriculture and conservation of the available water resources. This study applied it to cultivate two rows of sugarcane with supply pipes to report the moisture and salinity distribution in heavy-texture (clay-silt) soils. Finding the optimal conditions, as regards the drippers’ distance, discharge and frequency, irrigation time and duration and wet bulb development, is important for the subsurface drip irrigation. Besides, due to the limitations of field studies, numerical models can be used to simulate the prevailing conditions. Therefore, this study has evaluated the accuracy of the 2D HYDROS model for simulating the wetting pattern. The results were then used to determine the pipes’ best installation depth and the drippers’ distance on them. Tests were done for a dripper discharge of 1.2 lit/hr; supply pipe installation depths of 15, 20 and 30 cm; and dripper distances of 50 and 60 cm in three iterations. Results showed that the moisture content in all treatments varied between the field capacity limit and the permanent wilting point in horizontal and vertical distances of up to 60 and 90 cm, respectively, from the supply pipes. During the study period, the soil salinity increased in the 0–30 cm layer and decreased in the 30–60 and 60–90 cm depths. The highest salinity occurred at the furrow bottom and the lowest was on the ridge. Finally, considering the extension of moisture distribution and salinity in soil, the best supply-pipe installation depth and dripper distance were found to be 20 and 50 cm, respectively. Using HYDRUS 2D, the moisture distribution around supply pipes was estimated at three installation depths for an inter-dripper distance of 60 cm. To evaluate the software accuracy, a TDR (time-domain reflectometer) was used to measure the moisture content at 15 points around the supply pipes; according to the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) criterion, the accuracy was, respectively, fair, good and fair for a 60-cm inter-dripper distance and 15, 20 and 30 cm pipe installation depths.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00139-y
       
  • Groundwater Potential Zone Mapping Using an Integrated Approach of
           GIS-Based AHP-TOPSIS in Ujjain District, Madhya Pradesh, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Groundwater is the world’s most significant natural source for ensuring dependable and long-term water supplies. Various variables, like as population explosion, urbanization, and modernization, are putting groundwater supplies in jeopardy. The use of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) to evaluate groundwater resources has become widespread. In the current research, groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) of the Ujjain district were estimated using the Integrated RS-GIS-based Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) approaches. Various thematic layers were obtained from appropriate sources, including land use–land cover, soil, slope, geology, geomorphology, drainage density, lithology, elevation, and rainfall. The AHP and TOPSIS approaches were used to assign weights to the parameters and their characteristics, and discovered that the geomorphology layer has the most influence of all. Finally, the final GWPZ map was created by combining the selected theme maps using a weighted overlay analysis in ArcGIS software. For both AHP and TOPSIS, the resultant groundwater potential (GWP) map has been categorized into five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high: based on the results obtained using AHP, very low potential zone (1.78%), low (26.54%), moderate (45.76%), high (26.96%), and very high (1.48%), similarly using TOPSIS, very low potential zone (4.67%), low (24.42%), moderate (35.53%), high (32.16%), and very high (3.22%). The study’s findings can be used to create an effective groundwater action plan for the study area, assuring the long-term usage of significant groundwater resources. This research will be extremely useful to water managers in terms of long-term groundwater supply.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00141-4
       
  • Developing a Water Treatment Filter by Integrating Slow Sand Filtration
           Technology with Polypropylene Nonwoven and Activated Carbon and Testing
           Its Performance

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      Abstract: Abstract Scarcity of fresh drinking water has become a major concern in various parts of the world recently. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a sustainable polymer (polypropylene) and carbon (activated carbon from coconut shell) based water treatment filter. The filter was made by integrating polypropylene nonwoven fabric on the top of a two-inch layer of activated carbon and the traditional slow sand filter. The filter showed a significant reduction in turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, and concentration of heavy metals (HM) in the water samples collected from Turag River, Bangladesh. The reduction efficiencies were more than 85%. The higher value of reducing heavy metals, TDS, BOD, and pH might be explained by a higher particle retention and adsorption capacity of the filter due to the notable higher specific surface area of activated carbon and the pore size of the polypropylene filtration layer. The concentrations of lead, zinc, iron, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and copper were examined in which the filter showed a promising result; however, the removal efficiency of other potential heavy metals is yet to be tested.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00146-z
       
  • Sprinkler Irrigation Efficiency in Relation to Water Surface Tension:
           Pesticide and Fertilizer Effect on Drop Size and Soil Water Uptake

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      Abstract: Abstract Increasing pressure on water resources in semi-arid regions is forcing farmers to use more effective pressurized water application. Sprinkler irrigation efficiency is directly related to the droplet size, which its contributing factors have mostly been studied macroscopically (e.g., nozzle size, flow pressure). As a result, the importance of microscopic phenomena such as molecular interactions in water drop formation has been overlooked. In this study, the role of surface tension in water atomization has been investigated. Using drop volume method, two conventional surfactants, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and two commercial fertilizers and pesticides have been employed to investigate the mechanisms via which dissolved materials can affect the water drop size during atomization. Experimental results from this study revealed the commercial fertilizers and pesticides can significantly reduce the surface tension of water and, therefore, size of water droplets (up to 60%). It is also identified that flow rate is a critical factor affecting droplet size when commercial fertilizers and pesticides are present in the system. Furthermore, it was found that fertilizers and pesticides can reduce overall soil water adsorption up to 10%. Consideration of these outcomes in the design of sprinkle irrigation systems can substantially improve water conservation and the environmental sustainability in the areas adversely affected by global warming.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00124-x
       
 
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