Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
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HYDROLOGY (29 journals)

Showing 1 - 32 of 32 Journals sorted alphabetically
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anais Hidrográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Discover Water     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hidrobiológica     Open Access  
Hydrobiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Hydrological Sciences Journal - Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
HydroResearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrosphere. Hazard processes and phenomena     Open Access  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Hydrogeology and Hydrologic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Hydrology : Regional Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Hydrology X     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Shuiwen dizhi gongcheng dizhi / Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
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Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2306-5338
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 177: Modeling Hydrodynamic Behavior of the
           Ottawa River: Harnessing the Power of Numerical Simulation and Machine
           Learning for Enhanced Predictability

    • Authors: Jean Cardi, Antony Dussel, Clara Letessier, Isa Ebtehaj, Silvio Jose Gumiere, Hossein Bonakdari
      First page: 177
      Abstract: The Ottawa River Watershed is a vast area that stretches across Ontario and Quebec and holds great importance for Canada’s people, economy, and collective history, both in the present and the future. The river has faced numerous floods in recent years due to climate change. The most significant flood occurred in 2019, surpassing a 100-year flood event, and serves as a stark reminder of how climate change impacts our environment. Considering the limitations of machine learning (ML) models, which heavily rely on historical data used during training, they may struggle to accurately predict such “non-experienced” or “unseen” floods that were not encountered during the training process. To tackle this challenge, our study has utilized a combination of numerical modeling and ML to create an integrated methodology. Indeed, a comprehensive dataset of river flow discharge was generated using a numerical model, encompassing a wide range of potential future floods. This significantly improved the ML training process to generalize the accuracy of results. Utilizing this dataset, a novel ML model called the Expanded Framework of Group Method of Data Handling (EFGMDH) has been developed. Its purpose is to provide decision-makers with explicit equations for estimating three crucial hydrodynamic characteristics of the Ottawa River: floodplain width, flow velocity, and river flow depth. These predictions rely on various inputs, including the location of the desired cross-section, river slope, Manning roughness coefficient at different river sections (right, left, and middle), and river flow discharge. To establish practical models for each of the aforementioned hydrodynamic characteristics of the Ottawa River, different input combinations were tested to identify the most optimal ones. The EFGMDH model demonstrated high accuracy throughout the training and testing stages, achieving an R2 value exceeding 0.99. The proposed model’s exceptional performance demonstrates its reliability and practical applications for the study area.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090177
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 178: Unlocking the Potential of Microbially
           Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation (MICP) for Hydrological
           Applications: A Review of Opportunities, Challenges, and Environmental

    • Authors: Charalampos Konstantinou, Yuze Wang
      First page: 178
      Abstract: Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) is an innovative biocementation technique that facilitates the formation of calcium carbonate within a pore network. Initially gaining prominence in the field of geotechnical engineering, MICP has attracted significant attention since its inception (the last three decades) and expanded its reach across various engineering disciplines. Examples include rock mechanics, geology and the oil and gas industry fields through the generation of rock-like specimens, and plugging of fractures, in civil and architectural engineering and material science for concrete repair, protection, and for self-healing of building materials, and in environmental engineering for the study of biomimetic materials. In response to this burgeoning interest, the current paper aims to present a comprehensive review of the main biochemical mechanisms underlying MICP (bacterial ureolytic activity, reactions duration and settling times, and chemical solution properties), their direct relevance to altering hydraulic and mechanical properties, both at the microscale and macroscale responses, and the precipitation mechanisms, particularly in relation to water resources and hydrology applications. Four main categories of relevant applications are identified, namely, the groundwater and soil remediation, the applications related to the generation of a low hydraulic conductivity barrier, those related to gaining cohesion, and the applications related to fluid flow studies in artificially generated porous media. Moreover, this comprehensive review not only aims to identify the existing applications of MICP within hydrological fields but also strives to propose novel and promising applications that can further expand its utility in this domain. Along with the investigation of the potential of MICP to revolutionize water resources and hydrology, it is imperative to delve deeper into its environmental implications to ensure sustainable and ecologically responsible implementation.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090178
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 179: Comparing Methods for the Regionalization
           of Intensity−Duration−Frequency (IDF) Curve Parameters in
           Sparsely-Gauged and Ungauged Areas of Central Chile

    • Authors: Claudia Sangüesa, Roberto Pizarro, Ben Ingram, Alfredo Ibáñez, Diego Rivera, Pablo García-Chevesich, Juan Pino, Felipe Pérez, Francisco Balocchi, Francisco Peña
      First page: 179
      Abstract: Estimating intensity−duration−frequency (IDF) curves requires local historical information of precipitation intensity. When such information is unavailable, as in areas without rain gauges, it is necessary to consider other methods to estimate curve parameters. In this study, three methods were explored to estimate IDF curves in ungauged areas: Kriging (KG), Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), and Storm Index (SI). To test the viability of these methods, historical data collected from 31 rain gauges distributed in central Chile, 35° S to 38° S, are used. As a result of the reduced number of rain gauges to evaluate the performance of each method, we used LOOCV (Leaving One Out Cross Validation). The results indicate that KG was limited due to the sparse distribution of rain gauges in central Chile. SI (a linear scaling method) showed the smallest prediction error in all of the ungauged locations, and outperformed both KG and IDW. However, the SI method does not provide estimates of uncertainty, as is possible with KG. The simplicity of SI renders it a viable method for extrapolating IDF curves to locations without data in the central zone of Chile.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090179
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 180: A Hydrogeological Conceptual Model Refines
           the Behavior of a Mediterranean Coastal Aquifer System: A Key to
           Sustainable Groundwater Management (Grombalia, NE Tunisia)

    • Authors: Eya Ben Saad, Mohsen Ben Alaya, Jean-Denis Taupin, Nicolas Patris, Najet Chaabane, Radhia Souissi
      First page: 180
      Abstract: The Mediterranean coastal aquifer system of the Grombalia basin (NE Tunisia) offers immense potential as a source of fresh water for agriculture, industry, and drinking water supply. Nonetheless, due to its intricate hydrogeological characteristics and the prevailing issue of groundwater salinity, comprehending its groundwater system behavior becomes crucial for the effective and sustainable management of this aquifer system. Based on the hydrogeological characterization of the Grombalia basin, a novel 3D hydrogeological conceptual model was developed to enhance the understanding of its complex aquifer system. The integration of insights from geological, hydrogeological, hydrodynamic, and hydrochemical components facilitated the construction of the hydrogeological conceptual model. Although the model’s validity faced initial uncertainties due to spatial interpolation of lithological sequences, this study’s thorough and encompassing hydrogeological investigation overcame these limitations. As a result, a more informed comprehension of the aquifer system complexities was achieved. This study reveals that the basin is underlain by an extensive, cohesive Mio–Plio–Quaternary aquifer system. The model demonstrates vertical and lateral hydrogeological continuity between the Quaternary and underlying Mio–Pliocene deposits, enabling groundwater flow and exchange between these layers. Over-abstraction of the Mio–Plio–Quaternary aquifer system has led to a significant drop in piezometric levels and raised the risk of seawater intrusion. These findings emphasize the critical necessity of taking into account the interconnections among hydrogeological units to ensure sustainable groundwater management. The developed conceptual model offers a key tool for understanding the hydrodynamic functioning of the Grombalia aquifer system with a view toward guiding future groundwater management strategies. The application of this approach in the Grombalia basin suggests its potential applicability to other regional aquifers facing comparable challenges.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090180
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 181: Relating Lake Circulation Patterns to
           Sediment, Nutrient, and Water Hyacinth Distribution in a Shallow Tropical
           Highland Lake

    • Authors: Mebrahtom G. Kebedew, Seifu A. Tilahun, Fasikaw A. Zimale, Mulugeta A. Belete, Mekete D. Wosenie, Tammo S. Steenhuis
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Excess sediment and nutrient losses from intensifying agriculture degrade water quality and boost plant growth. The relationship between circulation patterns, spatial water quality degradation, and water hyacinth infestation is not adequately studied. The objective of this study is, therefore, to investigate the effect of lake circulation patterns on sediment and nutrient distribution and its implication on the spread of water hyacinth in a tropical lake. This study was carried out in Lake Tana, the largest freshwater lake in Ethiopia, where sediment and nutrient concentrations are increasing, and water hyacinths have become a challenge since 2011. The lake circulation pattern was simulated by the Delft3D model based on a bathymetry survey, discharge, and meteorological forcings. To predict the transport path of sediments and dissolved nutrients, an inert tracer was released in the four main river inlets of the lake. Observed lake water level measurements were used to validate the model. Our results show that the lake circulation pattern could explain the transport path of sediment and nutrients and the location of the water hyacinths found in the northeast of the lake. Sediments and nutrients from the largest river, Gilgel Abay, in the southeast of Lake Tana, flow through the two outlets nearby with little sediment deposition due to the relatively short retention time. The phosphorus-rich sediments of the 24 h at 105 °C remaining three main rivers joining the lake at the north and east are transported to the northeast. Thus, the management and control of water hyacinths should focus on the northern and eastern catchment areas of Lake Tana.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090181
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 182: Dynamic Groundwater Contamination
           Vulnerability Assessment Techniques: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Arghadyuti Banerjee, Leo Creedon, Noelle Jones, Laurence Gill, Salem Gharbia
      First page: 182
      Abstract: Assuring the quantity and quality of groundwater resources is essential for the well-being of human and ecological health, society, and the economy. For the last few decades, groundwater vulnerability modeling techniques have become essential for groundwater protection and management. Groundwater contamination is highly dynamic due to its dependency on recharge, which is a function of time-dependent parameters such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the time-series analysis in the “approximation” process to model the dynamic vulnerability of groundwater contamination. This systematic literature review (SLR) aims to critically review the methods used to evaluate the spatiotemporal assessment of groundwater vulnerability. The PRISMA method was employed to search web platforms and refine the collected research articles by applying certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Despite the enormous growth in this field in recent years, spatiotemporal variations in precipitation and evapotranspiration were not considered considerably. Groundwater contamination vulnerability assessment needs to integrate the multicriteria decision support tools for better analysis of the subsurface flow, residence time, and groundwater recharge. Holistic approaches need to be formulated to evaluate the groundwater contamination in changing climatic scenarios and uncertainties, which can provide knowledge and tools with which to prepare sustainable groundwater management strategies.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090182
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 183: Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the
           Al Abila Dam in the Western Desert of Iraq

    • Authors: Rasha Abed, Ammar Adham, Mohammed Falah Allawi, Coen Ritsema
      First page: 183
      Abstract: The potential impacts resulting from climate change will cause significant global problems, particularly in underdeveloped nations where the effects are felt the most. Techniques for harvesting water such as small dams provide an alternative supply of water and are adaptive solutions to deal with water scarcity in the context of future climate change. However, it is difficult to determine how rainwater harvesting (dams) may be impacted by climate change since general circulation models (GCMs), widely utilized for predicting potential future climate change scenarios, work on an extremely large scale. The primary aim of this research was to quantify the effect of climate change on water availability at the catchment scale by statistically downscaling temperature and rainfall from the GCMs. Then, using a water harvesting model, the performance of the Abila Dam in Iraq’s western desert was evaluated in both the current climate (1990–2020) and various future climate change scenarios (2020–2100). Precipitation generally decreases as the annual temperature increases. To simulate future water availability, these changes in meteorological factors were incorporated into the water harvesting model. In total, 15% or less of net storage might fulfil the whole storage capacity during the baseline period, whereas it is 10% in RCP 2.6 in 2011–2040 for future scenarios. In contrast, RCP 8.5 will be able to meet water needs at a pace of 6% in 2011–2040. The findings of this study proved that the Al Abila dam will be unable to supply the necessary water for the area surrounding the Al Abila dam in the future scenarios.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090183
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 184: Simulating Phosphorus Load Reductions in a
           Nested Catchment Using a Flow Pathway-Based Modeling Approach

    • Authors: Russell Adams, Paul Quinn
      First page: 184
      Abstract: Catchment models are essential tools to identify and predict water quality problems linked to excessive nutrient applications (in this case phosphorus (P)). The Catchment Runoff Attenuation Flux Tool (CRAFT) has been successfully used to model nutrient fluxes and concentrations in north-western European catchments. The model is extremely parsimonious due to the relatively small number of parameters. However, an improvement to the representation of soluble P and particulate P fluxes in the fast-subsurface and surface runoff flow pathways was required. A case study in the north of Ireland applied the original and the new, enhanced (Dynamic) version of the CRAFT to the trans-border Blackwater catchment (UK and Republic of Ireland) covering nearly 1500 km2, with the land use predominantly livestock grazing. The larger size of the Blackwater also required a nested modeling approach to be implemented using a multiple sub-catchment variant (MultiCRAFT). P load reductions in the different sub-catchments were first identified using a simple approach based on the gap between the Water Framework Directive (WFD) limits for “Good” ecological status for soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations and the recently observed concentrations. Modeling of different mitigation scenarios was then conducted using the MultiCRAFT framework with the best-performing variant of the CRAFT model embedded. The catchment was found to have flashy, episodic delivery of high concentrations of SRP and PP during runoff events which will require different sources (i.e., diffuse and point) of P to be targeted to achieve the WFD targets by the end of the decade. The modeling results thus showed that the required SRP load reductions could be best achieved using a combined scenario of mitigation measures that targeted diffuse sources contributing to both the surface runoff and fast-subsurface flow pathways, with point sources also identified as needing reduction in some sub-catchments.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090184
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 185: Bloomin’ Ridiculous: Climate Change,
           Water Contamination and Algal Blooms in a Land Down Under

    • Authors: Andrea Crampton, Angela T. Ragusa
      First page: 185
      Abstract: Climate and anthropogenic change, particularly agricultural runoff, increase blue-green algae/cyanobacteria blooms. This article researches cyanobacteria alert-level identification, management, and risk communication in Lake Hume, Australia. Two methods, document and content analysis, evidence contamination events and risk communication, reflect water governance and data management limitations. Results found that Lake Hume had amber or red alerts for only one week, December 2021–December 2022. This failed to prevent government tourism promotion of recreational usage, contravening water authority red alert advice. Lake-use restrictions lacked compliance enforcement. Events during amber alerts lacked risk communication to vulnerable populations (children). Lake Hume’s governance by the Murray–Darling Basin Authority restricted risk communication to one authority that reproduced generic advice in minimal outlets/time points. Geophysical signage failed to address diversity needs (language, literacy, age, and disabilities). No risk communication was found for residents with diseases exacerbated by aerosolization. Despite WHO promoting cyanotoxin investigation, Australian research is absent in international literature. Further, Lake Hume cyanobacteria produce potentially carcinogenic microcystein. This coexists with census data revealing cancer rates higher than the national average in a waterside town. The results demonstrate the need to incorporate robust public health risk assessments, communication, and management into water management and advocate international legislation changes based on evidence-based research to reduce blooms and prevent agricultural runoff.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090185
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 186: Boron Isotopes in Fresh Surface Waters in a
           Temperate Coastal Setting

    • Authors: Brooke N. Peritore, E. Troy Rasbury, Kathleen M. Wooton, Carrie C. Wright, Deanna M. Downs, Anastasia Iorga, Shannon L. Letscher
      First page: 186
      Abstract: The results from a four-year study of a freshwater pond on Long Island, NY, USA, do not point to a single source of boron (and by proxy other elements including nutrients) in this system. However, boron data from samples associated with this pond can be explained by mixing between average precipitation (weighted average δ11B = 22.7) in the area and the local sources of boron, both natural and anthropogenic. This multiyear study provided the opportunity to see both yearly and seasonal differences. One algae sample from the pond showed significant fractionation and enrichment in light boron relative to the water and suggests algae may act as a boron sink. This type of biological fractionation could explain an observed down-gradient trend to heavier boron isotope values in pond water, which corresponds to the slight reduction in boron concentration seen in 2021. However, the trend was subdued in the following year, likely due to differences in the water flow rates and/or rate of algal growth. An opposite trend was seen with depth in the water, where δ11B showed a positive correlation to boron concentration, which increased with depth from the surface of the pond. This gradient may be explained by the stratification of the pond with a heavy source concentrating in the bottom waters. The bottom water composition was consistent with goose feces (δ11B = 25.8) or the addition of chemicals from the application of rock salt to local roads in winter. Surprisingly, boron from seawater (average δ11B = 39.8) did not appear to have a direct impact on Setauket Pond, other than its influence on precipitation, providing heavy δ11B and very low boron concentrations.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090186
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 187: Assessing Terrestrial Water Storage
           Variations in Southern Spain Using Rainfall Estimates and GRACE Data

    • Authors: Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza, Jean-Philippe Montillet, José Sánchez-Morales, Peter A. Dowd, Juan Antonio Luque-Espinar, Neda Darbeheshti, Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Tovar
      First page: 187
      Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between rainfall, groundwater and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to generate regional-scale estimates of terrestrial water storage variations in the Andalucía region of southern Spain. These estimates can provide information on groundwater depletion (caused by periods of low rainfall or droughts) and groundwater recovery. The spatial distribution of groundwater bodies in southern Spain is complex and current in situ groundwater monitoring methods are deficient, particularly in terms of obtaining representative samples and in implementing and maintaining groundwater monitoring networks. The alternative approach proposed here is to investigate the relationship between precipitation time series and changes in the terrestrial water storage estimated from GRACE observations. The results were validated against the estimated fluctuation in regional groundwater. The maximum correlation between the mean groundwater level and the GRACE observations is 0.69 and this occurs at a lag of one month because the variation in gravity is immediate, but rainfall water requires around one month to travel across the vadose zone before it reaches the groundwater table. Using graphical methods of accumulated deviations from the mean, we show that, in general, groundwater storage follows the smooth, multi-year trends of terrestrial water storage but with less short-term trends; the same is true of rainfall, for which the local trends are more pronounced. There is hysteresis-like behaviour in the variations in terrestrial water storage and in the variations of groundwater. In practical terms, this study shows that, despite the abnormal dryness of the Iberian Peninsula during the 2004–2010 drought, the depleted groundwater storage in Andalucía recovered almost to its pre-drought level by 2016. In addition, groundwater storage and terrestrial water storage show very similar trends but with a delay in the groundwater trend.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090187
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 188: Analysis of Groundwater Depletion in the
           Saskatchewan River Basin in Canada from Coupled SWAT-MODFLOW and Satellite

    • Authors: Mohamed Hamdi, Kalifa Goïta
      First page: 188
      Abstract: The Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) of central Canada plays a crucial role in the Canadian Prairies. Yet, climate change and human action constitute a real threat to its hydrological processes. This study aims to evaluate and analyze groundwater spatial and temporal dynamics in the SRB. Groundwater information was derived and compared using two different approaches: (1) a mathematical modeling framework coupling the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Modular hydrologic model (MODFLOW) and (2) gravimetric satellite observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission and its follow-on (GRACE-FO). Both methods show generalized groundwater depletion in the SRB that can reach −1 m during the study period (2002–2019). Maximum depletion appeared especially after 2011. The water balance simulated by SWAT-MODFLOW showed that SRB could be compartmented roughly into three main zones. The mountainous area in the extreme west of the basin is the first zone, which is the most dynamic zone in terms of recharge, reaching +0.5 m. The second zone is the central area, where agricultural and industrial activities predominate, as well as potable water supplies. This zone is the least rechargeable and most intensively exploited area, with depletion ranging from +0.2 to −0.4 m during the 2002 to 2011 period and up to −1 m from 2011 to 2019. Finally, the third zone is the northern area that is dominated by boreal forest. Here, exploitation is average, but the soil does not demonstrate significant storage power. Briefly, the main contribution of this research is the quantification of groundwater depletion in the large basin of the SRB using two different methods: process-oriented and satellite-oriented methods. The next step of this research work will focus on the development of artificial intelligence approaches to estimate groundwater depletion from a combination of GRACE/GRACE-FO and a set of multisource remote sensing data.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090188
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 189: Coastal Erosion Caused by River Mouth
           Migration on a Cuspate Delta: An Example from Thanh Hoa, Vietnam

    • Authors: Dinh Van Duy, Tran Van Ty, Cao Tan Ngoc Than, Cu Ngoc Thang, Huynh Thi Cam Hong, Nguyen Trung Viet, Hitoshi Tanaka
      First page: 189
      Abstract: Coastal erosion poses a significant threat to the infrastructure of the coastal community at the mouth of the Ma River in Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. In response, emergency solutions such as hard, protective structures are often implemented. However, this approach exacerbates the problem as the underlying mechanisms of coastal erosion are not adequately investigated and understood. In this study, the long-term configuration of the mouth of the Ma River in Thanh Hoa Province, Central Vietnam, is investigated using Landsat imagery spanning from 1987 to 2023. An analytical solution of a one-line model for shoreline change was also used to examine the sand discharge from the Ma River and the diffusion coefficient for the sand transported along the shore by breaking waves. The results showed an asymmetric configuration of the mouth of the Ma River over the past 37 years. The supply of sand from the Ma River is around 350,000 m3/year. The majority of sand (ranging from 55% to 75%) is mainly transported to the northern beach of the Ma River delta. This uneven distribution of sand from the Ma River has led to the asymmetrical morphology of the delta apex in which the northern part of the Ma River delta is experiencing northward movement while the southern part of the Ma River Delta is moving southward and landward. The asymmetrical morphology of the delta at the mouth of the Ma River has recently been identified as the cause of severe coastal erosion. The diffusion coefficient value determined for the transportation of longshore sand along the deltaic lobes of the Ma River delta corresponds to 90 m2/day. This study offers a practical method for investigating morphological changes in cuspate deltas, especially when measured field data are limited.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090189
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 190: Evolution of Tunneling Hydro-Technology:
           From Ancient Times to Present and Future

    • Authors: Andreas N. Angelakis, Cees W. Passchier, Mohammad Valipour, Jens A. Krasilnikoff, Vasileios A. Tzanakakis, Abdelkader T. Ahmed, Alper Baba, Rohitashw Kumar, Esra Bilgic, Andrea G. Capodaglio, Nicholas Dercas
      First page: 190
      Abstract: Water tunnels are one of the oldest hydro-technologies for extracting water resources and/or transmitting them through water distribution systems. In the past, human societies have used tunneling for various purposes, including development, as a measure to enable underground resource extraction and the construction of transportation networks in challenging landscapes and topographies. The development of hydro-technology potentially involves the construction of tunnels to feed aqueducts, irrigation and waste water systems. Thus, the ability to make and maintain tunnels became an important component in creating lasting and sustainable water systems, which increased water supply and security, minimized construction costs, and reduced environmental impact. Thus, this review asks how, when and why human societies of the past included tunneling for the development of lasting water supply systems. This review presents a comprehensive overview across time and space, covering the history of tunneling in hydro technology from antiquity to the present, and it ponders how past experiences could impact on future hydro-technological projects involving tunneling. A historical review of tunnel systems enhances our understanding of the potential, performance, challenges, and prospects associated with the use of hydro-techniques. In the past, as the different examples in time and space demonstrate, tunneling was often dedicated to solving local problems of supply and disposal. However, across the world, some features were repeated, including the need for carving through the living rock or digging to create tunnels covered with stone slabs. Also, the world-wide use of extensive and costly tunnel systems indicates the high level of investment which human societies are willing to make for securing control over and with its water resources. This study helps us to gather inspiration from proven technologies of the past and more recent knowledge of water tunnel design and construction. As we face global warming and its derivate problems, including problems of water scarcity and flooding, the ability to create and maintain tunnels remains an important technology for the future.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10090190
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 157: Hydroclimatic Trends and Drought Risk
           Assessment in the Ceyhan River Basin: Insights from SPI and STI Indices

    • Authors: Hamid Darabi, Ali Danandeh Mehr, Gülşen Kum, Mehmet Emin Sönmez, Cristina Alina Dumitrache, Khadija Diani, Ahmet Celebi, Ali Torabi Haghighi
      First page: 157
      Abstract: This study examined the spatiotemporal climate variability over the Ceyhan River basin in Southern Anatolia, Türkiye using historical rainfall and temperature observations recorded at 15 meteorology stations. Various statistical and geostatistical techniques were employed to determine the significance of trends for each climatic variable in the whole basin and its three sub-regions (northern, central, and southern regions). The results revealed that the recent years in the basin were generally warmer compared with previous years, with a temperature increase of approximately 4 °C. The standardized temperature index analysis indicated a shift towards hotter periods after 2005, while the coldest periods were observed in the early 1990s. The spatial distribution of temperature showed non-uniform patterns throughout the basin. The first decade of the study period (1975–1984) was characterized by relatively cold temperatures, followed by a transition period from cold to hot between 1985 and 2004, and a hotter period in the last decade (2005–2014). The rainfall analysis indicated a decreasing trend in annual rainfall, particularly in the northern and central regions of the basin. However, the southern region showed an increasing trend in annual rainfall during the study period. The spatial distribution of rainfall exhibited considerable variability across the basin, with different regions experiencing distinct patterns. The standardized precipitation index analysis revealed the occurrence of multiple drought events throughout the study period. The most severe and prolonged droughts were observed in the years 1992–1996 and 2007–2010. These drought events had significant impacts on water availability and agricultural productivity in the basin.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080157
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 158: Flood Inundation and Depth Mapping Using
           Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Combined with High-Resolution Multispectral

    • Authors: Kevin J. Wienhold, Dongfeng Li, Wenzhao Li, Zheng N. Fang
      First page: 158
      Abstract: The identification of flood hazards during emerging public safety crises such as hurricanes or flash floods is an invaluable tool for first responders and managers yet remains out of reach in any comprehensive sense when using traditional remote-sensing methods, due to cloud cover and other data-sourcing restrictions. While many remote-sensing techniques exist for floodwater identification and extraction, few studies demonstrate an up-to-day understanding with better techniques in isolating the spectral properties of floodwaters from collected data, which vary for each event. This study introduces a novel method for delineating near-real-time inundation flood extent and depth mapping for storm events, using an inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based multispectral remote-sensing platform, which was designed to be applicable for urban environments, under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. The methodology is demonstrated using an actual flooding-event—Hurricane Zeta during the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season. Referred to as the UAV and Floodwater Inundation and Depth Mapper (FIDM), the methodology consists of three major components, including aerial data collection, processing, and flood inundation (water surface extent) and depth mapping. The model results for inundation and depth were compared to a validation dataset and ground-truthing data, respectively. The results suggest that UAV-FIDM is able to predict inundation with a total error (sum of omission and commission errors) of 15.8% and produce flooding depth estimates that are accurate enough to be actionable to determine road closures for a real event.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080158
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 159: Extreme Events Analysis Using LH-Moments
           Method and Quantile Function Family

    • Authors: Cristian Gabriel Anghel, Stefan Ciprian Stanca, Cornel Ilinca
      First page: 159
      Abstract: A direct way to estimate the likelihood and magnitude of extreme events is frequency analysis. This analysis is based on historical data and assumptions of stationarity, and is carried out with the help of probability distributions and different methods of estimating their parameters. Thus, this article presents all the relations necessary to estimate the parameters with the LH-moments method for the family of distributions defined only by the quantile function, namely, the Wakeby distribution of 4 and 5 parameters, the Lambda distribution of 4 and 5 parameters, and the Davis distribution. The LH-moments method is a method commonly used in flood frequency analysis, and it uses the annual series of maximum flows. The frequency characteristics of the two analyzed methods, which are both involved in expressing the distributions used in the first two linear moments, as well as in determining the confidence interval, are presented. The performances of the analyzed distributions and the two presented methods are verified in the following maximum flows, with the Bahna river used as a case study. The results are presented in comparison with the L-moments method. Following the results obtained, the Wakeby and Lambda distributions have the best performances, and the LH-skewness and LH-kurtosis statistical indicators best model the indicators’ values of the sample (0.5769, 0.3781, 0.548 and 0.3451). Similar to the L-moments method, this represents the main selection criterion of the best fit distribution.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080159
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 160: Modeled Forest Conversion Influences Humid
           Tropical Watershed Hydrology More than Projected Climate Change

    • Authors: Taylor Joyal, Alexander K. Fremier, Jan Boll
      First page: 160
      Abstract: In the humid tropics, forest conversion and climate change threaten the hydrological function and stationarity of watersheds, particularly in steep terrain. As climate change intensifies, shifting precipitation patterns and expanding agricultural and pastoral land use may effectively reduce the resilience of headwater catchments. Compounding this problem is the limited long-term monitoring in developing countries for planning in an uncertain future. In this study, we asked which change, climate or land use, more greatly affects stream discharge in humid tropical mountain watersheds' To answer this question, we used the process-based, spatially distributed Soil Moisture Routing model. After first evaluating model performance (Ns = 0.73), we conducted a global sensitivity analysis to identify the model parameters that most strongly influence simulated watershed discharge. In particular, peak flows are most influenced by input model parameters that represent shallow subsurface soil pathways and saturation-excess runoff while low flows are most sensitive to macropore hydraulic conductivity, soil depth and porosity parameters. We then simulated a range of land use and climate scenarios in three mountain watersheds of central Costa Rica. Our results show that deforestation influences streamflow more than altered precipitation and temperature patterns through changes in first-order hydrologic hillslope processes. However, forest conversion coupled with intensifying precipitation events amplifies hydrological extremes, reducing the hydrological resilience to predicted climate shifts in mountain watersheds of the humid tropics. This finding suggests that reforestation can help mitigate the effects of climate change on streamflow dynamics in the tropics including impacts to water availability, flood pulses, channel geomorphology and aquatic habitat associated with altered flow regimes.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080160
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 161: Quantification of Mountainous Hydrological
           Processes in the Aktash River Watershed of Uzbekistan, Central Asia, over
           the Past Two Decades

    • Authors: Ying Ouyang, John A. Stanturf, Marcus D. Williams, Evgeniy Botmann, Palle Madsen
      First page: 161
      Abstract: Estimation of hydrological processes is critical to water resource management, water supply planning, ecological protection, and climate change impact assessment. Mountains in Central Asia are the major source of water for rivers and agricultural practices. The disturbance of mountain forests in the region has altered the hydrological processes and accelerated soil erosion, mudflow, landslides, and flooding. We used the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model calibrated and validated with remote sensing data to quantify the mountainous hydrological processes in the Aktash River watershed (ARW) of Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Simulations showed that the daily surface runoff and streamflow closely responded to daily precipitation. Groundwater discharge reached its maximum in winter because of snowmelt. The wet months were from July to December, and the dry months were from January to June. The magnitudes of the seasonal hydrological processes were in the following order: fall > summer > winter > spring for precipitation and surface runoff; summer > spring > fall > winter for evapotranspiration (ET); winter > spring > fall > summer for snowmelt; fall > winter > summer > spring for water yield and streamflow; and winter > fall > spring > summer for groundwater discharge. The Mann–Kendall statistical test revealed a significant increasing trend for the annual precipitation (τ = 0.45, p < 0.01) and surface runoff (τ = 0.41, p < 0.02) over the past 17 years from 2003 to 2019. Compared to rangeland, forested land decreased monthly and annual average surface runoff by 20%, and increased monthly and annual average groundwater recharge by about 5%. Agricultural land had much higher unit-area values (mm/km2/y) of ET, groundwater recharge, and water yield than those of urban, forest, and range lands. Our research findings provide useful information to farmers, foresters, and decision makers for better water resource management in the ARW, Central Asia, and other mountain watersheds with similar conditions.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080161
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 162: Evaluation of BOLAM Fine Grid Weather
           Forecasts with Emphasis on Hydrological Applications

    • Authors: Nikolaos Malamos, Dimitrios Koulouris, Ioannis L. Tsirogiannis, Demetris Koutsoyiannis
      First page: 162
      Abstract: The evaluation of weather forecast accuracy is of major interest in decision making in almost every sector of the economy and in civil protection. To this, a detailed assessment of Bologna Limited-Area Model (BOLAM) seven days fine grid 3 h predictions is made for precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed over a large lowland agricultural area of a Mediterranean-type climate, characterized by hot summers and rainy moderate winters (plain of Arta, NW Greece). Timeseries that cover a four-year period (2016–2019) from seven agro-meteorological stations located at the study area are used to run a range of contingency and accuracy measures as well as Taylor diagrams, and the results are thoroughly discussed. The overall results showed that the model failed to comply with the precipitation regime throughout the study area, while the results were mediocre for wind speed. Considering relative humidity, the results revealed acceptable performance and good correlation between the model output and the observed values, for the early days of forecast. Only in air temperature, the forecasts exhibited very good performance. Discussion is made on the ability of the model to predict major rainfall events and to estimate water budget components as rainfall and reference evapotranspiration. The need for skilled weather forecasts from improved versions of the examined model that may incorporate post-processing techniques to improve predictions or from other forecasting services is underlined.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080162
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 163: Stream Barrier Removal: Are New Approaches
           Possible in Small Rivers' The Case of the Selho River (Northwestern

    • Authors: Francisco Costa, António Vieira
      First page: 163
      Abstract: The identification and characterization of barriers to river continuity are essential for the preparation of an inventory of hydraulic infrastructure. To this end, it is necessary to define the main identifying and characterizing elements of hydraulic infrastructures and descriptors of ecological continuity, with information that can characterize them from the point of view of their impact on the watercourse. Several authors have defined decision criteria for the removal of existing hydraulic structures in watercourses and their application, reinforcing the environmental benefits of the elimination of these hydraulic structures. In the present work, we proposed to develop a methodology for the evaluation of barriers in the Selho River (Guimarães Municipality, Northwest Portugal), elaborating an Environmental Condition Index (ECI) based on hydromorphological, socioeconomical, and ecological criteria, which allowed the identification of 43 weirs, of which 95% revealed quality inferior to Good. Following the application of a decision support methodology for the removal of hydraulic structures, it was possible to determine that 16 of the 43 weirs evaluated could be subject to removal, 26 would be under conditioned removal, and only 1 would be able to remain unchanged.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080163
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 164: Enhancing Flood Prediction Accuracy through
           Integration of Meteorological Parameters in River Flow Observations: A
           Case Study Ottawa River

    • Authors: Clara Letessier, Jean Cardi, Antony Dussel, Isa Ebtehaj, Hossein Bonakdari
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Given that the primary cause of flooding in Ontario, Canada, is attributed to spring floods, it is crucial to incorporate temperature as an input variable in flood prediction models with machine learning algorithms. This inclusion enables a comprehensive understanding of the intricate dynamics involved, particularly the impact of heatwaves on snowmelt, allowing for more accurate flood prediction. This paper presents a novel machine learning approach called the Adaptive Structure of the Group Method of Data Handling (ASGMDH) for predicting daily river flow rates, incorporating measured discharge from the previous day as a historical record summarizing watershed characteristics, along with real-time data on air temperature and precipitation. To propose a comprehensive machine learning model, four different scenarios with various input combinations were examined. The simplest model with three parameters (maximum temperature, precipitation, historical daily river flow discharge) achieves high accuracy, with an R2 value of 0.985 during training and 0.992 during testing, demonstrating its reliability and potential for practical application. The developed ASGMDH model demonstrates high accuracy for the study area, with a significant number of samples having a relative error of less than 15%. The final ASGMDH-based model has only a second-order polynomial (AICc = 19,648.71), while it is seven for the classical GMDH-based model (AICc = 19,701.56). The sensitivity analysis reveals that maximum temperature significantly impacts the prediction of daily river flow discharge.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080164
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 165: Hydrological Properties of Litter in
           Different Vegetation Types: Implications for Ecosystem Functioning

    • Authors: Lara Castagnolli, Fernando Santos Boggiani, Jeferson Alberto de Lima, Marcelle Teodoro Lima, Kelly Cristina Tonello
      First page: 165
      Abstract: This study investigated the hydrological properties of litter in different vegetation cover types, including Eucalyptus sp. plantation, Agroforestry, and Restoration Forest. The research focused on evaluating litter accumulation, composition, water holding capacity, and effective water retention. The results revealed variations in litter accumulation among the stands, and especially Eucalyptus sp., which had a higher proportion of branches compared to leaves. The water holding capacity of the litter differed among the stands. Agroforest and Restoration Forest showed higher litter water capacities than Eucalyptus sp. The composition and decomposition stage of the litter fractions influenced their water retention capabilities, with leaves exhibiting superior water retention. In contrast, branches had lower water absorption due to their hydrophobic nature. Despite these differences, the effective water retention, which indicates the ability of litter to intercept precipitation, was similar among the stands. The findings highlight the importance of considering litter composition and species-specific characteristics in understanding the hydrological functions of litter. This knowledge contributes to effective conservation and management strategies for sustainable land use practices and water resource management. Further research is recommended to expand the study’s scope to include a wider range of forest types and natural field conditions, providing a more comprehensive understanding of litter hydrological functions and their implications for ecosystem processes.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080165
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 166: Development and Automation of a
           Photovoltaic-Powered Soil Moisture Sensor for Water Management

    • Authors: Denilson Alves de Melo, Patrícia Costa Silva, Adriana Rodolfo da Costa, Josué Gomes Delmond, Ana Flávia Alves Ferreira, Johnny Alves de Souza, José Francisco de Oliveira-Júnior, Jhon Lennon Bezerra da Silva, Alexandre Maniçoba da Rosa Ferraz Jardim, Pedro Rogerio Giongo, Maria Beatriz Ferreira, Abelardo Antônio de Assunção Montenegro, Henrique Fonseca Elias de Oliveira, Thieres George Freire da Silva, Marcos Vinícius da Silva
      First page: 166
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a photovoltaic-powered soil moisture sensor (SMS) for irrigation management. Soil moisture readings obtained from the sensor were compared with gravimetric measurements. An automated SMS was used in two trials: (i) okra crop (Abelmoschus esculentus) and (ii) chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens). All sensors were calibrated and automated using an Arduino Mega board with C++. The soil moisture data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. The data recorded by the equipment was correlated with the gravimetric method. The determination coefficient (R2), Pearson correlation (r), and root mean square error (RMSE) were adopted as criteria for equipment validation. The results show that our SMS achieved an R2 value of 0.70 and an r value of 0.84. Notably, there was a striking similarity observed between SMS and gravimetric data, with RMSE values of 3.95 and 4.01, respectively. The global model developed exhibited highly efficient outcomes with R2 (0.98) and r (0.99) values. The applicability of the developed SMS facilitates irrigation management with accuracy and real-time monitoring using digital data. The automation of the SMS emerges as a real-time and precise alternative for performing irrigation at the right moment and in the correct amount, thus avoiding water losses.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080166
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 167: Drought Severity and Trends in a
           Mediterranean Oak Forest

    • Authors: Stefanos Stefanidis, Dimitra Rossiou, Nikolaos Proutsos
      First page: 167
      Abstract: Drought is a significant natural hazard with widespread socioeconomic and environmental impacts. This study investigated the long-term drought characteristics in a Mediterranean oak forest ecosystem using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at various time scales and seasons. The analysis was based on a long-term time series dataset obtained from a meteorological station located at the University Forest of Taxiarchis in Greece. The dataset encompassed a substantial time span of 47 years of continuous monitoring, from 1974 to 2020. To accomplish the goals of the current research, the SPEI was calculated for 3, 6, 12, and 24-month periods, and drought events were identified. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) test was used to analyze the trends in drought severity and evaluate the trends significance. The results showed that shorter time scales (SPEI3 and SPEI6) were more efficient for identifying short-term droughts, while longer time scales (SPEI12 and SPEI24) were better for identifying less frequent but longer-lasting drought episodes. The analysis consistently revealed positive trends across all seasons and time scales, indicating an overall transition towards wetter conditions. Nearly all the data series for SPEI12 and SPEI24 exhibited statistically significant upward trends (wetter conditions) at a 95% confidence level. However, more intense events were detected during the recent decade using the seasonal analysis. Additionally, as the time scale expanded, the magnitude of these trends increased. The findings contributed to a better understanding of drought dynamics in Mediterranean oak forests and provided valuable information for forest management and climate change adaptation planning.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080167
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 168: Improvements and Evaluation of the
           Agro-Hydrologic VegET Model for Large-Area Water Budget Analysis and
           Drought Monitoring

    • Authors: Gabriel B. Senay, Stefanie Kagone, Gabriel E. L. Parrish, Kul Khand, Olena Boiko, Naga M. Velpuri
      First page: 168
      Abstract: We enhanced the agro-hydrologic VegET model to include snow accumulation and melt processes and the separation of runoff into surface runoff and deep drainage. Driven by global weather datasets and parameterized by land surface phenology (LSP), the enhanced VegET model was implemented in the cloud to simulate daily soil moisture (SM), actual evapotranspiration (ETa), and runoff (R) for the conterminous United States (CONUS) and the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA). Evaluation of the VegET model with independent data showed satisfactory performance, capturing the temporal variability of SM (Pearson correlation r: 0.22–0.97), snowpack (r: 0.86–0.88), ETa (r: 0.41–0.97), and spatial variability of R (r: 0.81–0.90). Absolute magnitudes showed some biases, indicating the need of calibrating the model for water budget analysis. The seasonal Landscape Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (L-WRSI) for CONUS and GHA showed realistic depictions of drought hazard extent and severity, indicating the usefulness of the L-WRSI for the convergence of an evidence toolkit used by the Famine Early Warning System Network to monitor potential food insecurity conditions in different parts of the world. Using projected weather datasets and landcover-based LSP, the VegET model can be used not only for global monitoring of drought conditions, but also for evaluating scenarios on the effect of a changing climate and land cover on agriculture and water resources.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080168
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 169: Using Ensembles of Machine Learning
           Techniques to Predict Reference Evapotranspiration (ET0) Using Limited
           Meteorological Data

    • Authors: Hamza Salahudin, Muhammad Shoaib, Raffaele Albano, Muhammad Azhar Inam Baig, Muhammad Hammad, Ali Raza, Alamgir Akhtar, Muhammad Usman Ali
      First page: 169
      Abstract: To maximize crop production, reference evapotranspiration (ET0) measurement is crucial for managing water resources and planning crop water needs. The FAO-PM56 method is recommended globally for estimating ET0 and evaluating alternative methods due to its extensive theoretical foundation. Numerous meteorological parameters, needed for ET0 estimation, are difficult to obtain in developing countries. Therefore, alternative ways to estimate ET0 using fewer climatic data are of critical importance. To estimate ET0 with alternative methods, difference climatic parameters of temperatures, relative humidity (maximum and minimum), sunshine hours, and wind speed for a period of 20 years from 1996 to 2015 were used in the study. The data were recorded by 11 meteorological observatories situated in various climatic regions of Pakistan. The significance of the climatic parameters used was evaluated using sensitivity analysis. The machine learning techniques of single decision tree (SDT), tree boost (TB) and decision tree forest (DTF) were used to perform sensitivity analysis. The outcomes indicated that DTF-based models estimated ET0 with higher accuracy and fewer climatic variables as compared to other ML techniques used in the study. The DTF technique, with Model 15 as input, outperformed other techniques for the most part of the performance metrics (i.e., NSE = 0.93, R2 = 0.96 and RMSE = 0.48 mm/month). The results indicated that the DTF with fewer climatic variables of mean relative humidity, wind speed and minimum temperature could estimate ET0 accurately and outperformed other ML techniques. Additionally, a non-linear ensemble (NLE) of ML techniques was further used to estimate ET0 using the best input combination (i.e., Model 15). It was seen that the applied non-linear ensemble (NLE) approach enhanced modelling accuracy as compared to a stand-alone application of ML techniques (R2 Multan = 0.97, R2 Skardu = 0.99, R2 ISB = 0.98, R2 Bahawalpur = 0.98 etc.). The study results affirmed the use of an ensemble model for ET0 estimation and suggest applying it in other parts of the world to validate model performance.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080169
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 170: Decoupling of Ecological and Hydrological
           Drought Conditions in the Limpopo River Basin Inferred from Groundwater
           Storage and NDVI Anomalies

    • Authors: Kyung Y. Kim, Todd Scanlon, Sophia Bakar, Venkataraman Lakshmi
      First page: 170
      Abstract: Droughts are projected to increase in intensity and frequency with the rise of global mean temperatures. However, not all drought indices equally capture the variety of influences that each hydrologic component has on the duration and magnitude of a period of water deficit. While such indices often agree with one another due to precipitation being the major input, heterogeneous responses caused by groundwater recharge, soil moisture memory, and vegetation dynamics may lead to a decoupling of identifiable drought conditions. As a semi-arid basin, the Limpopo River Basin (LRB) is a severely water-stressed region associated with unique climate patterns that regularly affect hydrological extremes. In this study, we find that vegetation indices show no significant long-term trends (S-statistic 9; p-value 0.779), opposing that of the modeled groundwater anomalies (S-statistic -57; p-value 0.05) in the growing season for a period of 18 years (2004–2022). Although the Mann-Kendall time series statistics for NDVI and drought indices are non-significant when basin-averaged, spatial heterogeneity further reveals that such a decoupling trend between vegetation and groundwater anomalies is indeed significant (p-value < 0.05) in colluvial, low-land aquifers to the southeast, while they remain more coupled in the central-west LRB, where more bedrock aquifers dominate. The conclusions of this study highlight the importance of ecological conditions with respect to water availability and suggest that water management must be informed by local vegetation species, especially in the face of depleting groundwater resources.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080170
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 171: Identification of the Groundwater Quality
           and Potential Noncarcinogenic Health Risk Assessment of Nitrate in the
           Groundwater of El Milia Plain, Kebir Rhumel Basin, Algeria

    • Authors: Djouhaina Brella, Lazhar Belkhiri, Ammar Tiri, Hichem Salhi, Fatma Elhadj Lakouas, Razki Nouibet, Adeltif Amrane, Ryma Merdoud, Lotfi Mouni
      First page: 171
      Abstract: In this study, we analyzed the quality and the potential noncarcinogenic health risk of nitrate in groundwater in the El Milia plain, Kebir Rhumel Basin, Algeria. Moran’s I and the ordinary kriging (OK) interpolation technique were used to examine the spatial distribution pattern of the hydrochemical parameters in the groundwater. It was found that the hydrochemical parameters Ca, Cl, and HCO3 showed strong spatial autocorrelation in the El Milia plain, indicating a spatial dependence and clustering of these parameters in the groundwater. The groundwater quality was evaluated using the entropy water quality index (EWQI). The results showed that approximately 86% of the total groundwater samples in the study area fall within the moderate groundwater quality category. The spatial map of the EWQI values indicated an increasing trend from the south-west to the northeast, following the direction of groundwater flow. The highest EWQI values were observed near El Milia city in the center of the plain. This spatial pattern suggests variations in groundwater quality across the study area, with potentially higher risks near the city center. The potential noncarcinogenic health risks associated with nitrate contamination in groundwater for adults and children through the drinking water pathway were assessed using the hazard quotient (HQ). The results revealed that approximately 5.7% of the total groundwater samples exceeded the HQ limit for adults, indicating potential health risks. Moreover, a higher percentage, 14.28%, of the total groundwater samples exceeded the HQ limit for children, highlighting their increased vulnerability to noncarcinogenic health hazards associated with nitrate contamination in the study area. Taking timely action and ensuring strict compliance with regulations in groundwater management are crucial for protecting public health, preserving the environment, addressing water scarcity, and achieving sustainable development goals.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080171
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 172: Urban Flood Modelling under Extreme
           Rainfall Conditions for Building-Level Flood Exposure Analysis

    • Authors: Christos Iliadis, Panagiota Galiatsatou, Vassilis Glenis, Panagiotis Prinos, Chris Kilsby
      First page: 172
      Abstract: The expansion of urban areas and the increasing frequency and magnitude of intense rainfall events are anticipated to contribute to the widespread escalation of urban flood risk across the globe. To effectively mitigate future flood risks, it is crucial to combine a comprehensive examination of intense rainfall events in urban areas with the utilization of detailed hydrodynamic models. This study combines extreme value analysis techniques applied to rainfall data ranging from sub-hourly to daily durations with a high-resolution flood modelling analysis at the building level in the centre of Thessaloniki, Greece. A scaling procedure is employed to rainfall return levels assessed by applying the generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution to annual maximum fine-temporal-scale data, and these scaling laws are then applied to more reliable daily rainfall return levels estimated by means of the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD), in order to develop storm profiles with durations of 1 h and 2 h. The advanced flood model, CityCAT, is then used for the simulation of pluvial flooding, providing reliable assessments of building-level exposure to flooding hazards. The results of the analysis conducted provide insights into flood depths and water flowpaths in the city centre of Thessaloniki, identifying major flowpaths along certain main streets resulting in localised flooding, and identifying around 165 and 186 buildings highly exposed to inundation risk in the study area for 50-year storm events with durations of 1 h and 2 h, respectively. For the first time in this study area, a detailed analysis of extreme rainfall events is combined with a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM), used as an input into the advanced and fully featured CityCAT hydrodynamic model, to assess critical flowpaths and buildings at high flood risk. The results of this study can aid in the planning and design of resilient solutions to combat urban flash floods, as well as contribute to targeted flood damage mitigation and flood risk reduction.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080172
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 173: Applying Geophysical and Hydrogeochemical
           Methods to Evaluate Groundwater Potential and Quality in Middle Egypt

    • Authors: Esam Ismail, Dimitrios E. Alexakis, Mohamed Abou Heleika, Mohamed Hashem, Mohamed S. Ahmed, Doha Hamdy, Ahmed Ali
      First page: 173
      Abstract: The El-Minia district is a location of interest for future urban development. Using hydrochemistry and electrical resistivity studies, this work aimed to evaluate the groundwater potentiality and it’s suitable for various uses. The groundwater potential in the study area was evaluated based on 24 VESs (vertical electrical soundings), and its quality was determined based on the analyses of 57 groundwater samples. EC (salinity index), Na% (salt hazard), SAR (ratio of sodium adsorption), chloride risks, SSP (soluble sodium percentage), MH (magnesium hazard), and other indicators were used to determine whether the collected water samples were suitable for irrigation. Four layers in the study area are mentioned in the geoelectrical cross-sections that have been constructed. The first is made up of silt and clay from the Nile River, while the second is made up of sandy clay, which has a resistivity range of 15 to 32 Ohm.m and a range thickness of 2 to 68 m. Dry limestone makes up the third layer; its resistivity ranges from 1222 to 3000 Ohm.m and its thickness varies between 75 and 95 m. The Eocene aquifer in the research area is represented by the final layer, which has a thickness of more than 250 m and resistivity values that range from 602 to 860 Ohm.m. Most groundwater samples that were collected are safe for drinking; however, none of them are fit for home usage because of their extreme hardness. According to the SAR and US diagram, RSC, KR, and PI, most groundwater samples from the Pleistocene and Eocene aquifers are fit for irrigation.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080173
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 174: A First Step towards Developing a Decision
           Support System Based on the Integration of Environmental Monitoring
           Activities for Regional Water Resource Protection

    • Authors: Carmine Massarelli, Maria Silvia Binetti, Mariangela Triozzi, Vito Felice Uricchio
      First page: 174
      Abstract: The topic of diffuse pollution is of particular interest from technical, scientific, and administrative management points of view. Diffuse pollution is defined as the contamination or chemical, physical, or biological alterations of environmental matrices caused by diffuse sources and not attributable to a single origin. In this study, various sources of diffuse pollution such as nitrates, pesticides, metals, and plastics were analysed. This was aimed at the implementation of a decision support system able to represent the state of environmental matrices degradation, with particular attention to water resources, and to make decisions evaluating similar environmental contexts. The potential of the developed system makes it possible to identify areas with the same environmental characteristics, referring to the various activities that create diffuse pollution and areas with the same pressure values on the environmental matrices. The system provides the political decision-maker with greater awareness of the environmental state, thus enabling him to apply more accurate land management policies. The created system, based on open-source software, which can be implemented with additional available data sources, is characterised by a data processing workflow that provides output information at the municipal level, so that it can be managed both by mayors and regional managers who are able to share the same information with all.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080174
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 175: Simple and Complex Substrates (Sugar,
           Acetate and Milk Whey) for In Situ Bioremediation of Groundwater with
           Nitrate and Actinide Contamination

    • Authors: Ivan Myasnikov, Grigory Artemiev, Elena Lavrinovich, Irina Kazinskaya, Alexander Novikov, Alexey Safonov
      First page: 175
      Abstract: The complex contamination of groundwater near radioactive waste repositories by nitrates and actinides is a common problem for many nuclear fuel cycle facilities. One of the effective methods to remove nitrates and reduce actinide migration activity is bioremediation through the activation of native microbial communities by soluble electron donors and carbon sources. This work evaluated the effectiveness of using simple and complex electron donors to remove nitrate in the microbial community in an aquifer near the B2 storage of the Siberian Chemical Combine (Seversk, Siberia). The addition of sugar and milk whey led to the maximum efficiency of nitrate-ion removal and a decrease in the redox potential of the system, creating optimal conditions for the immobilization of actinide. Special attention was paid to the behavior of uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium under conditions simulating groundwater when sugar, acetate, and milk whey were added and when microbial metabolic products were formed. Neither microbial metabolites nor organic solutions were found to have a significant effect on the leaching of neptunium. At the same time, for plutonium, a decrease in yield was observed when rocks were treated with organic solutions were compared to groundwater treatment without them. Plutonium leaching is significantly affected by rock composition. In rocks with a low clay fraction content, its yield can reach 40%. At the same time, microbial metabolites can increase americium (Am) desorption from rocks with a low clay fraction content. Additionally, particle size analysis was performed using a step-by-step filtration approach, aiming to evaluate the risks that are associated with colloidal phase formation. It was shown that microbiological stimulation resulted in particle enlargement, substantially diminishing the presence of actinides in the form of dissolved or sub-50 nm nanoparticles. This outcome significantly reduced the potential for colloidal and pseudocolloidal transfer, thereby lowering associated risks.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080175
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 176: Assimilating Soil Moisture Information to
           Improve the Performance of SWAT Hydrological Model

    • Authors: Maria Kofidou, Alexandra Gemitzi
      First page: 176
      Abstract: The present work aims to highlight the possibility of improving model performance by assimilating soil moisture information in the calibration and validation process. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) within QGIS, i.e., QSWAT, was used to simulate the hydrological processes within the test basin, i.e., Vosvozis River Basin (VRB) in NE Greece. The model calibration and validation were conducted via SWAT-CUP for a four-year period from 2019 to 2022, in three different ways, i.e., using the traditional calibration process with river flow measurements, using satellite-based soil moisture only in the calibration, and finally incorporating satellite-based soil moisture datasets and calibrating using simultaneously flow and soil moisture information. All modeling approaches used the same set of input data related to topography, land cover, and soil information. This study utilized the recently released global scale daily downscaled soil moisture at 1 km from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to generate soil moisture datasets. Two performance indicators were evaluated: Nash Sutcliffe (NS) and coefficient of determination (R2). Results showed that QSWAT successfully simulated river flow in VRB with NS = 0.61 and R2 = 0.69 for the calibration process using river flow measurements at the outlet of VRB. However, comparing satellite-based soil moisture, NS and R2 were considerably lower with an average derived from the 19 subbasins (NS = 0.55, R2 = 0.66), indicating lower performance related to the simulation of soil moisture regime. Subsequently, introducing satellite-derived soil moisture as an additional parameter in the calibration process along with flow improved the acquired average soil moisture results of the 19 subbasins (NS = 0.85, R2 = 0.91), while preserving the satisfactory performance related to flow simulation (NS = 0.57, R2 = 0.66). Our work thus demonstrates how assimilating available satellite-derived soil moisture information into the SWAT model may offer considerable improvement in the description of soil moisture conditions, keeping the satisfactory performance in flow simulation.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10080176
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 136: Comparison of the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy
           Process (F-AHP) and Fuzzy Logic for Flood Exposure Risk Assessment in Arid

    • Authors: Husam Musa Baalousha, Anis Younes, Mohamed A. Yassin, Marwan Fahs
      First page: 136
      Abstract: Flood risk assessment is an important tool for urban planning, land development, and hydrological analysis. The flood risks are very high in arid countries due to the nature of the rainfall resulting from thunderstorms and the land cover, which comprises mostly very dry arid soil. Several methods have been used to assess the flood risk, depending on various factors that affect the likelihood of occurrence. However, the selection of these factors and the weight assigned to them remain rather arbitrary. This study assesses the risk of flood occurrence in arid regions based on land cover, soil type, precipitation, elevation, and flow accumulation. Thematic maps of the aforementioned factors for the study area were prepared using GIS. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (F-AHP) was used to calculate the likelihood of the flood occurrence, and land use was used to assess the exposure impact. Using the likelihood map (i.e., probability) from the Fuzzy-AHP and an exposure map, the flood risk was assessed. This method was applied to Qatar as a case study. Results were compared with those produced by fuzzy logic. To explore the pairwise importance of the F-AHP, equal weight analysis was performed. The resulting risk map shows that the majority of urbanized areas in Qatar are within the high-risk zone, with some smaller parts within the very high flood-risk area. The majority of the country is within the low-risk zone. Some areas, especially land depressions, are located within the intermediate-risk category. Comparison of Fuzzy logic and the F-AHP showed that both have similarities in the low-risk and differences in the high-risk zones. This reveals that the F-AHP is probably more accurate than other methods as it accounts for higher variability.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070136
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 137: Statistical Approach for Computing Base
           Flow Rates in Gaged Rivers and Hydropower Effect Analysis

    • Authors: Andrés F. Villalba-Barrios, Oscar E. Coronado-Hernández, Vicente S. Fuertes-Miquel, Jairo R. Coronado-Hernández, Helena M. Ramos
      First page: 137
      Abstract: The calculation of base flow rates in rivers is complex since hydrogeological and hydrological studies should be performed. The estimation of base flow rates in storm hydrograph associated to various return periods is even more challenging compared to other events. This research provides a novel methodology to compute base flow rates in gaged rivers for extreme events based on statistical correlations of daily flows. The current methodology does not require complex aquifers analysis to compute base flows. Results of computed base flow rates are validated using observed storm hydrographs using a complete record. The proposed methodology was applied considering measurements of a limnigraphic station in the Sinú river located in Montería, Córdoba, Colombia. The analysis confirmed that only using series of multiannual monthly mean flows is possible to estimate base flow of flood hydrograph associated to different return periods.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070137
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 138: Streamflow Reconstructions Using
           Tree-Ring-Based Paleo Proxies for the Sava River Basin (Slovenia)

    • Authors: Glenn Tootle, Abdoul Oubeidillah, Emily Elliott, Giuseppe Formetta, Nejc Bezak
      First page: 138
      Abstract: The Sava River Basin (SRB) extends across six countries (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Albania, and Montenegro) and is a major tributary of the Danube River (DR). The Sava River (SR) originates in the alpine region of Slovenia, and, in support of a Slovenian government initiative to increase clean, sustainable energy, multiple hydropower facilities have been constructed within the past ~20 years. Given the importance of this river system for varying demands, including energy production, information about past (paleo) drought and pluvial periods would provide important information to water managers and planners. Seasonal (April–May–June–July–August–September—AMJJAS) streamflow data were obtained for two SRB gauges (Jesenice and Catez) in Slovenia. The Jesenice gauge is in the extreme headwaters of the SR, upstream of any major water control structures, and is considered an unimpaired (minimal anthropogenic influence) gauge. The Catez gauge is located on the SR near the Slovenia–Croatia border, thus providing an estimate of streamflow leaving Slovenia (entering Croatia). The Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA) provides an annual June–July–August (JJA) self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) derived from 106 tree-ring chronologies for 5414 grid points across Europe from 0 to 2012 AD. In lieu of tree-ring chronologies, this dataset was used as a proxy to reconstruct (for ~2000 years) seasonal streamflow. Prescreening methods included the correlation and temporal stability of seasonal streamflow and scPDSI cells. The retained scPDSI cells were then used as predictors (independent variables) to reconstruct streamflow (predictive and/or dependent variables) in regression-based models. This resulted in highly skillful reconstructions of SRB seasonal streamflow from 0 to 2012 AD. The reconstructions were evaluated, and both low flow (i.e., drought) and high flow (i.e., pluvial) periods were identified for various filters (5-year to 30-year). When evaluating the most recent ~20 years (2000 to present), multiple low-flow (drought) periods were identified. For various filters (5-year to 15-year), the 2003 end-year consistently ranked as one of the lowest periods, while the 21-year period ending in 2012 was the lowest flow period in the ~2000-year reconstructed-observed-historic period of record. The ~30-year period ending in 2020 was the lowest flow period since the early 6th century. A decrease in pluvial (wet) periods was identified in the observed-historic record when compared to the paleo record, again confirming an apparent decline in streamflow. Given the increased activities (construction of water control structures) impacting the Sava River, the results provide important information to water managers and planners.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070138
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 139: Predictive MPC-Based Operation of Urban
           Drainage Systems Using Input Data-Clustered Artificial Neural Networks
           Rainfall Forecasting Models

    • Authors: Fatemeh Jafari, S. Jamshid Mousavi, Kumaraswamy Ponnambalam
      First page: 139
      Abstract: The model predictive control (MPC) approach can be implemented in either a reactive (RE-) or predictive (PR-) manner to control the operation of urban drainage systems (UDSs). Previous research focused mostly on the RE-MPC, as the PR-MPC, despite its potential to improve the performance of the UDS operations, requires additional computational resources and is more complex. This research evaluates the conditions under which the PR-MPC approach may be preferable. A PR-MPC model is developed, consisting of an adaptive input data-clustered ANN-based rainfall forecasting method coupled to an MPC framework. Observed and forecasted rainfall events are inputs to the internal MPC model, including the rainfall-runoff SWMM simulation model of the system and the MPC optimizer, which is a harmony search-based model determining optimal control policies. The proposed model was used as part of the UDS of Tehran, Iran, under different scenarios of input (rainfall), forecast accuracy (IFAC), and time horizon (IFTH). Results indicate that the PR-MPC performs better for longer-duration rainfall events, while the RE-MPC could be used to control very short storm occurrences. The proposed PR-MPC model can achieve between 85 and 92% of the performance of an ideal model functioning under the premise of perfect, error-free rainfall forecasts for two investigated rainfall events. Additionally, the IFAC can be improved by including rainfall fluctuations over finer temporal resolutions than the forecast horizon as additional predictors.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070139
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 140: Effects of a Gravel Pit Lake on Groundwater

    • Authors: Janja Vrzel, Hans Kupfersberger, Carlos Andres Rivera Villarreyes, Johann Fank, Leander Wieser
      First page: 140
      Abstract: In Europe, 1132 Mt of sand and gravel were mined in 2019, which causes major changes to the hydrogeological cycle. Such changes may lead to significantly raised or lowered groundwater levels. Therefore, the aggregate sector has to ensure that impacts on existing environmental and water infrastructures are kept to a minimum in the post-mining phase. Such risk assessments are often made by empirical methods, which are based on assumptions that do not meet real aquifer conditions. To investigate this effect, predictions by empirical and numerical methods about hydraulic head changes caused by a pit lake were compared. Wrobel’s equation, which is based on Sichardt’s equation, was used as the empirical method, while a numerical groundwater flow model has been solved by means of the finite-element method in FEFLOW. The empirical method provides significantly smaller ranges of increased/decreased groundwater levels caused by the gravel pit lake as the numerical method. The underestimation of the empirical results was related to the finding that field measurements during pumping tests show a larger extent of groundwater drawdown than calculations with the Sichardt’s equation. Simplifications of the 2D model approach have been evaluated against hydraulic head changes derived from a 3D groundwater model. Our results clearly show that the faster and cheaper empirical method—Wrobel’s equation, which is often preferred over the more expensive and time-consuming numerical method, underestimates the drawdown area. This is especially critical when the assignment of mining permits is based on such computations. Therefore, we recommend using numerical models in the pre-mining phase to accurately compute the extent of a gravel/sand excavation’s impacts on hydraulic head and hence more effective protection of groundwater and other related environmental systems.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070140
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 141: Comprehensive Overview of Flood Modeling
           Approaches: A Review of Recent Advances

    • Authors: Vijendra Kumar, Kul Vaibhav Sharma, Tommaso Caloiero, Darshan J. Mehta, Karan Singh
      First page: 141
      Abstract: As one of nature’s most destructive calamities, floods cause fatalities, property destruction, and infrastructure damage, affecting millions of people worldwide. Due to its ability to accurately anticipate and successfully mitigate the effects of floods, flood modeling is an important approach in flood control. This study provides a thorough summary of flood modeling’s current condition, problems, and probable future directions. The study of flood modeling includes models based on hydrologic, hydraulic, numerical, rainfall–runoff, remote sensing and GIS, artificial intelligence and machine learning, and multiple-criteria decision analysis. Additionally, it covers the heuristic and metaheuristic techniques employed in flood control. The evaluation examines the advantages and disadvantages of various models, and evaluates how well they are able to predict the course and impacts of floods. The constraints of the data, the unpredictable nature of the model, and the complexity of the model are some of the difficulties that flood modeling must overcome. In the study’s conclusion, prospects for development and advancement in the field of flood modeling are discussed, including the use of advanced technologies and integrated models. To improve flood risk management and lessen the effects of floods on society, the report emphasizes the necessity for ongoing research in flood modeling.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070141
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 142: Warm Rain Analysis from Remote Sensing Data
           in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona for 2015–2022

    • Authors: Tomeu Rigo
      First page: 142
      Abstract: The Metropolitan Area of Barcelona is one of the most densely populated European regions. The hydrological conditions are very extreme, as are those of the Mediterranean Basin, with long drought periods. The management of water systems is one of the priorities, implying the understanding of the whole life cycle of water. One of the worst-known steps in this cycle corresponds to the rainfall events occurring between warm and cold periods, with quasi-tropical precipitation but with little or no lightning activity. This manuscript relies on the analysis of this type of precipitation for 2015–2022 for characterization and modelling to provide the signatures that can help diagnose these events in real time. The comparison of cold convective and warm rain events thorough radar, lightning and numerical weather prediction data has allowed us to find the main differences between both types. Warm rain events are predominant in the region, with more than 70% cases exceeding 10 mm of daily precipitation. The maritime influence is crucial in most of the warm rain episodes.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070142
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 143: How to Predict the Efficacy of Free-Product
           DNAPL Pool Extraction Using 3D High-Precision Numerical Simulations: An
           Interdisciplinary Test Study in South-Western Sicily (Italy)

    • Authors: Alessandra Feo, Federica Lo Medico, Pietro Rizzo, Maurizio Gasparo Morticelli, Riccardo Pinardi, Edoardo Rotigliano, Fulvio Celico
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are known to be denser than water and immiscible with other fluids. Once released into the environment, they migrate downward through the variably saturated zone, causing severe damage. For this reason, it is essential to properly develop a rapid response strategy, including predictions of contaminant migration trajectories from numerical simulations modeling. This paper presents a series of simulations of free-product DNAPL extraction by means of a purpose-designed pumping well. The objective is to minimize the environmental impact caused by DNAPL release in the subsurface, estimating the recoverable free-product DNAPL, depending on the hydraulic properties of the aquifer medium, and estimating the leaving residual DNAPL that could act as a long-term pollution source. Coupling the numerical simulations to the bacterial community characterization (through biomolecular analyses), it was verified that (i) the DNAPL recovery (mainly PCE at the study site) through a pumping well would be almost complete and (ii) the application of other remediation techniques (such as bioremediation) would not be necessary to remove the pollution source because (iii) a natural attenuation process is provided by the autochthonous bacterial community, which is characterized by genera (such as Dechloromonas, Rhodoferax, and Desulfurivibrio) that have metabolic pathways capable of favoring the degradation of chlorinated compounds.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070143
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 144: Streamflow Trends in Central Chile

    • Authors: Claudia Sangüesa, Roberto Pizarro, Ben Ingram, Francisco Balocchi, Pablo García-Chevesich, Juan Pino, Alfredo Ibáñez, Carlos Vallejos, Romina Mendoza, Alejandra Bernal, Rodrigo Valdés-Pineda, Felipe Pérez
      First page: 144
      Abstract: The availability of water in Chile has shown signs of decline in recent decades. This is problematic because Chile’s economy depends on mining, forestry, and agricultural activities, all limited by the availability of water resources. In this study, daily, monthly and annual flows in 31 basins located in the arid–semiarid zones (29°12′ S–33°58′ S) and in the humid–subhumid zones (34°43′ S–38°30′ S) of Chile were evaluated using the Mann–Kendall trend test and the quantile–Kendall procedure during three periods: 1984–2021 (31 stations), 1975–2021 (20 stations), and 1969–2021 (18 stations). Results showed that, at the annual level, trends were predominantly negative in both climatic zones and over the three periods analyzed. In the arid–semiarid zone, a higher frequency of annual significant negative trends was found in maximum flows in 1969–2021 and 1975–2021, compared to the last period under study. The humid–subhumid zone showed significant annual negative trends in all series analyzed. At the monthly level, on the other hand, the arid-semiarid zone showed a decrease in significant negative trends as the number of years analyzed increased, for all flow types. The humid–subhumid zone did not indicate a similar defined pattern. Likewise, the quantile–Kendall procedure showed a reduction in the significant trends as the length of the time series was increased in the arid-semiarid zone, but no such pattern was observed in the humid–subhumid zone. Furthermore, a relationship was observed for the PDO and the summer month flows for both zones. Consequently, it is concluded that the flow trends are generally negative, and their statistical significance depends on the period studied.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070144
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 145: The Effect of Horizontal Specific
           Temperature on the Flow Systems of the Transdanubian Mountains (Hungary)

    • Authors: Márton Veress, Kálmán Péntek
      First page: 145
      Abstract: This study interprets the development of various flow types of the Transdanubian Mountains. For this, pressure was calculated at different depths and along some profiles the horizontal, specific temperature was calculated based on geoisotherms. This is the value of temperature distribution calculated to a given place. It has been established that upwellings develop at sites where the value of horizontal specific temperature is more than 0.8 °C, and partial upwelling can be detected where this value is between 0.6 °C and 0.8 °C. Outflow from the karst is present where this value is below 0.4 °C. Taking into consideration these values, the water temperature of karst springs and the caves of heat effect, the distribution of various flow types are determined. The flow type is also affected by the fault structure of the basin. In the case of horsts subsided to a great degree, since the sediment is thick above such horsts, the water is not able to flow upwards and towards the mountains because the hydrostatic pressure does not prevail any more. Above horsts subsided to a lower degree, the sediment is thin and thus, the water moving upwards is able to flow through.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070145
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 146: Superconducting Gravimeters: A Novel Tool
           for Validating Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration Products

    • Authors: Jonatan Pendiuk, María Florencia Degano, Luis Guarracino, Raúl Eduardo Rivas
      First page: 146
      Abstract: The practical utility of remote sensing techniques depends on their validation with ground-truth data. Validation requires similar spatial-temporal scales for ground measurements and remote sensing resolution. Evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are commonly compared to weighing lysimeter data, which provide accurate but localized measurements. To address this limitation, we propose the use of superconducting gravimeters (SGs) to obtain ground-truth ET data at larger spatial scales. SGs measure gravity acceleration with high resolution (tenths of nm s−2) within a few hundred meters. Similar to lysimeters, gravimeters provide direct estimates of water mass changes to determine ET without disturbing the soil. To demonstrate the practical applicability of SG data, we conducted a case study in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (Lat: −34.87, Lon: −58.14). We estimated cumulative ET values for 8-day and monthly intervals using gravity and precipitation data from the study site. Comparing these values with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based ET products (MOD16A2), we found a very good agreement at the monthly scale, with an RMSE of 32.6 mm month−1 (1.1 mm day−1). This study represents a step forward in the use of SGs for hydrogeological applications. The future development of lighter and smaller gravimeters is expected to further expand their use.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070146
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 147: Monitoring Scour at Bridge Piers in Rivers
           with Supercritical Flows

    • Authors: Camilo San Martin, Cristian Rifo, Maricarmen Guerra, Bernd Ettmer, Oscar Link
      First page: 147
      Abstract: Bridges crossing rivers wider than 50 m are typically supported by piers. In a mobile riverbed, scour occurs around bridge piers, and it is the main cause of bridge collapses worldwide, especially during floods. While bridge pier scour has been extensively studied, there is still a lack of measuring systems for scour monitoring in the field. In this paper, we present existing devices for scour measurement and analyze their comparative advantages and disadvantages. A study case with a scoured bridge pier in supercritical flow is presented. Results show that supercritical flow patterns previously reported at the laboratory scale also occur in the field. The measured scour supports the hypothesis that supercritical flows, even when having high flow speeds, do not produce higher scour than subcritical flows. A possible explanation linked with the sediment sizes of rivers with supercritical flows is discussed. Further, field measurements of scour around bridge piers are needed to enhance our understanding of this complex and nearly unexplored situation.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070147
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 148: Spatial and Climatic Variabilities of
           Rainwater Tank Outcomes for an Inland City, Canberra

    • Authors: Monzur Alam Imteaz, Abdullah Gokhan Yilmaz, Cristina Santos, Amimul Ahsan
      First page: 148
      Abstract: Most of the studies on rainwater harvesting analysis present the outcomes for particular cities, representing a single set of results for a specific city. However, in reality, significant spatial and weather variabilities may exist, due to which presenting only one set of results for a particular city would be misleading. This paper presents the potential weather and spatial variabilities on the expected water savings and supply reliability through the domestic rainwater tank for an inland city. An earlier-developed daily water balance model, eTank, was used for the calculations of annual water savings and reliability. An Australian inland city, Canberra, was selected as a case study and relevant daily rainfall data were collected from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology website. For the analysis of spatial variation, two rain gauge stations within the city of Canberra were selected. For each station, from the historical data, three years were selected as dry, average and wet years. For each weather condition, annual water savings and reliabilities were calculated for different demands with different tank sizes up to 10,000 L connected with different roof sizes. Then, variations in annual water savings and reliabilities among different weather conditions, as well as among different stations, were evaluated. It was found that, with regard to annual water savings, a maximum variation of 68.6% can be expected between dry and wet weather; however, only a 15.4% maximum spatial variation is expected among the selected stations. Regarding reliability, a maximum variation of 123% is expected between dry and wet weather. Whereas, only a 17% spatial variation is expected among the selected stations. Such a study will provide valuable insights for rainwater tank users and stakeholders on potential variabilities due to weather and spatial differences.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070148
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 149: Analyses of the Effectiveness of Different
           Media Depths and Plant Treatments on Green Roof Rainfall Retention
           Capability under Various Rainfall Patterns

    • Authors: Pearl Ashitey, Rohan Benjankar, Susan Morgan, William Retzlaff, Serdar Celik
      First page: 149
      Abstract: Green roofs have been used to reduce rainfall runoff by altering hydrological processes through plant interception and retention as well as detention within the green roof system. Green roof media depth, substrate type, plant type and density, regional climatic conditions, rainfall patterns, and roof slope all impact runoff retention. To better understand the impacts of media depth (10, 15, and 20 cm), plant (planted and non-planted), and rainfall pattern (low, medium, and high) on rainfall retention, we analyzed data collected between September 2005 and June 2008 from 24 green roof models (61 cm × 61 cm) for growing and non-growing seasons. Our results showed that a planted green roof has greater rainfall retention capability than a non-planted green roof for all media depths. Interestingly, a non-planted green roof system with a 10 cm media depth retained greater rainfall than a planted green roof during both growing and non-growing periods. Retention capability decreased with increasing rainfall amounts for both planted and non-planted green roofs and seasons (growing and non-growing). The 15 cm media depth green roof retained significantly greater rainfall depth than the 20 cm models during medium (0.64 to 2.54 cm) and high (>2.54 cm) rainfall events for the growing season but not during the non-growing season. The study provides insight into the interactive effects of media depth, rainfall amount, plant presence, and seasons on green roof performance. The results will be helpful for designing economical and effective green roof systems.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070149
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 150: Using CMIP6 Models to Assess Future Climate
           Change Effects on Mine Sites in Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Saeed Golian, Houcyne El-Idrysy, Desana Stambuk
      First page: 150
      Abstract: Climate change is a threat to mining and other industries, especially those involving water supply and management, by inducing or amplifying some climatic parameters such as changes in precipitation regimes and temperature extremes. Using the latest NASA NEX-GDDP-CMIP6 datasets, this study quantifies the level of climate change that may affect the development of two mine sites (site 1 and site 2) in north–east Kazakhstan. The study analyses the daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature a of a number of global circulation models (GCM) over three future time periods, the 2040s, 2060s, and 2080s, under two shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) scenarios, SSP245 and SSP585, against the baseline period 1981–2014. The analyses reveal that: (1) both maximum and minimum temperature will increase under both SSP in those time periods, with the rate of change for minimum temperature being higher than maximum temperature. Minimum temperature, for example, will increase by 2.2 and 2.7 °C under SSP245 and SSP585, respectively, over the 2040s period at both sites; (2) the mean annual precipitation will increase by an average rate of 7% and 10.5% in the 2040s for SSP245 and 17.5% and 7.5% for SSP585 in the 2080s at site 1 and site 2, respectively. It is also observed that summer months will experience drier condition whilst all other months will increase in precipitation; (3) the values of 24 h precipitation with a 10 year return period will also increase under both SSP scenarios and future time periods for most of the studied GCM and at both mine sites. For instance, over the near future period, a 6.9% and 2.8% increase in 10 year 24 h precipitation is expected to happen over site 1 and site 2, respectively, under SSP245. These predicted changes should be considered as design criteria adjustments for projected water supply and water management structures.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070150
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 151: ANN-Based Predictors of ASR Well Recovery
           Effectiveness in Unconfined Aquifers

    • Authors: Saeid Masoudiashtiani, Richard C. Peralta
      First page: 151
      Abstract: In this study, we present artificial neural networks (ANNs) to aid in a reconnaissance evaluation of an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) well. Recovery effectiveness (REN) is the proportion of ASR-injected water recovered during subsequent extraction from the same well. ANN-based predictors allow rapid REN prediction without requiring preparation for and execution of solute transport simulations. REN helps estimate blended water quality resulting from a conservative solute in an aquifer, extraction for environmental protection, and other uses, respectively. Assume that into an isotropic homogenous portion of an unconfined, one-layer aquifer, extra surface water is injected at a steady rate during two wet months (61 days) through a fully penetrating ASR well. And then, water is extracted from the well at the same steady rate during three dry months (91-day period of high demand). The presented dimensionless input parameters were designed to be calibrated within the ANNs to match REN values. The values result from groundwater flow and solute transport simulations for ranges of impact factors of unconfined aquifers. The ANNs calibrated the weighting coefficients associated with the input parameters to predict the achievable REN of an ASR well. The ASR steadily injects extra surface water during periods of water availability and, subsequently, steadily extracts groundwater for use. The total extraction volume equaled the total injection volume at the end of extraction day 61. Subsequently, continuing extraction presumes a pre-existing groundwater right.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070151
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 152: Flood Peaks and Geomorphic Processes in an
           Ephemeral Mediterranean Stream: Torrent de Sant Jordi (Pollença,

    • Authors: Miquel Grimalt-Gelabert, Joan Rosselló-Geli
      First page: 152
      Abstract: The research presented herein studies three episodes of flooding that affected the ephemeral basin of the Sant Jordi stream in northwestern Mallorca. These events are considered common since they do not reach the proportions in terms of the flow rates of other cases that have occurred in Mallorca, but they are nevertheless important due to the impact they have on human activity and also due to the morphological changes caused in the basin itself. On the one hand, the development of the field work to characterize and calculate the peak flows is presented, and on the other hand, the geomorphic changes caused by the water and the materials carried away are explained. The results allow us to identify a type of Mediterranean flood, which happens on a regular basis, but which does not stand out for its flows or for its major socio-economic impacts but still has an effect on the natural and anthropic environment. This information can be valuable for local and regional authorities as well as for the public to avoid risk situations and prevent impacts on public and private property caused by future events.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070152
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 153: Constructed Wetlands as Nature-Based
           Solutions for Wastewater Treatment in the Hospitality Industry: A Review

    • Authors: Sara Justino, Cristina S. C. Calheiros, Paula M. L. Castro, David Gonçalves
      First page: 153
      Abstract: The hospitality industry is increasing its awareness of how the integration of nature-based solutions can decrease its environmental impact while maintaining or increasing the service level of the sector. Constructed wetlands (CWs) constitute a promising sustainable solution for proper in situ domestic wastewater treatment. This literature review elucidates the status of CWs implementation in the hospitality industry to help foster the exchange of experiences in the field and deliver examples of approaches in different contexts to support future applications of this technology. Most of the studies reported in the literature were conducted in Europe, but studies emanating from Asia and South America are also available. The design of CWs, the horizontal and vertical subsurface flow CWs (HSFCW, VSFCW), and hybrid systems have been reported. The average removal efficiencies of the systems ranged from 83 to 95% for biochemical oxygen demand, 74 to 94% for chemical oxygen demand, 78 to 96% for total suspended solids, 75 to 85% for ammonium, 44 to 85% for ammonia, 50 to 73% for nitrate, 57 to 88% for total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 51 to 58% total nitrogen, and 66 to 99% for total phosphorus. The majority of the systems were implemented as decentralized treatment solutions using HSFCWs, with the second most common design being the hybrid CW systems in order to reduce area requirements, increase treatment efficiency, and prevent clogging. Overall, CWs are a promising sustainable solution which may support access to adequate sanitation worldwide as well as safe wastewater recycling and reuse, leading to more sustainable tourist destinations.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070153
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 154: The Combined Power of Double Mass Curves
           and Bias Correction for the Maximisation of the Accuracy of an Ensemble
           Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimate Product

    • Authors: Nutchanart Sriwongsitanon, Chanphit Kaprom, Kamonpat Tantisuvanichkul, Nattakorn Prasertthonggorn, Watchara Suiadee, Wim G. M. Bastiaanssen, James Alexander Williams
      First page: 154
      Abstract: Precise estimation of the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall is essential for producing the reliable catchment response needed for proper management of water resources. However, in most parts of the world, gauged rainfall stations are sparsely distributed and fail to properly capture the spatial variability of rainfall. Furthermore, the gauged rainfall data can sometimes be of short length or require validation. Following this, we present a procedure that enhances the trustworthiness of gauged rainfall data and the accuracy of the rainfall estimations of five satellite-based precipitation estimate (SPE) products by validating them using the 1779 gauged rainfall stations across Thailand. The five SPE products considered include CMORPH-BLD; TRMM-3B42; CHIRPS; CHIRPS-PL; and TRMM-3B42RT. Prior to validation, the gauged rainfall dataset was verified using double mass curve (DMC) analysis to eliminate questionable and inconsistent readings. This led to the improvement of the Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) between the station of interest and its surroundings by 13.9% (0.758–0.863), together with an average 11.8% increase with SPE products, whilst dropping only 7% of questionable dataset. Three different bias correction (BC) procedures were applied to correct SPE products using gauge-based gridded rainfall (GGR). Once DMC and BC procedures were implemented together, the performance of the SPE products was found to increase significantly. Finally, the application of the ensemble weighted average of the three best-performing bias-corrected SPE products (Bias-CMORPH-BLD, Bias-TRMM-3B42, and Bias-CHIRPS) further enhanced the NSE to 0.907 and 0.880 in calibration and validation time periods, respectively. The proposed DMC-based correction SPE and the weighting procedure of multiple SPE products allows for an easy means of obtaining daily rainfall in remote locations with sufficient accuracy.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070154
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 155: Application of a Novel Amendment for the
           Remediation of Mercury Mine Sites with Hydrologic Controls

    • Authors: Stephen McCord, Gregory Reller, Jon Miller, Kim Pingree
      First page: 155
      Abstract: MercLokTM P-640 (MercLok) is a proprietary product developed by Albemarle as a mercury (Hg) treatment technology. MercLok captures mercury and sequesters it for a long period under ambient environmental conditions. For this project, MercLok was applied to Hg-contaminated calcines at two abandoned Hg mine sites in northern California to evaluate its efficacy in rendering such contaminated materials less hazardous and thereby reducing remediation project costs. The first application (Site 1) consisted of two calcines amended with MercLok in isolated reactor buckets under two hydrologic remediation approaches (“repository cap” and “reactive barrier”) while exposed to ambient environmental conditions. Non-amended and amended calcines and their leachates were analyzed for Hg content and related conditions during a five-month study period, demonstrating >95% reduction in leachable Hg. The second application (Site 2) involved full-scale site remediation with the application of both approaches and additional hydrologic controls to minimize run-on, erosion, and runoff. Confirmation sampling and subsequent observations indicate that the amendments and hydrologic controls effectively stabilized the site and minimized Hg releases. These application projects demonstrate the efficacy of MercLok as a component of hydrologic controls for treating Hg-contaminated material to achieve long-term mine site remediation objectives.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070155
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 156: Assessment and Mitigation of Fecal Bacteria
           Exports from a Coastal North Carolina Watershed

    • Authors: Charles P. Humphrey, Nicole Lyons, Ryan Bond, Eban Bean, Michael O’Driscoll, Avian White
      First page: 156
      Abstract: Urban runoff from the Boat House Creek watershed was suspected as a main delivery mechanism for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to the lower White Oak River Estuary in coastal North Carolina, but the dominant source of waste (animal or human) was unknown. Water samples from eight locations within the watershed were collected approximately monthly for two years for enumeration of Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, physicochemical characterization, and microbial source tracking analyses. Concentrations and loadings of E. coli and enterococci were typically elevated during stormflow relative to baseflow conditions, and most samples (66% of enterococci and 75% of E. coli) exceeded the US EPA statistical threshold values. Concentrations of FIB were significantly higher during warm relative to colder months. Human sources of FIB were not observed in the samples, and FIB concentrations increased in locations with wider buffers, thus wildlife was the suspected main FIB source. Stormwater control measures including a rain garden, water control structures, swale modifications, and check dams were implemented to reduce runoff and FIB loadings to the estuary. Stormflow reductions of >5700 m3 year−1 are estimated from the installation of the practices. More work will be needed to improve/maintain water quality as watershed development continues.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10070156
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 130: Use of Mixed Methods in the Science of
           Hydrological Extremes: What Are Their Contributions'

    • Authors: Raymond Kabo, Marc-André Bourgault, Jean François Bissonnette, Nathalie Barrette, Louis Tanguay
      First page: 130
      Abstract: Research in hydrological sciences is constantly evolving to provide adequate answers to address various water-related issues. Methodological approaches inspired by mathematical and physical sciences have shaped hydrological sciences from its inceptions to the present day. Nowadays, as a better understanding of the social consequences of extreme meteorological events and of the population’s ability to adapt to these becomes increasingly necessary, hydrological sciences have begun to integrate knowledge from social sciences. Such knowledge allows for the study of complex social-ecological realities surrounding hydrological phenomena, such as citizens’ perception of water resources, as well as individual and collective behaviors related to water management. Using a mixed methods approach to combine quantitative and qualitative approaches has thus become necessary to understand the complexity of hydrological phenomena and propose adequate solutions for their management. In this paper, we detail how mixed methods can be used to research flood hydrology and low-flow conditions, as well as in the management of these hydrological extremes, through the analysis of case studies. We frame our analysis within the three paradigms (positivism, post-positivism, and constructivism) and four research designs (triangulation, complementary, explanatory, and exploratory) that guide research in hydrology. We show that mixed methods can notably contribute to the densification of data on extreme flood events to help reduce forecasting uncertainties, to the production of knowledge on low-flow hydrological states that are insufficiently documented, and to improving participatory decision making in water management and in handling extreme hydrological events.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10060130
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 131: Benchmarking Three Event-Based
           Rainfall-Runoff Routing Models on Australian Catchments

    • Authors: David Kemp, Guna Hewa Alankarage
      First page: 131
      Abstract: In the field of hydrology, event-based models are commonly used for flood-flow prediction in catchments, for use in flood forecasting, flood risk assessment, and infrastructure design. The models are simplistic, as they do not consider longer-term catchment processes such as evaporation and transpiration. This paper examines the relative performance of two widely used models, the American HEC-HMS model, the Australian RORB model, and a newer model, the RRR model. The evaluation is conducted on four case study catchments in Australia. The first two models, HEC-HMS and RORB, do not include baseflow, necessitating the estimation of baseflow through alternate means. By contrast, the RRR model includes baseflow, by extracting a separate loss from the rainfall, and then routing the resultant flow through the catchment, much like quickflow, but with a longer delay time. The models are calibrated and then verified with weighted mean parameter values on an independent set of events in each case study catchment. This gives an indication of the ability of the models to correctly predict flow, which is important when the models are used with design rainfalls to predict design flows. The results demonstrate that all models perform adequately on the four examined catchments, but the RRR model exhibits superior calibration, and, to a lesser extent, better validation compared to the other two models.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10060131
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 132: The Cantareira System, the Largest South
           American Water Supply System: Management History, Water Crisis, and

    • Authors: Antonio Carlos Zuffo, Sergio Nascimento Duarte, Marco Antonio Jacomazzi, Maíra Simões Cucio, Marcus Vinícius Galbetti
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Located in the southeast region of Brazil, the Cantareira System consists of six interconnected reservoirs and supplies around 14 million people in the state of São Paulo. Built in the 1970s, when extensive fluviometric series were not available in the region, the system underwent several operating rules that culminated in the water crisis caused by the 2014/2015 drought. This article makes a brief critical account of what has been experienced in these almost 50 years of operating the system, the factors that influenced the water crisis, and what has been learned.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10060132
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 133: Stable Isotopic Evaluation of Recharge into
           a Karst Aquifer in a Glaciated Agricultural Region of Northeastern
           Wisconsin, USA

    • Authors: John A. Luczaj, Amber Konrad, Mark Norfleet, Andrew Schauer
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Ground water contamination from septic systems and the application of dairy cattle manure has been a long-standing problem in rural northeastern Wisconsin, especially in areas with thin soils over karstified Silurian dolostone bedrock, where as many as 60% of the wells show evidence of fecal contamination. We present the results of a citizen science supported water-isotope study in Kewaunee County, Wisconsin to evaluate aquifer recharge processes in the critical zone and to demonstrate the viability of time-series stable isotope data as a supplement to traditional water quality indicators in a contamination-prone aquifer. A meteoric water line was also constructed for Green Bay, Wisconsin, providing reasonable isotopic ranges for aquifer recharge events. Volunteer homeowners collected water samples from their domestic wells for a period of ~14 months to provide a measure of long-term isotopic variation in produced water and to determine whether event-driven responses could be identified using δ18O and δ2H isotopic values. Three shallower wells with a prior history of contamination exhibited significant seasonal variation, while the deepest well with the greatest soil thickness (above bedrock) showed less variation. For moderate precipitation events, the shallowest well showed as much as 5–13% of produced water coming from direct recharge, with smaller contributions for deeper wells. Our case study provides a clear example of how citizen science can collect useful time-series isotopic data to support groundwater recharge studies.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10060133
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 134: Editorial to the Special Issue
           “Drought and Water Scarcity: Monitoring, Modelling and

    • Authors: Nicholas Dercas
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Drought is considered to be among the major natural hazards faced by human society, with significant impacts on environment, society, agriculture and economy stemming from its consequences [...]
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10060134
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 135: The Characterization of Groundwater Quality
           for Safe Drinking Water Wells via Disinfection and Sterilization in
           Jordan: A Case Study

    • Authors: Mehaysen Al-Mahasneh, Abeer Al Bsoul, Nada Al-Ananzeh, Hussam Elddin Al-Khasawane, Marwan Al-Mahasneh, Raeda Tashtoush
      First page: 135
      Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the quality of drinking water in the Disi aquifer in Jordan. Several water quality parameters are included in the mathematical equation to evaluate the average water quality and establish the suitability of water for drinking purposes. Water sampling zones from three wells were used to calculate the water quality indices (WQI). The water samples were analyzed for several physicochemical parameters, including pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3−, SO42−, Cl−, NO3−, total hardness, electrical conductivity (EC) and other elements (Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, As2−, Pb4+ and Cu2+), in the groundwater wells. Biological parameters, such as faecal coliform, were also tested. The Weighted Arithmetic WQI indicated that most of the wells were of good to excellent quality. These determined indices support decision making and are beneficial to monitoring the groundwater quality in the Disi aquifer. The relative weight is specific to each parameter and ranges from 1 to 5; it establishes the importance of the water quality parameters for domestic purposes. The WQI analysis rates the water quality between 75 to 65 from good to medium. The water quality of the Disi aquifer for potable drinking water was compared with the guidelines of the World Health Organization (2011) and the Jordan Drinking Standard (JS286); the results indicated that water in the Disi aquifer was of high quality and was fit for drinking.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10060135
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 215: Drought in the Breadbasket of America and
           the Influence of Oceanic Teleconnections

    • Authors: Olivia G. Campbell, Gregory B. Goodrich
      First page: 215
      Abstract: From 1980 to 2020, drought events accounted for only 11.4% of the billion-dollar disasters in the United States (U.S.), yet caused the second-highest total amount in damages, at USD 236.6 billion. With the average cost of a drought being upwards of USD 9.5 billion, these natural disasters can create serious problems in agriculture. Drought is defined as a period of below-average precipitation that causes damage to agriculture and water supplies. Previous research has linked drought events in the U.S. Great Plains to oceanic teleconnections in the Pacific and Atlantic basins, indicating the influence of El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). This study looks to identify areas of the Great Plains where drought, as measured by PDSI, has the strongest relationship to ENSO, PDO, and AMO from 1950 to 2019. The states studied are Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Texas, Nebraska, and Kansas because these rank as the second through seventh most agriculturally productive states in terms of crop and livestock production. Results show that most of this region displays a relationship between drought and the ENSO and PDO, with less of the region displaying a relationship with the AMO.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120215
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 216: Calibration of Land-Use-Dependent
           Evaporation Parameters in Distributed Hydrological Models Using MODIS
           Evaporation Time Series Data

    • Authors: Markus C. Casper, Zoé Salm, Oliver Gronz, Christopher Hutengs, Hadis Mohajerani, Michael Vohland
      First page: 216
      Abstract: The land-use-specific calibration of evapotranspiration parameters in hydrologic modeling is challenging due to the lack of appropriate reference data. We present a MODIS-based calibration approach of vegetation-related evaporation parameters for two mesoscale catchments in western Germany with the physically based distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH. Time series of land-use-specific actual evapotranspiration (ETa) patterns were generated from MOD16A2 evapotranspiration and CORINE land-cover data from homogeneous image pixels for the major land-cover types in the region. Manual calibration was then carried out for 1D single-cell models, each representing a specific land-use type based on aggregated 11-year mean ETa values using SKout and PBIAS as objective functions (SKout > 0.8, PBIAS < 5%). The spatio-temporal evaluation on the catchment scale was conducted by comparing the simulated ETa pattern to six daily ETa grids derived from LANDSAT data. The results show a clear overall improvement in the SPAEF (spatial efficiency metric) for most land-use types, with some deficiencies for two scenes in spring and late summer due to phenological variation and a particularly dry hydrological system state, respectively. The presented method demonstrates a significant improvement in the simulation of ETa regarding both time and spatial scale.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120216
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 217: Assessment of Potential Potable Water
           Reserves in Islamabad, Pakistan Using Vertical Electrical Sounding

    • Authors: Mehboob ur Rashid, Muhammad Kamran, Muhammad Jawad Zeb, Ihtisham Islam, Hammad Tariq Janjuhah, George Kontakiotis
      First page: 217
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the potential reserves of potable water in Islamabad, Pakistan, considering the alarming depletion of water resources. A detailed vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey was conducted in two main localities: Bara Kahu (Area 1) and Aabpara to G-13 (Area 2), based on accessibility, time, and budget constraints. A total of 23 VES measurements were performed, with 13 in Area 1 and 10 in Area 2, reaching a maximum depth of 500 m. Geologs and pseudosections were generated to assess lithological variations, aquifer conditions, and resistivity trends with depth. Statistical distribution of resistivity (SDR), hydraulic parameters, true resistivity, macroanisotropy, aquifer depth and thickness, and linear regression (R2) curves were calculated for both areas, providing insights into the aquifer conditions. The results revealed that the study areas predominantly consisted of sandy lithology as the aquifer horizon, encompassing sandstone, sandy clay, and clayey sand formations. Area 2 exhibited a higher presence of clayey horizons, and aquifers were generally deeper compared to Area 1. The aquifer thickness ranged from 10 m to 200 m, with shallow depths ranging from 10 m to 60 m and deeper aquifers exceeding 200 m. Aquifers in Area 1 were mostly semi-confined, while those in Area 2 were predominantly unconfined and susceptible to recharge and potential contamination. The northwest–southeast side of Area 1 exhibited the highest probability for ground resource estimation, while in Area 2, the northeast–southwest side displayed a dominant probability. The study identified a probable shear zone in Area 2, indicating lithological differences between the northeast and southwest sides with a reverse sequence. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the shallow aquifers in Area 1 be considered the best potential reservoir for water supply. In contrast, deeper drilling is advised in Area 2 to ensure a long-lasting, high-quality water supply. These results provide valuable information for water resource management and facilitate sustainable water supply planning and decision making in Islamabad, Pakistan.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120217
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 218: Sustainable Water Resources Management
           under Climate Change: A Case Study with Potato Irrigation in an Insular
           Mediterranean Environment

    • Authors: Vassilis Litskas, Paraskevi Vourlioti, Theano Mamouka, Stylianos Kotsopoulos, Charalampos Paraskevas
      First page: 218
      Abstract: Potato cultivation is a significant agricultural activity worldwide. As a staple food in many countries, potatoes provide essential nutrients and are a significant source of income for farmers. This paper investigates current and future net irrigation requirements for potatoes in combination with LCA (life cycle assessment) to assess the GHG emissions due to irrigation. Potato cultivation in Cyprus is used as a model for insular environments, which are often neglected from such studies. The models suggest that an increase in net irrigation requirements is expected but there is a large variability among locations and between years. The increase in rainfall that some of the models predict does not mean that this water will be effectively stored in the soil (and reduce irrigation requirements). The GHG emissions due to potato irrigation in Cyprus are estimated to be 1369.41 tons CO2eq and expected to decrease after 2030 by 35%, mainly due to changes in the electricity mix (from heavy fuel to renewable energy). Further research including other important (irrigated) crops in the island will support the development of strategies towards sustainable resources management under climate change.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120218
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 219: Incorporating Weather Attribution to Future
           Water Budget Projections

    • Authors: Nick Martin
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Weather attribution is a scientific study that estimates the relative likelihood of an observed weather event occurring under different climate regimes. Water budget models are widely used tools that can estimate future water resource management and conservation conditions using daily weather forcing. A stochastic weather generator (WG) is a statistical model of daily weather sequences designed to simulate or represent a climate description. A WG provides a means to generate stochastic, future weather forcing to drive a water budget model to produce future water resource projections. Observed drought magnitude and human-induced climate change likelihood from a weather attribution study provide targets for WG calibration. The attribution-constrained WG approximately reproduces the five-fold increase in probability attributed to observed drought magnitude under climate change. A future (2031–2060) climate description produced by the calibrated WG is significantly hotter, with lower expected soil moisture than the future description obtained from global climate model (GCM) simulation results. The attribution-constrained WG describes future conditions where historical extreme and severe droughts are significantly more likely to occur.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120219
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 220: Priority Research Topics to Improve
           Streamflow Data Availability in Data-Scarce Countries: The Case for

    • Authors: Meron Teferi Taye, Fasikaw Atanaw Zimale, Tekalegn Ayele Woldesenbet, Mulugeta Genanu Kebede, Selamawit Damtew Amare, Getachew Tegegne, Kirubel Mekonnen, Alemseged Tamiru Haile
      First page: 220
      Abstract: Lack of consistent streamflow data has been an increasing challenge reported by many studies in developing countries. This study aims to understand the current challenges in streamflow monitoring in Ethiopia to prioritize research topics that can support sustained streamflow monitoring in the country and elsewhere. A workshop-based expert consultation, followed by a systematic literature review, was conducted to build a collective understanding of the challenges and opportunities of streamflow monitoring in Ethiopia. The experts’ consultation identified the top ten research priorities to improve streamflow monitoring through research, education, remote sensing applications, and institutions. The experts’ views were supported by a systematic review of more than 300 published articles. The review indicated scientific investigation in Ethiopian basins was constrained by streamflow data gaps to provide recent and relevant hydrological insights. However, there is inadequate research that seeks solutions, while some researchers use experimental methods to generate recent streamflow data, which is an expensive approach. Articles that attempted to fill data gaps make up less than 20% of the reviewed articles. This study identified research priorities that can benefit streamflow data providers and the research community in alleviating many of the challenges associated with streamflow monitoring in countries such as Ethiopia.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120220
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 221: Investigating the Coupling Relationship
           between Soil Moisture and Evaporative Fraction over China’s
           Transitional Climate Zone

    • Authors: Liang Zhang, Sha Sha, Qiang Zhang, Funian Zhao, Jianhua Zhao, Hongyu Li, Sheng Wang, Jianshun Wang, Yanbin Hu, Hui Han
      First page: 221
      Abstract: The interaction between soil moisture (SM) and evaporative fraction (EF), which reflects the degree of exchange of water and energy between the land and the atmosphere, is an important component of the theory of land–atmosphere coupling. Exploring the relationship between SM and EF in the transitional climate zone of China can help deepen our understanding of the characteristics of water and energy exchange in this region of strong land–atmosphere coupling. Data on observations in fluxes in the transitional climate zone revealed that fluxes in the energy on the surface of the land in this region exhibited significant inter-annual variations. The sensible heat flux (SH) exhibited the largest fluctuations in July and August, while the latent heat flux (LE) varied the most from June to August. The EF was found to exhibit weak correlations with indicators of vegetation growth such as the leaf area index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and gross primary productivity in the transitional zone of the East Asian summer monsoon. By contrast, the relationship of land–atmosphere coupling between EF and SM in the transitional climate zone was stronger. Based on an analysis of the consistency of the relationship of SM-EF coupling, when the SMP reached 35%, there was a significant transition in the linear relationship between the SMP and EF that was consistent between the shallower and deeper layers of soil (0–40 and 40–80 cm). However, neither level had SM that reached saturation during the six-year observational period (2007–2012), and the mean values of its probability density function showed that the deep soil was drier than the shallow soil. This characteristic shows that SM plays a dominant role in variations in the EF in the transitional climate zone, which in turn indicates that constraints on the moisture govern the SM–EF relationship. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of land–atmosphere coupling in the transitional climate zone of China.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120221
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 222: Evaluation of Baseflow Modeling with
           BlueM.Sim for Long-Term Hydrological Studies in the German Low Mountain
           Range of Hesse, Germany

    • Authors: Michael Kissel, Michael Bach, Britta Schmalz
      First page: 222
      Abstract: So far, research with the hydrological model BlueM.Sim has been focused on reservoir management and integrated river basin modeling. BlueM.Sim is part of the official toolset for estimating immissions into rivers in Hesse (Germany) via long-term continuous modeling. Dynamic runoff modeling from rural catchments is permitted within the Hessian guidelines, but in practice, a constant flow or low flow is used. However, due to increasing water stress in the region caused by climate change, the dynamic modeling of runoff from rural catchments will become necessary. Therefore, dynamic baseflow modeling with BlueM.Sim is of the greatest importance. This study evaluated baseflow modeling with BlueM.Sim in a representative hard-rock aquifer in the German Low Mountain range. Two model setups (Factor Approach (FA): CN method + monthly baseflow; Soil Moisture Approach (SMA): physical soil moisture simulation) were calibrated (validated) for a 9-year (5-year) period. The FA achieved an NSE of 0.62 (0.44) and an LnNSE of 0.64 (0.60) for the calibration and validation periods. The selection of a solution for the successful validation of the FA was challenging and required a selection that overestimated baseflow in the calibration period. This is due to the major disadvantage of the FA, namely, that baseflow can only vary according to an estimated yearly pattern of monthly baseflow factors. However, the data requirements are low, and the estimation of monthly baseflow factors is simple and could potentially be regionalized for Hesse, leading to a better representation of baseflow than in current practice. The SMA achieved better results with an NSE of 0.78 (0.75) and an LnNSE of 0.72 (0.78). The data requirements and model setup are extensive and require the estimation of many parameters, which are limitations to its application in practice. Furthermore, a literature review has shown that a single linear reservoir, as in BlueM.Sim, is not optimal for modeling baseflow in hard-rock aquifers. However, for detailed climate change impact studies in the region with BlueM.Sim, the SMA should be preferred over the FA. It is expected that BlueM.Sim would benefit from implementing a more suitable model structure for baseflow in hard-rock aquifers, resulting in improved water balance and water quality outcomes.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120222
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 223: Performance Evaluation of Different
           Stilling Basins Downstream of Barrage Using FLOW-3D Scour Models

    • Authors: Muhammad Waqas Zaffar, Ishtiaq Haasan, Abdul Razzaq Ghumman
      First page: 223
      Abstract: The present study investigated the performance of three different stilling basins, i.e., modified United State Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) Type III, USBR Type II, and wedge-shaped baffle blocks (WSBB), using FLOW-3D scour models. Field data of the riverbed profile are employed to validate the present models. After comparison, the results of statistical indices, i.e., coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE), indicated that the Renormalization Group (RNG-K-ϵ) showed good agreement with the field data, with R2 and NSE values of 0.9094 and 0.896, respectively. Validated models are used to simulate velocity field and local bed shear stress (BSS) and scour for design and flood discharges of 28.30 m3/s/m and 17.5 m3/s/m, respectively. At 28.30 m3/s/m, the results indicated that the riverbed downstream of the remodeled basin was completely exposed, while, at 17.5 m3/s/m, the net change in bed reached 85%. At 28.30 m3/s/m, the net change at the centerline of models reached 51% and 67% in USBR Type III and WSBB basins, respectively. At 17.5 m3/s/m, compared to Type II and III basins, the WSBB basin indicated less BSS, which significantly reduced the scour. Conclusively, the Type II basin showed less energy dissipation for the studied flows, while the WSBB basin improved flow fields downstream of the barrage.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120223
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 224: Stream-Aquifer Systems in Semi-Arid
           Regions: Hydrologic, Legal, and Management Issues

    • Authors: Neil S. Grigg, Ryan T. Bailey, Ryan G. Smith
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Integrated solutions to groundwater management problems require effective analysis of stream-aquifer connections, especially in irrigated semi-arid regions where groundwater pumping affects return flows and causes streamflow depletion. Scientific research can explain technical issues, but legal and management solutions are difficult due to the complexities of hydrogeology, the expense of data collection and model studies, and the inclination of water users not to trust experts, regulatory authorities, and in some cases, their management organizations. The technical, legal, and management issues are reviewed, and experiences with integrated management of stream-aquifer systems are used to illustrate how governance authorities can approach engineering, legal, regulatory, and management challenges incrementally. The situations in three basins of the State of Colorado with over-appropriated water resources are explained to identify modeling and control issues confronting regulators and managers of water rights. Water rights administration in the state follows the strict appropriation method and a workable technical-legal approach to establishing regulatory and management strategies has been developed. The explanations show how models and data management are improving, but the complexities of hydrogeology and institutional systems must be confronted on a case-by-case basis. Stream-aquifer systems will require more attention in the future, better data will be needed, model developers must prove superiority over simpler methods, and organizational arrangements will be needed to facilitate successful collective action amidst inevitable legal challenges. Continued joint research between technical, legal, and management communities will also be needed.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120224
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 225: Estimating Thermal Impact on Groundwater
           Systems from Heat Pump Technologies: A Simplified Method for High Flow

    • Authors: David Krcmar, Tibor Kovacs, Matej Molnar, Kamila Hodasova, Martin Zatlakovic
      First page: 225
      Abstract: This research delves into the potential thermal effects on underground water systems caused by the use of thermal technologies involving extraction and injection wells. We developed a unique approach that combines straightforward calculations with computer-based modeling to evaluate thermal impacts when water flow rates exceed 2 L/s. Our model, based on a system with two wells and a steady water flow, was used to pinpoint the area around the thermal technology where the temperature varied by more than 1 °C. Our findings suggest that the data-based relationships we derived from our model calculations provide a cautious estimate of the size of the affected area, or ‘thermal cloud’. However, it is important to note that our model’s assumptions might not fully account for the complex variables present in real-world underground water systems. This highlights a need for more research and testing. A key contribution of our study is the development of a new method to assess the thermal impact of operations involving heat pumps. In conclusion, while our proposed method needs more fine-tuning, it shows promise in estimating temperature changes within water-bearing rock layers, or aquifers. This is crucial in the effective use of thermal technologies while also ensuring the protection and sustainable management of our underground water resources.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120225
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 226: Analysis of Changes in Water Flow after
           Passing through the Planned Dam Reservoir Using a Mixture Distribution in
           the Face of Climate Change: A Case Study of the Nysa Kłodzka River,

    • Authors: Łukasz Gruss, Mirosław Wiatkowski, Maksymilian Połomski, Łukasz Szewczyk, Paweł Tomczyk
      First page: 226
      Abstract: Climate change and extreme weather events have the potential to increase the occurrences of flooding and hydrological droughts. Dam reservoir operation can mitigate or aggravate this impact. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the planned Kamieniec Ząbkowicki dam reservoir on the flow patterns of the Nysa Kłodzka river in the context of changing hydrological conditions and climate change. In the study, a 40-year observational series of hydrological data was used to simulate changes in water flow through the river valley in a numerical model. This simulation was conducted both for the natural river valley and for the same river valley but with the added reservoir dam. Flow simulations revealed that dam operation increased downstream flow values, reducing variability in extreme high-flow events. Addition, the mixture log-normal distribution shows that the operation of the dam resulted in a reduction in the variability of both low flows and extreme high-flow events. Furthermore, the model illustrates that moderate-flow conditions remain relatively stable and similar before and after dam construction. The Mann–Kendall trend test, Sen slope trend test and Innovative Trend Analysis indicated that the dam had a significant impact on flow trends, reducing the negative trend. This hydrotechnical structure stabilizes and regulates flows, especially in response to climate-induced changes. These findings highlight the effectiveness of the dam in mitigating flood risk and supporting water resource management. It is essential to consider the role of the dam in adapting to changing hydrological conditions influenced by climate change. For practical application, efficient flow regulation by reservoir administration is crucial.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120226
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 227: Assessing Groundwater Quality and
           Diagnosing Nitrate Pollution in the Sidi Allal Region: A GIS-Based
           Approach Utilizing the Groundwater Pollution Index

    • Authors: Hefdhallah S. Al-Aizari, Ayman A. Ghfar, Ali R. Al-Aizari, Abdul-Jaleel M. Al-Aizari, Mohamed Sheikh Moshab, Mika Sillanpää
      First page: 227
      Abstract: Groundwater is a critical resource for various human activities, yet it faces contamination risks from agricultural, industrial, and domestic sources. This study aimed to evaluate groundwater in Morocco’s Sidi Allal region using the groundwater pollution index (GPI) and diagnose nitrate pollution. The study included 45 groundwater wells from the study area, and physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, cations, and anions were examined in the laboratory. The geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The groundwater pollution index and nitrate pollution index (NPI) were determined. The inverse distance weighting method (IDW) was used to create a spatial distribution map. The results indicated that the calculated GPI values ranged from 0.856 to 7.416, with an average of 2.06. About 40% of groundwater samples were highly polluted and unsuitable for drinking. The NPI values ranged between −0.74 and 10.5, with an average of 5.1. About 64% of the total groundwater samples were considered highly polluted according to the NPI classification, suggesting that the groundwater was unsuitable for drinking purposes. The spatial distribution map revealed the availability of appropriate groundwater in the central area of the study area and inappropriate groundwater near the Esbou River and Nassour Canal. The findings of this study revealed high concentrations of nitrates in groundwater samples in the central part of the study area, indicating that this increase in nitrates may be due to intensive use of nitrogen fertilizers in agricultural activities and sewage waste.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120227
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 228: Coastal Inundation Hazard Assessment in
           Australian Tropical Cyclone Prone Regions

    • Authors: Jane Nguyen, Yuriy Kuleshov
      First page: 228
      Abstract: One of the hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) is a storm surge, which leads to coastal inundation and often results in loss of life and damage to infrastructure. In this study, we used GIS-based bathtub models and tide-gauge-derived water levels to assess coastal inundation scenarios for the landfall region of TC Debbie. The three scenarios modelled what could have happened if the TC’s maximum storm surge had coincided with the maximum storm tide for that day, month, or TC season, where the water levels were determined through analysis of tide gauge data, using a new method called the variable enhanced Bathtub Model. Additionally, this study analysed the impact of excluding the correction of water levels with the Australian Height Datum. Our study found that between the least and most severe scenarios, with the input water-level difference for the model along the coastline being 0.43 m, the observed inundation depth of the analysed populated region increased from 0.25 m to 1 m. Ultimately, it was found that in the worst-case scenario, the study region could have experienced coastal inundation 0.63 m higher than it did, inundating 72.53 km2 of the coast. The results of this study support the consensus that coastal inundation is highly dependent on the characteristics of the terrain, and that coastal inundation modelling, such as that completed in this study, needs to be performed to better inform decision makers and communities of the potential impacts of TC-induced storm surges.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120228
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 229: Evaluating Non-Stationarity in
           Precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for the
           Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex, Texas, USA

    • Authors: Binita Ghimire, Gehendra Kharel, Esayas Gebremichael, Linyin Cheng
      First page: 229
      Abstract: Extreme precipitation has become more frequent and intense with time and space. Infrastructure design tools such as Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves still rely on historical precipitation and stationary assumptions, risking current and future urban infrastructure. This study developed IDF curves by incorporating non-stationarity trends in precipitation annual maximum series (AMS) for Dallas–Fort Worth, the fourth-largest metropolitan region in the United States. A Pro-NEVA tool was used to develop non-stationary IDF curves, taking historical precipitation AMS for seven stations that showed a non-stationary trend with time as a covariate. Four statistical indices—the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE)—were used as the model goodness of fit evaluation. The lower AIC, BIC, and RMSE values and higher NSE values for non-stationary models indicated a better performance compared to the stationary models. Compared to the traditional stationary assumption, the non-stationary IDF curves showed an increase (up to 75%) in the 24 h precipitation intensity for the 100-year return period. Using the climate change adaptive non-stationary IDF tool for the DFW metroplex and similar urban regions could enable decision makers to make climate-informed choices about infrastructure investments, emergency preparedness measures, and long-term urban development and water resource management planning.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10120229
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 205: Sea-Level Rise in Pakistan: Recommendations
           for Strengthening Evidence-Based Coastal Decision-Making

    • Authors: Jennifer H. Weeks, Syeda Nadra Ahmed, Joseph D. Daron, Benjamin J. Harrison, Peter Hogarth, Tariq Ibrahim, Asif Inam, Arshi Khan, Faisal Ahmed Khan, Tariq Masood Ali Khan, Ghulam Rasul, Nadia Rehman, Akhlaque A. Qureshi, Sardar Sarfaraz
      First page: 205
      Abstract: Pakistan is vulnerable to a range of climate hazards, including sea-level rise. The Indus Delta region, situated in the coastal Sindh province, is particularly at risk of sea-level rise due to low-lying land and fragile ecosystems. In this article, expertise is drawn together from the newly established Pakistan Sea-Level Working Group, consisting of policy experts, scientists, and practitioners, to provide recommendations for future research, investment, and coastal risk management. An assessment of the current scientific understanding of sea-level change and coastal climate risks in Pakistan highlights an urgent need to improve the availability and access to sea-level data and other coastal measurements. In addition, reflecting on the policy environment and the enablers needed to facilitate effective responses to future sea-level change, recommendations are made to integrate coastal climate services into the National Adaptation Plan and develop a National Framework for Climate Services. Such a framework, alongside collaboration, co-production, and capacity development, could help support required improvements in coastal observations and monitoring and continuously deliver useful, usable, and accessible sea-level information for use by practitioners and decision-makers.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110205
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 206: Locating Potential Groundwater Pathways in
           a Fringing Reef Using Continuous Electrical Resistivity Profiling

    • Authors: Matthew W. Becker, Francine M. Cason, Benjamin Hagedorn
      First page: 206
      Abstract: Groundwater discharge from high tropical islands can have a significant influence on the biochemistry of reef ecosystems. Recent studies have suggested that a portion of groundwater may underflow the reefs to be discharged, either through the reef flat or toward the periphery of the reef system. Understanding of this potential discharge process is limited by the characterization of subsurface reef structures in these environments. A geophysical method was used in this study to profile the reef surrounding the high volcanic island of Mo’orea, French Polynesia. Boat-towed continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) revealed electrically resistive features at about 10–15 m depth, ranging in width from 30 to 200 m. These features were repeatable in duplicate survey lines, but resolution was limited by current-channeling through the seawater column. Anomalous resistivity could represent the occurrence of freshened porewater confined within the reef, but a change in porosity due to secondary cementation cannot be ruled out. Groundwater-freshened reef porewater has been observed near-shore on Mo’orea and suggested elsewhere using similar geophysical surveys, but synthetic models conducted as part of this study demonstrate that CRP alone is insufficient to draw these conclusions. These CRP surveys suggest reefs surrounding high islands may harbor pathways for terrestrial groundwater flow, but invasive sampling is required to demonstrate the role of groundwater in terrestrial runoff.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110206
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 207: Machine-Learning-Based Precipitation
           Reconstructions: A Study on Slovenia’s Sava River Basin

    • Authors: Abel Andrés Ramírez Molina, Nejc Bezak, Glenn Tootle, Chen Wang, Jiaqi Gong
      First page: 207
      Abstract: The Sava River Basin (SRB) includes six countries (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Albania, and Montenegro), with the Sava River (SR) being a major tributary of the Danube River. The SR originates in the mountains (European Alps) of Slovenia and, because of a recent Slovenian government initiative to increase clean, sustainable energy, multiple hydropower facilities have been constructed within the past ~20 years. Given the importance of this river system for varying demands, including hydropower (energy production), information about past (paleo) dry (drought) and wet (pluvial) periods would provide important information to water managers and planners. Recent research applying traditional regression techniques and methods developed skillful reconstructions of seasonal (April–May–June–July–August–September or AMJJAS) streamflow using tree-ring-based proxies. The current research intends to expand upon these recent research efforts and investigate developing reconstructions of seasonal (AMJJAS) precipitation applying novel Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), and Deep Learning (DL) techniques. When comparing the reconstructed AMJJAS precipitation datasets, the AI/ML/DL techniques statistically outperformed traditional regression techniques. When comparing the SRB AMJJAS precipitation reconstruction developed in this research to the SRB AMJJAS streamflow reconstruction developed in previous research, the temporal variability of the two reconstructions compared favorably. However, pluvial magnitudes of extreme periods differed, while drought magnitudes of extreme periods were similar, confirming drought is likely better captured in tree-ring-based proxy reconstructions of hydrologic variables.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110207
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 208: Assessment of Time Series Models for Mean
           Discharge Modeling and Forecasting in a Sub-Basin of the Paranaíba
           River, Brazil

    • Authors: Gabriela Emiliana de Melo e Costa, Frederico Carlos M. de Menezes Filho, Fausto A. Canales, Maria Clara Fava, Abderraman R. Amorim Brandão, Rafael Pedrollo de Paes
      First page: 208
      Abstract: Stochastic modeling to forecast hydrological variables under changing climatic conditions is essential for water resource management and adaptation planning. This study explores the applicability of stochastic models, specifically SARIMA and SARIMAX, to forecast monthly average river discharge in a sub-basin of the Paranaíba River near Patos de Minas, MG, Brazil. The Paranaíba River is a vital water source for the Alto Paranaíba region, serving industrial supply, drinking water effluent dilution for urban communities, agriculture, fishing, and tourism. The study evaluates the performance of SARIMA and SARIMAX models in long-term discharge modeling and forecasting, demonstrating the SARIMAX model’s superior performance in various metrics, including the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The inclusion of precipitation as a regressor variable considerably improves the forecasting accuracy, and can be attributed to the multivariate structure of the SARIMAX model. While stochastic models like SARIMAX offer valuable decision-making tools for water resource management, the study underscores the significance of employing long-term time series encompassing flood and drought periods and including model uncertainty analysis to enhance the robustness of forecasts. In this study, the SARIMAX model provides a better fit for extreme values, overestimating peaks by around 11.6% and troughs by about 5.0%, compared with the SARIMA model, which tends to underestimate peaks by an average of 6.5% and overestimate troughs by approximately 76.0%. The findings contribute to the literature on water management strategies and mitigating risks associated with extreme hydrological events.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110208
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 209: Assessment of Nitrate in Groundwater from
           Diffuse Sources Considering Spatiotemporal Patterns of Hydrological
           Systems Using a Coupled SWAT/MODFLOW/MT3DMS Model

    • Authors: Alejandra Correa-González, Joel Hernández-Bedolla, Marco Antonio Martínez-Cinco, Sonia Tatiana Sánchez-Quispe, Mario Alberto Hernández-Hernández
      First page: 209
      Abstract: In recent years, due to various anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture and livestock, the presence of nitrogen-associated contaminants has been increasing in surface- and groundwater resources. Among these, the main compounds present in groundwater are ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate. However, it is sometimes difficult to assess such effects given the scarcity or lack of information and the complexity of the system. In the current study, a methodology is proposed to assess nitrate in groundwater from diffuse sources considering spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological systems using a coupled SWAT/MODFLOW/MT3DMS model. The application of the model is carried out using a simplified simulation scheme of hydrological and agricultural systems because of the limited spatial and temporal data. The study area includes the Cuitzeo Lake basin in superficial flow form and the Morelia–Querendaro aquifer in groundwater flow form. The results within the methodology are surface runoff, groundwater levels, and nitrate concentrations present in surface- and groundwater systems. The results indicate that the historical and simulated nitrate concentrations were obtained within acceptable values of the statistical parameters and, therefore, are considered adequate.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110209
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 210: Source Attribution of Atmospheric Dust
           Deposition to Utah Lake

    • Authors: Justin T. Telfer, Mitchell M. Brown, Gustavious P. Williams, Kaylee B. Tanner, A. Woodruff Miller, Robert B. Sowby, Theron G. Miller
      First page: 210
      Abstract: Atmospheric deposition (AD) is a significant source of nutrient loading to waterbodies around the world. However, the sources and loading rates are poorly understood for major waterbodies and even less understood for local waterbodies. Utah Lake is a eutrophic lake located in central Utah, USA, and has high-nutrient levels. Recent research has identified AD as a significant source of nutrient loading to the lake, though contributions from dust particles make up 10% of total AD. To better understand the dust AD sources, we sampled suspected source locations and collected deposition samples around the lake. We analyzed these samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) for 25 metals to characterize their elemental fingerprints. We then compared the lake samples to the source samples to determine likely source locations. We computed spectral angle, coefficient of determination, multi-dimensional scaling, and radar plots to characterize the similarity of the samples. We found that samples from local dust sources were more similar to dust in lake AD samples than samples from distant sources. This suggests that the major source of the dust portion of AD onto Utah Lake is the local empty fields south and west of the lake, and not the farther playa and desert sources as previously suggested. Preliminary data suggest that dust AD is associated with dry, windy conditions and is episodic in nature. We show that AD from dust particles is likely a small portion of the overall AD nutrient loading on Utah Lake, with the dry and precipitation sources contributing most of the load. This case identifies AD sources to Utah Lake and provides an example of data and methods that can be used to assess similarity or perform attribution for dust, soil, and other environmental data. While we use ICP metals, any number of features can be used with these methods if normalized.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110210
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 211: Investigating Multilayer Aquifer Dynamics
           by Combining Geochemistry, Isotopes and Hydrogeological Context Analysis

    • Authors: Francis Proteau-Bedard, Paul Baudron, Nicolas Benoit, Miroslav Nastev, Ryan Post, Janie Masse-Dufresne
      First page: 211
      Abstract: Geochemical tracers have the potential to provide valuable insights for constructing conceptual models of groundwater flow, especially in complex geological contexts. Nevertheless, the reliability of tracer interpretation hinges on its integration into a robust geological framework. In our research, we concentrated on delineating the groundwater flow dynamics in the Innisfil Creek watershed, located in Ontario, Canada. We amalgamated extensive hydrogeological data derived from a comprehensive 3D geological model with the analysis of 61 groundwater samples, encompassing major ions, stable water isotopes, tritium, and radiocarbon. By seamlessly incorporating regional physiographic characteristics, flow pathways, and confinement attributes, we bolstered the efficiency of these tracers, resulting in several notable findings. Firstly, we identified prominent recharge and discharge zones within the watershed. Secondly, we observed the coexistence of relatively shallow and fast-flowing paths with deeper, slower-flowing channels, responsible for transporting groundwater from ancient glacial events. Thirdly, we determined that cation exchange stands as the predominant mechanism governing the geochemical evolution of contemporary water as it migrates toward confined aquifers situated at the base of the Quaternary sequence. Fourthly, we provided evidence of the mixing of modern, low-mineralized water originating from unconfined aquifer units with deep, highly mineralized water within soil–bedrock interface aquifers. These findings not only contribute significantly to the development a conceptual flow model for the sustainable management of groundwater in the Innisfil watershed, but also offer practical insights that hold relevance for analogous geological complexities encountered in other regions.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110211
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 212: An Open-Source Cross-Section Tool for
           Hydrodynamic Model Geometric Input Development

    • Authors: Bradley Tom, Minxue He, Prabhjot Sandhu
      First page: 212
      Abstract: Hydrodynamic models are widely used in simulating water dynamics in riverine and estuarine systems. A reasonably realistic representation of the geometry (e.g., channel length, junctions, cross-sections, etc.) of the study area is imperative for any successful hydrodynamic modeling application. Typically, hydrodynamic models do not digest these data directly but rely on pre-processing tools to convert the data to a readable format. This study presents a parsimonious open-source and user-friendly Java software tool, the Cross-Section Development Program (CSDP), that is developed by the authors to prepare geometric inputs for hydrodynamic models. The CSDP allows the user to select bathymetry data collected in different years by different agencies and create cross-sections and computational points in a channel automatically. This study further illustrates the application of this tool to the Delta Simulation Model II, which is the operational forecasting and planning hydrodynamic and water quality model developed for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta in California, United States. Model simulations on water levels and flow rates at key stations are evaluated against corresponding observations. The simulations mimic the patterns of the corresponding observations very well. The square of the correlation coefficient is generally over 0.95 during the calibration period and over 0.80 during the validation period. The absolute bias is generally less than 5% and 10% during the calibration and validation periods, respectively. The Kling–Gupta efficiency index is generally over 0.70 during both calibration and validation periods. The results illustrate that CSDP can be efficiently applied to generate geometric inputs for hydrodynamic models.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110212
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 213: Groundwater Bodies Subdivision in Corsica:
           A Critical Approach Based on Multivariate Water Quality Criteria Using
           Large Database

    • Authors: Hajar Lazar, Meryem Ayach, Abdoul-Azize Barry, Ismail Mohsine, Abdessamad Touiouine, Frédéric Huneau, Christophe Mori, Émilie Garel, Ilias Kacimi, Vincent Valles, Laurent Barbiero
      First page: 213
      Abstract: The cross-referencing of two databases, namely the compartmentalization into groundwater bodies (GWB) and the quality monitoring (2830 observations including 15 physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters, on 662 collection points and over a period of 27 years) is applied to better understand the diversity of the waters of the island of Corsica (France) and to facilitate the surveillance and quality monitoring of the groundwater resource. Data conditioning (log-transformation), dimensional reduction (PCA), classification (AHC) and then quantification of the information lost during grouping (ANOVA), highlight the need to sub-divide the groundwater bodies in the crystalline part of the island in order to take better account of lithological diversity and other environmental factors (slope, altitude, soil thickness, etc.). The compartmentalization into 15 units, mainly based on structural geology, provides less information than the grouping into 12 units after subdivision of the crystalline region. The diversity of the waters in terms of chemical and bacteriological composition is discussed, and the results encourage a review of the compartmentalization of the island’s GWBs, with a view to more targeted monitoring based on this diversity.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110213
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 214: Analysis of Water Volume Required to Reach
           Steady Flow in the Constant Head Well Permeameter Method

    • Authors: Aziz Amoozegar, Joshua L. Heitman
      First page: 214
      Abstract: The most common method for in situ measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of the vadose zone is the constant head well permeameter method. Our general objective is to provide an empirical method for determining volume of water required for measuring Ksat using this procedure. For one-dimensional infiltration, steady state reaches as time (t) → ∞. For three-dimensional water flow from a cylindrical hole under a constant depth of water, however, steady state reaches rather quickly when a saturated bulb forms around the hole. To reach a quasi-steady state for measuring Ksat, we assume an adequate volume of water is needed to form the saturated bulb around the hole and increase the water content outside of the saturated bulb within a bulb-shaped volume of soil, hereafter, referred to as wetted soil volume. We determined the dimensions of the saturated bulb using the Glover model that is used for calculating Ksat. We then used the values to determine the volume of the saturated and wetted bulbs around the hole. The volume of water needed to reach a quasi-steady state depends on the difference between the soil saturated and antecedent water content (Δθ). Based on our analysis, between 2 and 5 L of water is needed to measure Ksat when Δθ varies between 0.1 and 0.4 m3 m−3, respectively.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10110214
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 191: Flood Perception from Local Perspective of
           Rural Community vs. Geomorphological Control of Fluvial Processes in Large
           Alluvial Valley (the Middle Vistula River, Poland)

    • Authors: Daria Wiesława Krasiewicz, Grzegorz Wierzbicki
      First page: 191
      Abstract: The origin and dynamics of a 2010 pluvial flood in the valley of a large European river are described. In order to study how local people perceive this catastrophic event a small administrative unit (rural municipality) within the Holocene floodplain (thus flooded to 90%) was chosen. Using a questionnaire a human-research survey was performed in the field among 287 people living in flood-prone areas. Almost half of the interviewees feel safe and do not expect a flood recurrence (interpreted as a levee effect). Seventeen percent believe the levee was intentionally breached due to political issues. Six percent of interviewees link the breach with small mammals using levees as a habitat, e.g., beavers, moles, and foxes. The sex and age of interviewees are related to these opinions. Most interviewees (39%) think that flooding was a result of embankment (dyke) instability. The spatial distribution of the survey results are analyzed. Maps presenting: inundation height, economic loss, attitude to geohazards and perception of possible flood recurrence were drawn. Causes of the flood as viewed by local inhabitants and in the context of the riverine geological setting and its processes are discussed. Particular attention is paid to processes linking the levee breach location with specific geomorphic features of the Holocene floodplain. A wide perspective of fluvial geomorphology where erosive landforms of crevasse channels (and associated depositional crevasse splays) are indicators of geohazards was adopted. This distinct geomorphological imprint left by overbank flow is considered a natural flood mark. Such an approach is completely neglected by interviewees who overestimate the role of hydrotechnical structures.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100191
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 192: Defining Optimal Location of Constructed
           Wetlands in Vojvodina, Serbia

    • Authors: Sanja Antić, Pavel Benka, Boško Blagojević, Nikola Santrač, Andrea Salvai, Milica Stajić, Radoš Zemunac, Jovana Bezdan
      First page: 192
      Abstract: With the continuous trend of urbanization, increase in industrial capacities, and expansion of agricultural areas, there is also a rise in the amount of wastewater. One of the effective and economical solutions for wastewater treatment has proven to be Constructed Wetlands (CWs). Defining the locations where CWs can be built is not an easy task and there are several criteria that need to be considered. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis—Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are combined to select CW locations. AHP is one of the most commonly used methods in many environmental decision making problems, involving various conflicting criteria. In this case, conflicts arise between the evaluation of criteria that influence the selection of CW locations. The evaluation of selected criteria and sub-criteria resulted in a suitability map indicating that the first class represents 44%, the second class 37%, and the third class 16% of the total area. The fourth and fifth classes represent 3% of the total area. The criteria with the highest significance are land use, floodplains and distance of the location from populated places. This study has important implications for sustainable wastewater management in Serbia and provides guidelines for selecting locations for CWs.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100192
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 193: Hydrogeological Aspects of the Municipal
           Water Supply of Albania: Situation and Problems

    • Authors: Romeo Eftimi, Kastriot Shehu, Franko Sara
      First page: 193
      Abstract: The municipal water supply, related mainly to the cities of Albania, began to develop in the second half of the 19th century and very intensively after 1945. Today, the reported mean water production for the cities, on average, is about 300 l/capita/d, including drinking and industrial water supplies. The territory of Albania has an uneven distribution of very heterogeneous aquifers conditioning often the difficulty of municipal water supply solutions. In this article, are analyzed and classified the hydrogeological aspects of the water supply sources of the settlements, which are summarized in five groups: (a) wells in alluvial intergranular aquifers; (b) karst springs; (c) wells in karst aquifers; (d) springs in fissured rocks; and (e) mixed water sources. For each group of the water supply sources, the main concerns regarding the quantity and quality problems are analyzed, facilitated by the description of a variety of representative examples of different situations. Based on the gained experience, important recommendations are given for the better understanding of hydrogeological aspects of water supply systems, related to the river water recharge areas, the seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers, and the high vulnerability of karst aquifers, as well as transboundary aquifers. However, the main problem of public water supply of Albania remains the poor management of water supply systems, which is reflected in the significant water losses, as well as the low public awareness of requests for sustainable use.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100193
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 194: Enrichment and Temporal Trends of
           Groundwater Salinity in Central Mexico

    • Authors: Claudia Patricia Colmenero-Chacón, Heriberto Morales-deAvila, Mélida Gutiérrez, Maria Vicenta Esteller-Alberich, Maria Teresa Alarcón-Herrera
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Groundwater salinization is a major threat to the water supply in coastal and arid areas, a threat that is expected to worsen by increased groundwater withdrawals and by global warming. Groundwater quality in Central Mexico may be at risk of salinization due to its arid climate and since groundwater is the primary source for drinking and agriculture water. Only a handful of studies on groundwater salinization have been reported for this region, most constrained to a small area and without trend analyses. To determine the extent of salinization, total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium (Na+), nitrate as nitrogen (NO3-N) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) are commonly used. Available water quality data for about 200 wells, sampled annually between 2012 and 2021, were used to map the spatial distribution of NO3-N, TDS, Na+, and SAR. Upward trends and Spearman correlation were also determined. The study area was subdivided into three sections to estimate the impact of climate and lithologies on groundwater salinity. The results showed that human activities (agriculture) and dissolution of carbonate and evaporite rocks were major sources of salinity, and evaporation an enriching factor. Temporal trends occurred in only a few (about 7%) wells, primarily in NO3-N. The water quality for irrigation was generally good, (SAR < 10 in 95% of samples); however, eight wells contained water hazardous to soil (TDS > 1750 mg L−1 and SAR > 9). The results detected one aquifer with consistently high concentrations and upward trends and eight lesser impacted aquifers. Identifying the wells with upward trends is important in narrowing down the possible causes of their concentration increase with time and to develop strategies that will infuse sustainability to groundwater management.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100194
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 195: Assessing the Spatiotemporal Patterns and
           Impacts of Droughts in the Orinoco River Basin Using Earth Observations
           Data and Surface Observations

    • Authors: Franklin Paredes-Trejo, Barlin O. Olivares, Yair Movil-Fuentes, Juan Arevalo-Groening, Alfredo Gil
      First page: 195
      Abstract: Droughts impact the water cycle, ecological balance, and socio-economic development in various regions around the world. The Orinoco River Basin is a region highly susceptible to droughts. The basin supports diverse ecosystems and supplies valuable resources to local communities. We assess the spatiotemporal patterns and impacts of droughts in the basin using remote sensing data and surface observations. We use monthly precipitation (P), air temperature near the surface (T2M), enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from Earth observations, and average daily flow (Q) data to quantify drought characteristics and impacts. We also investigated the association between drought and global warming by correlating the drought intensity and the percentage of dry area with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific (Niño 3.4 index), Atlantic (North Atlantic Index [NATL]), and South Atlantic Index [SATL]) oceans. We evaluate the modulating effect of droughts on the hydrological regime of the most relevant tributaries by calculating the trend and significance of the regional standardized precipitation index (SPI) and percentage area affected by dry conditions. El Niño events worsen the region’s drought conditions (SPI vs. Niño 3.4 index, r = −0.221), while Atlantic SST variability has less influence on the basin’s precipitation regime (SPI vs. NATL and SATL, r = 0.117 and −0.045, respectively). We also found that long-term surface warming trends aggravate drought conditions (SPI vs. T2M anomalies, r = −0.473), but vegetation greenness increases despite high surface temperatures (SPI vs. EVI anomalies, r = 0.284). We emphasize the irregular spatial-temporal patterns of droughts in the region and their profound effects on the ecological flow of rivers during prolonged hydrological droughts. This approach provides crucial insights into potential implications for water availability, agricultural productivity, and overall ecosystem health. Our study underlines the urgent need for adaptive management strategies to mitigate the adverse effects of droughts on ecosystems and human populations. The insights derived from our study have practical implications for developing strategies to address the impacts of droughts and ensure the protection of this ecologically significant region.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100195
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 196: Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Water
           Quality Assessment: A Review of Research Published between 2001 and 2020

    • Authors: Daphne H. F. Muniz, Eduardo C. Oliveira-Filho
      First page: 196
      Abstract: Research on water quality is a fundamental step in supporting the maintenance of environmental and human health. The elements involved in water quality analysis are multidimensional, because numerous characteristics can be measured simultaneously. This multidimensional character encourages researchers to statistically examine the data generated through multivariate statistical analysis (MSA). The objective of this review was to explore the research on water quality through MSA between the years 2001 and 2020, present in the Web of Science (WoS) database. Annual results, WoS subject categories, conventional journals, most cited publications, keywords, water sample types analyzed, country or territory where the study was conducted and most used multivariate statistical analyses were topics covered. The results demonstrate a considerable increase in research using MSA in water quality studies in the last twenty years, especially in developing countries. River, groundwater and lake were the most studied water sample types. In descending order, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were the most used techniques. This review presents relevant information for researchers in choosing the most appropriate methods to analyze water quality data.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100196
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 197: A Soil Moisture Profile Conceptual
           Framework to Identify Water Availability and Recovery in Green Stormwater

    • Authors: Matina Shakya, Amanda Hess, Bridget M. Wadzuk, Robert G. Traver
      First page: 197
      Abstract: The recovery of soil void space through infiltration and evapotranspiration processes within green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is key to continued hydrologic function. As such, soil void space recovery must be well understood to improve the design and modeling and to provide realistic expectations of GSI performance. A novel conceptual framework of soil moisture behavior was developed to define the soil moisture availability at pre-, during, and post-storm conditions. It uses soil moisture measurements and provides seven critical soil moisture points (A, B, C, D, E, F, F″) that describe the soil–water void space recovery after a storm passes through a GSI. The framework outputs a quantification of a GSI subsurface hydrology, including average soil moisture, the duration of saturation, soil moisture recession, desaturation time, infiltration rates, and evapotranspiration (ET) rates. The outputs the framework provide were compared to the values that were obtained through more traditional measurements of infiltration (through spot field infiltration testing), ET (through a variety of methods to quantify GSI ET), soil moisture measurements (through the soil water characteristics curve), and the duration of saturation/desaturation time (through a simulated runoff test), all which provided a strong justification to the framework. This conceptual framework has several applications, including providing an understanding of a system’s ability to hold water, the post-storm recovery process, GSI unit processes (ET and infiltration), important water contents that define the soil–water relationship (such as field capacity and saturation), and a way to quantify long-term changes in performance all through minimal monitoring with one or more soil moisture sensors. The application of this framework to GSI design promotes a deeper understanding of the subsurface hydrology and site-specific soil conditions, which is a key advancement in the understanding of long-term performance and informing GSI design and maintenance.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100197
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 198: Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Using the
           Water Quality Index (WQI) and Human Health Risk (HHR) Assessment in West
           Bank, Palestine

    • Authors: Ashraf Zohud, Lubna Alam, Choo Ta Goh
      First page: 198
      Abstract: Access to clean and safe water is extremely important, not only in Palestine but also worldwide. In the West Bank, groundwater is particularly valuable because of its scarcity and inaccessibility, and, due to the nature of the area’s aquifers, is currently regarded as being at high risk of pollution. Moreover, the water quality in this area is also of wide concern, with its effects being directly linked to human health. Certain parts of the West Bank groundwater suffer from high concentrations of nitrate and potassium. In total, 38.8% of nitrate and 10% of potassium concentrations in well samples exceed the permissible limit set by the WHO and PSI, and, therefore, health problems arise as a limiting factor for life quality and welfare in this region. Moreover, 87.7% of samples are classified as having very hard water. To evaluate the well water in the study area, an assessment was conducted based on the WQI and HHR. Therefore, 49 samples were taken from a group of wells distributed across the study area during the year 2021. The physico-chemical parameters of each sample were analysed. The WQI values showed that 78% of the well samples were of good quality. Moreover, in the classification of the water based on a Piper diagram, 65% of the groundwater was determined to be calcium–magnesium–bicarbonate-type water. Likewise, health risk assessments were evaluated for fluoride and nitrate in drinking water for adults, children, and infants. The main values of the estimated total hazard index (THI) obtained from the analysed data on the health risk assessments revealed a diverse effect on the local population based on age category. The ranges of THI in all sampling locations varied considerably and extended from 0.093 to 3.01 for adults, 0.29 to 3.08 for children, and 0.302 to 3.21 for infants. These results widely indicate that infants are more exposed to health risks.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100198
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 199: Analysis of the Distance between the
           Measured and Assumed Location of a Point Source of Pollution in
           Groundwater as a Function of the Variance of the Estimation Error

    • Authors: Ivan Kovač, Marko Šrajbek, Nikolina Klišanin, Gordon Gilja
      First page: 199
      Abstract: The localization of pollution sources is one of the main tasks in environmental engineering. For this paper, models of spatial distribution of nitrate concentration in groundwater were created, and the point of highest concentration was determined. This point represents the assumed location of the pollution source and differs from the actual location, so there is a certain distance between the measured and assumed location. This paper puts forward a new hypothesis that the distance between the measured and the assumed location is a function of the variance of the estimation error. The scientific contribution of this paper is based on the fact that the interaction of statistical and geostatistical methods can locate the dominant point source of pollution or narrow down the search area. The above hypothesis is confirmed by the example of the Varaždin wellfield, which was closed due to an excessively high groundwater nitrate concentration. Seven different interpolation methods were used to create spatial distribution models. Each method provides a different model, a different variance of the estimation error, and estimates of the location of the pollution source. The smallest value of variance of the estimation error of 1.65 was obtained for the minimum curvature interpolation method and the largest value of variance (24.49) was obtained for the kriging with logarithmic variogram. Our results show a nonlinear and monotonic relationship between the distance and the variance of the estimation error, so logarithmic and rational quadratic models were fitted to the scatter point data. The models were linearized, a t-test was performed, and the results show that the models can be considered reliable, which is confirmed by the values of the coefficients of determination of the linearized models, which are around 0.50. The obtained results can be used in planning additional research work to determine the measured location of the pollution source. The research methodology we used is universal and can be applied to other locations where high concentrations of certain contaminants have been detected in groundwater in alluvial aquifers.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100199
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 200: Nutrient Loadings to Utah Lake from
           Precipitation-Related Atmospheric Deposition

    • Authors: Mitchell M. Brown, Justin T. Telfer, Gustavious P. Williams, A. Woodruff Miller, Robert B. Sowby, Riley C. Hales, Kaylee B. Tanner
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Atmospheric deposition (AD) is a less understood and quantified source of nutrient loading to waterbodies. AD occurs via settling (large particulates), contact (smaller particulates and gaseous matter), and precipitation (rain, snow) transport pathways. Utah Lake is a shallow eutrophic freshwater lake located in central Utah, USA, with geophysical characteristics that make it particularly susceptible to AD-related nutrient loading. Studies have shown AD to be a significant contributor to the lake’s nutrient budget. This study analyzes nutrient samples from nine locations around the lake and four precipitation gauges over a 6-year study period using three different methods to estimate AD from the precipitation transport pathway. The methods used are simple averaging, Thiessen polygons, and inverse distance weighting, which we use to spatially interpolate point sample data to estimate nutrient lake loads. We hold that the inverse distance weighting method produces the most accurate results. We quantify, present, and compare nutrient loads and nutrient loading rates for total phosphorus (TP), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), and ortho phosphate (OP) from precipitation events. We compute loading rates for the calendar year (Mg/yr) from each of the three analysis methods along with monthly loading rates where Mg is 106 g. Our estimated annual precipitation AD loads for TP, OP, and TIN are 120.96 Mg/yr (132.97 tons/yr), 60.87 Mg/yr (67.1 tons/yr), and 435 Mg/yr (479.5 tons/yr), respectively. We compare these results with published data on total AD nutrient loads and show that AD from precipitation is a significant nutrient source for Utah Lake, contributing between 25% and 40% of the total AD nutrient load to the lake.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100200
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 201: The Integrated Use of Heavy-Metal Pollution
           Indices and the Assessment of Metallic Health Risks in the Phreatic
           Groundwater Aquifer—The Case of the Oued Souf Valley in Algeria

    • Authors: Ayoub Barkat, Foued Bouaicha, Sabrina Ziad, Tamás Mester, Zsófi Sajtos, Dániel Balla, Islam Makhloufi, György Szabó
      First page: 201
      Abstract: In this research, contamination levels and the spatial pattern identification, as well as human and environmental health risk assessments of the heavy metals in the phreatic groundwater aquifer of the Oued Souf Valley were investigated for the first time. The applied methodology comprised a combination of heavy-metal pollution indices, inverse distance weighting, and human health risk assessment through water ingestion on samples collected from (14) monitoring wells. The contamination trend in the phreatic aquifer showed Al > B > Sr > Mn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cr > Ba > Cu > Zn. Similarly, the enrichment trend was Al > B > Sr > Mn > Ni > Pb > Cr > Ba > Cu > Zn. Ecologically, most of the analyzed metals reflected a low potential ecological risk, except for two wells, S13 and S14, which represented a considerable and high ecological risk in terms of Pb. According to the applied grouping method, the samples in the first group indicated a lower risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals due to their lower concentration compared to the second group. This makes the area containing the second group’s samples more vulnerable in terms of heavy metals, which could affect urban, preurban, and even agricultural areas. All of the samples (100%) indicated the possibility of potential health risks in the case of children. While six samples showed that the non-cancer toxicity risk is considered low, the rest of the samples had high Hazard Index (HI) values, indicating the possibility of health risks occurring in the case of adults. The constructed vertical drainage system is acting as a supporter and accelerator of the pollution levels in the shallow groundwater aquifer. This is due to its contribution to the penetration of different pollutants into this aquifer system, depending on the residence time of the water, which appears to be long within the drainage system.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100201
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 202: Simple and Cost-Effective Method for
           Reliable Indirect Determination of Field Capacity

    • Authors: Cansu Almaz, Markéta Miháliková, Kamila Báťková, Jan Vopravil, Svatopluk Matula, Tomáš Khel, Recep Serdar Kara
      First page: 202
      Abstract: This study introduces a simple and cost-effective method for the indirect determination of field capacity (FC) in soil, a critical parameter for soil hydrology and environmental modeling. The relationships between FC and soil moisture constants, specifically maximum capillary water capacity (MCWC) and retention water capacity (RWC), were established using undisturbed soil core samples analyzed via the pressure plate method and the “filter paper draining method”. The aim was to reduce the time and costs associated with traditional FC measurement methods, as well as allowing for the use of legacy databases containing MCWC and RWC values. The results revealed the substantial potential of the “filter paper draining method” as a promising approach for indirect FC determination. FC determined as soil water content at −33 kPa can be effectively approximated by the equation FC33 = 1.0802 RWC − 0.0688 (with RMSE = 0.045 cm3/cm3 and R = 0.953). FC determined as soil water content at −5 or −10 kPa can be effectively approximated by both equations FC5 = 1.0146 MCWC − 0.0163 (with RMSE = 0.027 cm3/cm3 and R = 0.961) and FC10 = 1.0152 MCWC − 0.0275 (with RMSE = 0.033 cm3/cm3 and R = 0.958), respectively. Historical pedotransfer functions by Brežný and Váša relating FC to fine particle size fraction were also evaluated for practical application, and according to the results, they cannot be recommended for use.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100202
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 203: Efficient Flood Early Warning System for
           Data-Scarce, Karstic, Mountainous Environments: A Case Study

    • Authors: Evangelos Rozos, Vasilis Bellos, John Kalogiros, Katerina Mazi
      First page: 203
      Abstract: This paper presents an efficient flood early warning system developed for the city of Mandra, Greece which experienced a devastating flood event in November 2017 resulting in significant loss of life. The location is of particular interest due to both its small-sized water basin (20 km2 upstream of the studied cross-section), necessitating a rapid response time for effective flood warning calculations, and the lack of hydrometric data. To address the first issue, a database of pre-simulated flooding events with a 2D hydrodynamic model corresponding to synthetic precipitations with different return periods was established. To address the latter issue, the hydrological model was calibrated using qualitative information collected after the catastrophic event, compensating for the lack of hydrometric data. The case study demonstrates the establishment of a hybrid (online–offline) flood early warning system in data-scarce environments. By utilizing pre-simulated events and qualitative information, the system provides valuable insights for flood forecasting and aids in decision-making processes. This approach can be applied to other similar locations with limited data availability, contributing to improved flood management strategies and enhanced community resilience.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100203
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
  • Hydrology, Vol. 10, Pages 204: Characterization of Extreme Rainfall and
           River Discharge over the Senegal River Basin from 1982 to 2021

    • Authors: Assane Ndiaye, Mamadou Lamine Mbaye, Joël Arnault, Moctar Camara, Agnidé Emmanuel Lawin
      First page: 204
      Abstract: Extreme hydroclimate events usually have harmful impacts of human activities and ecosystems. This study aims to assess trends and significant changes in rainfall and river flow over the Senegal River Basin (SRB) and its upper basin during the 1982–2021 period. Eight hydroclimate indices, namely maximum river discharge (QMAX), standardized flow index, mean daily rainfall intensity index (SDII), maximum 5-day consecutive rainfall (RX5DAY), annual rainfall exceeding the 95th percentile (R95P), annual rainfall exceeding the 99th percentile (R99P), annual flows exceeding the 95th percentile (Q95P), and annual flows exceeding the 99th percentile (Q95P), were considered. The modified Mann–Kendall test (MMK) and Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA) were used to analyze trends, while standard normal homogeneity and Pettit’s tests were used to detect potential breakpoints in these trends. The results indicate an irregular precipitation pattern, with high values of extreme precipitation indices (R95p, R99p, SDII, and RX5DAY) reaching 25 mm, 50 mm, 20 mm/day, and 70 mm, respectively, in the southern part, whereas the northern part recorded low values varying around 5 mm, 10 mm, 5 mm/day, and 10 mm, respectively, for R95P, R99P, SDII, and RX5DAY. The interannual analysis revealed a significant increase (p-value < 5%) in the occurrences of heavy precipitation between 1982 and 2021, as manifested by a positive slope; a notable breakpoint emerged around the years 2006 and 2007, indicating a transition to a significantly wetter period starting from 2008. Concerning extreme flows, a significant increase was observed between 1982 and 2021 with Sen’s slopes for extreme flows (29.33 for Q95P, 37.49 for Q99P, and 38.55 for QMAX). This study provides a better understanding of and insights into past hydroclimate extremes and can serve as a foundation for future research in the field.
      Citation: Hydrology
      PubDate: 2023-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/hydrology10100204
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2023)
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