Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3492 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (267 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (143 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1675 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (50 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (271 journals)
    - BOTANY (254 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (76 journals)
    - GENETICS (171 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (292 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (12 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (29 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (147 journals)

BIOLOGY (1675 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 801 - 1000 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Phytopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Phytoremediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Plant Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Signs and Semiotic Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Systems Biology and Biomedical Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Tryptophan Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Multidisciplinary Research Journal     Open Access  
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Review of Hydrobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intervirology     Full-text available via subscription  
IntraVital     Full-text available via subscription  
Invertebrate Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Invertebrate Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Invertebrate Systematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
iScience     Open Access  
Islets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Incontri di Studio     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Mycology     Open Access  
ITBM-RBM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IUBMB Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IUFS Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jahangirnagar University Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
JCI Insight     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JDREAM : Journal of interDisciplinary REsearch Applied to Medicine     Open Access  
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
JKI Datenblätter : Pflanzenkrankheiten und Diagnose     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jornal Interdisciplinar de Biociências     Open Access  
Journal Biastatistics : Biomedics, Industry & Business And Social Statistics     Open Access  
Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability     Open Access  
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computer Science & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Anatomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Bioinformatics & Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Applied Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Arachnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity     Open Access  
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bio-Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bio-X Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Biocommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Intelligent Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Sequence Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biological Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biological Methods     Open Access  
Journal of Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Research - Thessaloniki     Open Access  
Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biological Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology and Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Biomedical Informatics : X     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B : Applied Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Bioresource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Biorheology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity     Open Access  
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biosocial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bryology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cell Death     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cellular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chromatography B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Crustacean Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environment and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Environment and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Analysis and Progress     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Life Science     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Fish Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Functional Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fungi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Green Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Hymenoptera Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ichthyology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Insect Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated OMICS     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Life Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access  
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Melittology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Human Evolution
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.658
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0047-2484 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8606
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3200 journals]
  • Mandibular molar root and pulp cavity morphology in Homo naledi and other
           Plio-Pleistocene hominins
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 130Author(s): Kornelius Kupczik, Lucas K. Delezene, Matthew M. SkinnerAbstractThe craniomandibular morphology of Homo naledi shows variable resemblances with species across Homo, which confounds an easy assessment of its phylogenetic position. In terms of skull shape, H. naledi has its closest affinities with Homo erectus, while mandibular shape places it closer to early Homo. From a tooth crown perspective, the smaller molars of H. naledi make it distinct from early Homo and H. erectus. Here, we compare the mandibular molar root morphology of six H. naledi individuals from the Dinaledi Chamber to those of African and Eurasian Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins (totalling 183 mandibular first, second and third molars). The analysis of five root metric variables (cervical plane area, root length, root cervix volume, root branch volume, and root surface area) derived from microCT reconstructions reveals that the molar roots of H. naledi are smaller than those of Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, and H. erectus, but that they resemble those of three Homo sp. specimens from Swartkrans and Koobi Fora in size and overall appearance. Moreover, though H. naledi molar roots are similar in absolute size to Pleistocene Homo sapiens, they differ from H. sapiens in having a larger root volume for a given cervical plane area and less taurodont roots; the root cervix-to-branch proportions of H. naledi are comparable to those of Australopithecus africanus and species of Paranthropus. H. naledi also shares a metameric root volume pattern (M2 > M3 > M1) with Australopithecus and Paranthropus but not with any of the other Homo species (M2 > M1 > M3). Our findings therefore concur with previous studies that found that H. naledi shares plesiomorphic features with early Homo, Australopithecus, and Paranthropus. While absolute molar root size aligns H. naledi with Homo from North and South Africa, it is distinguishable from these in terms of root volumetric proportions.
       
  • Brain size growth in Australopithecus
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 130Author(s): Zachary CofranAbstractPostnatal growth is one of the proximate means by which humans attain massive adult brain size. Humans are characterized by the maintenance of prenatal brain growth rates into the first postnatal year, as well as an overall extended period of growth. The evolution of this pattern is difficult to assess due to its relatively brief duration and the underrepresentation of well-preserved fossil individuals who died during this short period. In this study, I use Monte Carlo methods to reconstruct postnatal brain growth rates in Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus, based on estimates of neonatal brain size and of likely brain size and age at death of infant specimens (A.L. 333-105, DIK-1-1, and Taung). Neonatal brain size is reconstructed from the empirical scaling relationship among catarrhines which humans follow, and conservative estimates of fossils' chronological ages and brain sizes are drawn from the literature. Simulated distributions of these values are used to calculate average annual rates (ARs) of brain growth and proportional size change from birth (PSC), which are compared to resampled statistics from humans, chimpanzees and gorillas of known age and sex. Simulated ARs and PSCs for A. afarensis are significantly lower than those of chimpanzees and gorillas. Both ARs and PSCs for A. africanus are similar to chimpanzee and gorilla values. These results indicate that although these early hominins were derived in some aspects of brain anatomy, high rates of brain growth did not appear until later in human evolution. Moreover, findings also imply that brain growth rates are not a simple function of adult brain size. This study provides important new information about the evolution of brain growth, despite limitations inherent in fossil samples.
       
  • Temporal shifts in the distribution of murine rodent body size classes at
           Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia) reveal new insights into the paleoecology of
           Homo floresiensis and associated fauna
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 130Author(s): E. Grace Veatch, Matthew W. Tocheri, Thomas Sutikna, Kate McGrath, E. Wahyu Saptomo, Jatmiko, Kristofer M. HelgenAbstractLiang Bua, the type locality of Homo floresiensis, is a limestone cave located in the western part of the Indonesian island of Flores. The relatively continuous stratigraphic sequence of the site spans the past ∼190 kyr and contains ∼275,000 taxonomically identifiable vertebrate skeletal elements, ∼80% of which belong to murine rodent taxa (i.e., rats). Six described genera are present at Liang Bua (Papagomys, Spelaeomys, Hooijeromys, Komodomys, Paulamys, and Rattus), one of which, Hooijeromys, is newly recorded in the site deposits, being previously known only from Early to Middle Pleistocene sites in central Flores. Measurements of the proximal femur (n = 10,212) and distal humerus (n = 1186) indicate five murine body size classes ranging from small (mouse-sized) to giant (common rabbit-sized) are present. The proportions of these five classes across successive stratigraphic units reveal two major changes in murine body size distribution due to significant shifts in the abundances of more open habitat-adapted medium-sized murines versus more closed habitat-adapted smaller-sized ones. One of these changes suggests a modest increase in available open habitats occurred ∼3 ka, likely the result of anthropogenic changes to the landscape related to farming by modern human populations. The other and more significant change occurred ∼60 ka suggesting a rapid shift from more open habitats to more closed conditions at this time. The abrupt reduction of medium-sized murines, along with the disappearance of H. floresiensis, Stegodon florensis insularis (an extinct proboscidean), Varanus komodoensis (Komodo dragon), Leptoptilos robustus (giant marabou stork), and Trigonoceps sp. (vulture) at Liang Bua ∼60–50 ka, is likely the consequence of these animals preferring and tracking more open habitats to elsewhere on the island. If correct, then the precise timing and nature of the extinction of H. floresiensis and its contemporaries must await new discoveries at Liang Bua or other as yet unexcavated sites on Flores.
       
  • Speeding in the slow lane: Phylogenetic comparative analyses reveal that
           not all human life history traits are exceptional
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 130Author(s): Ian F. Miller, Steven E. Churchill, Charles L. NunnAbstractHumans are thought to exhibit an unusual suite of life history traits relative to other primates, with a longer lifespan, later age at first reproduction, and shorter interbirth interval. These assumptions are key components of popular hypotheses about human life history evolution, but they have yet to be investigated phylogenetically. We applied two phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate whether these human life history traits differ from expectations based on other primates: one fits and selects between Brownian and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of trait evolution; the other tests for phylogenetic outliers by predicting phenotypic characteristics based on trait covariation and phylogeny for a species of interest. We found that humans have exceptionally short interbirth intervals, long lifespans, and high birth masses. We failed to find evidence that humans have a delayed age at first reproduction relative to body mass or other covariates. Overall, our results support several previous assertions about the uniqueness of human life history characteristics and the importance of cooperative breeding and socioecology in human life history evolution. However, we suggest that several hypotheses about human life history need to be revised in light of our finding that humans do not have a delayed age at first reproduction.
       
  • Efficacy of diffeomorphic surface matching and 3D geometric morphometrics
           for taxonomic discrimination of Early Pleistocene hominin mandibular
           molars
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 130Author(s): José Braga, Veronika Zimmer, Jean Dumoncel, Chafik Samir, Frikkie de Beer, Clément Zanolli, Deborah Pinto, F. James Rohlf, Frederick E. GrineAbstractMorphometric assessments of the dentition have played significant roles in hypotheses relating to taxonomic diversity among extinct hominins. In this regard, emphasis has been placed on the statistical appraisal of intraspecific variation to identify morphological criteria that convey maximum discriminatory power. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric (3D GM) approaches that utilize landmarks and semi-landmarks to quantify shape variation have enjoyed increasingly popular use over the past twenty-five years in assessments of the outer enamel surface (OES) and enamel–dentine junction (EDJ) of fossil molars. Recently developed diffeomorphic surface matching (DSM) methods that model the deformation between shapes have drastically reduced if not altogether eliminated potential methodological inconsistencies associated with the a priori identification of landmarks and delineation of semi-landmarks. As such, DSM has the potential to better capture the geometric details that describe tooth shape by accounting for both homologous and non-homologous (i.e., discrete) features, and permitting the statistical determination of geometric correspondence. We compare the discriminatory power of 3D GM and DSM in the evaluation of the OES and EDJ of mandibular permanent molars attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus and early Homo sp. from the sites of Sterkfontein and Swartkrans. For all three molars, classification and clustering scores demonstrate that DSM performs better at separating the A. africanus and P. robustus samples than does 3D GM. The EDJ provided the best results. P. robustus evinces greater morphological variability than A. africanus. The DSM assessment of the early Homo molar from Swartkrans reveals its distinctiveness from either australopith sample, and the “unknown” specimen from Sterkfontein (Stw 151) is notably more similar to Homo than to A. africanus.
       
  • A missing piece of the Papio puzzle: Gorongosa baboon phenostructure and
           intrageneric relationships
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 130Author(s): Felipe I. Martinez, Cristian Capelli, Maria J. Ferreira da Silva, Vera Aldeias, Zeresenay Alemseged, William Archer, Marion Bamford, Dora Biro, René Bobe, David R. Braun, Jörg M. Habermann, Tina Lüdecke, Hilário Madiquida, Jacinto Mathe, Enquye Negash, Luis M. Paulo, Maria Pinto, Marc Stalmans, Frederico Tátá, Susana CarvalhoAbstractMost authors recognize six baboon species: hamadryas (Papio hamadryas), Guinea (Papio papio), olive (Papio anubis), yellow (Papio cynocephalus), chacma (Papio ursinus), and Kinda (Papio kindae). However, there is still debate regarding the taxonomic status, phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of gene flow occurring between species. Here, we present ongoing research on baboon morphological diversity in Gorongosa National Park (GNP), located in central Mozambique, south of the Zambezi River, at the southern end of the East African Rift System. The park exhibits outstanding ecological diversity and hosts more than 200 baboon troops. Gorongosa National Park baboons have previously been classified as chacma baboons (P. ursinus). In accordance with this, two mtDNA samples from the park have been placed in the same mtDNA clade as the northern chacma baboons. However, GNP baboons exhibit morphological features common in yellow baboons (e.g., yellow fur color), suggesting that parapatric gene flow between chacma and yellow baboons might have occurred in the past or could be ongoing. We investigated the phenostructure of the Gorongosa baboons using two approaches: 1) description of external phenotypic features, such as coloration and body size, and 2) 3D geometric morphometric analysis of 43 craniofacial landmarks on 11 specimens from Gorongosa compared to a pan-African sample of 352 baboons. The results show that Gorongosa baboons exhibit a mosaic of features shared with southern P. cynocephalus and P. ursinus griseipes. The GNP baboon phenotype fits within a geographic clinal pattern of replacing allotaxa. We put forward the hypothesis of either past and/or ongoing hybridization between the gray-footed chacma and southern yellow baboons in Gorongosa or an isolation-by-distance scenario in which the GNP baboons are geographically and morphologically intermediate. These two scenarios are not mutually exclusive. We highlight the potential of baboons as a useful model to understand speciation and hybridization in early human evolution.
       
  • The mechanical origins of arm-swinging
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 130Author(s): Michael C. Granatosky, Daniel SchmittAbstractArm-swinging is a locomotor mode observed only in primates, in which the hindlimbs no longer have a weight bearing function and the forelimbs must propel the body forward and support the entirety of the animal's mass. It has been suggested that the evolution of arm-swinging was preceded by a shift to inverted quadrupedal walking for purposes of feeding and balance, yet little is known about the mechanics of limb use during inverted quadrupedal walking. In this study, we test whether the mechanics of inverted quadrupedal walking make sense as precursors to arm-swinging and whether there are fundamental differences in inverted quadrupedal walking in primates compared to non-primate mammals that would explain the evolution of arm-swinging in primates only. Based on kinetic limb-loading data collected during inverted quadrupedal walking in primates (seven species) and non-primate mammals (three species), we observe that in primates the forelimb serves as the primary propulsive and weight bearing limb. Additionally, heavier individuals tend to support a greater distribution of body weight on their forelimbs than lighter ones. These kinetic patterns are not observed in non-primate mammals. Based on these findings, we propose that the ability to adopt arm-swinging is fairly simple for relatively large-bodied primates and merely requires the animal to release its grasping foot from the substrate. This study fills an important gap concerning the origins of arm-swinging and illuminates previously unknown patterns of primate locomotor evolution.
       
  • Mind the (Middle Pleistocene) gap'
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 129Author(s): Julien Favreau
       
  • Brain size and organization in the Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima
           de los Huesos. Inferences from endocranial variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 129Author(s): Eva María Poza-Rey, Aida Gómez-Robles, Juan Luis ArsuagaAbstractThe Sima de los Huesos (SH) endocranial sample includes 16 complete or partial endocasts corresponding to European Middle Pleistocene hominins. Different anatomical and molecular studies have demonstrated that these hominins are phylogenetically related to Neanderthals, thus making them the earliest unquestionable representatives of the Neanderthal lineage. The description of endocranial variation in this population is fundamental to shedding light on the evolution of the Neanderthal brain. In this contribution, we analyze and describe endocranial variation in this sample, including aspects related to brain size (endocranial volume and encephalization) and brain organization (through qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses). Our results indicate that the SH hominins show a transitional state between a primitive hominin endocranial configuration (which is found in Homo erectus and non-SH Middle Pleistocene Homo) and the derived configurations found in Neanderthals and modern humans, without a clear anticipation of classic Neanderthal endocranial traits. In comparison with other cranial and postcranial traits that show a fully Neanderthal or clear pre-Neanderthal condition in the SH collection, endocranial variation in these hominins is surprisingly primitive and shows no Neanderthal affinity. These results and the comparison with other cranial traits confirm that Neanderthals evolved in a mosaic fashion. Traits related to mastication (dental, facial and mandibular anatomy) led the Neanderthalization process, whereas neurocranial anatomy must have acquired a fully Neanderthal condition considerably later.
       
  • Root growth and dental eruption in modern human deciduous teeth with
           preliminary observations on great apes
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 129Author(s): Patrick MahoneyAbstractRecent studies of dental development have indicated that root growth rates are linked to the eruption of some permanent tooth types in modern humans and Pan troglodytes. Little is known about the potential links between these aspects of dental development in deciduous teeth of any primate species. This histology study calculates the rate at which roots extend in length for human deciduous maxillary teeth and a small sample of deciduous canines and premolars from P. troglodytes and Pongo pygmaeus. Links are sought between root extension rates and previously published data for deciduous tooth emergence in each of these species. Results reported here provide the first evidence that the roots of human deciduous incisors, canines, and premolars extend in length at an accelerated rate as these teeth emerge. Accelerated extension rates in a deciduous canine from Pan coincided with the age that this tooth type emerged in captive chimpanzees. High extension rates in a canine from Pongo preceded emergence age. Preliminary observations indicate that deciduous canine and premolar roots of Pan and Pongo extend in length rapidly when compared to these tooth types from modern human children. This study provides a starting point from which to investigate new links between the incremental development of deciduous roots and tooth emergence in primates.
       
  • Ardipithecus ramidus postcrania from the Gona Project area, Afar
           Regional State, Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 129Author(s): Scott W. Simpson, Naomi E. Levin, Jay Quade, Michael J. Rogers, Sileshi SemawAbstractFunctional analyses of the 4.4 Ma hominin Ardipithecus ramidus postcrania revealed a previously unknown and unpredicted locomotor pattern combining arboreal clambering and a form of terrestrial bipedality. To date, all of the fossil evidence of Ar. ramidus locomotion has been collected from the Aramis area of the Middle Awash Research Project in Ethiopia. Here, we present the results of an analysis of additional early Pliocene Ar. ramidus fossils from the Gona Project study area, Ethiopia, that includes a fragmentary but informative partial skeleton (GWM67/P2) and additional isolated manual remains. While we reinforce the original functional interpretations of Ar. ramidus of having a mixed locomotor adaptation of terrestrial bipedality and arboreal clambering, we broaden our understanding of the nature of its locomotor pattern by documenting better the function of the hip, ankle, and foot. The newly recovered fossils document a greater adaptation to bipedality in the Ar. ramidus ankle and hallux than previously recognized. In addition, a newly discovered scaphoid bone with a fusing os centrale provides further evidence about the nature of hominin hand evolution.
       
  • A probable genetic origin for pitting enamel hypoplasia on the molars of
           Paranthropus robustus
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 129Author(s): Ian Towle, Joel D. IrishAbstractWe report the frequencies of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) and, specifically, pitting enamel hypoplasia (PEH) defects in the teeth of Paranthropus robustus, for comparison with four other South African hominin species and three extant nonhuman primate species. Unlike LEH, the lesser known PEH is characterized by multiple circular depression defects across a tooth crown and is often difficult to interpret in terms of developmental timing and etiology. Teeth in all samples were examined macroscopically with type, position and number of defects recorded. Frequencies of teeth with LEH vary among hominin species, but the differences in PEH are considerable. That is, P. robustus has much higher rates of pitting defects, with 47% of deciduous teeth and 14% of permanent teeth affected, relative to 6.7% and 4.3%, respectively, for all other hominin teeth combined; none of the extant primate samples evidences comparable rates. The defects on P. robustus molars are unlike those in other species, with entire crowns often covered in small circular depressions. The PEH is most consistent with modern human examples of amelogenesis imperfecta. Additionally, the defects are: 1) not found on anterior teeth, 2) uniform in shape and size, and 3) similar in appearance/severity on all molars. Therefore, this form of PEH may have been a side effect of selection on another trait that shares the same coding gene(s), i.e., these defects have a genetic origin. We discuss a possible scenario that may explain how this form of PEH evolved to become so common in the Paranthropus genus.
       
  • Comments on "Dating the Middle Paleolithic deposits of La Quina Amont
           (Charente, France) using luminescence methods" [J. Hum. Evol. 109 (2017)
           30–45]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Journal of Human EvolutionAuthor(s): Arthur J. Jelinek
       
  • The hunters or the hunters: Human and hyena prey choice divergence in the
           Late Pleistocene Levant
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Journal of Human EvolutionAuthor(s): Meir Orbach, Reuven YeshurunAbstractHunting preferences reveal a great deal about the life of Paleolithic humans, and may reflect changes in human demography, technology, and adaptations to changing environments. However, the effects of hunting preferences and environmental availability are often conflated, stressing the need for comparisons to other predators that exploited the same environment. Manot Cave (Israel), preserved rich Early Upper Paleolithic (46-33 ka) human occupations, along with repeated spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) occupations, allowing us to compare anthropogenic and biogenic bone assemblages within the same space and time frame. We focused on the faunal remains retrieved in the middle of the cave (Area D), and conducted detailed taphonomic and zooarchaeological analyses. The Area D archaeofauna was dominated by Mesopotamian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica) and mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella), which showed high abundance of carnivore damage. This and the carnivore-to-ungulate ratio, the presence of juvenile hyena and numerous coprolites match the criteria of a hyena den, confirming that the bone assemblage was created mainly by hyenas. Manot Area D thus reveals hyena prey choice in the Upper Paleolithic Galilee, which we then compared with human prey choice. Our results showed that hyena prey assemblages in Manot and elsewhere in the Levant were Dama-dominated while human assemblages were dominated by Gazella, demonstrating that hyenas and humans hunted different animal size groups, possibly in different habitats. We interpret this phenomenon as resulting from two possible scenarios: the emergence of projectile technology which may favor hunting in open environments, and niche partitioning derived by human-hyena competition. Hyenas were abundant and hunted unselectively while the anthropogenic record presents population turnovers and some dietary diversification. Whereas both scenarios are difficult to test directly with the available evidence, we argue that either one explains quite well the late Pleistocene archaeofaunal patterns in the Levantine record.
       
  • Proboscidea from Kanapoi, Kenya
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Journal of Human EvolutionAuthor(s): William J. SandersAbstractThe early Pliocene site of Kanapoi (Turkana Basin, Kenya) has a large, diverse vertebrate sample that contains the earliest representatives of the hominin genus Australopithecus. Included in this sample is an impressive assemblage of fossil proboscideans, comprised of deinotheres (Deinotherium bozasi), anancine gomphotheres (Anancus ultimus), and at least three species of elephant (Loxodonta adaurora, a primitive morph of Loxodonta exoptata, and Elephas ekorensis). A single specimen from high in the sequence could plausibly belong to a primitive stage of Elephas recki. A review of dental carbon isotope analyses indicates a range of dietary habits for these taxa, from dedicated browsing (deinotheres) to mixed feeding/grazing (elephants and gomphotheres), which in early Pliocene elephants corresponds to molars with greater crown height and more plates than in late Miocene confamilials, bringing their morphology more in phase with feeding behavior than was the case in their earlier relatives. Variation in feeding preferences among Kanapoi proboscideans corresponds to evidence for habitat heterogeny, including inferred substantial presence of grasses; the occurrence of multiple megaherbivores may have contributed to the fragmentation of ecosystems, positively affecting early hominin success and aiding diversification of other ungulate groups.
       
  • Paleoecological implications of dental mesowear and hypsodonty in fossil
           ungulates from Kanapoi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Journal of Human EvolutionAuthor(s): Laurence Dumouchel, René BobeAbstractThe Pliocene site of Kanapoi is key to our understanding of the environmental context of the earliest species of Australopithecus. Various approaches have been used to reconstruct the environments of this site, and here we contribute new data and analyses using mesowear and hypsodonty. The dental traits of 98 bovids, suids and rhinocerotids from Kanapoi were analyzed using these proxies. Results indicate that most of the animals analyzed had a relatively abrasive diet. Bovids in the assemblage incorporated more grass into their diet than do modern species of the same tribe or genus. Although Pliocene Kanapoi likely had complex environments, our analysis indicates that grassy habitats were a dominant component of the ecosystem, a conclusion that supports the results of previous investigations of the paleoecology of the site.
       
  • Revisiting the pedogenic carbonate isotopes and paleoenvironmental
           interpretation of Kanapoi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: Journal of Human EvolutionAuthor(s): Rhonda L. Quinn, Christopher J. LepreAbstractReconstructed habitats of Australopithecus anamensis at Kanapoi by Wynn (2000) yielded evidence for both wooded and grassy environments. Wynn's study was based on stable isotopic (δ13CPC, δ18OPC) analyses of a small sample of pedogenic nodules (n = 14) collected from paleosols spanning Kanapoi's stratigraphic interval. Whether this small sample size adequately characterized Kanapoi's vegetation or was the result of time averaging remains unclear. To address this uncertainty, we sampled Kanapoi paleosols at 39 locations (78 analyses) from laterally extensive units. Our data demonstrate that Kanapoi offered A. anamensis diverse habitats distributed in temporally discrete stratigraphic horizons. Habitat heterogeneity appears to have been a real aspect of Kanapoi paleoenvironments and not an artifact of Wynn's (2000) small sample size or time averaging. We suggest habitat heterogeneity was influenced by the location of Kanapoi at the confluence of fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine depositional environments. We also compared Kanapoi's δ13CPC and δ18OPC values to those of other Pliocene hominin localities in eastern Africa dated to 4.5–3.7 Ma. Kanapoi's δ18OPC values are significantly higher than most sites, potentially reflecting regional variability in water source δ18O values and/or more arid climatic conditions. Kanapoi's δ13CPC values indicate significantly more woody cover than at all other sites except those in the Turkana Basin. Kanapoi provided A. anamensis with a wide range of C3–C4 resources as the C4 biome spread across eastern Africa. [Wynn, J.G., 2000. Paleosols, stable carbon isotopes and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Kanapoi, Northern Kenya. J. Hum. Evol. 39, 411–432.]
       
  • Squamate reptiles from Kanapoi: Faunal evidence for hominin
           paleoenvironments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2018Source: Journal of Human EvolutionAuthor(s): Jason J. Head, Johannes MüllerAbstractThe squamate fossil record from Kanapoi reveals generic to higher-order similarities with modern East African herpetofaunas. The record is derived from surface collection and screen washing, and consists primarily of isolated vertebrae with a few maxillary and mandibular elements. The most abundant remains are vertebrae of large-bodied Python that are morphologically similar to extant Python sebae, and vertebrae of Varanus cf. (Varanus niloticus + Varanus exanthematicus). Additional cranial and vertebral remains indicate the presence of lygosomine skinks, indeterminate Varanus, Viperidae, cf. Atractaspididae, and multiple colubrine morphotypes in the Kanapoi ecosystem. Despite similarities with modern herpetofaunas, the Kanapoi record lacks taxa common to other East African records, including agamids, chamaeleonids, amphisbaenians, the elapid Naja, and typhlopids. The overall composition of the Kanapoi squamate record is consistent with paleoenvironments similar to modern shrub savanna habitats. There are no indicators of canopied forest environments in squamate faunal composition. The fossil record of Kanapoi suggests that assembly of squamate faunas of modern East Africa was well underway by the late Neogene.
       
  • Pliocene bats (Chiroptera) from Kanapoi, Turkana Basin, Kenya
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018Source: Journal of Human EvolutionAuthor(s): Gregg F. Gunnell, Fredrick K. ManthiAbstractFossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence.
       
  • Kanapoi revisited: Paleoecological and biogeographical inferences from the
           fossil fish
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018Source: Journal of Human EvolutionAuthor(s): Kathlyn M. Stewart, Scott J. RufoloAbstractFish fossils were recovered from three different depositional contexts at the Pliocene Kanapoi site to: 1) test the assumption that habitat and ecology of modern fish taxa can predict habitat and ecology of fossil taxa; 2) reconstruct the lake and river environments in the Kanapoi Formation, with reference to fish fossils from the nearby Lothagam site deposits; and 3) investigate biogeographical inferences from the fossils. We compare the Kanapoi fish taxa and their depositional environments with the taxa and environments in modern Lake Turkana, and with another Plio-Pleistocene fauna from the eastern Turkana Basin. Taphonomic caveats are discussed. Our results support the use of ecological preferences of modern fish to predict past preferences. Our analysis of the Kanapoi fossils also indicates that the Pliocene Lonyumun Lake had a diverse fauna, with an unusual mix of taxa compared to the modern lake. The presence of possibly endemic species in the Pliocene lake may additionally represent a period of isolation during this epoch. Few fish fossils were recovered in the deposits of the ancestral Kerio River, a primary affluent of Lonyumun Lake then as now, but those present indicate a different ecology than that interpreted for the modern lake. Previously unknown fish taxa which enter the lake during the Pliocene suggest the existence of a connection between the Nile River and the Turkana Basin, which may have been viable for other vertebrates, including hominins.
       
  • The costal skeleton of the Regourdou 1 Neandertal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018Source: Journal of Human EvolutionAuthor(s): Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Trenton Holliday, Stéphane Madelaine, Christine Couture-Veschambre, Bruno MaureilleAbstractThe morphology and size of the Neandertal thorax is a subject of growing interest due to its link to general aspects of body size and shape, including physiological aspects related to bioenergetics and activity budgets. However, the number of well-preserved adult Neandertal costal remains is still low. The recent finding of new additional costal remains from the Regourdou 1 (R1) skeleton has rendered this skeleton as one of the most complete Neandertal costal skeletons with a minimum of 18 ribs represented, five of which are complete or virtually complete. Here we describe for the first time all the rib remains from R1 and compare them to a large modern Euroamerican male sample as well as to other published Neandertal individuals. The costal skeleton of this individual shows significant metric and morphological differences from our modern human male comparative sample. The perceived differences include: dorsoventrally large 1st and 2nd ribs, 3rd ribs with a very closed dorsal curvature and large maximum diameters at the posterior angle, a large tubercle-iliocostal line distance in the 4th rib, thick shafts at the dorsal end of its 6th ribs, thick mid-shafts of the 8th ribs, large articular tubercles at the 9th ribs, and thick shafts of the 11th and 12th ribs. Here we also describe a new mesosternal fragment: the left lateral half of sternebral segments 4 and 5. This portion reveals that the mesosternum of R1 had a sternal foramen in its inferiormost preserved sternal segment and supports previous estimation of the total length of this mesosternum.The new costal remains from R1 support the view that Neandertals, when compared with modern humans, show a significantly different thorax, consistent with differences found in other anatomical regions such as the vertebral column and pelvis.
       
 
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