Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3492 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (267 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (143 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1675 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (50 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (271 journals)
    - BOTANY (254 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (76 journals)
    - GENETICS (171 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (292 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (12 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (29 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (147 journals)

BIOLOGY (1675 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 801 - 1000 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Phytopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Phytoremediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Plant Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Signs and Semiotic Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Systems Biology and Biomedical Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Tryptophan Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Multidisciplinary Research Journal     Open Access  
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Review of Hydrobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intervirology     Full-text available via subscription  
IntraVital     Full-text available via subscription  
Invertebrate Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Invertebrate Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Invertebrate Systematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
iScience     Open Access  
Islets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Incontri di Studio     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Mycology     Open Access  
ITBM-RBM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IUBMB Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IUFS Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jahangirnagar University Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
JCI Insight     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JDREAM : Journal of interDisciplinary REsearch Applied to Medicine     Open Access  
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
JKI Datenblätter : Pflanzenkrankheiten und Diagnose     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jornal Interdisciplinar de Biociências     Open Access  
Journal Biastatistics : Biomedics, Industry & Business And Social Statistics     Open Access  
Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability     Open Access  
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computer Science & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Anatomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Bioinformatics & Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Applied Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Arachnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity     Open Access  
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bio-Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bio-X Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Biocommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Intelligent Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Sequence Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biological Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biological Methods     Open Access  
Journal of Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Research - Thessaloniki     Open Access  
Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biological Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology and Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Biomedical Informatics : X     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B : Applied Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Bioresource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Biorheology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity     Open Access  
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biosocial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bryology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cell Death     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cellular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chromatography B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Crustacean Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environment and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Environment and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Analysis and Progress     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Life Science     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Fish Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Functional Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fungi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Green Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Hymenoptera Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ichthyology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Insect Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated OMICS     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Life Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access  
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Melittology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.033
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-6881 - ISSN (Online) 0145-479X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • The synergistic effect of mefenamic acid with ionizing radiation in colon
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite radiotherapy is an effective regimen in cancer treatment, resistance to tumor therapy still is a major challenge to radiotherapy and results in cancer recurrence and metastasis. Then the sensitization of tumor cells to ionizing radiation (IR) would be beneficial in cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of mefenamic acid (MEF) on colon cancer cell (HT-29) exposure to IR. HT-29 cells were treated with MEF and then exposed to IR. The synergistic effect of MEF is evaluated by clonogenic assay and flow cytometry. The productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined in irradiated and treated cells with MEF. The findings of this study showed that MEF had anti-cancer effect on colon cancer cell line and it increased the apoptosis in irradiated HT-29 cells. Also MEF reduced the number of cell colonies when HT-29 cells pre-treated with MEF and irradiated. MEF increased ROS production in irradiated cells. This additive effect of MEF with IR in killing of HT-29 cell was observed at low (10 μM) and medium (100 μM) concentrations of MEF. The present study demonstrates that MEF to be an additive effect on apoptosis and cell death induced by IR in colon cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
  • Ropivacaine inhibits tumor angiogenesis via sodium-channel-independent
           mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress
    • Abstract: Abstract The anti-cancer role of local anesthetics has garnered attention in recent years because increasing evidence show that local anesthetics reduce the risk of tumor metastasis and recurrence. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is fundamental for tumor growth and metastasis. The role of local anesthetics on tumor angiogenesis still remains unknown. Using human lung tumor-associated endothelial cell (HLT-EC) and angiogenesis models, our work shows that ropivacaine at the clinically relevant concentration is active against multiple biological functions of HLT-EC but not lung tumor cells. Ropivacaine inhibits HLT-EC capillary network formation, growth and survival. The anti-angiogenic activity of ropivacaine is further confirmed in in vivo angiogenesis mouse model. Mechanistically, we show that ropivacaine inhibits HLT-EC mitochondrial respiration via specifically targeting mitochondrial respiratory complex II. As a consequence of mitochondrial respiration inhibition, we observe the energy depletion, oxidative stress and damage in HLT-EC after ropivacaine exposure. Additionally, an antioxidant agent completely reverses the inhibitory effects of ropivacaine, suggesting that oxidative stress is required for the action of ropivacaine in HLT-EC. Interestingly, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by ropivacaine is sodium channel-independent. Our work demonstrates the potent inhibitory effects of ropivacaine in lung tumor angiogenesis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings provide significant insight into the potential mechanisms by which local anaesthetics may negatively affect tumor reoccurrence and metastasis.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
  • 3D structure prediction of VAPC1 and identification of dual natural
           inhibitors for VPAC1 and EGFR
    • Abstract: Abstract Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1 (VPAC1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are associated with signal transduction pathways relevant to neuroblastoma, cancer of breast, prostate and lungs. In order to identify appropriate ligand analogues for simultaneous inhibition of EGFR and VPAC1, in-silico homology modelling of VPAC1 and its characterization by molecular interaction studies have been undertaken. Homology modelling was performed with the Swiss Model and validation of the predicted 3D structure was carried out using PROCHECK and RAMPAGE. Ramachandran’s plot of the predicted structure from this two software revealed that 92% and 94% of the residues were in the most favoured region, respectively. Compounds screened from Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-Cancerous Compound-Activity-Target (NPACT) database having strong interactions with EGFR were further checked for ADMET properties. Molecular interaction studies revealed four compounds namely Fisetin, Genistein, Tectorigenin, and Tephrosin docked with VPAC1 having respective binding energies of −7.1, −6.98, −6.9 and − 6.61 kcal/mol. Fisetin and Genistein with a rotatable bond and lower molecular weight increased their drug-likeness than the others. Therefore, simultaneous inhibition of VPAC1 and EGFR, in turn, might inhibit the progression of breast carcinoma. The results obtained were further substantiated by comparing them with positive and negative controls. Quercetin was used as positive control, and strong binding energy of −7.54 kcal/mol with EGFR is in accordance with experimental evidence. 3-O-cis-p coumaroyl alphitolic acid was used as negative control, where docking was not possible in absence of binding with either EGFR or VIPR1.
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
  • Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP4 and UCP5 from the Pacific white
           shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Abstract: Abstract Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) transport protons from the intermembrane space to the mitochondrial matrix uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. In mammals, these proteins have been implicated in several cellular functions ranging from thermoregulation to antioxidant defense. In contrast, their invertebrate homologs have been much less studied despite the great diversity of species. In this study, two transcripts encoding mitochondrial uncoupling proteins were, for the first time, characterized in crustaceans. The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei transcript LvUCP4 is expressed in all tested shrimp tissues/organs, and its cDNA includes a coding region of 954 bp long which encodes a deduced protein 318 residues long and a predicted molecular weight of 35.3 kDa. The coding region of LvUCP5 transcript is 906 bp long, encodes a protein of 302 residues with a calculated molecular weight of 33.17 kDa. Both proteins share homology with insect UCPs, their predicted structures show the conserved motifs of the mitochondrial carrier proteins and were confirmed to be located in the mitochondria through a Western blot analysis. The genic expression of LvUCP4 and LvUCP5 was evaluated in shrimp at oxidative stress conditions and results were compared to some antioxidant enzymes to infer about their antioxidant role. LvUCP4 and LvUCP5 genes expression did not change during hypoxia/re-oxygenation, and no coordinated responses were detected with antioxidant enzymes at the transcriptional level. Results confirmed UCPs as the first uncoupling mechanism reported in this species, but their role in the oxidative stress response remains to be confirmed.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
  • Carbonic anhydrase-IX inhibition enhances the efficacy of hexokinase II
           inhibitor for hepatocellular carcinoma in a murine model
    • Abstract: Abstract Hypoxic conditions, which large or infiltrative hypovascular tumors may encounter, also produce acidic environments. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX), an enzyme involved in lowering pH, is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, whether inhibition of CA-IX enhances the efficacy of a hexokinase II inhibitor in an in vivo murine model was examined and its prognostic implication in HCC patients was investigated. CA-IX expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis using human HCC cell lines. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP), a hexokinase II inhibitor, and acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, were used to target hexokinase II and CA-IX in vitro and in vivo, respectively. A human HCC cell line (Huh-7) was tested as a subcutaneous tumor model in BALB/c nu/nu mice. The prognostic role of CA-IX was evaluated in the TCGA database. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis revealed that CA-IX expression was activated in the presence of 3-BP. Further analysis showed that introducing an additional stress by treating the orally active CA-IX inhibitor (acetazolamide) can synergistically increase the efficacy of 3-BP in vivo, which was confirmed using a mouse model. We also found that HCC patients with high CA-IX expression show poor overall survival in TCGA database. These results indicate CA-IX is a promising therapeutic target for enhancing the efficacy of 3-BP and can be a prognostic factor for HCC.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • Phytosterol containing diet increases plasma and whole body concentration
           of phytosterols in apoE-KO but not in LDLR-KO mice
    • Abstract: Abstract Phytosterol metabolism is unknown in the hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin. We investigated the metabolism of phytosterols in a cholesterol-free, phytosterol-containing standard diet in hypercholesterolemic mice knockouts for low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) mice compared to wild-type mice (controls). Phytosterols were measured in mice tissues by GCMS. ApoE-KO mice absorbed less phytosterols than LDLR-KO and the latter absorbed less phytosterols than control mice, because the intestinal campesterol content was low in both KO mice, and sitosterol was low in the intestine in apoE-KO mice as compared to LDLR-KO mice. Although the diet contained nine times more sitosterol than campesterol, the concentration of sitosterol was lower than that of campesterol in plasma in LDLR-KO, and in the liver in controls and in LDLR-KO, but only in apoE-KO. On the other hand, in the intestine sitosterol was higher than campesterol in controls, and in LDLR-KO but with a tendency only in apoE-KO. Because of the high dietary supply of sitosterol, sitosterol was better taken up by the intestine than campesterol, but the amount of sitosterol was lower than that of campesterol in the liver, while in the whole body the amounts of these phytosterols do not differ from each other. Therefore, via intestinal lymph less sitosterol than campesterol was transferred to the body. However, as compared to controls, in apoE-KO mice, but not in LDLR-KO mice, the increase in campesterol and sitosterol in plasma and in the whole body indicating that apoE-KO mice have a marked defect in the elimination of both phytosterols from the body.
      PubDate: 2019-02-09
  • Introduction to the special issue of the journal of bioenergetics and
           biomembranes: neural plasticity in developing and adult olfactory pathways
    • PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Neural plasticity in developing and adult olfactory pathways – focus on
           the human olfactory bulb
    • Abstract: Abstract The topic of human adult neural plasticity and neurogenesis is of great interest for medical and scientific community, but it is also largely debated. In the last years, an increasing interest has been paid to the olfactory system, and particularly to the plasticity of the olfactory bulb (OB). While the molecular/cellular mechanisms underlying OB plasticity remain a matter of debate, measurements of the OB using magnetic resonance imaging clearly indicate that it is a highly plastic structure. In this review, we present results regarding the plasticity of the human adult olfactory system.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Forever young: Neoteny, neurogenesis and a critique of critical periods in
    • Abstract: Abstract The critical period concept has been one of the most transcendent in science, education, and society forming the basis of our fixation on ‘quality’ of childhood experiences. The neural basis of this process has been revealed in developmental studies of visual, auditory and somatosensory maps and their enduring modification through manipulations of experience early in life. Olfaction, too, possesses a number of phenomena that share key characteristics with classical critical periods like sensitive temporal windows and experience dependence. In this review, we analyze the candidate critical period-like phenomena in olfaction and find them disanalogous to classical critical periods in other sensory systems in several important ways. This leads us to speculate as to why olfaction may be alone among exteroceptive systems in lacking classical critical periods and how life-long neurogenesis of olfactory sensory neurons and bulbar interneurons—a neotenic vestige-- relates to the structure and function of the mammalian olfactory system.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Deafferentation-induced alterations in mitral cell dendritic morphology in
           the adult zebrafish olfactory bulb
    • Abstract: Abstract The removal of afferent input to the olfactory bulb by both cautery and chemical olfactory organ ablation in adult zebrafish results in a significant decrease in volume of the ipsilateral olfactory bulb. To examine the effects of deafferentation at a cellular level, primary output neurons of the olfactory bulb, the mitral cells, were investigated using retrograde tract tracing with fluorescent dextran using ex vivo brain cultures. Morphological characteristics including the number of major dendritic branches, total length of dendritic branches, area of the dendritic arbor, overall dendritic complexity, and optical density of the arbor were used to determine the effects of deafferentation on mitral cell dendrites. Following 8 weeks of permanent deafferentation there were significant reductions in the total length of dendritic branches, the area of the dendritic arbor, and the density of fine processes in the dendritic tuft. With 8 weeks of chronic, partial deafferentation there were significant reductions in all parameters examined, including a modified Sholl analysis that showed significant decreases in overall dendritic complexity. These results show the plasticity of mitral cell dendritic structures in the adult brain and provide information about the response of these output neurons following the loss of sensory input in this key model system.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Loss of odor-induced c-Fos expression of juxtaglomerular activity
           following maintenance of mice on fatty diets
    • Abstract: Abstract Diet-induced obesity (DIO) decreases the number of OMP+ olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) in the olfactory epithelium by 25% and reduces correlate axonal projections to the olfactory bulb (OB). Whether surviving OSNs have equivalent odor responsivity is largely unknown. Herein, we utilized c-fos immediate-early gene expression to map neuronal activity and determine whether mice weaned to control (CF), moderately-high fat (MHF), or high-fat (HF) diet for a period of 6 months had changes in odor activation. Diet-challenged M72-IRES-tau-GFP mice were exposed to either a preferred M72 (Olfr160) ligand, isopropyl tiglate, or clean air in a custom-made Bell-jar infusion chamber using an alternating odor exposure pattern generated by a picosprizer™. Mice maintained on fatty diets weighed significantly more and cleared glucose less efficiently as determined by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). The number of juxtaglomerular cells (JGs) decreased following maintenance of the mice on the MHF diet for cells surrounding the medial but not lateral M72 glomerulus within a 4 cell-column distance. The percentage of c-fos + JGs surrounding the lateral M72 glomerulus decreased in fat-challenged mice whereas those surrounding the medial glomerulus were not affected by diet. Altogether, these results show an asymmetry in the responsiveness of the ‘mirror image’ glomerular map for the M72 receptor that shows greater sensitivity of the lateral vs. medial glomerulus upon exposure to fatty diet.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Strength in diversity: functional diversity among olfactory neurons of the
           same type
    • Abstract: Abstract Most animals depend upon olfaction to find food, mates, and to avoid predators. An animal’s olfactory circuit helps it sense its olfactory environment and generate critical behavioral responses. The general architecture of the olfactory circuit, which is conserved across species, is made up of a few different neuronal types including first-order receptor neurons, second- and third-order neurons, and local interneurons. Each neuronal type differs in their morphology, physiology, and neurochemistry. However, several recent studies have suggested that there is intrinsic diversity even among neurons of the same type and that this diversity is important for neural function. In this review, we first examine instances of intrinsic diversity observed among individual types of olfactory neurons. Next, we review potential genetic and experience-based plasticity mechanisms that underlie this diversity. Finally, we consider the implications of intrinsic neuronal diversity for circuit function. Overall, we hope to highlight the importance of intrinsic diversity as a previously underestimated property of circuit function.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Aversive learning-induced plasticity throughout the adult mammalian
           olfactory system: insights across development
    • Abstract: Abstract Experiences, such as sensory learning, are known to induce plasticity in mammalian sensory systems. In recent years aversive olfactory learning-induced plasticity has been identified at all stages of the adult olfactory pathway; however, the underlying mechanisms have yet to be identified. Much of the work regarding mechanisms of olfactory associative learning comes from neonates, a time point before which the brain or olfactory system is fully developed. In addition, pups and adults often express different behavioral outcomes when subjected to the same olfactory aversive conditioning paradigm, making it difficult to directly attribute pup mechanisms of plasticity to adults. Despite the differences, there is evidence of similarities between pups and adults in terms of learning-induced changes in the olfactory system, suggesting at least some conserved mechanisms. Identifying these conserved mechanisms of plasticity would dramatically increase our understanding of how the brain is able to alter encoding and consolidation of salient olfactory information even at the earliest stages following aversive learning. The focus of this review is to systematically examine literature regarding olfactory associative learning across developmental stages and search for similarities in order to build testable hypotheses that will inform future studies of aversive learning-induced sensory plasticity in adults.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Low survival rate of young adult-born olfactory sensory neurons in the
           undamaged mouse olfactory epithelium
    • Abstract: Abstract Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are generated throughout life from progenitor cells in the olfactory epithelium. OSN axons project in an odorant receptor-specific manner to the olfactory bulb (OB), forming an ordered array of glomeruli where they provide sensory input to OB neurons. The tetracycline transactivator (tTA) system permits developmental stage-specific expression of reporter genes in OSNs and has been widely used for structural and functional studies of the development and plasticity of the mouse olfactory system. However, the cellular ages at which OSNs stop expressing reporters driven by the immature OSN-specific Gγ8-tTA driver line and begin to express reporters driven by the mature OSN-specific OMP-tTA driver line have not been directly determined. We pulse-labeled terminally dividing cells in the olfactory epithelium of 28-day-old (P28) mice with EdU and analyzed EdU labeling in OSNs expressing fluorescent reporter proteins under control of either the Gγ8-tTA or OMP-tTA driver line 5–14 days later. Expression of OMP-tTA-driven reporters began in 6-day-old OSNs, while the vast majority of newborn OSNs did not express Gγ8-tTA-driven fluorescent proteins beyond 8 days of cellular age. Surprisingly, we also found a low survival rate for P28-born OSNs, very few of which survived for more than 14 days. We propose that OSN survival requires the formation of stable synaptic connections and hence may be dependent on organismal age.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Hydrophobicity, rather than secondary structure, is essential for the SRP
           dependent targeting of GPR35 to the ER membrane
    • Abstract: Abstract The folding and targeting of hydrophobic transmembrane domains poses a major challenge to the cell. Several membrane proteins have been shown to gain some degree of secondary structure within the ribosome tunnel and to retain this conformation throughout maturation. However, there is little information on one of the largest classes of eukaryotic membrane proteins; the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this study we show that the signal anchor domain of GPR35 remains in an extended conformation whilst exiting the ribosome tunnel, the polypeptide chain then forms interactions with components of the SRP targeting pathway, and the Sec61 translocon, resulting in a compacted conformation prior to integration into the ER membrane. We conclude that transmembrane structure is most likely adopted after the domain leaves the ribosome tunnel and that the interaction of the signal anchor with SRP is dependent on the native levels of hydrophobicity within the first transmembrane domain. Therefore, we propose a mechanism by which the first transmembrane domains of multi-spanning membrane proteins adopt compacted structures following SRP targeting but before insertion into the ER membrane.
      PubDate: 2019-01-31
  • Polymorphisms in plastoquinol oxidase (PTOX) from Arabidopsis accessions
           indicate SNP-induced structural variants associated with altitude and
    • Abstract: Abstract Plant plastoquinol oxidase (PTOX) is a chloroplast oxidoreductase involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, chlororespiration, and response to environmental stresses. The present study aimed to gain insight of the potential role of nucleotide/amino acid changes linked to environmental adaptation in PTOX gene/protein from Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. SNPs in the single-copy PTOX gene were identified in 1190 accessions of Arabidopsis using the Columbia-0 PTOX as a reference. The identified SNPs were correlated with geographical distribution of the accessions according to altitude, climate, and rainfall. Among the 32 identified SNPs in the coding region of the PTOX gene, 16 of these were characterized as non-synonymous SNPs (in which an AA is altered). A higher incidence of AA changes occurred in the mature protein at positions 78 (31%), 81 (31.4%), and 323 (49.9%). Three-dimensional structure prediction indicated that the AA change at position 323 (D323N) leads to a PTOX structure with the most favorable interaction with the substrate plastoquinol, when compared with the reference PTOX structure (Columbia-0). Molecular docking analysis suggested that the most favorable D323N PTOX-plastoquinol interaction is due to a better enzyme-substrate binding affinity. The molecular dynamics revealed that plastoquinol should be more stable in complex with D323N PTOX, likely due a restraint mechanism in this structure that stabilize plastoquinol inside of the reaction center. The integrated analysis made from accession geographical distribution and PTOX SNPs indicated that AA changes in PTOX are related to altitude and rainfall, potentially due to an adaptive positive environmental selection.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
  • Post-stroke fatigue as an indicator of underlying bioenergetics
    • Abstract: Abstract Approximately half of stroke survivors suffer from clinically significant fatigue, contributing to poor quality of life, depression, dependency, and increased mortality. The etiology of post-stroke fatigue is not well understood and treatment is limited. This study tested the hypothesis that systemic aerobic energy metabolism, as reflected by platelet oxygen consumption, is negatively associated with fatigue and systemic inflammation is positively associated with fatigue in chronic ischemic stroke survivors. Data on self-reported level of fatigue, platelet oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and plasma inflammatory markers were analyzed from 20 ischemic stroke survivors. DNA copy number for two mitochondrial genes was measured as a marker of platelet mitochondrial content. Basal and protonophore-stimulated maximal platelet OCR showed a biphasic relationship to fatigue. Platelet OCR was negatively associated with low to moderate fatigue but was positively associated with moderate to high fatigue. DNA copy number was not associated with either fatigue or platelet OCR. Fatigue was negatively associated with C-reactive protein but not with other inflammatory markers. Post-stroke fatigue may be indicative of a systemic cellular energy dysfunction that is reflected in platelet energy metabolism. The biphasic relationship of fatigue to platelet OCR may indicate an ineffective bioenergetic compensatory response that has been observed in other pathological states.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
  • An integrated molecular modeling approach for the tryptase
           monomer–curcuminoid recognition analysis: conformational and
           bioenergetic features
    • Abstract: Abstract Human mast cell tryptase has been shown as an activating enzyme in matrix degradation process. The previous study suggest that tryptase either alone or in joining with activation of metalloproteinases, can associate in extra cellular matrix damage and the possible destruction of the basement membrane resulting in photoaging. Therefore the inhibition of tryptase activity is one of the most important therapeutic strategies against the photoaging. Curcumin has been shown to be a potential agent for preventing and/or treating the photoaging induced by UV radiation. However, the protective effect of curcumin against the photoaging through the tryptase inhibition is still inadequately understood. In this work, computational methods to characterize the structural framework and define the atomistic details of the determinants for the tryptase inhibition mechanism by curcuminoids were performed. By molecular docking, three putative binding models able to efficiently bind all curcuminoids were identified. Analysis of molecular dynamics simulations revealed that cyclocurcumin, curcumin glucuronide, and curcumin, the most effective inhibitors from the three models, modified significant tryptase monomer rigidity by binding in all the possible sites. The result of these binding events is the suppression of the functional enzymatic motions involving the binding of substrates to the catalytic site. On the basis of this finding may thus be beneficial for the development of new natural inhibitors for the therapeutic remedy of photoaging, targeting and modulating the activity of tryptase.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
    • PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Pioglitazone provides beneficial effect in metabolic syndrome rats via
           affecting intracellular Na + Dyshomeostasis
    • Abstract: Abstract Metabolic syndrome, is associated impaired blood glucose level, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia caused by abdominal obesity. Also, it is related with cardiovascular risk accumulation and cardiomyopathy. The hypothesis of this study was to examine the effect of thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone on intracellular Na+ homeostasis in heart of metabolic syndrome male rats. Abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance had measured as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) at rest and [Na+]i during pacing with electrical field stimulation were determined in freshly isolated cardiomyocytes. Also, TTX-sensitive Na+- channel current (INa) density and I-V characteristics of these channels were measured to understand [Na+]i homeostasis. We determined the protein levels of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and Na+-K+ pump to understand the relation between [Na+]i homeostasis. High sucrose intake significantly increased body mass and blood glucose level of the rats in the metabolic syndrome group as compared with control group. There was a decrease in INa density and there were differences in points on activation curve of INa. Basal [Na+]i in metabolic syndrome group significantly increased but there was a significantly decrease in [Na+]i in stimulated cardiomyocytes in metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, pioglitazone induced decreases in the basal [Na+]i and preserved the decrease in INa and [Na+]i in stimulated cardiomyocytes to those of controls. Histologically, metabolic syndrome affected heart and associated tissues together with many other organs. Results of the present study suggest that pioglitazone has significant beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome associated disturbances in the heart via effecting Na+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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