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Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2708-0463
Published by QScience Homepage  [13 journals]
  • تقييم فاعلية المُخثّرات الطبيعية في
           معالجة مياه الصرف الصحّي المُتأتية من
           مصانع النسيج: دراسة نجاعة التقنية عبر
           التحاليل الفيزيوكيميائية والسُّميّة
           الخلوية

    • Authors: أميرة الوسلاتي; نصرة المثناني الهادي بن منصور
      Abstract: The textile sector is a cornerstone of the Tunisian economy. However, this sector consumes significant volumes of fresh water and a wide variety of chemicals. Accordingly, derived wastewater is causing environmental disturbance. The objective of this study is to search for contaminants present in the finishing wastewater obtained from three textile industries and to investigate their environmental impact. The physicochemical analysis (COD, BOD, TSS, etc.) revealed a high pollutant load within the effluents collected from the three textile industries under investigation. Likewise, chromatographic analysis by UPLC-MS/MS revealed the presence of triphenylmethane (crystal violet) in one sample. The presence of micropollutants in textile wastewater could induce harmful effects on environmental flora and fauna. In this context, an ecotoxicological evaluation, in vitro bioassays (the comet test), was carried out. Results didn’t show any biologically relevant effects for all tested samples. The results also revealed that the coagulation-flocculation treatment process adopted by the textile industries is unable to reduce the pollutant load. For this reason, we have sought to use natural coagulants prepared from cactus Opuntia ficus indica and eggplant Solanum melongena. The results showed that the treatment using these two biocoagulants was effective in reducing the pollutant load and the genotoxicity of the effluents. The best results of coagulation-floculation were obtained with the concentration of 0.8 g/L for all natural coagulants. After comparing the results, we noticed that cactus powder had a significant effect on reducing the concentrations of pollution indicators, different values ranged between BOD (63-119 mg/l), COD (97-204 mg/l) and TSS (14-64 mg/l). Moreover, it showed the highest percentages and the best in removing colorants (89.78% - 92.87%).
      PubDate: 2024-04-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • تقييم كفاءة مخلفات أوراق الشاي الأحمر في
           امتزاز صبغة الميثيلين الأزرق من
           النفايات السائلة: دراسة تجريبية لعوامل
           الأيزوثيرم والحركية والديناميكية
           الحرارية

    • Authors: عبدالفتاح محمد الخراز; خالد مفتاح الشريف, عائشة حسين مادري محمد سليمان ساسي
      Abstract: This research aimed to study the efficiency of adsorbent materials prepared from red tea leaves residues in the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye from an aqueous solution. Two surfaces were prepared from tea leaves residues; namely, the dry powder DM and the charcoal powder CM. The effect of contact time, adsorbent amount, pH, and initial concentration on the adsorption process were evaluated. The experimental results were also compared with some theoretical models of isotherms, thermodynamics, and kinetics of adsorption processes. The results showed that the highest adsorption capacity was for the dry powder (11.50 mg/g) at pH 7.0, while it was for the charcoal (10.60 mg/g) at pH 10.0. The results also showed that the dye removal process was very fast for both surfaces, where the equilibrium state was reached within 10-15 minutes. It was found that the pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich model fit well with the experimental results, while the Langmuir model for isotherms was not suitable for the dry surface. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption process was endothermic and temperature-dependent, where the values of entropy change (ΔSo) were positive for both surfaces, while the free energy change (ΔGo) was negative for the dry surface and positive for the charcoal surface and low at standard conditions, indicating a slight increase in randomness and spontaneity of the process at high temperatures. This research shows that red tea leaves residues can be used as effective and cheap adsorbent materials for removing dyes from polluted water.
      PubDate: 2024-04-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • دراسة الرش الورقي بالبوتاسيوم
           والكالسيوم في معايير الإنتاج والجودة
           لشجرة التفاح ومحتوى أوراقها من العناصر

    • Authors: ماهر ياسين حسن; سلاف أدهم الجرماني
      Abstract: This research was carried out in Hawsh Arab, Rankous district of Al-Tal district, Rural Damascus governorate (Syria) during the seasons of 2021 and 2022. The apple tree is one of the important trees globally, and to increase the efficiency of its growth and production, several mineral nutrition factors are studied according to the role of the element in plant physiology. The aim of the research was to study the effect of foliar spraying with mineral elements (potassium, calcium) on the production and quality of apple fruits. The research included two variables, the type and concentration of the calcium compound (0, 1, 3, 5 gram/liter), and potassium (0, 3 gram/liter). The experiment was designed according to a randomized complete block design. Spraying with mineral elements stimulated the growth of the apple tree, increased its production, and improved the quality of its fruits. The values of the indicators of the study increased significantly as a result of potassium spraying. The apple tree yielded 79.15 kg/tree compared to the control 71.35 kg/tree. All studied parameters also increased with increasing calcium concentration up to 3 gram/liter, where the soluble solids value of apple fruits reached 11.79%, 12.12%, 11.20% compared to the control 10.74%. As for the interaction of the treatments, the treatment with 3gram/liter potassium x 3gram/liter calcium was the highest significantly compared to all other treatments. The magnesium content of the leaves reached 0.52 milligram/gram compared to the control 0.33 milligram /gram. It is recommended to spray foliarly with calcium at a concentration of 3gram/liter, in addition to potassium, in order to increase the efficiency of apple trees production and improve the quality of the fruits.
      PubDate: 2024-04-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • تأثير حامض آندول البيوتريك (IBA) والصنف في
           تجذير العقل المتخشبة لشجيرات العنب
           اليمني (Vitis vinifera L) تحت جو المشتل

    • Authors: أحمد محمد عيد; عبدالله حمود عبدالله الحاج, إبراهيم محمد فارع طلال العسالي
      Abstract: Yemeni grapes are among the most delectable grape varieties. They are consumed as table grapes or as raisins of superior flavor and quality. Despite the economic significance of this grape, little research has been conducted on its vegetative propagation. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of indole butyric acid (IBA) and the cultivar on the rooting of hardwood cuttings of Yemeni grapes in Sana'a's Organic Yemen nurseries. The hardwood cuttings of the three studied grape cultivars (Al-Asmi (B1), Al-Razqi (B2), and Al-Aswad (B3) were collected at the end of winter and the end of the trees' dormant phase and then transferred to the nursery for further treatments. Half were left untreated (A1), while the other half were treated with IBA at a concentration of 1000 mg/L (A2), and all cuttings were planted in the same rooting medium. The research consisted of two factors and was designed as a factorial experiment in accordance with a completely randomized design (CRD). In addition to the percentage of rooting after 58 days of planting, the set of root and vegetative growth characteristics was investigated. The results revealed that the cultivar factor recorded significant differences for the studied traits, i.e. the percentage of cuttings with callus%, the percentage of rooting%, the number of roots/cuttings, the root length (cm), and the root diameter (mm), whereas the treatment with the hormone (A2) recorded a higher value (33.88%) with a significant difference over the control (A1) (9.52%) in the characteristic of the percentage of cuttings that formed a callus, as well as in contrast, the Al-Aswad CV recorded in both treatments A1 and A2 the highest values (46.66% and 28.57%) compared to the other two cultivars with respect to the percentage of rooting. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between A1 and A2 and the three cultivars in terms of vegetative growth percentage, number of leaves per cutting, or cutting height (cm). The research demonstrated the efficacy of grape propagation by stem cuttings in the presence or absence of the plant hormone, with the cultivar playing a more significant role than the presence or absence of the hormone.
      PubDate: 2024-04-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • التوصيف الفيزيائي-الكيميائي للدولوميت
           الطّبيعي لإزالة الرّصاص والكادميوم
           بكفاءة من المحاليل المائية

    • Authors: علي سديري; أحمد عطيّة, عماد الشّيهي, شوقي صديق سمير بوعزيز
      Abstract: Physico-chemical characterization of naturally abundant carbonates has been undertaken to evaluate their potentialities in the removal of lead and cadmium ions in aqueous systems. Powdered dolomite samples, collected from the Jebel Rehach location, southern Tunisia, were used in their natural form for the removal of both cadmium and lead in aqueous conditions. The removal experiments were carried out in batch by mixing known amount of dolomite powder with a metal solution (lead or cadmium). The mixture was shaken at 200 rpm under the experimental conditions of pH 6, temperature (25°C), dolomite concentration 3g/L, and cadmium (10 mg/L) and lead (100mg/L) solutions. Shaking time was 60 min. Our results showed that the studied dolomite samples were mainly composed of calcium and magnesium oxides; other impurities were also detected. Adsorption data showed that dolomitic samples of the Triassic Rehach formation (southern Tunisia) removed substantial amounts of lead and cadmium ions in aqueous systems. It was found that lead removal efficiency reached 24.80 and 33.25 mg/g, which is much higher than that of cadmium (1.31 to 1.77 mg/g). It was also observed that more than 95% of the total adsorptive capacity was achieved after 30 min of agitation, but 60 min was used to ensure equilibration time. These results suggested that the Triassic Rehach dolomite, Tunisia, can be effectively used for capturing lead and cadmium ions in aqueous conditions.
      PubDate: 2024-04-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • التقييم الكمي للتعرية المائية بحوض واد
           محاصر بالاعتماد على المعادلة العالمية
           لفقدان التربة: الأطلس الكبير−المغرب

    • Authors: عبد اللطيف السنبري; جواد الهواري الحسين شطار
      Abstract: Water erosion constitutes one of the natural constraints that are difficult to address in the near term. All studies and research conducted by several Moroccan researchers on erosion have confirmed that the natural environment in Morocco is constantly deteriorating, which threatens the future of environmental balances. The aim of this work is to estimate the amount of soil lost in the Mhasser Watershed in the High Central Atlas in Morrocco, by using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) integrated with the Geographic Information System (GIS). The Mhasser watershed covers an area of 214 km2. It is characterized by a varying altitude and the appearance of regressions, a climate characterized by aggressive and violent rainfall, and a variety of rock resistance. The vegetation cover is also characterized by openness. Adding to these factors, the negative human interventions. The results of applying the Universal Soil Loss Equation showed that the basin experienced higher soil losses with varying quantities of soil. The highest rates were in the upstream part of the basin, where they were recorded at more than 20 tons/ha/year, whereas the lowest values were found in the lower part of the basin, at less than 5 tons/ha/year. This difference results from soil erosion due to land use and the slope within the basin, in addition to the nature of the rocks. These results elucidated an urgent need to implement soil conservation strategies in the agricultural areas of this region to reduce soil erosion.
      PubDate: 2023-11-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • تقييم فاعلية أربعة نباتات طبية وعطرية
           كمواد تدخين لمكافحة طفيل الفاروا (Varroa
           

    • Authors: جمال عبده أحمد الشرعبي; محمد محسن الشرحي عصمان ناصر الجلال
      Abstract: The honeybee is an economically important insect, whether for pollinating agricultural crops, or for producing honey, wax, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and bee venom. However, this insect is exposed to various diseases and parasitic pests, whereas the Varroa destructor parasite is considered as one of the most dangerous pests harmful to honeybees in the whole world. As the Varroa parasite has become resistant to chemical treatments, this study aimed to test the efficiency of four plants: Solanum incanum, Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Origanum majorana, and Calotropis Procera as natural fumigants for Varroa control. The study was conducted in Ibb Governorate in Yemen (during the period March 15th to April 25th, 2022) on standard beehives (Langstroth) with colonies of Yemeni bees Apis mellifera jemenitica. Each cell contained 6-7 frames covered with bees. Readings of the natural precipitation of Varroa were taken for all treatments, including the control, before application, after 3 days of installing the Varroa count rules, then after 6 and 9 days respectively, without using any kind of smoking in order to calculate the average natural precipitation of Varroa. Each treatment was made according to the plant material used for smoking through the doors of the hives and readings were taken after 3, 6 and 9 days, respectively. The results showed that the use of the previous plants by smoking to combat Varroa destructor gave good results in the shedding of Varroa mites, as it reached the highest rate of Varroa mites after treatment with S. incanum (T1) with an average of 144 mites. While the lowest precipitation rate was in treatment O. majorana (T3), with an average of 122.33 mites/cell. The results also showed that the rate of shedding of dead Varroa mites after treatment was significant during the first 3 days of the treatments, with the exception of the control, with an overall average of 83.57% mites/treatment. While the lowest numbers of fallen mites were when the reading was taken after 6 days of treatment, with an overall average of 66.57% mites/treatment. In addition, it was noticed a decrease in the rate of shedding of dead Varroa mites after 9 days to approximately less than half compared to the first three days, with an overall average of 36.50% mites/treatment. As for the average number of Varroa mites inside the eyes of the closed brood of the workers before and after treatment, the results showed that the rate of infection of the closed brood of the workers with Varroa mites was high before treatment for all treatments, including the control, reaching 60%. After treatment, it decreased significantly in all treatments except (the control), and the lowest infection rate was recorded in the S. incanum (T1) treatment, at 8.33%.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • داء السكري وباء يجتاح الوطن العربي ودور
           المجتمع والمؤسسات الصحية في الحد من
           انتشاره

    • Authors: خالد علي الربيعان
      Abstract: Countries of the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) have the highest rate of diabetes cases in the world, while their healthcare expenditures have failed to keep pace with the rapid increase in the number of patients until it has reached an epidemic phase. This study aimed to understand the main reasons behind the high diabetes prevalence and the related risk factors in these countries. The study was carried out by reviewing published epidemiological studies about diabetes in MENA region using PubMed, Embase, and Ovid scientific database engines. The collected studies were analyzed to assess the size of the problem and the risk factors behind the spread of this disease in the region. The results of this study confirmed that the prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus in 22 Arab countries was 15.2% for males and females, while the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance disorder was 13.3% for males and 13.5% for females. The highest level of diabetes prevalence was in the Gulf Cooperation Council states, followed by Iraq and Sham countries, then the countries of North Africa. The most important risk factors are being over 45 years old and having a family history of diabetes, having both of them combined will double the risk of diabetes. Modifiable risk factors include obesity and smoking, which also increase the risk of diabetes to more than double. The study also showed a direct association of diabetes with increased calorie consumption and lack of daily physical activity. The paper concluded that these countries are ahead of most countries worldwide in terms of diabetes prevalence and impaired glucose tolerance, due to changes in lifestyle reflected in the high incidence of obesity. Therefore, countries of MENA region must urgently initiate primary prevention programs, targeting all gender and age groups, especially children and adolescents, to reach an adequate healthy lifestyle in order to combat obesity and diabetes prevalence.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • تأثير بعض المعاملات في إنبات بذور
           المانجو (.Mangifera indica L) وخصائص الشتلات
           النامية للصنفين قلب الثور وأبو سمكة

    • Authors: أحمد محمد عيد; عبد الله حمود عبد الله الحاج
      Abstract: The research was undertaken in 2022 at the Organic Yemen’s nurseries in Sana'a with the objective of raising the seeds germination rate, achieving the highest germination percentage, and promoting the vegetative growth of the Kalb Althawr (KA) and Abu Samaka (AS) cultivars under net house circumstances. Mango seeds were sown in two separate experiments: the first (T1) involved sowing KA seeds vertically and horizontally after removing the seed coat and exposing them to indirect sunlight for varying amounts of time, and the second (T2) involved sowing AS seeds after administering various treatments. These included immersing seeds in hot and normal water, removing the entire or a portion of the seed coat, and orienting the husked seeds either vertically or horizontally. In accordance with a completely randomized design (CRD), the research consisted of two separate trails, each with three replicates. Several characteristics [germination percentage (%), plant height (cm), number of leaves, leaf length and width (cm)] were evaluated successively at 30, 60, and 90 days for KA CV and at 60 and 90 days for AS CV, after sowing of seeds. Results from Experiment 1 (T1) showed that sowing seeds with the coats removed, in a vertical posture produced the highest yields of 58.90%, 69.73%, and 64.83 percent after 30, 60, and 90 days respectively. This treatment also resulted in the greatest leaf length and leaf width values with a significant effect, as compared to the treatment of sowing husked seeds horizontally, whereas the remaining analyzed parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, vertical seeding of unhusked seeds after dipping in normal water resulted in much higher germination percentages than horizontal sowing of husked seeds, which resulted in significantly lower germination percentages after 60 and 90 days from sowing. This study proved that vertical orientation of seeds sowing with or without seed coat resulted in the highest early germination percentage for both types of mango CVs KA and AS in comparison to the other treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • دور تقنية الواقع المعزّز في دعم نُظم
           إدارة المعلومات الصحيّة

    • Authors: إيمان محمد الفيفي
      Abstract: The study aimed to identify the role of augmented reality technology in supporting health information management systems, for the purpose of a case study on the District Health Information System (DHIS2). In the light of the objectives of the study, the content analysis approach was used to review and analyze the intellectual production about augmented reality technology, information management requirements, and some of its systems, and to find the standards that are supposed to be present in the health information management system to keep pace with the technology of augmented reality (AR). Moreover, the paper used the case study approach to recognize the role of augmented reality technology in supporting the health information management systems, and applying the obtained standards on the health information management system. The study reached several results, the most important of which are: the contribution of augmented reality technology in supporting health information systems in terms of saving time and saving financial and spatial efforts; it turned out that the DHIS2 system does not apply augmented reality technology but it uses some other modern technologies like virtual reality; there is a great acceptance among health care practitioners to adopt such technologies as they showed positive results on cases. All of these indicate that the way to use augmented reality technology is now paved and there is a great possibility that augmented reality would provide major changes in the surgery processes, diagnosis, and treatment, as well as medical education and training. In the light of these results, some recommendations were proposed, most notably: necessity of applying augmented reality technology in the DHIS2 system in order to improve the quality of health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries, strengthening partnerships with technical experts and exploiting the system booming phase, and finally conducting further research to measure the extent to which AR technology supports other health systems.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • المواد النانومترية المتقدمة لمعالجة
           المياه: أبعاد بيئية

    • Authors: جمعه عبد الجواد محمد علي
      Abstract: With water scarcity rising as a global issue, finding solutions for new sources of water has become a pressing need. Researchers are playing an active role in finding such solutions like seawater desalination techniques, treatment and reuse of sewage and industrial wastewater, obtaining water from steamy air, and other techniques. Wastewater treatment technology is considered as one of the easiest and least expensive solutions due to its ease of implementation and its capability of producing large quantities of treated water suitable for usage. One of the techniques used for wastewater treatment, and most widely used is adsorption (adsorption of harmful substances present in wastewater on the surface of advanced nanomaterials). The adsorption process depends mainly on the surface area of the adsorbent materials and the presence of functional groups on their surfaces that facilitate the bonding of adsorbent particles, so advanced nanomaterials have an effective and vital role in this process. One of the most important of these materials is graphene, which has a very high surface area, and it has been prepared in the form of a porous aerogel form through the freeze-drying method. Analysis showed that graphene oxide consists of sheets with a high surface area and a high density of oxygen groups at the edges. These sheets provide more adsorption sites and active centers for adsorption of heavy metal ions (iron and others). Graphene oxide has proved to be effective for removing heavy metal ions in water treatment. Other nanomaterials such as cobalt oxide distributed in a matrix of silica showed a high ability to remove methylene blue dye from industrial wastewater. In addition, activated carbon materials from agricultural waste, which have proven their ability to remove hydrogen sulfide from petroleum wastewater. Also, multi-walled carbon nanotubes doped with magnetic iron oxide were studied to remove mercury ions from water. In conclusion, studies have shown that the advanced nanomaterials have a high ability to remove pollutants (dyes and metal ions) from water for reusage for various purposes, including agriculture.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • تقويم سلوك بعض السلالات الطافرة من الثوم
           البلدي .Allium sativum L من حيث النمو والإنتاجية
           خلال الجيل الخامس الخضري MV5وانتخاب
           المتفوقة منها

    • Authors: أسامة حسين العبد الله; روعة محمد مروان الببيلي, رولا غسان بطحوش لمى حسن الأحمد
      Abstract: The experiment was carried out in Taiba Research Station/General Commission for Agricultural Research, Damascus during five Agriculture seasons (2017-2022) to evaluate mutant clones of the Keswani and the Yabrodi garlic during the fifth generation, the bulb was irradiated with doses of Gamma radiation (1, 2.5, 5, 10 gray 60Co), mutant offspring were followed several generations and new superior clones in quantity and quality (10 clones of the Keswani variety, 3 clones of the Yabrodi variety) were selected, the experiment design was completely randomized design for each selected clone. Growth and productivity indicators were recorded.The results showed that the mutant clones selected from the Keswani cultivar were superior in the fifth generation (clone 2 and 9) in most indicators of vegetative growth and productivity, The percentage for increase in productivity was (50.60 and 39.82%, respectively) compared with the control and no significant differences were observed between the two clones. The results also showed the superiority of both mutant and selected clones over the Yabrodi variety (1 and 3) in the studied indicators, the percentage of increase in productivity was (73.03 and 58.96%, respectively) compared with the control and no significant differences were observed between the two clones. This contributes to the adoption and registration of these new clones that are superior in quantity and quality.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • الحدّ من مخاطر الحرب النووية – دور
           المهنيين الصحيين

    • Authors: المؤلفون (مجموعة من رؤساء تحرير الدوريات الصحية والطبية); بارفين علي, موزة الربان, فرجينيا بربور, كيرستن بيبينز دومينغو, مارسيل أولدي ريكيرت, آندي هينس, إيرا هلفاند, ريتشارد هورتون, بوب ماش, آرون ميترا, كارلوس مونتيرو, إيلينا ن. نوموفا, إيريك ج. روبين, تيلمان راف, بويش ساهني, جيمس توموين, بول يونجا كريس زيلينسكي
      Abstract: In January, 2023, the Science and Security Board of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists moved the hands of the Doomsday Clock forward to 90 seconds before midnight, reflecting the growing risk of nuclear war.1 In August, 2022, the UN Secretary-General António Guterres warned that the world is now in “a time of nuclear danger not seen since the height of the Cold War.2 The danger has been underlined by growing tensions between many nuclear armed states.1,3 As editors of health and medical journals worldwide, we call on health professionals to alert the public and our leaders to this major danger to public health and the essential life support systems of the planet—and urge action to prevent it.Current nuclear arms control and non-proliferation efforts are inadequate to protect the world’s population against the threat of nuclear war by design, error, or miscalculation. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) commits each of the 190 participating nations ”to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control”.4 Progress has been disappointingly slow and the most recent NPT review conference in 2022 ended without an agreed statement.5 There are many examples of near disasters that have exposed the risks of depending on nuclear deterrence for the indefinite future.6 Modernisation of nuclear arsenals could increase risks: for example, hypersonic missiles decrease the time available to distinguish between an attack and a false alarm, increasing the likelihood of rapid escalation.Any use of nuclear weapons would be catastrophic for humanity. Even a “limited” nuclear war involving only 250 of the 13 000 nuclear weapons in the world could kill 120 million people outright and cause global climate disruption leading to a nuclear famine, putting 2 billion people at risk.7,8 A large-scale nuclear war between the USA and Russia could kill 200 million people or more in the near term, and potentially cause a global “nuclear winter” that could kill 5–6 billion people, threatening the survival of humanity.7,8 Once a nuclear weapon is detonated, escalation to all-out nuclear war could occur rapidly. The prevention of any use of nuclear weapons is therefore an urgent public health priority and fundamental steps must also be taken to address the root cause of the problem—by abolishing nuclear weapons.The health community has had a crucial role in efforts to reduce the risk of nuclear war and must continue to do so in the future.9 In the 1980s the efforts of health professionals, led by the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), helped to end the Cold War arms race by educating policy makers and the public on both sides of the Iron Curtain about the medical consequences of nuclear war. This was recognised when the 1985 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the IPPNW.10(http://www.ippnw.org). In 2007, the IPPNW launched the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, which grew into a global civil society campaign with hundreds of partner organisations. A pathway to nuclear abolition was created with the adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in 2017, for which the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons was awarded the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize. International medical organisations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, the IPPNW, the World Medical Association, the World Federation of Public Health Associations, and the International Council of Nurses, had key roles in the process leading up to the negotiations, and in the negotiations themselves, presenting the scientific evidence about the catastrophic health and environmental consequences of nuclear weapons and nuclear war. They continued this important collaboration during the First Meeting of the States Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, which currently has 92 signatories, including 68 member states.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • الأمراض النّفسيّة في التّراث الطّبّيّ
           العربيّ الإسلاميّ (العصر العبَّاسي
           نموذجًا)

    • Authors: مَها عبد القادر زكريّا
      Abstract: Since the dawn of history, humans have attempted to identify the various mental disorders they have suffered from and find ways to treat them, sometimes via magic and religious practices, and at other times via experimenting and research. However, most psychiatry was mainly dominated by myth and sorcery until the time of the Islamic Civilization during the Abbasid dynasty, when they started benefiting from findings of former civilizations and developing it further and vastly freed it from magical superstitions. This paper sheds light on a number of mental disorders, which the Abbasid physicians succeeded in diagnosing, treating, and knowing ways to prevent them, after studying their causes and noticing the changes they caused in the soul and body. The results showed that Muslim physicians took the lead in explaining many psychological and functional mental illnesses. Their creativity in this field was evident in their emphasis on the correlation of mental health with physical health on the basis of the intertwining of the soul with the body. They focused on the effects of psychological factors on mental and physical illness. They treated the emotional side of personality disorder via using thought and knowledge along with behavior modification.
      PubDate: 2023-06-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • مياه العيون في إقليم شيشاوة في المغرب
           بين الوفرة والنضوب: دراسة في العوامل
           والنتائج

    • Authors: أحمد بو حامد; خاليد الحاضري
      Abstract: Spring water is highly valued within the national territory of Morocco, especially in the mountainous regions and slopes as it is vital for human settlement within these areas. It is also one of the basic elements for achieving local development in the light of the economic and social transformations taking place in the Moroccan countryside in general. In this context, this paper attempts to highlight the critical importance of water springs in the province of Chichaoua, as it is a unique natural heritage and the most important renewable soil resource in the region. It also has a great role in organizing and structuring the field. However, a combination of agricultural intensification, excessive irrigation via digging wells, and successive years of drought (as a result of climate change), have caused drying up of these springs. This impedes any plans for development and renewal in this region.
      PubDate: 2023-05-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • حساب كثافة الذرات غير المستقرة في محاكاة
           التفريغ الومضي في التيار المستمر لغاز
           الكريبتون

    • Authors: عبد عبد العزيز بوشيخي
      Abstract: In this paper, we have calculated the metastable atom density in krypton by a fluid model for gas pressure equal to 0.5, 1 and 1.5 Torrs, and the applied voltages were 200, 300 and 340 volts. The inter-electrodes spacing was equal to 1 cm. The chemical processes that were considered in this study were radiation, chemo-ionization, stepwise ionization, both ionization and excitation of the ground atom, and de-excitation and elastic collision. The model was verified experimentally and theoretically. The maximum values for the metastable atom density that was registered in this study were equal between 0.54 x 108 and 2.47 x 109cm-3. Consequently, this model can be used to replace mass spectrometry measurements.
      PubDate: 2023-05-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • استخدام التقنيات الذكية في تطوير كواشف
           الأمان النووي وقواعد الوقاية الإشعاعية

    • Authors: جمال الشوفي
      Abstract: Radioactive detectors are considered one of the most effective tools for detecting radioactive effects and avoiding their dangers. They have been technically designed on the basis of the cumulative time of radioactive effects. The rules of procedures and protocols for nuclear protection, safety, and the annual limits intake for both workers and the public, have been established carefully by international agencies concerned about nuclear effects and environmental protection.Recently, the development of smart technologies has good possibility to update the radioactive detectors and to design smart detectors. Smart detectors can be used for spontaneous detection of radiation exposure and as an early warning detection.In this paper, the theoretical methods for updating radiological detection methods using smart digital sheets have been designed. As a result, the international standard rules and limits of the annual intake were renewed to allow updating the rules of radiation protection: More Personal Protection-MPP, and less Environment Risk-LER.The results indicate the importance of recommending using smart technologies to modernize the radiation detectors and the international protection rules.
      PubDate: 2023-05-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • تأثيرات مضاد الهستامين
           الدايفنهايدرامين في السمّية الحادة
           لمبيدات الحشرات الفوسفورية العضوية
           والكارباميتية لمختلف الدراسات على
           الحيوانات: تحليل ميتا

    • Authors: فؤاد قاسم محمد; عمار أحمد محمد, حسين محمد رشيد هشيار محمد صالح
      Abstract: The H1-antihistamine diphenhydramine possesses antimuscarinic-cholinoceptors properties, which enable it to act against cholinesterase inhibiting organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in humans and animals. Several reports on the use of diphenhydramine, in spite of some variations in its antidotal or therapeutic efficacy, specify beneficial effects of the drug in treating poisoning induced by these pesticides. Therefore, the purpose of the present review was to identify studies that encompass effects of diphenhydramine on the acute toxicity of pesticides with meta-analysis to demonstrate statistically the benefit of the drug which is considered as an additional antidote besides the standard one atropine. We used PRISMA and meta-analysis on the toxicity indices of pesticides in animals which were the occurrence of death, signs of poisoning and toxicity score. The studies were identified and then included in the review after searching data bases in addition to the manual search of publications at the universities. Two-group meta-analysis was conducted using software tools. Open-Meta Analyst was used for the forest plot, effect size of the relative risk, heterogeneity test and leave-one-group assessment, whereas Meta-Essentials Version 1.5 was used for the funnel plot that included effect size and standard error, with Egger’s test for the statistical publication bias and trim-and-fill analysis for missing points. Studies selected for analysis were 13, which comprised 16 reports on the effects of diphenhydramine on toxicity indices of the pesticides. Diphenhydramine statistically significantly reduced the relative risks of the organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, which were with their 95% confidence intervals: 0.375 (0.261, 0.54) for animal death, 0.399 (0.283, 0.563) for the signs of poisoning and 0.466 (0.363, 0.597) for the toxicity score. The % weight of the reports varied between 1.713% to 20.245% for death analysis, 1.612% to 23.062% for signs of poisoning and 4.566% to 13% for the toxicity score. The leave-one-group assessment of the reports indicated the effect size was not affected, as the values were close to the original one. A significant statistical heterogeneity was found related to the data of toxicity score but not related to the death and signs of poisoning data. Publication bias was identified by the funnel plot and the trim-and-fill assessment identified the missing points. We conclude from the present review and meta-analysis that diphenhydramine characteristically possesses effects against poisoning with cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides with a reduction of their relative risks within the toxicity indices. It is stressed that diphenhydramine should not be considered a substitute for the standard antidote atropine.
      PubDate: 2023-04-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • تأثير الرش بالسكريات الكحولية والبورون
           في بعض مؤشرات النمو والإزهار والإنتاج
           لنبات الفراولة (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) صنف
           أوزوغراند (Oso grande)

    • Authors: ماهر ياسين حسن; ريما رياض مصا
      Abstract: This research aimed to study the effect of spraying boron and sugar alcohols on vegetative growth, fruit quality and total yield of Strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa Duch cv. Oso Grande). The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture (University of Damascus/Syria) during 2021. Results showed that spraying strawberry plants with sorbitol and mannitol at three different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 g/L-1) and boric acid at three concentrations of (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1) increased most of the studied parameters. It was also noticed that the number of leaves increased (19.06, 21.62, 23.95 leaf/plant) when plants were sprayed with sorbitol (10, 20 and 30 g/L-1) respectively, and (19.78, 22.57, and 25.13 leaf/plant) when plants were sprayed with mannitol (10, 20 and 30 g/L-1) respectively as compared to the control treatment (15.27 leaf/plant). Total yield was positively affected by spraying with mannitol 30 g/L-1 (556.29 g/plant) while it reached (465.48 g/plant) with sorbitol 30 g/L-1 in comparison with the control (fruit quality was increased by increasing boron concentration). The highest total soluble solids (8.69%) were observed at the concentration of 100 ppm of boron in comparative with the control (7.59%). The interaction between two variables (30g/L-1 mannitol and 100 ppm boron) significantly increased all studied parameters, such as number of leaves (29.06), leaf area (32.60cm2), number of flowers (35.43), total yield (712.03 gm.) in addition to fruit quality (TSS 9.30% and ascorbic acid content 52.03 mg/100g fresh weight) as compared to control treatment (0 mg/l).
      PubDate: 2023-04-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • دراسة مستشفوية حول مستوى انتشار اضطراب
           طيف التوحد في ليبيا − ماذا يمكننا أن
           نفعل لمجابهة هذا الاضطراب؟؟

    • Authors: عادل محمد زقلام; أمينة الجيلاني ماعونه نجاح الصادق وهرة
      Abstract: There are many problems in the field of child health and autism spectrum disorder is one of these problems. If Autism is detected early, it can have a significant effect on the health and education of the child, or at least reduces its negative impact, though specialists believe that there is no complete cure for this disorder. Autism is a global disorder and relatively little is known about its symptoms and its presence in developing countries such as Libya. Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in brain development that appears in early childhood and is manifested by difficulties in interacting and communicating with society- including poor verbal and non-verbal communication - and is associated with repetitive interests and limited activities. Aim: Tracking and studying the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in children who were referred to Pediatric Neurodevelopment clinics (PNDC) at Al-Khadra General Hospital, Tripoli University Hospital and private specialized clinics between the years 2011-2020. Methods: The study examined and compared the results of the assessment of all children referred to the PNDC between January 2011 to December 2020, with an initial diagnosis of language and speech delay. The disorder was diagnosed on the basis of the DSM-5 & DSM-IV criteria (a checklist issued by American Psychiatric Association) as well as the Modified Checklist for Autism in Children (M-CHAT) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. (CARS), in addition to the information obtained from interviewing the child and parents, general examination of the child and results of relevant investigations. The statistical program SPSS-V 26 was used to perform the necessary statistical procedures, calculating percentages, frequencies, t-test, and analysis of variance to indicate differences between groups. Results: There is an increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder in Libya over the past ten years. Although that period in Libya witnessed armed conflict and political instability, the number of new diagnoses and prevalence level has more than doubled annually. In 2020, more than 363 children newly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and communication and social interaction disorders. The study showed that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children was about 4 to 8 children per one thousand children and it is still increasing. The ratio of males to females was 4:1 and this rise was observed all over the world. Conclusion: This is a hospital-based study and does not reflect the true prevalence of the spectrum as the prevalence of this problem is probably similar to that seen in USA and UK. Referral to specialists with experience in this type of problem saves time and money and keeps the child away from investigations and medications.
      PubDate: 2023-04-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • تأثير نوع السماد الآزوتي في نمو وإنتاجية
           صنفين من الذرة الصفراء مزروعين في تربة
           كلسية

    • Authors: عيسى نور الدين كبيبو; نديم أحمد خليل, مازن جمعة أشرم شفيقة وفيق مخيص
      Abstract: The research was conducted at Stekhris Research Station affiliated to the Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Lattakia - Syria for the year 2020, to study the effect of two types of nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate [NH4)2SO4] and potassium nitrate [KNO3]) on the growth and productivity parameters of two cultivars of yellow corn (Dina cultivar F1 and Fayhaa cultivars) grown in calcareous soil. In addition to the control treatment without the addition of nitrogen, at a rate of three replications for each treatment, as the experiment was designed with a Split Plots system and the number of experimental plots was 18 Plot.The results showed the superiority of the cultivar Dina F1 (a foreign variety) over the cultivar Fayhaa (a local variety) in terms of plant height and during the different stages of growth as well as in average productivity. Moreover, the nitrogen fertilization had a significant effect on the studied traits, as the ammonium sulfate treatment was superior to the rest of the treatments in plant height and dry weight, as well as in the average productivity of fresh earwigs. Our results also showed that the highest yield of marigolds was in ammonium sulphate treatment and Dina F1, with productivity reaching (14.04) tons/ha.
      PubDate: 2023-04-30T00:00:00Z
       
 
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