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 Annals of Science and TechnologyNumber of Followers: 2     Open Access journal ISSN (Online) 2544-6320 Published by Sciendo  [370 journals]
• Mechanical characteristics of Biomaterial Particles Reinforced Epoxy Resin
Composites for Automobile Accessories

• Abstract: In this study, rattan corncob composite materials were developed and their mechanical properties were determined. This was with a view to producing alternative composite materials for automobile applications. Dried corncobs and rattan cane were crushed, treated with caustic alkali NaOH (aq) and transferred into a water bath machine to reduce the hydrophilic nature of the fibres in the polymer. The shredded corncobs and rattans cane were sun-dried after the treatment to remove the moisture content and were further pulverized and sieved to obtain 400μm particle size. Compositions of the particles were varied for seven samples with the binder kept constant at 80wt% of the whole mixture and forming them into particle panels using a metal mould. The process was repeated in order to obtain three replicates to get the exact mean value. The produced panels were tested for density, water absorption, tensile strength and modulus, flexural strength and modulus, and optical microstructure. The results revealed that the densities ranged between 1.06g/cm3 to 1.30g/cm3, the water absorption properties ranged between 0.87% to 4.55%, tensile strength ranged between 42MPa to 90MPa, tensile modulus ranged between 2.2GPa to 5.9GPa, flexural strength ranged between 50MPa to 70MPa and flexural modulus ranged between 1.5GPa to 2.7GPa. It was concluded that the developed composite materials have good mechanical properties and could serve as alternative materials for making automobile accessories like bumpers and spoilers. It could also help in solving the problem of environmental pollution caused by open burning.
PubDate: Mon, 16 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT

• An Evaluation of a Language Processor for an African Native Languagebased
Programming Language

• Abstract: The design and prototype implementation of a subset of an African indigenous language-based programming language has been carried out and reported. In this study, an evaluation of the processor developed for the native language-based programming language was carried out in order to assess its level of conformance to the characteristics required of a good software product as set by the international organization for standardization (ISO). The developed language processor was evaluated using some metrics for evaluating the quality of software systems including structural and time complexity. A usability test was also conducted to assess users’ perception of the system concerning its relevance and ease of use. The result of system evaluation indicated that the system contains 1558 lines of code, its cyclomatic complexity is 14 and its asymptotic time complexity is of order big oh O (n3), where n is the size of the input to the system. Over 86% of the participants in the usability test attested to the system’s relevance while the usability rating was 86%. The developed system can be inferred to be of good quality as the results of its evaluation are positively on the high side for satisfying most of the ISO criteria for adjudging a software product as being of good quality. Furthermore, the high usability rating for the system indicates that the programming language whose compiler was evaluated satisfies most of the criteria set by the Department of Defense (DOD) for assessing the ‘goodness’ or otherwise of a programming language.
PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT

• Price Analysis and Forecasting for Bitcoin Using Auto Regressive
Integrated Moving Average Model

• Abstract: This paper investigated Bitcoin daily closing price using time series approach to predict future values for financial managers and investors. Daily data were sourced from CoinDesk, with Bitcoin Price Index (BPI) for 5 years (January 1, 2016 to May 31, 2021) extracted. Data analysis and modelling of price trend using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was carried out, and a suitable model for forecasting was proposed. Results showed that ARIMA(6,1,12) model was the most suitable based on a combination of number of significant coefficients and values of volatility, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). A two-month test window was used for forecasting and prediction. Results showed a decline in prediction accuracy as number of days of the test period increased; from 99.94% for the first 7 days, to 99.59 % for 14 days and 95.84% for 30 days. For the two-month test period, percentage accuracy was 84.75%. The study confirms that the ARIMA model is a veritable planning tool for financial managers, investors and other stakeholders; especially for short-term forecasting. It is however imperative that the influence of external factors, such as investors’/influencers’ comments and government intervention, that may affect forecasting be taken into consideration.
PubDate: Tue, 07 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT

• Phytoconstituents from Bind To HPV Oncoprotein with Apoptogenic Potential:
A Molecular Modeling Approach

• Abstract: Markhamia tomentosa crude extract and fractions exhibited potent growth inhibitory effects capable to induce apoptosis in cervical (HeLa) cancer cell line via in vitro model. Presently, interaction of M. tomentosa phytoconstituents with molecular drug targets to exert its anticancer property is evaluated via in silico study. Identified phytoconstituents from M. tomentosa were retrieved from PubChem database and docked in active sites of HPV 16 E6, caspase -3 and caspase -8 targets using AutoDockVina from PyRx software. Screening for druglikeness; and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) predictions was carried out with the use of SwissADME and pkCSM web servers. Standard melphalan and co-crystallized ligands of caspases -3 and -8 enzymes were used to validate protein-ligand interactions. Molecular dynamic simulation was used to validate the stability of the hit molecules complexed with caspases -3 and -8. All identified phytoconstituents from M. tomentosa showed binding affinity for HPV with docking scores range of - 5.4 to -2.6 kcal/mol. Ajugol, carnosol, luteolin and phytol showed good docking energy range of -6.8 to -3.6 kcal/mol; and -4.8 to -1.9 kcal/mol for the active sites of caspases -3 and -8 targets respectively. Based on docking scores; drug-likeliness; and ADMET predictions; luteolin and carnosol were selected as hit compounds. These molecules were found to be stable within the binding site of caspase -3 target throughout the 40ns simulation time. These findings identified hit ligands from M. tomentosa phytoconstituents that inhibit HPV 16 E6 oncogene expression with stimulation of caspases -3 and -8 targets.
PubDate: Tue, 07 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT

• Immediate and Residual Haematotoxicity in Mice Exposed to Wastewater from
a Cocoa Processing Industry

• Abstract: This study investigated the constituents and haematotoxic potential of wastewater collected from a cocoa processing industry in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally injected for 5 consecutive days with 0.3mL of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50% concentrations of the wastewater. Blood was collected from some mice on the last day of the injection to assess the immediate effect of the wastewater on selected haematological parameters while blood was collected from others 21 days after the last injection to assess its residual effect. Blood collected were analyzed using an Abacus Reflotron machine. Haematological parameters including packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), heamaglobin (HGB), lymphocytes, erythrocyte indices: Mean corpuscular heamaglobin count (MCHC), mean corpuscular heamablobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV); leucocyte differential count: Neutrophils, Monocytes, Basophils and Eosinophils were analyzed. A significant decrease in basophils, MCH, MCHC, HGB, and PCV; and a significant increase in neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, MCV, total WBC count, and lymphocytes were observed in mice exposed to the wastewater compared to the negative control after 5 days. A similar trend of the alterations of the heamatological parameters was observed in mice 21 days after exposure, even though the values were numerically lower than in the 5 days exposed mice. Results further showed the presence of Zn, Cd, As, Mg, Ni, Cu, Fe, Cr, BOD, COD, and EC at concentrations higher than allowable limit by standard organization. Cocoa industry wastewater is capable of inducing hematotoxicity, therefore, proper waste management should be followed in the disposal of such toxic waste.
PubDate: Tue, 07 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT

• Efficacy of Tobacco Leaves () as Anaesthetic Agent on the Juveniles and
Adults of African Catfish (Burchell 1822)

• Abstract: Various fisheries and aquacultural practices such as handling, transportation, tagging and so on stress fish. To minimise the stress, fish should be anaesthetise using agents that is safe, cheap in cost and extraction, effective and readily available and which should induce anaesthesia and recovery within few minutes as compared to synthetic anaesthetics. This study investigated the efficacy of tobacco leaves extract (Nicotiana tabacum) as an anaesthetic agent on Clarias gariepinus juveniles and adults. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves at 50 mg L−1, 100 mg L−1, 150 mg L−1 and 200 mg L−1 were used to anaesthetise juveniles and adults of the fish in order to vary the effects of increasing concentrations on the fish. Least induction time in juveniles was 166.72 ±7.15s recorded in 200 mg L−1, while highest induction time of 476.32 ±3.29s was in 50 mg L−1. In adult, least induction time was 440.99 ±2.42s in 200 mg L−1 concentration, and highest was 916.75 ±6.65s in 50.00 mg L−1. Highest and lowest recovery times in juveniles were 1078.68 ±19.80s and 751.21 ±7.65s in 200 mg L−1 and 50.00 mg L−1 respectively. In adult, least recovery time was 361.83 ±5.14s in 50.00 mg L−1, while 200.00 mg L−1 produced the highest recovery time at 548.45 ±7.78s. 200 mg L−1 concentration of tobacco extract was the effective concentration, as it induces anaesthesia within 3 minutes and recovery within 9 minutes with no mortality. These high induction and recovery times may be due to scalessness and well vascularised skin of the fish and its high body lipid content which make nicotine to diffuse faster in and out of the body. 200.00 mg L−1 ethanolic extracts of tobacco leaves could be used to anaesthetise fish as it is safe, low cost in terms of purchase and extraction, readily available, biodegradable (without residual effect), eco-friendly and efficient. It can serve as an alternative to expensive, toxic, scarce MS-222 or clove oil in fisheries and aquaculture.
PubDate: Tue, 07 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT

• Effect of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Dimethoate on the Growth Response of
Cowpea Plants and the Surrounding Soil

• Abstract: Insecticides are used widely to control insect pests affecting cowpea and their residues are often deposited in the soil. This may impact the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil and the plant health. This study was designed to investigate the growth response of cowpea treated with lambda-cyhalothrin and dimethoate and the insecticides influence on the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. Three cowpea seeds were planted per polyethylene bag containing top soil, and later thinned to two plants. The insecticides were assayed singly or combined. The insecticides were applied at the pre-flowering (30th day), flowering (50th day) and at podding (70th day) stages of cowpea growth. The physico-chemical parameters of treated soils were assayed. Treated soils with lambdacyhalothrin and dimethoate and the control were slightly acidic with pH varying from 5.78 to 6.55. Soil organic matter and soil nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and sodium had lowest values in untreated soil; they had highest values in soil treated with combined insecticides. Lambda-cyhalothrin and dimethoate treatments elicited diverse response from the cowpea plant. Generally, there were slight increase in the vegetative parameters, yield and pod dimensions of treated plants when compared with the control. These insecticides also increased the root nodules, root length and dry weight of cowpea at different concentrations. The combination of these insecticides had positive effect on cowpea without adverse influence on the yield and as well as the soil physicochemical properties.
PubDate: Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT

• Inhibition of Haemoglobin Glycosylation, Glucose Uptake and Antidiabetic
Activities of Solvent Fractions from Seed

• Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which result from either absolute or relative insulin deficiency and may lead to dysfunction in some organ systems. Pancreatic α- glucosidase and α- amylase inhibition are an effective strategy to decrease levels of postprandial hyperglycemia through starch control breakdown. The aim of the study is to assess the in vitro antidiabetic activities of fractions from Daucus carota seed extract, a plant used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract (AQE) of Daucus carota seed was partitioned in ethyl acetate (EAE), n – hexane (HEX) and diethyl ether (DEE) to obtain the various fractions. The AQE and EAE expressed significant α – amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 637.0±18.6 μg/mL and 603.0±25.8 μg/mL respectively. AQE, EAE, HEX and DEE expressed α – glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 135.85±1.21, 147.59±0.57, 132.64±1.17, and 143.56±0.49 μg/mL respective compared with acarbose (ACA) with 5.42±0.20 μg/mL. Furthermore, DEE fraction expressed inhibitory effects on % glucose uptake in yeast cell comparable with metronidazole. All Daucus carota fractions expressed various inhibitory effects on haemoglobin glycosylation at a concentration of 200 – 1000 μg/mL. The results show that fractions from the aqueous seed extract of Daucus carota possess in vitro antidiabetic potentials with EAE and HEX fractions having most promising inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively.
PubDate: Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT

• Geophysical Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability to Diesel
Southwestern Nigeria

• Abstract: An appraisal of the groundwater vulnerability to contamination risk at Adebayo in Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria, was carried out using the electrical resistivity method of geophysical prospecting. Two traverses of length 100 m each were established for both vertical electrical sounding (VES) and dipole-dipole. Six (6) Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2-D dipole-dipole profiling techniques of the electrical resistivity method were adopted for the geophysical investigation. The results show variations in resistivity values, depicting four to five geologic layers: the topsoil, laterite, weathered layer, fractured, and the fresh basement. It was observed from the correlation of the geoelectric section and 2-D resistivity image along traverse 1 (TR1) that the groundwater in the study area flows towards the southwestern part, and the fractured basement serves as a migration pathway to the diesel oil in the same direction as groundwater flow. The fractured basement (Well 2) with no lateritic cover has higher resistivity values compare to the fracture zone that was found directly under the mast which was overlain by the laterite. Comparing the resistivity values of Well 1 and 2, Well 2 that was drilled into the fractured basement has more traces of the contaminant than Well 1.
PubDate: Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT

• Interest Rate Modelling in the Presence of Discontinuities and its
Sensitivities

• Abstract: Interest rate paths experience discontinuities in the presence of certain factors. Much of the work on interest rate modelling has no consideration for effects of such unexpected occurrences in real life. A good risk manager needs to have a better model that considers possibility of unexpected occurrences. In this paper, we discuss step by step extension of Vasicek model to both jump model and jumpdiffusion model using Itô’s formula as the major tool. We also derive the greeks ‘delta’ and ‘vega’ that measure sensitivity of the interest rate with respect to both changes in its initial interest rate and volatility in an interbank rate.
PubDate: Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT

• Immune Response and Bone Marker Enzyme Activities of Broiler Birds Fed

• Abstract: Taurine, a derived amino acid has been proven to play an important biological roles in enhancing bone strength and immune activities of broiler birds. This research investigated the effect of the different concentrations of graded level dietary taurine supplement on immune response of birds against Newcastle Disease Virus (NCDV) and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), as well as on enzymatic markers of bone metabolism and effect on mineral composition. A total of 300 unsexed day-old arbor acre broiler birds were used for this research. The birds were randomly distributed using a completely randomized design into five dietary treatment of six replicates with 10 birds per replicate. Treatment one (T1) served as the control group with 0% taurine supplement. Treatments 2, 3, 4, and 5 contained dietary taurine supplements at 0.002, 0.004, 0.006, and 0.008%. Antibody titre against NCDV and IBDV were determined according to standard procedures. The study lasted 42 days. Birds on 0.002% taurine had the highest antibody titre (128.38) against NCDV, while birds on the 0.006% taurine-supplemented-diet also portrayed a distinct (p<0.05) titre value (1029) against IBDV. Serum alkaline phosphatase and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (132.74 and 150.66) at the 42nd day were highest (p<0.05) for birds on 0.004 and 0.002% dietary taurine supplement respectively. The activity of serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (44.94) was notably highest (p<0.05) for birds on 0.008% taurine. Bone mineral contents showed that birds fed with 0.002% taurinesupplemented- diet had the highest percentage (p<0.05) of phosphorous (9.50), calcium (32.18) and phosphate (21.77) composition. Conclusively, inclusion of taurine as dietary supplement has proven useful not only in enhancing the birds’ immunity against NCDV an IBDV, but also in boosting bone mineral composition of meat type poultry birds.
PubDate: Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT

• Epidemiological Surveillance of Influenza Virus Matrix Gene in Pigs, in
Lagos, Nigeria, 2015-2016

• Abstract: The co-infection of different influenza A virus enable viral gene re-assortments especially in pigs that serve as mixing vessel with the possibility of emergence of novel subtypes. Such re-assortants pose serious public health threat, as epitomised by the emergence of pandemic influenza in 2009. In Nigeria, there is mixture of animal species and highly populated densities that can increase the risk of influenza virus endemicity, genetic reshuffling and emergence of future pandemic influenza viruses. Thus, this study was aimed at determining influenza virus disease burden in pigs. This study was a cross sectional molecular surveillance of influenza virus. A total of 194 pig nasal samples from reported cases and randomly sampled were collected from pig farms in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos State between October, 2015 and April, 2016. The samples were investigated for the presence of influenza virus matrix gene by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and detected by gel electrophoresis. P-values were calculated using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. The result showed that 25 (12.9%) samples were positive for influenza A virus, out of which, 20 (80%) were samples from Ojo while 5 (20%) were samples from Ikorodu. Epidemiological parameters for the sampled locations, methods either as reported case or randomised, and sex compared were significant at 95% confidence interval. This study determined influenza viral burden in pigs with a molecular prevalence of 12.9% to influenza A. It further confirmed the sub-clinical and clinical circulation of Influenza A virus in pigs in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos. Therefore, the detection of influenza A virus in commercial pigs in Nigeria accentuates the importance of continuous surveillance and monitoring of the virus in order to prevent the advent of virulent strains that may spread to Pig-handlers and the community at large.
PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

• Determinants of the Adoption of Quality Protein Maize among Farming
Households in Niger State, Nigeria

• Abstract: The study was conducted to examine the determinants of quality protein maize (QPM) adoption among farming households in Niger State, Nigeria. A twostage random sampling procedure was employed to obtain data from selected 120 maize farming households. Descriptive statistics, logistic and tobit regression models were used for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that the awareness and adoption level of QPM production in the study area were 95% and 87% respectively. Among the determinants of QPM adoption status, the coefficient of age (-0.12734) and primary occupation (-1.38295) of the respondents were negative and significant at 5% level of probability while the tenancy attribute’s coefficient (2.62533) was positively significant at 10%. The level of adoption of QPM was positively and significantly influenced by household size (0.00729) and years of schooling (0.01148) at 10% and 5% level of significant respectively. The study recommends intensification of information dissemination on the adoption of QPM in the study area.
PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

• Metalotolerance Capacity of Autochthonous Bacteria Isolated From
Industrial Waste Effluent

• Abstract: Microbes play significant roles in remediation of heavy metal polluted industrial effluent using the mechanisms of biosorption and bioaccumulation. In the present study, six heavy metal resistant autochthonous bacteria species namely Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Flavobacterium aquatile, Pseudomonas flourescens and Pseudomonas putida were isolated from effluent samples collected from Paper-mill industry (PMI), Paints and Chemicals Industry (PCI), and Steel-rolling Industry (SRI). The isolates were studied for their heavy metal tolerant capacities at different aqueous salt concentrations. Elemental analysis of the industrial effluent samples collected indicated the presence of heavy metals such as Copper (Cu2+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+) and Lead (Pb2+) at varying concentrations in μg/ml. Generally, there were variations in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the heavy metal salt to each of the bacteria understudy. The MIC value of each of the bacterial isolates to aqueous solution of Cu2SO4 showed that B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas flourescens and Pseudomonas putida had the same MIC value of 20 ± 1.5 μg/mL while Bacillus cereus and Flavobacterium aquatile had MIC values of 13 ± 1.3 μg/mL and 25 ± 2.1 μg/mL respectively. This variation was also noticeable in aqueous salts of Mn2SO4, Fe2SO4 and Pb2SO4.The bacteria isolates showed sensitivity to heavy metals with increasing zone of inhibition as concentration increased with each isolate showing varying degree of metalotolerance. The effectiveness of the autochthonous bacteria as a means to bio-augment the remediation of heavy metal polluted industrial effluent was further proven and recommended.
PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

• The Kinetics of the Oxidation of Lysine by μ-Peroxo-Bridged Binuclear
Cobalt (III) Complex of Succinimide in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Medium

• Abstract: Kinetics of oxidation of Lysine (Lys) and mechanisms by μ-peroxo bis[bis(ethylenediamine)succinimidato-dicobalt(III)]dinitratedihydrate; [LCo(μ-O2)CoL](NO3)2.2H2O (L = suc(en)2), hereafter the complex, was investigated at 420 nm wavelength of maximum absorption of the complex under the conditions hydrogen ions concentration = 1.8 × 10−2 mol dm−3, temperature = 24 ± 1 °C, [LCo(μ-O2)CoL2+] = 1.4 × 10−4 mol dm−3 and ionic strength = 0.5 mol dm−3. First order in [LCo(μ-O2)CoL2+] and [Lys] were obtained but inverse first order in [H+]. The proposed overall rate equation is as shown:Rate=(k1k2+K1k3k41[H+])[LCo(μO2)CoL2+][Lys]$$Rate = ({{k_1 } \over {k_2 }} + {{K_1 k_3 } \over {k_4 }}{1 \over {[H^ + ]}})[LCo(\mu O_2 )CoL^{2 + } ][Lys]$$Rate of the reaction decreases when hydrogen ions concentration increase and exhibited converse effect with increase in concentration of ionic strength from 0.1 – 1.3 mol dm−3. Added cations and anions affected the reaction rate and the Michaelis-Menten plot passed through the origin indicating no absence of intermediate complex in the electron transfer processes. Putting all the results obtained together, the most probable reaction mechanism is in favour of outer-sphere and an appropriate rate law is established using steady state approximation.
PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

• Carbonaceous Soot from Thermal Decomposition of Kerosene: A Pioneering
Report for Paint Preservation

• Abstract: Bacterial resistance to conventional paint biocides is widely documented. However, an investigation regarding the preservative potential of carbonaceous soot as a viable alternative is novel. Fresh paint samples (SA, SB and SC) were collected in duplicates from a reputable paint manufacturing company in Lagos, Nigeria. SA was produced with conventional paint biocide, SB and SC were without biocide. All samples were inoculated with 0.032 × 106 cfu/mL of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 (NC 002516.2) previously isolated from spoilt paints and identified by the 16S rDNA analysis. SB was supplemented with crude soot (10 g/L of distilled water) at 200 mL v/v. The preservative efficiency of soot was investigated by monitoring the bacterial population (BP), optical density (OD600nm), viscosity (VIS), the transmittance (TR) and specific gravity (SG) of the samples bi-weekly for 14 weeks. BP increased drastically from 0.032-31.61 × 106 and from 0.032-112.93 × 106 in SA and SC respectively. In contrast, SB increased from 0.032-24.63 × 106 by week 4 but reduced from 24.63 – 10.95 × 106 by week 14. The OD of SA increased from 1.55 to 1.98 by week 8 and decreased to 1.74 by week 14. SB had a decrease from 1.60 to 1.49 by week 4 and increased to 1.63 by week 14, while SC increased from 1.59 to 2.54 by the 14th week.TR increased from 1.80 to 2.30 and 1.25 to 2.20 in SA and SC respectively. In contrast, TR decreased from 2.00 to 1.25 in SB. The viscosity and specific gravity values of all the samples decreased with time with the highest decrease observed in SC and the lowest in SB. The test crude soot showed preservative potential in paints.
PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

• Attitudinal Reactance: Another Response to Influence Attempts in Websites

• Abstract: The use of behavioural change systems in providing interventions for people is common in this present era of information technology. Many people depend on these systems for many reasons like safe driving, healthy food consumption, energy conservation, etc. Some of these systems have been successful in making people change positively while a larger percentage have not been successful due to many issues that were not addressed during the development of such systems. One of them is psychological reactance, a motivational state that is aroused when a person’s freedom is threatened or eliminated. It has major focus restoring any freedom that has been threatened. This forms the motivation for this work and it starts with a brief study of the theory of psychological reactance with a new view of accessing it from perceived usability perspective. To study reactance in people, a survey was conducted. It focussed on accessing reactance through attitudes to forced compliance in a persuasive website in the context of meal-planning. Results from this study showed that participants with high freedom text had better attitude to the website in terms of anger and perceived usability than participants with low-freedom text. This work confirmed the social agency proposition that the presence of social cues in a multimedia message can stimulate the social interaction pattern in people’s learning. Once this social interaction pattern is initiated, there is a high possibility for pupils to act as if they are interacting with another individual. Therefore, to some degree, social convention of human-to-human interaction sets in as participants with high freedom message had a lower anger score than participants with high freedom plus social message.
PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

• Effects of Modifying Agents on the Dyeability of Cotton Fabric using
Malachite Green Dye

• Abstract: Changes in thermodynamic parameters as a result of modifying agents on dye uptake of cotton fabric using malachite green (MG) dye was investigated in this study. Five modifying agents {Acetic acid (CH3COOH), hydrated Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3.10H2O), Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)} were used on cotton fabric. The equilibrium exhaustions (%E) were determined before and after modification of the cotton fabric at different concentrations which were 88.24%, 80%, 77.14%, 65.10% and 30.88% for CH3COOH, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, Na2CO3.10H2O and H2O2 respectively. The results also showed a correlation between the standard affinity(-Δμθ) of dye on cotton fabric and the equilibrium exhaustion. The values of entropy (ΔSθ) and enthalpy (ΔHθ) change revealed the feasibility (spontaneity) and exothermic nature of the reaction. The optimum parameters were attained in acidic solution (CH3COOH) at the highest temperature (70 °C) of dyeing as it showed the highest % efficiency of 88.24%. This work established that modification of cotton fabric with modifying agents is one of the best route to improve the affinity between dye and fabric as it reduces stress, amount of dyes wasted in dyeing, time required to achieve satisfactory results leading to a cost effective environmental friendly approach in the field of cotton dyeing.
PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

• The Kinetics of the Oxidation of Lysine by μ-Peroxo-Bridged Binuclear
Cobalt (III) Complex of Succinimide in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Medium

• Abstract: Kinetics of oxidation of Lysine (Lys) and mechanisms by μ-peroxo bis[bis(ethylenediamine)succinimidato-dicobalt(III)]dinitratedihydrate; [LCo(μ-O2)CoL](NO3)2.2H2O (L = suc(en)2), hereafter the complex, was investigated at 420 nm wavelength of maximum absorption of the complex under the conditions hydrogen ions concentration = 1.8 × 10-2 mol dm-3, temperature = 24 ± 1 °C, [LCo(μ-O2)CoL2+] = 1.4 × 10-4 mol dm-3 and ionic strength = 0.5 mol dm-3. First order in [LCo(μ- O2)CoL2+] and [Lys] were obtained but inverse first order in [H+]. The proposed overall rate equation is as shown: Rate of the reaction decreases when hydrogen ions concentration increase and exhibited converse effect with increase in concentration of ionic strength from 0.1 - 1.3 mol dm-3. Added cations and anions affected the reaction rate and the Michaelis-Menten plot passed through the origin indicating no absence of intermediate complex in the electron transfer processes. Putting all the results obtained together, the most probable reaction mechanism is in favour of outer-sphere and an appropriate rate law is established using steady state approximation.
PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT

• Metalotolerance Capacity of Autochthonous Bacteria Isolated From
Industrial Waste Effluent

• Abstract: Microbes play significant roles in remediation of heavy metal polluted industrial effluent using the mechanisms of biosorption and bioaccumulation. In the present study, six heavy metal resistant autochthonous bacteria species namely Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Flavobacterium aquatile, Pseudomonas flourescens and Pseudomonas putida were isolated from effluent samples collected from Paper-mill industry (PMI), Paints and Chemicals Industry (PCI), and Steel-rolling Industry (SRI). The isolates were studied for their heavy metal tolerant capacities at different aqueous salt concentrations. Elemental analysis of the industrial effluent samples collected indicated the presence of heavy metals such as Copper (Cu2+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+) and Lead (Pb2+) at varying concentrations in μg/ml. Generally, there were variations in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the heavy metal salt to each of the bacteria understudy. The MIC value of each of the bacterial isolates to aqueous solution of Cu2SO4 showed that B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas flourescens and Pseudomonas putida had the same MIC value of 20 ± 1.5 μg/mL while Bacillus cereus and Flavobacterium aquatile had MIC values of 13 ± 1.3 μg/mL and 25 ± 2.1 μg/mL respectively. This variation was also noticeable in aqueous salts of Mn2SO4, Fe2SO4 and Pb2SO4. The bacteria isolates showed sensitivity to heavy metals with increasing zone of inhibition as concentration increased with each isolate showing varying degree of metalotolerance. The effectiveness of the autochthonous bacteria as a means to bio-augment the remediation of heavy metal polluted industrial effluent was further proven and recommended.
PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT

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