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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Biomarker Sciences and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
All Life     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Phycology     Open Access  
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in the Life Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access  
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioeduscience     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226)
Bioinformatics Advances : Journal of the International Society for Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

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Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.203
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1412-033X - ISSN (Online) 2085-4722
Published by Society for Indonesian Biodiversity Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Diversity and richness of day Butterflies species (Lepidoptera:
           Rhopalocera) in the Chettaba Forest, Constantine, Northeastern Algeria

    • Authors: Khalida Frahtia, Mohamed Ramzy Attar, Chakib Diabi
      Abstract: Abstract. Frahtia K, Attar MR, Diabi C. 2022. Diversity and richness of day butterflies species (Lepidoptera Rhopalocera) in the Chettaba Forest, Constantine, Northeastern Algeria. Biodiversitas 23: 3429-3436. In order to balance the lack of data concerning lepidopteran fauna in the region of Constantine (northeastern Algeria), a preliminary inventory has been drawn up in that region. This work was led during the 2021 spring season at the Chettaba Forest, where three stations were chosen: The 'Aleppo pine forest', the low matorral and the high matorral. Data collection required one outing per week for each site, during which specimens were collected and/or enumerated. A total of 815 specimens from 15 species belonging to 3 families were recorded: Pieridae (6 species), Lycaenidae (5 species), and Nymphalidae (4 species). The low and the high matorrals were the richest stations, with 15 species for the former and 11 species for the latter, but only 10 species were observed in the 'Aleppo pine forest'. The highest centesimal and occurrence frequencies were recorded for Pieris rapae in all three stations. The low matorral proved to be the most diversified station (H´: 3.00 bits) because of an important heterogeneity and quality of the habitat due to the biological post-fire rise that makes it richer in nectar-bearing plants, which is important for butterfly concentration.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Spatial distribution of mangrove health index on three genera dominated
           zones in Benoa Bay, Bali, Indonesia

    • Authors: I PUTU SUGIANA, ANAK AGUNG EKA ANDIANI, I GUSTI AYU ISTRI PRADNYANDARI DEWI, I WAYAN GEDE ASTAWA KARANG, ABD. RAHMAN AS-SYAKUR, I WAYAN EKA DHARMAWAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Sugiana IP, Andiani AAE, Dewi IGAIP, Karang IWGA, As-Syakur AR, Fharmawan IWE. 2022. Spatial distribution of mangrove health index on three genera dominated zones in Benoa Bay, Bali, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3407-3418. A study of mangrove forest stratification was conducted in Benoa Bay which experienced high coastal development pressures during the last decade. The study aimed to determine mangrove health index distribution (MHI) and forest community structures along three genera-dominated zones which were Sonneratia, Rhizophora and Bruguiera. Random forest method was applied to classify the areas of distributed genera along the bay. Forest structure was assessed with 54 plots. The forest was mainly composed of Rhizophora and Sonneratia-dominated zones in a respective forest area proportion at approximately 51% and 45%. Those zones were dominated by R. mucronata and S. alba with an importance value index (IVI) at 266.35% and 145.57%, respectively. A narrow Bruguiera zone composed of B. gymnorrhiza domination was found in the most landward area, only covering 4% of the mangrove area. Overall accuracy and a kappa coefficient indicated high accuracy of forest classification at 97% and 0.94 respectively. We found that 47.44% of mangrove areas could be classified into the highest healthiness category indicating that the mangrove forest in Benoa Bay is in excellent condition. The Rhizophora zone made a significant contribution to the entire forest state since the excellent category coverage in this zone was approximately 73.80%.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Identification of spatial data and ecology of Javan hawk-eagle's nest
           (Nisaetus bartelsi) in the Kondang Merak Coastal, South Malang, East Java,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: Ratih RatnaSari Dewi Iskandar, Dewi Elfidasari, Dewi Malia Prawiradilaga
      Abstract: Abstract. Iskandar RRD, Elfidasari D, Prawiradilaga DM. 2022. Identification of spatial data and ecology of Javan hawk-eagle's nest (Nisaetus bartelsi) in the Kondang Merak Coastal, South Malang, East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3419-3428. Ecological identification of the Javan hawk-eagle's habitat (Nisaetus bartelsi) is necessary to understand the support of its life, such as the spatial data in connection with its home range, nest location, and the use of nest trees. The species must choose a location that suits its needs. According to several studies, The Javan hawk-eagle's presence was only in highland forests. The new report of The Javan hawk-eagle occurrence in Merak Kondang coastal confirmed The Javan hawk-eagle's presence in lowland forest. The objective of this study was to identify the landscape characteristics that become the habitat preferences of The Javan hawk-eagle in Merak Kondang coastal, South Malang, East Java. Analysis used in this study included habitat suitability maps, plant vegetation, spatial analysis of tree canopy, and tree nest architecture analysis. The home range of the Javan hawk-eagle in the Kondang Merak coastal, South Malang, East Java, covered an area of 149.94 Ha. Most of the home range overlapped between Javan hawk-eagle individuals, including siblings and between an individual Javan hawk-eagle with other species of eagle. The Javan hawk-eagle used Spondias pinnata as nest trees with the architectural model Scarrone. It used 3 different tree species for perching, namely Pterocymbium javanicum, Anthocephalus cadamba, and Alstonia angustiloba. In the tree phase, the dominant vegetation type was Spondias pinnata (IVI) 43,16%, the pole phase that dominates was Mallotus paniculatus (IVI) 62.31%, the dominant vegetation of the stake phase was Garcinia forbesii, and the seedling phase was Arenga obtusifolia (IVI) 71.42%. The highest diversity index (H') was in the tree phase (H’=2,34), which was in the moderately abundant category and was at an elevation of 8% (flat).
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Fast-growing native tree species to the secondary forest of East
           Kalimantan, Indonesia: Physicochemical properties of woody materials for
           bioelectricity feedstocks

    • Authors: YULIANSYAH YULIANSYAH, MUHAMMAD TAUFIQ HAQIQI, KRISNA ADIB SETIAWAN, AGUS SETIAWAN, PRISTIANGGA DWI SAPUTRA, HERI SUKMA IQBAL ROMADLON, AHMAD MUKHDLOR, RICO RAMADHAN, RUDIANTO AMIRTA
      Abstract: Abstract. Yuliansyah. Haqiqi MT, Setiawan KA, Setiawan A, Saputra PD, Romadlon HSI, Mukhdlor A, Ramadhan R, Amirta R. 2022. Fast-growing native tree species to the secondary forest of East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Physicochemical properties of woody materials for bioelectricity feedstocks. Biodiversitas 23: 3379-3386. The conversion of woody biomass into electricity through a thermochemical process has recently attracted significant attention worldwide to promote green energy production. It provides a low-cost and straightforward operation promising for developing rural areas, especially with limited transportation access. In East Kalimantan Province, almost all remote areas are surrounded by forests with high tree species diversity, which is the potential to be utilized for sustainable feedstocks in electric power plants. This study pointed out the energy potential produced from woody biomass of selected fast-growing tree species native to East Kalimantan secondary tropical forest: Elaeocarpus ferrugineus (Jacq.) Steud., Ficus aurata (Miq.) Miq., Fordia splendidissima (Blume ex Miq.) Buijsen, Lindera lucida (Blume) Boerl., Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Mull. Arg. and Schima wallichii (DC). Their wood physicochemical properties were firstly investigated. Furthermore, each species' wood quality for solid energy purposes was presented as the fuel value index (FVI). The results revealed that the change from greenwood into wood chip effectively removed the moisture content, thus improving efficiency to achieve higher energy potency. Our findings showed that the highest energy potency was obtained from the wood chip of F. splendidissima (3.61 MWh/ton), followed by S. wallichii (2.98 MWh/ton). A similar pattern was also found in FVI determination showing that the wood chip of S. Splendidissima had the greatest value (8970). Therefore, we observed that the high quality of S. splendidissima compared to other selected fast-growing species indicates its high suitability for further large-scale crop plantation to supply wood chips for biomass-based electricity generation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: The population number of Pelung chickens in West
           Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: Indrawati Yudha Asmara, Dani Garnida, Heni Indrijani
      Abstract: Abstract. Asmara IY, Garnida D, Indrijani H. 2022. Short Communication: The population number of Pelung chickens in West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3373-3378. Domestic farm animals or, Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR), are part of the global biodiversity. The existence of AnGR, mainly local breeds, is threatened, and their population data is still far from complete. This study provides information about Pelung chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), a local chicken breed in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to offer an overview of the population, effective population size, and inbreeding rate of Pelung chickens in four regencies in West Java, Indonesia. The method used in this study was a survey of fanciers and breeders of Pelung. Interviews were conducted to reveal the production system and population data. The data were analyzed descriptively and then calculated to estimate the effective population size (Ne) as well as the rate of inbreeding ('F). This preliminary survey indicated that there was a change in the distribution of the Pelung chicken, in which Garut Regency has the largest population number of Pelung, with 5664 birds of all ages. In this study, Pelung chickens in different areas had high Ne (267-569), and the 'F can be considered fairly low (0.09-0.19). The results of the study are probably the first documentation of the population number of Pelung chickens in at least ten years. This research is the initial study that forms the basis for conducting a comprehensive survey on the Pelung chicken. This study offers an upper limit result of Ne, so that accurate diversity parameter such as using genomic information is required.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Distribution of invasive alien plant species, Bellucia pentamera, in
           forest conservation of oil palm plantation, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Authors: SOLFIYENI SOLFIYENI, ERIZAL MUKHTAR, SYAMSUARDI SYAMSUARDI, CHAIRUL CHAIRUL
      Abstract: Abstract. Solfiyeni, Mukhtar E, Syamsuardi, Chairul. 2022. Distribution of invasive alien plant species, Bellucia pentamera, in forest conservation of oil palm plantation, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3329-3337. Bellucia pentamera has been found in disturbed forests across Indonesia, but little is known about how it spreads under its tree canopy. The spread of the invasive plant B. pentamera in the PT KSI conservation forest area was investigated. The goal of this research is to study B. pentamera's strategy for exploiting forest gaps horizontally and vertically on degraded forest vegetation invaded by B. pentamera at various degrees of invasion. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and direct field mapping are used for the mapping approach. Aerial photographs revealed 40 B. pentamera trees and 32 non-B. pentamera trees in forest areas with varying degrees of B. pentamera invasion (based on the ratio of B. pentamera non-B. pentamera: dense and loose). Bellucia pentamera trees were distributed evenly in a large gap and randomly in a small gap/space between the canopy, whereas sapling and seedling B. pentamera trees were distributed in groups, uniformly and randomly, according to microhabitat conditions under the canopy of B. pentamera and non-tree trees. Bellucia pentamera seedlings and saplings were detected under the parent tree's canopy rather than in the canopy gaps. Different responses were seen in seedlings, saplings, and juvenile stages concerning the explanatory factors investigated and between the two stands. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that influence the distribution of the B. pentamera species in conservation forest areas with different compositions of existence, both vertically and horizontally, using drones and direct measurements in the field.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Freshwater gastropod community in South Konawe District, Southeast
           Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: DEDY OETAMA, MUHAMMAD FAJAR PURNAMA
      Abstract: Abstract. Oetama D, Purnama MF. 2022. Freshwater gastropod community in South Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3364-3372. The freshwater gastropod population in South Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, consists of aquatic and terrestrial snail communities. This resource (gastropod) is an ecological and economic potential that needs to be maintained and utilized optimally and sustainably. This research was conducted in April-July 2021 and aimed to determine the ecological index of the inland gastropod community in the South Konawe District. The sampling location was determined qualitatively using the purposive sampling method and a simple random sampling technique (Quantitative based). Gastropod samples were collected manually (hand picking) with a paralon pipe (3.5 inches), Sieve (1 mm), and Gloves. The total gastropods obtained at 33 sampling locations in this district were 2635 individuals. The inland gastropods comprised 19 genera and 33 species spread over 9 families, namely Achantinidae, Ampullariidae, Ariophantidae, Lymnaeidae, Neritidae, Pachychilidae, Planorbidae, Thiaridae, and Viviparidae. The average abundance of gastropods reached 79.85 ind./m2 and the abundance of gastropod species ranged from 0.58-13.48 ind./m2. Overall, the analysis of gastropod ecology index showed a stable condition, where the diversity of gastropod species was categorized as high (H'= 3.03), moderate evenness (E= 0.87), and high species richness (R= 4.06). There were no dominant species (C= 0.08) and the gastropod distribution showed a clustered pattern (Ip= 0.02). These ecological index values indicated that the gastropod community in the inland waters of South Konawe District was in a stable condition. Although the gastropod community in the inland waters of the South Konawe District simultaneously has the same area as the invasive gastropod from the family Thiaridae, namely Melanoides tuberculata (O.F.Müller, 1774) and Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1816).
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Diversity and species composition of ants at coffee agroforestry systems
           in East Java, Indonesia: Effect of habitat condition and landscape
           composition

    • Authors: FAIZ NASHIRUDDIN MUHAMMAD, AKHMAD RIZALI, BAMBANG TRI RAHARDJO
      Abstract: Abstract. Muhammad FN, Rizali A, Rahardjo BT. 2022. Diversity and species composition of ants at coffee agroforestry systems in East Java, Indonesia: Effect of habitat condition and landscape composition. Biodiversitas 23: 3313-3321. Habitat condition and landscape composition are the main factors that shape biodiversity in agroecosystems. However, information on the effect of habitat conditions and landscape composition on biodiversity in agroforestry systems is lacking. Agroforestry systems possess habitats that are characterized by a high diversity of vegetation, that can support biodiversity both on the field or landscape scale. This research aimed to study the diversity and species composition of ants in coffee (Coffea spp.) agroforestry systems, and to investigate the effects of habitat conditions and landscape composition on ant communities. Field research was conducted in twelve coffee agroforestry systems in East Java, Indonesia. Ants were sampled with the fogging method for canopy ants and pitfall traps for ground-dwelling ants in 40 m x 30 m plots. In each location, habitat conditions aspects (such as cultural technique and tree age) were identified by interviews with farmers and vegetation observation. Meanwhile, landscape composition was characterized by ground checking and mapping the land-use type within a 500 m radius from plot centers. This research recorded 35 species and 4,622 individuals of ants from all coffee plantations. Dolichoderus thoracicus was the most dominant canopy ant, while Pheidole sp.2 was the most dominant ground-dwelling ant in all plantations. Based on the GLM analysis, different responses were found between canopy and ground-dwelling ants in relation to habitat conditions and landscape composition. Canopy and ground-dwelling ants were affected by habitat conditions (such as tree age and canopy cover). The species composition of ground-dwelling ants was also affected by habitat conditions. In conclusion, habitats in coffee plantations can affect ant communities with ground-dwelling ants being more sensitive than canopy ants. Meanwhile, landscape composition can affect the species richness of all ants and not affect each stratum (canopy and ground-dwelling ants).
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Identification, genetic diversity, and comparative evolution of the
           striped snakehead Channa striata (Bloch, 1793) in Wallacea

    • Authors: IRMAWATI IRMAWATI, MEIMULYA MEIMULYA, ASMI CITRA MALINA A. R. TASSAKKA, NADIARTI NADIARTI, NITA RUKMINASARI, INCE AYU KHAIRANA KADRIAH, HASAN NASRULLAH, ALIMUDDIN ALIMUDDIN
      Abstract: Abstract. Irmawati, Meimulya, Tassakka ACMAR, Nadiarti, Rukminasari N, Kadriah IAK, Nasrullah H, Alimuddin. 2022. Identification, genetic diversity, and comparative evolution of the striped snakehead Channa striata (Bloch, 1793) in Wallacea. Biodiversitas 23: 3318-3328. Striped snakehead, Channa striata populations have declined in some areas of Wallacea. This study aimed to identify the species, analyze the genetic diversity, and trace the evolutionary relationships of snakeheads in the Wallacea region with snakeheads in other geographic areas. This study was identifying all specimens in this study as C. striata. The Wallacean C. striata sequences comprised three haplotypes with five polymorphic sites (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs). No mutations were detected in the COI nucleotides of C. striata in the Tempe Lake complex, Patampanua River, and Bojo River; therefore, they belonged to the same haplotype. The C. striata from the Tangkoli tertiary drainage had unique haplotypes that differed from other C. striata haplotypes. The intraspecific genetic distance within C. striata was low while the interspecific genetic distance within the genus Channa was quite large, indicating that mutation rates are quite high in the genus Channa. Haplotype evolution showed that C. striata in Wallacea shared a common ancestral pathway with C. striatain Kalimantan, Java, and Bali and had a different ancestral pathway with C. striata in Lampung (Sumatra). The nucleotide composition of the C. striata COI gene followed the general pattern of the Teleostei and the Pisces superclass (T>C>A>G) with the G+C base percentage lower than the A+T percentage. The data from this study will be useful as a basis for designing germplasm conservation strategies and designing strategies to maintain C. striata populations and develop strains to meet future needs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Detection of virulence factor encoding genes on Escherichia coli isolated
           from broiler chicken in Blitar District, Indonesia

    • Authors: MUSTOFA HELMI EFFENDI, HAYYUN DURROTUL FARIDAH, FRESHINDY MARISSA WIBISONO, FRESHINTA JELLIA WIBISONO, NABILATUN NISA, FATIMAH FATIMAH, EMMANUEL NNABUIKE UGBO
      Abstract: Abstract. Efendi MH, Faridah HD, Wibisono FM, Wibisono FJ, Nisa N, Fatimah F, Ugbo EN. 2022. Detection of virulence factor encoding genes on Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chicken in Blitar District, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3437-3442. Broiler chicken is a source of protein that is widely consumed by the public. However, broiler chicken production sometimes decreases due to infectious diseases such as colibacillosis caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli possessing virulence genes. Virulence factors function to facilitate colonization and invasion of host cells to cause disease. The presence of these virulence factors is encoded by various genes such asthe increased serum survival gene and P fimbriae gene which plays a role in surface adhesion. The present study aims to detect the presence of virulence genes from extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E.coli isolated from broiler chickens in the Blitar District. A total of 110 cloacal swabs collected by systematic random sampling from broiler poultry farms in four different sub-districts were screened for ESBL-producing E. coli and virulence genes by phenotypic and molecular methods, respectively. Out of 110 E.coli recovered, 95 (86.4%) were observed to show a high level of resistance to the tested antibiotics, and 34 (35.7%) were ESBL-producers. Among ESBL producing E. coli isolates, 22 (73.5%) and 1 (2.9%) were found to have the iss and papC gene virulence factors, respectively using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The results of this study indicate that virulence genes can be found in E. coli from poultry farms. The iss gene is the most predominant virulence gene. The reportof these virulence factors in E. coli isolated from broiler could impose a serious potential public health problem.
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Detection of Staphylococcus aureus from contact surfaces of public buses
           in Bangkok and metropolitan area, Thailand

    • Authors: NARUMON BOONMAN, JARUWAN CHUTRTONG, CHANATE WANNA, SIRIPHAN BOONSILP, SUPATRA CHUNCHOB
      Abstract: Abstract. Boonman N, Chutrtong J, Wanna C, Boonsilp S, Chunchob S. 2022. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus from contact surfaces of public buses in Bangkok and metropolitan area, Thailand. Biodiversitas 23: 3395-3400. The purpose of present investigation was to determine the prevalence of different species of genus Staphylococcus on the contact surfaces of public buses in Bangkok and metropolitan area. A total of 180 samples were collected from handrails, seats, and window frames of each bus of 2 bus terminals, Bangkhen and Morchit, divided into 15 non-air-conditioned buses and 15 air-conditioned buses from each terminal. The samples were cultivated and identified by Gram’s stain and biochemical tests. The results showed that 76.7% from Bangkhen and 80% from Mochit were contaminated with Staphylococcus spp. Based on the type of vehicles, Staphylococcus spp. was found in 93.3% of air-conditioned buses and 63.3% of non-air-conditioned buses. Considering the sampling location, Staphylococcus spp. was found in 28.3% of handrails, 50% of seats and 51.7% of window frames. Four isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were discovered among 294 isolates in a total of Staphylococcus spp., including 3 isolates from Bangkhen and 1 isolate from Mochit. Only one isolate was contaminated on the non-air-conditioned bus, whereas 3 isolates were on the air-conditioned buses. Two isolates of them were found from seats and 2 isolates from window frames. Disk diffusion susceptibility test showed that 3 isolates of S. aureus resisted fusidic acid and fosfomycin. The results suggested that Staphylococcus spp. and S. aureus were prevalence in public transport systems which were a source of infection to the persons. Therefore, effectively controlling their distribution is necessary to reduce the risk of bacterial infections in public bus users.
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Local ecological knowledge of coffee agroforestry farmers on earthworms
           and their relation to soil quality in East Java (Indonesia)

    • Authors: MILA OKTAVIA MARDIANI, IRMA ARDI KUSUMAWATI, EKA PURNAMASARI, CAHYO PRAYOGO, MEINE VAN NOORDWIJK, KURNIATUN HAIRIAH
      Abstract: Abstract. Mardiani MO, Kusumawati IA, Purnamasari E, Prayogo C, van Noordwijk V, Hairiah K. 2022. Local ecological knowledge of coffee agroforestry farmers on earthworms and their relation to soil quality in East Java (Indonesia). Biodiversitas 23: 3344-3354. Farmers manage their land-based on their understanding of biotic and abiotic factors, including soils, and how these factors affect crop growth and productivity. Their local ecological knowledge (LEK) is built upon intergenerational transfer and can use concepts that don’t directly match those of current science-based ecological knowledge. We explored farmer LEK related to soil organic matter management and earthworms in coffee-based agroforestry systems on volcanic slopes in East Java (Indonesia) by in-depth interviews with key informants and by surveying the concurrence of respondents, stratified by gender and age, with resulting statements. The term used in the local language for earthworms (‘cacing tanah’) included a range of species. According to 22% (n=48) of farmers, small earthworms (probably Pontoscolex corethrurus) are harmful to coffee trees because they eat the roots. Also, 54% (n=48) of farmers thought earthworms that eat soil cause a decrease in soil volume. However, according to the farmers, large earthworms (reddish-brown) can fertilize the soil by leaving their casts on the soil surface. Such worms are often found in coffee agroforestry systems. Farmers have little explicit knowledge of the activities of earthworms and their relation with litter as a source of food. Farmer knowledge of ecosystem services provided by earthworms can enrich current scientific literature and trigger a two-way dialogue.
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Effectiveness of Dyella japonica and Enterobacter cloacae as
           biofertilizers to increase maize (Zea mays) production on andisol soil

    • Authors: MARIANI SEMBIRING, TENGKU SABRINA
      Abstract: Abstract. Sembiring M, Sabrina T. 2022. Effectiveness of Dyella japonica and Enterobacter cloacae as biofertilizers to increase maize (Zea mays) production on andisol soil. Biodiversitas 23: 3338-3343. Nitrogen is a very important nutrient in plant growth because it is one of the constituents of plant cells. The availability of nitrogen nutrients in the soil is very low, and this is because nitrogen is easily leached and easy to evaporate. Application of N-fixing microbes is one way to increase the availability of nitrogen in the soil. This study aims to utilize nitrogen-fixing microbes to increase nutrient uptake, production, and efficiency of urea fertilization. The study used a factorial randomized block design (RBD) consisting of Factor I, namely biofertilizer consisting of 4 treatments, namely without the application of bacteria (N0), Dyella japonica 5g (N1), Enterobacter cloacae 5g (N2) and D. japonica 2.5g + E. cloacae 2.5g (N3). Factor II is urea fertilizer with 5 levels U0 = No urea fertilizer, U1 = 1.25 g, U2 = 2.50 g, U3 = 3.75g and U4 = 5g. Parameters observed were plant height observed in weeks I-VIII, plant nitrogen (N) uptake (mg/plant), phosphorus (P) uptake (mg/plant), potassium (K) uptake (mg/plant), and plant production (g). Sampling of plants for analysis of nutrient uptake was carried out at the end of the vegetative period, namely the 8th week, while for plant production parameters, plant samples were taken at the 12th week. The results showed that the applications of nitrogen-fixing bacteria could increase N uptake up to 89.35%, P uptake up to 79.57%, K uptake up to 48.81%, and crop production increase up to 49.76%. The applications of nitrogen-fixing microbes can streamline the use of urea fertilizer by up to 50%. In general, the best treatment is the applications of D. japonica and E. cloacae plus 2.5g urea (N3U2).
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Attractiveness of subterranean termite Coptotermes
           formosanus to plant leaf extracts

    • Authors: Yuliati Indrayani, MUSRIZAL MUIN, CYNTHIA ADILLA, TSUYOSHI YOSHIMURA
      Abstract: Abstract. Indrayani Y, Muin M, Adilla C, Yoshimura T. 2018. Short Communication: Attractiveness of subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus to plant leaf extracts. Biodiversitas 19: 1176-1180. Plant-derived compounds have many potential uses. One such use is in agriculture for managing pests with less risk than with synthetic compounds that are toxicologically and environmentally undesirable. The current study focuses on the potential use of leaf extracts from five tropical plant species in attractant bait systems for controlling subterranean termites. Leaves from clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.)], cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendra L.), cinnamon [Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume], basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) and bay (Syzygium polyanthum Wight) were extracted with 70% ethanol solution. Each extract was evaluated for its attractant properties for Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki using olfactory and Y-line trail following tests, respectively. Extract solutions were diluted to 1% concentration based on their eugenol content. For each test, which was replicated 15 times, a single worker was introduced into the test unit. The results showed that M. leucadendra crude extract was the most attractive among the five plant crude extracts, and the S. aromaticum crude extract was attractive especially in the trail-following test. The attraction rates were 40.00%, 80.00%, 53.33%, 60.00% and 46.67% for the S. aromaticum, M. leucadendra, C. burmannii, O. sanctum and S. polyanthum extracts, respectively. The trail-following rates were 86.67% for the S. aromaticum extract, 66.67% for the M. leucadendra extract, 53.33% for the C. burmannii extract, 20% for the O. sanctum extract as well as 26.67% for the S. polyanthum extract.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • The distribution of benthic foraminifera in coral reefs ecosystem of East
           Penjaliran Island, Seribu Islands, Indonesia

    • Authors: Suhartati Muhammad Natsir
      Abstract: Abstract. Natsir SM. 2022. ­­The distribution of benthic foraminifera in coral reefs ecosystem of East Penjaliran Island, Seribu Islands, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3073-3080. East Penjaliran Island is located in the core zone of Seribu Islands Marine National Park and is included in the protected green area. The research shows the close relationship between benthic foraminifera and coral reef. Certain foraminifera has the same environmental requirement to live with coral reefs. Therefore, the study of foraminiferal assemblages is also very important to shed light on the environmental conditions for the growth of coral reefs through calculating the Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring Index (FORAM Index/FI). Sampling was conducted in December 2016 around the coral reef ecosystems of East Penjaliran Island, Seribu Islands. A total of 37 species of benthic foraminifera were collected from the island with a diverse abundance. Based on the FI gained values on average of 3.18. It indicates that East Penjaliran Island is classified as an environmental change for coral reefs' growth. The condition was feasible for the growth of coral reefs, but it tends to be an unfavorable environment for their recovery. The benthic foraminifera assemblages can be classified into three major groups based on the Shannon diversity index and FI (i.e., Group A, Group B, and Group C) with their specific characteristics. Group A was characterized by coarse sand sediment and dwelled dominantly by opportunistic foraminifers such as Elphidium advenum, Elphidium crispum, and Flintina bradyana. Groups B and C have very fine sand sediment, but they dwelled by foraminiferal assemblages in different compositions. Group B was dominated by E. crispum and followed by several species of Peneroplis, but Group C dwelled abundantly by E. advenum, E. crispum, Elphidium depressulum and followed by symbiont-bearing foraminifera such as Peneroplis planatus.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Diversity of butterflies in the tropical wetland of Kayan-Sembakung Delta,
           North Kalimantan, Indonesia

    • Authors: Harmonis Harmonis, Abdul Rahim, Hendra Adi Hidayat, Oshlifin Rucmana Saud, Muhammad Wilujeng, Ruben Sampe, Karlina Fitri Kartika, Aminudin Aminudin, Tunggul Butar Butar
      Abstract: Abstract. Harmonis, Rahim A, Hidayat HA, Saud OR, Wilujeng M, Sampe R, Kartika KF, Aminudin, Butar TB. 2022. Diversity of butterflies in the tropical wetland of Kayan-Sembakung Delta, North Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3303-3312. Butterflies, which belong to the order Lepidoptera, are considered superior biological indicators to evaluate environmental conditions in various types of habitats due to their high richness in biodiversity, short generation time, good movement, and high sensitivity. Since butterflies produce various benefits for the ecosystem, their conservation currently receives significant attention in order to improve human well-being. However, there is still limited research about butterfly diversity in tropical wetlands, especially in Borneo (Kalimantan) Island. Herein, we identify the diversity of butterflies found in the Kayan-Sembakung Delta, North Kalimantan, which is still unexplored so far. The area was dominated by mangroves, peat swamps, and brackish swamps. The research locations inside the Kayan-Sembakung Delta were divided into 20 groups. The specimen was collected by an aerial insect net and bait traps. The diversity index, taxonomy structure, and domination index were further investigated. The results showed that the highest individuals (69) and species (36) had been found in Pembeliangan. Altogether, we found 608 individuals of 92 species in the areas studied. Among others, the family of Nymphalidae was noted as the most dominant. We stated that the diversity of butterflies was also influenced by the type of habitat, as it could be found at the peat swamp forest where the highest species were found. In the meantime, some unique species have been found in the Kayan-Sembakung Delta, including Arhopala overdijkinki, Hypolycaena thecloides, Drupadia johorensis, Idea leuconoe, and Polyura jalysus. The results of this study are expected to give more information for future management and conservation of the wetland areas, especially in the Kayan-Sembakung Delta.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Diversity and abundance of water birds in the mangrove area of south coast
           of Bangkalan, Madura Island, Indonesia

    • Authors: Ajeng Ramadhani, Reni Ambarwati, Ragil Satriyo Gumilang
      Abstract: Abstract. Ramadhani A, Ambarwati R, Gumilang RS. 2022. Diversity and abundance of water birds in the mangrove area of south coast of Bangkalan, Madura Island, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3277-3284. The southern coastal mangrove area of ''Bangkalan, Madura Island, Indonesia, is an important bird habitat, especially for water birds. This study aimed to analyze the diversity and abundance of water birds in the southern coastal mangrove area of ''Bangkalan, Indonesia, as well as the environmental carrying capacity of this area as their habitat. Sampling was carried out using a birdwatching approach at four research stations. The diversity of water birds was analyzed using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, while the abundance of water birds was calculated based on the abundance index. Environmental carrying capacity was analyzed descriptive-quantitatively based on the habitat profile. The results indicated that there were 15 species of water birds in the mangrove area belonging to five families in four orders, namely Charadriiformes, Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Suliformes, with a diversity index of 1.547. There were three abundant species of water birds, namely the little egret (Egretta garzetta), Javan Pond-heron (Ardeola speciosa), and Great Egret (Ardea alba). In addition to water birds, there were nine species of arboreal birds in this area. The areas with dense mangroves provide better habitat carrying capacity for water birds compared to other coastal areas.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Tolerance response of varied tomato genotypes grown at excess manganese
           (Mn)

    • Authors: SITI ZAHARA, NONO CARSONO, RIJA SUDIRJA, MOCHAMAD ARIEF SOLEH SOLEH
      Abstract: Abstract. Zahara S, Carsono N, Sudirja R, Soleh MA. 2022. Tolerance response of varied tomato genotypes grown at excess manganese (Mn). Biodiversitas 23: 3209-3218. High Mn concentration in acidic soil has been known as a limiting factor of sustainable tomato production. In addition, the number of tomato cultivars available to be grown under such conditions is still limited. Therefore, this study tested the Mn tolerance response among four tomato genotypes, Opal, Mutiara, Ratna, and Mirah, grown hydroponically. Nutrient solutions were added to Mn for concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 ppm. The increase of Mn concentration ([Mn]) significantly decreased chlorophyll fluorescence and stomatal conductance. Shoot Tolerance Index (STI) and Root Tolerance Index (RTI) among genotypes were significant differences in response to Mn concentration. Genotype Mirah was the lowest Mn accumulation in the shoot and root compared to other genotypes. Most of the Mn absorbed by Mirah was accumulated in the roots. The tolerance ranks of the tomato genotype tested for Mn toxicity were Mirah > Opal > Ratna > Mutiara. This indicates that genetic composition plays an essential role in Mn tolerance. The tolerance response of Mirah was due to its ability to prevent Mn from being absorbed by the shoot, which led to the effect of shoot toxicity. This response might help improve tomato genotypes tolerance under high Mn soil.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Quality and storage time of traditional dangke cheese inoculated with
           indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from Enrekang District, South
           Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: MUHAMMAD ASKARI x MUHAMMAD ASKARI ZAKARIAH, RATMAWATI MALAKA, AMRAN LAGA, AMBO AKO, MUHAMMAD ZAKARIAH, FAILAL ULFI MAULIAH
      Abstract: Abstract. Zakariah MA, Malaka R, Laga A, Ako A, Zakariah M, Mauliah FU. 2022. Quality and storage time of traditional dangke cheese inoculated with indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from Enrekang District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3270-3276. Dangke is a traditional cheese from Enrekang District. Many research on the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from dangke has been done without knowing the type of LAB species. This study aimed to find out the type of LAB species that have been successfully isolated and applied to dangke again. The design of this study was conducted in two stages: 1) isolated LAB species were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing; 2) effect of inoculated LAB on the quality and storage time of traditional dangke cheese. The molecular results showed that LAB from dangke included Streptococcus lutetiensis, Weissella confusa and Streptococcus equinus. Isolates type and ripening time have affected pH, organic matter, and dangke crude fat. The type of isolate can partially affect the dry matter content, and dangke crude protein. Weissella confusa can improve the quality of dangke with a ripening time of 6 days and a storage time of 3 days.
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Occurrence of common core structure and genotype-specific signatures among
           the Vibrio of environmentally diverse vended crabs and shrimps from
           selected Lagos seafood markets, Nigeria

    • Authors: OLUBUSOLA A. ODENIYI, ODUNAYO J. OLAWUYI, OLUDAYO OGUNSANYA, JOHN O. UNUOFIN
      Abstract: Abstract. Odeniyi OA, Olawuyi OJ, Ogunsanya O, Unuofin JO. 2022. Occurrence of common core structure and genotype-specific signatures among the Vibrio of environmentally diverse vended crabs and shrimps from selected Lagos seafood markets, Nigeria. Biodiversitas 23: 3081-3090. This study investigated the occurrence of Vibrio species from the gastrointestinal tract of vended crabs and shrimps using Multiplex polymerase chain reactions (Multiplex PCR) method. Different primer pairs were used to detect the presence of hsp, sodB, SodB-R, ctx, toxR, and Vchol virulent genes in the samples. The phylogenetic relationships among the Vibrio species were determined and the polymorphic information content of selected Vibrio primer products was generated using Powermarker V3.25 Dendo-UPGMA program based on Jaccard’s coefficient. The detection of Vibrio virulence genes confirmed the presence of Vibrio species in the DNA extracts of 19 out of the 60 crustacean samples. Among the Vibrio species, Vibrio parahaemolyticus was the most frequently identified species (47.4%), followed by Vibrio cholerae (36.8%), and Vibrio mimicus (15.8%), while the presence of Vibrio vulnificus was not detected in the crab and shrimp samples. Phylogenetically, the Vp.tdh primer constituted the highest allele number, gene diversity and polymorphic information content of 18.00, 0.9444 and 0.9415, respectively, while the mean of the Vp.tdh and Vp.trh primer sequence combination was polymorphic (0.7153). Among the 19 positive Vibrio strains, different major clusters and subclusters were identified, indicating the relatedness between the identified species. The result of this study indicates that the innocuously vended crab and shrimp samples are indeed reservoirs of pathogenic Vibrio species whose consumption by humans might affect the health of the general populace.
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Cryopreservation of Gaga’ chicken semen from South Sulawesi, Indonesia
           with the addition of L-carnitine, hyaluronic acid, sucrose and their
           combination in diluent

    • Authors: Khaeruddin Khaeruddin, Sri Wahjuningsih, Gatot Ciptadi, Muhammad Yusuf, Hermawansyah Hermawansyah, Sahiruddin Sahiruddin
      Abstract: Abstract. Khaeruddin, Wahjuningsih S, Ciptadi G, Yusuf M, Hermawansyah, Sahiruddin. 2022. Cryopreservation of Gaga’ chicken semen from South Sulawesi, Indonesia with the addition of L-carnitine, hyaluronic acid, sucrose and their combination in diluent. Biodiversitas 23: 3297-3302. Gaga' chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is Indonesian germplasm that needs to be preserved with cryopreservation technology. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effect of adding L-Carnitine, hyaluronic acid, and sucrose as well as their combination in a diluent on the quality of Gaga' chicken spermatozoa after freeze-thawing. A completely randomized design was used along with 6 treatments, namely P0, P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5, containing Ringer acetate-egg yolk (RAEY) diluent (P0), RAEY + 0.063 mM hyaluronic acid (P1), RAEY + 1 mM L-carnitine (P2), RAEY + 1 mM sucrose (P3), RAEY + 0.063 mM hyaluronic acid + 1 mM L-carnitine (P4), and RAEY + 0.063 mM hyaluronic acid + 1 mM L-carnitine + 1mM sucrose (P5). Liquid semen was packed in a 0.25 mL straw, equilibrated at 5oC for 2 hours, and placed 3 cm above the surface of liquid nitrogen. It was then immersed in nitrogen for 24 hours and thawed at 60°C for 5 seconds. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the motility, viability, and kinematic variables of spermatozoa after freeze-thawing. P1, P2, P3, and P4 increased progressive motility and curvilinear velocity, while viability increased with P1, P2, and P4 treatments. Furthermore, the addition of Hyaluronic acid, L-carnitine, or their combination in the RAEY diluent can improve the sperm quality of Gaga' chickens.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Biological control of Sclerotinia minor attack on pyrethrum plants by
           Trichoderma harzianum in glasshouse experiment

    • Authors: Yan Ramona, Ida Bagus Gede Darmayasa, Martin A Line
      Abstract: Abstract. Ramona Y, Darmayasa IBG, Line MA. 2022. Biological control of Sclerotinia minor attack on pyrethrum plants by Trichoderma harzianum in glasshouse experiment. Biodiversitas 23: 3264-3269. The aim of this research was to elucidate the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum (isolate Td22) grown in a ratio of 2:8 millet seeds and wood fiber waste (WFW) compost mixture to suppress Sclerotinia minor infection in pot trails on the pyrethrum plants (in 0.5 L pots). The pots were filled with soil and mixed with Td22-grown WFW compost to obtain a concentration of 5% v/v. The S. minor (fungal pathogen) previously grown in millet seeds amounted at 2.0 g per pot, was then evenly inoculated at 2 cm below the surface of potting mix. Soil without compost amendment, amended with pathogen only, or without pathogen inoculation served as controls. All pots were acclimatized for 4 days in a shade house prior to transplanting (4 seedlings per pot) of pyrethrum seedlings (aged of 3 weeks). Eight replications per treatment were run for 8 weeks. The results showed that 5% v/v compost-grown Td22 provided 78% protection to pyrethrum plants at week 8. Each surviving plant in Td22-treated pots also showed significantly higher average dry weight (p<0.05) than those planted in S. minor control treatment, indicating that Td22 has a potential to be developed as a novel fungal antagonist or a plant growth-promoting fungus.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Fundamentals of using Geographical Information Systems in predicting the
           distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    • Authors: RASUL RUZMETOV, IKRAM ABDULLAEV, LOLA GANDJAEVA, ZAFARBEK MATYAKUBOV, KAKHRAMON RAZZAKOV, ABDULLA ISKANDAROV, ODILBEK OTAEV, SHODLIK IBRAGIMOV
      Abstract: Abstract. Ruzmetrov R, Abdullaev I, Gandjaeva L, Matyakubov Z, Iskandarov A, Otaev O, Ibragimov S. 2022. Fundamentals of using Geographical Information Systems in predicting the distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Biodiversitas 23: 3251-3256. This study aims to explore new ways to identify agroecological conditions that help in the occurrence of Helicoverpa armigera in cotton fields. Geographical data on soil salinity, mechanical composition, groundwater level, salinity, density of canals and drains, field Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) coefficient of the field Helicoverpa armigera with the number of eggs regression was analyzed. The data were collected from the database of the GIS laboratory of the KRASS (Khorezm Rural Advisory Support Service) agro-consulting center, which was established with support from ZEF (The Center for Development Research) University of Bonn, Germany, and lancet satellite data in the calculation of NDVI. Data were analyzed with ArcGIS and R program. Occurrence of Helicoverpa armigera in cotton fields was found to be associated with high relative humidity and high stem length. Using the relative humidity of the air in the field and other agroecological factors, it was found that the probability of remote distribution of cotton bollworm is more than 50%.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The potential of young and old Euphorbia hirta leaves extract as
           antibacterial against Escherichia coli and antihelminthic against
           Ascaridia galli obtained in Sentul chickens

    • Authors: MARYATI PUSPITASARI, ABUN ABUN, ANA ROCHANA, TUTI WIDJASTUTI
      Abstract: Abstract. Puspitasari M, Abun, Rochana A, Widjastuti T. 2022. The potential of young and old Euphorbia hirta leaves extract as antibacterial against Escherichia coli and antihelminthic against Ascaridia galli obtained in Sentul chickens. Biodiversitas 23: 3243-3250. The declining production of indigenous Sentul chickens is due to pathological microbes in the digestive tract. Euphorbia hirta or patikan kebo is a weed exhibiting active compounds that are expected to remove Escherichia coli and Ascaridia galli from the digestive tracts of chicken. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of E. coli and anthelmintic A. galli from the ethanol extract of E. hirta. The anthelmintic activity was analyzed in a completely randomized design with four doses (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg/mL) and five replicates. Mortality time series data were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the Duncan test. While a probit analysis determined the Lethal Concentration (LC50) and Lethal Time (LT50), experiments on antibacterial activity were performed by the microdilution method. The result showed a powerful anthelmintic activity in ethanol extracted from both young and old leaves. However, LC50 and LT50 were higher in young leaves than the old ones. While antibacterial activity against E. coli was apparent from ethanol extract in old and young leaves. Old leaves have a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of 3.125% lower than young leaves (12.5%).
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Herpetofauna distribution in different land cover types of West Java,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: ERRI NOVIAR MEGANTARA, JIRJIZ JAUHAN, SYA SYA SHANIDA, TEGUH HUSODO, DERRI ACHMAD FAUZI, RANDI HENDRAWAN, INDRI WULANDARI, YUANSAH YUANSAH
      Abstract: Abstract. Megantara EN, Jauhan J, Shanida SS, Husodo T, Fauzi DA, Hendrawan R, Wulandari I, Yuansah. 2022. Herpetofauna distribution in different land cover types of West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2990-2999. Herpetofauna is very sensitive and can be used as a biodiversity indicator. Herpetofauna can experience environmental stress due to agricultural activities, tourism, and other disturbances that result in habitat loss. Herpetofauna can be found on various land covers, such as natural forests and human-modified land. This study revealed species associated with natural forests, human-modified land, and both. This study aims to investigate: 1) herpetofauna distribution based on land cover types and 2) the disturbance that threatens the herpetofauna habitat in West Java. Visual Encounter Survey combination with the Auditory Encounter Survey, was applied in this study. The result of this study, the species were found in the natural forest (53 species), human-modified land (63 species), and crater (2 species). Thirty-nine species were found both in the natural forest and human-modified land. The habitat disturbance potentially threatens the species, such as land clearing (it will affect the microclimate of land cover), roadkill, infrastructure development, and tourism activities.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Wildlife-vehicle collisions in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand: Impact on
           native species for some conservation management

    • Authors: Nattaphat Rattanawanawong, Naris Bhumpakphan, Utis Kutintar, Ronglarp Sukmasuang
      Abstract: Abstract. Rattanawanawong N, Bhumpakphan N, Kutintara U, Sukmasuang R. 2022. Wildlife-vehicle collisions in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand: Impact on native species for some conservation management. Biodiversitas 23: 3050-3061. Wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVCs) remain a major challenge in wildlife management worldwide, especially in conservation areas with transport routes passing through. This study was operated along a 48 km long highway, which conducted 207 surveys in a natural world heritage site from February 2018 to January 2019. A total of 391 wild animal carcasses were found in 90 species. The carcasses found, according to the taxonomic group, were reptiles (67.52%), followed by mammals (14.83%), amphibians (4.35%), birds (3.32%). Reptiles were most affected by road use, especially tortoises in Family Geoemydidae and Family Testudinidae that two critically endangered species were found. This study found that members of Family Colubridae were most affected that 26 species, a total of 144 animal carcasses were found, accounting for 29.15% of the number of all carcasses. The most affected species were forest garden lizard (Calotes emma) in the Family Agamidae, where 99 carcasses were found, accounting for 25.31% of the total. In March showed the highest number of the carcasses, followed by April. All of the carcasses found in the evening slightly more than the morning indicated that wild animals died more during the day than at night. The number of vehicles day-1 significantly affected wildlife mortality per day. Reducing the number of vehicles per day-1 entering and reducing vehicle speed, including the number of tourists, as well as banning travel at night, would mitigate the problem. Further, educational signage about wildlife diversity and the risk of road mortality should be installed at the park to remind visitors about the unique fauna in the national park and emphasize the importance of conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Diversity, risk and management feasibility of invasive alien plants in the
           border zone of Sicike-cike Nature Tourism Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Authors: MUHAMMAD KOMARUL HUDA, NURSAHARA PASARIBU, SYAMSUARDI SYAMSUARDI, ETTI SARTINA SIREGAR
      Abstract: Abstract. Huda MK, Pasaribu N, Syamsuardi, Siregar ES. 2022. Diversity, risk and management feasibility of invasive alien plants in the border zone of Sicike-cike Nature Tourism Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3156-3165. Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten native ecosystems and biota either directly or indirectly. Once colonizing, invasive plant species tend to dominate a landscape, hindering other native vegetation from growing. Thus, the invasion of alien plant species needs attention moreover in protected areas such as Nature Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam/TWA) Sicike-cike, Dairi District, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Besides its importance for nature conservation, TWA Sicike-cike is culturally essential for Pakpak Dairi ethnic community as well as economically for ecotourism. Yet, anecdotal evidence showed the presence of several invasive alien plants around the park. This study aimed to investigate the diversity and composition of invasive alien plants within the vegetation community in TWA Sicike-cike and to assess the risk value and management feasibility of the IAS. Purposive sampling using line transect method was conducted to collect data with a total of 120 observation plots established along 6 transects. Risk value was assessed based on invasiveness, impact and potential distribution. Management feasibility was assessed based on cost, current distribution and persistence. The results showed that Asteraceae was the most dominant family of invasive plants in the studied area with four species. At the species level, Imperata cylindrica was invasive alien plant species with the highest important value index (IVI) of 57.65% and a high-risk value of 235.8, followed by other species including Ageratum conyzoides, Chromolaena odorata, Clidemia hirta and Melastoma malabathricum. In terms of management feasibility, the existence of I. cylindrica is recommended for direct eradication, while other IAS management recommendations, included monitoring and area protection for further invasion by the species.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Chromosome number and reproductive mode of some Pteris species
           (Pteridaceae) in Thailand

    • Authors: PONPIPAT LIMPANASITTICHAI, TASSANAI JARUWATTANAPHAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Limpanasittichai P, Jaruwattanaphan T. 2022. Chromosome number and reproductive mode of some Pteris species (Pteridaceae) in Thailand. Biodiversitas 23: 3285-3296. The fern genus Pteris L. (Pteridaceae) consists of 329 species. This genus is one of the largest fern genera and is quite diverse with many different ploidy levels and reproductive modes resulting from complicated hybrid speciation events in their evolution. However, there have been very few observations of Pteridophytes in Thailand. This study aims to investigate chromosome number and reproductive mode of Pteris in Thailand. Mitotic chromosome numbers of 9 species collected from natural habitats were observed by hematoxylin squash method and their reproductive modes were estimated by counting the number of spores per sporangium. Three cytotypes were found, namely diploid, triploid and tetraploid. Nevertheless, only sexual individuals were recognized. First reports are provided for 3 species, namely P. dalhousieae (2n = 2x = 58, sexual), P. decrescens (2n = 2x = 58, sexual), and P. heteromorpha (2n = 2x = 58; 2n = 3x = 87 and 2n = 4x = 116, sexual) and the chromosome numbers from the remaining taxa match those reported from other countries. Two species, namely P. heteromorpha and P. vittata exhibited diverse cytotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • New distribution record of Varuna litterata from Caraga Region,
           Philippines: Analysis on morphometry, length/width-weight relationship,
           and condition factor

    • Authors: Jess H. Jumawan, Jeco Jed J Ruales, Maria Cristina A Avila
      Abstract: Abstract. Jumawan JH, Ruales JJJ, Avila MCA. 2022. New distribution record of Varuna litterata from Caraga Region, Philippines: Analysis on morphometry, length/width-weight relationship, and condition factor. Biodiversitas 23: 2935-2942. The study reported the occurrence of Varuna litterata in its habitat as a new record in Caraga Region, Philippines. The crab samples were collected using a hand-picked method and were of marketable sizes. There were 14 morphometric traits measured with the corresponding weight and sex of each specimen. Majority of the crab samples were medium-sized, with weight ranging from 11-20 grams, a carapace width range of 28-34 cm, and a carapace length range of 27-32 cm. Exploratory analysis of length /width-weight data fits the power regression model depicted into graphs. A strong relationship and highly significant was observed on pooled samples of WT-CW variables (R2: 0.9229: P<0.001) and WT-CL variables (R2: 0.9197); P<0.001). The derived log-transformed for WT-CW relationship was logWT: -2.7994+2.6456 logCW. Results suggest that carapace length and width tend to be smaller relative to the weight, which is an indication of a negative allometric growth pattern. The computed Fulton's condition factor was higher in males than females, as supported by Kruskal Wallis test (P<0.001). The data provides baseline information for comparing similar studies and in understanding the population dynamics of this crab species.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Molecular characterization of toxic benthic dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum
           lima in west Indonesian waters using LSU 28S rDNA gene

    • Authors: RIANI WIDIARTI, NEVIATY PUTRI ZAMANI, DIETRIECH GEOFFREY BENGEN, HAWIS MADDUPPA
      Abstract: Abstract. Widiarti R, Zamani NP, Bengen DG, Madduppa H. 2022. Molecular characterization of toxic benthic dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum lima in west Indonesian waters using LSU 28S rDNA gene. Biodiversitas 23: 3257-3263. Prorocentrum lima is one of the toxic benthic dinoflagellates known to cause Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), which is also associated with ciguatoxin-producing species, Gambierdiscus toxicus that causes Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). P. lima has a wide range of morphological variability and genetic diversity, but such research has never been reported from Indonesian waters yet. This study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of P. limain west Indonesian waters, namely Bintan Island, Belitung Island, Seribu Islands, and Karimunjawa Islands. Molecular characterization was conducted by amplification on large subunit (LSU)28S rDNA gene. Extraction was conducted using freeze-thaw which was continued with single cell PCR method. Genetic distance values and phylogenetic analysis were analyzed using MEGA software. Based on molecular analysis, P. lima from this research was divided into two subclades, namely subclade A from Seribu Islands and Belitung Island, and subclade B from Karimunjawa Islands and Bintan Island. P. lima from Bintan Island showed a closer relationship with the reference sequence from the Genbank. Observation of molecular characters of P. lima showed that the genetic diversity of P. lima depended on the variation of the island’s morphogenesis type.These findings could support a further study on the distribution of P. lima in Indonesian waters, related to the genetic variation and toxin production, since Indonesia consists of many small islands.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The family Plagiochilaceae (Marchantiophyta) in Batang Toru Forest, North
           Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Authors: RISJUNARDI DAMANIK, NURSAHARA PASARIBU, ETTI SARTINA SIREGAR, SYAMSUARDI SYAMSUARDI
      Abstract: Abstract. Damanik R, Pasaribu N, Siregar ES, Syamsuardi. 2022. The family Plagiochilaceae (Marchantiophyta) in Batang Toru Forest, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3127-3134. Investigation on the liverwort family Plagiochilaceae in Batang Toru Forest, North Sumatra, Indonesia resulted in ten taxon of Plagiochilaceae namely Plagiochilion oppositum, Plagiochila bantamensis, Plagiochila dendroides, Plagiochila denticulate, Plagiochila frondescens, Plagiochila junghuhniana, Plagiochila propinqua, Plagiochila sciophila, Dinckleria singularis, Plagiochila sumatrana, distributed under three genera Dinckleria (1 species), Plagiochila (8 species) and Plagiochilion (1 species). Plagiochila junghuhniana was the most observed species, while Plagiochila sciophilia was the least frequently encountered species in the forest.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Vegetation development in post-gold mining revegetation area in Minahasa,
           North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: KANIA GITA LESTARI, SRI WILARSO BUDI, DYAH TJAHYANDARI SURYANINGTYAS, EKA YUDHIMAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Lestari KG, Budi SW, Suryaningtyas DT, Yudhiman E. 2022. Vegetation development in post-gold mining revegetation area in Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3224-3233. Gold mining activities in Indonesia, in many areas, have a negative impact on the environment. Activities that can improve the quality of post-mining land include revegetation activities, which are included in post-mining land reclamation activities. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of vegetation in post-gold mining revegetation areas. Vegetation data were collected using the plotted line method (natural forest) and the Systematic Sampling method with Random Start (revegetation area). The analysis found that the vegetation structure in the post-gold mining revegetation area aged 3 to 10 years has complete vegetation levels (saplings, saplings, poles, and trees). Compared to natural forest, which only includes 30 tree species and 7 herbaceous, this revegetation region has a greater diversity of species, with 66 tree species and 16 herbaceous. The longer the age of revegetation is not followed by an increase in species and an increase in the value of the species diversity index. However, it is still better than the revegetation at a young age and is closer to the condition of a natural forest. The revegetation area aged 8 and 7 years has a higher number of species than natural forests and other revegetation areas.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Yield evaluation of curly chili lines in three lowland locations

    • Authors: MUHAMAD SYUKUR, ZULFIKAR DAMARALAM SAHID, SOBIR SOBIR, AWANG MAHARIJAYA, ARYA WIDURA RITONGA, YUNANDRA YUNANDRA, SULASSIH SULASSIH, MUHAMMAD RIDHA ALFARABI ISTIQLAL, ABDUL HAKIM, YUDIWANTI WAHYU, TOBIAS MONIZ VICENTE, MUKHLISIN MUKHLISIN, KARLIN AGUSTINA, YURSIDA YURSIDA, KUNCI MUSLIMIN, SITI HAFSAH, NURA NURA, ANDRY SETYAWAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Syukur M, Sahid ZD, Sobir, Maharijaya A, Ritonga AW, Yunandra, Sulassih, Istiqlal MRA, Hakim A, Wahyu Y, Vicente TM, Mukhlisin, Agustina K, Yursida, Muslimin K, Hafsah S, Nura, Setyawan A. 2022. Yield evaluation of curly chili lines in three lowland locations.Biodiversitas 23: 3219-3223. Yield evaluation of curly chili lines in three lowland locations. Increased consumption of spicy food is the latest trend in the 21st century. Curly chili as a type of chili that has a spiciness that is acceptable to the community is needed to meet consumer needs. This study aims to identify the growth, fruit, and yield components of several genotypes of curly chili. The study was conducted in multi-location at four planting sites. Each location used a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Each replication used ten sample plants. Neno IPB as a chili variety produced by breeding has a faster flowering and harvesting time than all other genotypes. In addition, the productivity of Neno IPB was high and consistent in all cultivation locations. The results of the pheatmap analysis show that Neno IPB was one group with commercial varieties (Laris and Kastilo F1). A significant positive correlation based on Pearson's analysis was shown in the combination of flowering time-harvesting time, fruit length-fruit weight, and fruit weight per plant-total fruit per plant-productivity. However, flowering time-harvesting time-fruit weight per plant showed a significant negative correlation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Impacts of invasive tree species Bellucia pentamera on plant diversity,
           microclimate and soil of secondary tropical forest in West Sumatra,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: SOLFIYENI SOLFIYENI, SYAMSUARDI SYAMSUARDI, CHAIRUL CHAIRUL, ERIZAL MUKHTAR
      Abstract: Abstract. Solfiyeni, Syamsuardi, Chairul, Mukhtar E. 2022. Impacts of invasive tree species Bellucia pentamera on plant diversity, microclimate and soil of secondary tropical forest in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3135-3146. The invasion of alien species in a region can alter species diversity. Bellucia pentamera Naudin is considered an alien invasive plant that has spread from Mexico to tropical America, and it is now invading some areas in Indonesia, including the tropical forest of Sumatra. Yet, the effects of its invasion on vegetation and the abiotic environment are not yet well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of B. pentamera on species diversity and structure of vegetation, and microclimate and soil conditions of secondary tropical forests in West Sumatra. Vegetation analysis was conducted in secondary forest Bukit Tengah Pulau, South Solok, with three levels of dominance of B. pentamera namely: site 1 and 2 (60% and 16% dominance of B. pentamera respectively) and site 3 (no individual of B. pentamera). Sampling was conducted using a nested plot to collect data for tree, sapling and understorey vegetation for each site. The results showed the total number of tree species at sites 1, 2, and 3 were 23 species, 46 species, and 74 species respectively. For sapling, 20 species were found at site 1, 31 species at site 2, and 58 species at site 3. For understorey plants, 13, 16 and 36 species were detected at site 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The number of species at tree and sapling levels differed significantly among sites. The basal area also differed significantly among sites but not for sapling level. Site 1 was dominated by B. pentamera with Important Value Index (IVI) 130.8%), followed by Croton argyratus (27.63%), and Ficus variegata (26.47%). At site 2, B. pentamera dominated with IVI of 33.68%, followed by Lepisanthes sp. (20.01%) and Sizygium sp. (14.44%). Site 3 was dominated by Palaquium warsurifolium with IVI of 21.15% followed by Croton argyratus (20.02%) and Macaranga hypoleuca (13.21%). Diversity index (H') for tree-level was moderate at site 1 (H' = 1.78) and high at sites 2 and 3 (H' = 3.48 and 4.05). Similarly, the index for sapling was moderate at site 1 (H'= 2.12) and high at sites 2 and 3 (H'= 3.22 and 3.84). For understorey, the diversity index was low at site 1 (H'= 0.82) and moderate at sites 2 and 3 (H'= 1.8 and 2.86). Sites invaded by B. pentamera had a lower soil water content and higher temperature and light intensity, although they had higher nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Our findings suggest that the invasion of B. pentamera had negative impacts on plant biodiversity and microclimate, yet the impact was not clear cut on the soil.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A checklist of cephalopods from continental shelf of Sarawak, Malaysian
           Borneo

    • Authors: Wan Zabidii Wan Morni , Ruhana Hassan, LIRONG YU ABIT, KAMIL LATIF
      Abstract: Abstract. Morni WZW, Hassan R, Abit LY, Latif K. 2022. A checklist of cephalopods from continental shelf of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Biodiversitas 23: 3203-3208. Cephalopods can be discovered in all the oceans of the world ranging from shallow to deep oceans. It is a naturally inhabited seawater medium and indirectly limits the number of research regarding the species composition of the cephalopods group. Previously, samples of cephalopods were collected from selected stations in Sarawak Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) using an otter trawl net with a stretch mesh size of 38 mm at the cod end. All samples used in this study were the by-catch of trawling activities during National Demersal Fish Resource Survey in Sarawak (16 August until 6 October 2015). Trawling operations were conducted beyond 12 nautical miles from the coast, and the area was divided into three depth strata, I) 20-50 m; II) 50-100 m; and III) 100-200 m. In total, 16 species of cephalopods were found to inhabit Sarawak waters, representing five families and eight genera. The present findings found that there was a higher number of species recorded in-depth strata I (14 species) in comparison to strata II (12 species) and III (11 species). Six species of the cephalopods captured in this study were the first recorded in Malaysian water, namely Amphioctopus marginatus, Amphioctopus rex, Ommastrephes bartramii, Sepia brevimana, Sepia vietnamica and Sepia prashadi. Thus, the information on cephalopod diversity and distribution at different depth strata will be useful for updating the current database on Malaysian marine species diversity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Agronomical characteristics of sweet corn under
           different plant growth regulators during the dry season

    • Authors: SYARIFUL MUBAROK, FIKY YULIANTO WICAKSONO, ANNE NURAINI, BAYU PRADANA NUR RAHMAT, RAHMAT BUDIARTO
      Abstract: Abstract. Mubarok S, Wicaksono FY, Nuraini A, Rahmat BPN, Budiarto R. 2022.S hort Communication: Agronomical characteristics of sweet corn under different plant growth regulators during the dry season. Biodiversitas 23: 3091-3098. Sweet corn (Zea mays convar. saccharata var. rugosa)is one of the important horticultural crops. Increasing sweet corn production during the dry season can be achieved by applying plant growth regulators (PGR). PGRs such as auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, and other phytohormones control various physiological and chemical processes in plants. The PGR is often used for the engineering process of plant cultivation technology, especially during environmental stress conditions. This study aimed to determine the effect of PGRs (auxin, gibberellic acid, salicylic acid, and paclobutrazol) on sweet corn growth and yield during the dry season. The results showed that the application of PGR significantly affected sweet corn growth, yield, and yield quality during the dry season. The auxin significantly increased plant height and leaf length, whereas paclobutrazol and salicylic acid significantly increased the number of cobs and total soluble solids of sweet corn, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Ethnopharmacological documentation and molecular authentication of
           medicinal plants used by the Manobo and Mamanwa tribes of Surigao del Sur,
           Philippines

    • Authors: VINCE ADRIAN D. ILAGAN, GRECEBIO JONATHAN D. ALEJANDRO, DAVID JEFFERSON B. PARAGUISON, SJHON MIGUEL W. PEROLINA, GABRIEL R. MENDOZA, ANDREI B. BOLINA, RUBY RATERTA, MARIANITA B. VALES, GIL JOSHUA D. SUAREZ, FREDDIE A. BLASCO
      Abstract: Abstract. Ilagan VAD, Alejandro GJD, Paraguison DJB, Perolina SMW, Mendoza GR, Bolina AB, Raterta R, Vales MB, Suarez GJD, Blasco FA. 2022. Ethnopharmacological documentation and molecular authentication of medicinal plants used by the Manobo and Mamanwa tribes of Surigao del Sur, Philippines. Biodiversitas 23: 3185-3202. Mindanao Island is renowned for its rich biodiversity and various ethnolinguistic groups with diverse histories and cultures. The Mamanwa and Manobo live in close proximity, resulting in merging beliefs and cultural practices. This study aims to assess the various medicinal plants using ethnopharmacological indices, determine their relationship to their users, and molecularly confirm unidentifiable plants used by the tribes. Ethnomedicinal data were gathered from 127 key informants representing both tribes through semi-structured interviews. Family Importance Value (FIV) and Use Value (UV) were quantified and revealed a total of 48 species utilized by both tribes belonging to 26 families and 42 genera. These plants are used in 32 diseases within 10 categories, and the most utilized family belongs to Apocynaceae (FIV= 20% for both tribes). Respiratory illness has the greatest contribution to the utilization of medicinal plants (ICF= 0.92, 42%). The most utilized plant part is the leaves and mainly prepared by decoction and administered orally. Integrative molecular confirmation led to the identification of the 5 morphologically unidentifiable plants to be Elaeocarpus serratus Benth., Uncaria lanosa Wall., Aglaonema crispum (J.R. Pitcher & Manda) Nicolson, Canthium tetraphyllum Baill., and Timonous timon (Spreng.) Merr..
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Callus induction with 6-BAP and IBA as a way to preserve Prunus
           ledebouriana (Rosaceae), and endemic plant of Altai and Tarbagatai, East
           Kazakhstan

    • Authors: AIDYN ORAZOV, ANAR MYRZAGALIYEVA, NASHTAI MUKHITDINOV, SHYNAR TUSTUBAYEVA
      Abstract: Abstract. Orazov A, Myrzagaliyeva A, Mukhitdinov N, Tustubayeva S. 2022. Callus induction with 6-BAP and IBA as a way to preserve Prunus ledebouriana (Rosaceae), and endemic plant of Altai and Tarbagatai, East Kazakhstan. Biodiversitas 23: 3178-3184. This article presents the results of the study of in vitro conditions for the cultivation and induction of callus tissues of a rare plant species Prunus ledebouriana(Schlecht.) Y.Y.Yao (Ledebour's almond), endemic plant to East Kazakhstan. For the first time, protocol and optimal composition of Murashige & Skoog (MS) were developed for obtaining calendemiclus tissues. The main indicator of successful introduction was the frequency of callus tissue formation in vitro. Two types of explants were used: the whole embryos and embryos with a removed root part. The removal of the root part inhibited the organogenesis of the embryonic root and the first shoot, which allowed the accumulation of nutrients for the growth of the callus mass and increased the frequency by 7.79±0.46%. Various exogenous phytohormones such as Kinetin, 6-BAP, GA, IBA were added to the MS culture medium. A decrease in Kinetin concentrations of 0.04 mg/L resulted in a lower intensity, but a higher frequency of formation (72.00±5.66%) and mass gain. The average concentration up to 0.5 mg/L of exogenous phytoregulators, such as GA and 6-BAP, resulted in frequency from 65.38±5.44% to 72.00±5.66%, the concentration of IBA up to 1 mg/L increased the frequency from 46.00±2.83 to 72.00±5.66%. The protocol for obtaining callus from an embryonic explant and the composition of the optimal nutrient medium for the induction of callusogenesis made it possible to obtain P. ledebouriana meristem tissues for further use in the development of callus cryopreservation technology.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Genetic stability of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Meloni) based on
           inter-simple sequence repeat and phenotypic characteristics

    • Authors: ADIB FAKHRUDDIN YUSUF, WIKO ARIF WIBOWO, BUDI SETIADI DARYONO
      Abstract: Abstract. Yusuf AF, Wibowo WA, Daryono BS. 2022. Genetic stability of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Meloni) based on inter-simple sequence repeat and phenotypic characteristics. Biodiversitas 23: 3042-3049.A new cultivar must have a character that follows the official criteria of distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) as required for the grant of Plant Breeder Rights and official cultivar registration. Meloni is a new cultivar resulting from plant breeding by the Genetics and Breeding Laboratory of the Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Legality is needed in the form of plant variety protection (PVT)to protect the intellectual rights of researchers. Therefore, this study aims to identify morphological characters according to official criteria and validate molecular feelings by using molecular markers Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat. The results of morphological characterization showed that the distinctive character of the Meloni cultivar lies in the oval shape of the fruit, the skin of the fruit is creamy with a smooth texture without the net, and the flesh of the fruit is orange with a sweet taste. The differences in morphological characters of the Meloni cultivar cultivated at two locations differ in fruit weight, flesh thickness, fruit shelf life, and harvest age. Molecular identification resulted in a low similarity in the phenetic relationship, namely 35% against Sonya cultivars and 51% against Kirani and Kinanti cultivars. The Meloni cultivar's stability and uniformity analysis between the two locations (Bandung, West Java, and Sleman, Yogyakarta) yielded 76%. The difference in cultivation locations did not affect the level of stability and genetic uniformity of the Meloni cultivar.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Biosurfactant activity of phylloplane bacteria from an ornamental plant,
           Colocasia esculenta L.

    • Authors: ALPINA BUKHORI, DWI SURYANTO, KIKI NURTJAHJA
      Abstract: Abstract. Bukhori A, Suryanto D, Nurtjahja K. 2022. Biosurfactant activity of phylloplane bacteria from an ornamental plant, Colocasia esculenta L. Biodiversitas 23: 3108-3114. Biosurfactants are surface-active molecules produced by living organisms predominantly by microorganisms with amphiphilic properties. Exploration of biosurfactant-producing bacteria has been promoted to find the suitable agent for mass production in the laboratory following its biochemical and genetic modification. Leaf-colonizing bacteria or phyllosphere bacteria are of great interest, including those colonizing the surface of ornamental plants which are still understudied. This study aimed to isolate the biosurfactant-producing bacteria from an ornamental plant, Colocasia esculenta L and to determine their physical characteristics. Four bacterial isolates coded as IC1, IC3, IC4 and IC5 were recovered from the surface of C. esculenta and were tested positive for their growth under Bushnell-Haas agar + 1% olive oil (v/v) as the sole carbon source. Two isolates, namely IC3 and IC5, later molecularly identified as Bacillus cereus and Alcaligenes faecalis produced the highest biosurfactant concentration (IC3 = 157 ppm, IC5 = 106 ppm) on 10th day incubation based on a colorimetric test using rhamnolipid as a standard solution. Crude biosurfactants produced by A. faecalis IC5 showed better physical attributes than B. cereus IC3 in terms of surface tension, emulsification index, and oil spreading capability on four different hydrophobic compounds i.e., kerosene, solar fuel, octane fuel (Pertalite, Pertamax). The results of this study confirmed the existence of biosurfactant-producing bacteria in C. esculenta and the possibility of developing prominent strains for the treatment of hydrocarbon pollution in the environment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Ecological index of freshwater gastropods in Kolaka District, Southeast
           Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: Salwiyah Salwiyah, ‪Muhammad Fajar Purnama, SYUKUR SYUKUR
      Abstract: Abstract. Salwiyah, Purnama MF, Syukur. 2022. Ecological index of freshwater gastropods in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3031-3041. Kolaka District is one of the existing centers of high freshwater gastropod diversity in Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. more than 30 species of inland gastropods occupy this area and some of them (species) are used by local communities as food (daily consumption). This research was conducted for 4 months, namely January-April 2021 in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the ecological index (abundance, diversity, evenness, species richness, dominance, and distribution pattern) of the inland gastropod community in Kolaka. The sampling location of gastropods was determined qualitatively using the purposive sampling method and sampling using a simple random sampling technique (Quantitative based). Gastropod samples were collected manually (hand picking) using a paralone pipe (3.5 inches), Sieve (1 mm), and Gloves. The total gastropod sample obtained during the study was 1929 individuals consisting of 9 families, 19 genera, and 33 species. The average abundance of the gastropod population reached 96.45 ind./m2 and the abundance of gastropod species ranged from 0.75-15.05 ind./m2. Overall, the results of the gastropod ecological index analysis showed a stable condition, where the diversity of gastropod species was categorized as high (H': 3.20), moderate evenness (E: 0.90), and high species richness (R: 4.23), dominant dominance. showed that there were no dominant species (C: 0.1) and the distribution of gastropods showed a clumped pattern (Ip: 0.01). Empirically the ecological index data is a scientific justification related to the sustainability of inland water ecosystems or a description of the current freshwater homeostasis system in Kolaka.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Morpho-physiological responses of iaa9 tomato mutants to different levels
           of PEG simulated drought stress

    • Authors: ERNI SUMINAR, RAHMAT BUDIARTO, ANNE NURAINI, SYARIFUL MUBAROK, HIROSHI EZURA
      Abstract: Abstract. Suminar E, Budiarto R, Nuraini A, Mubarok S, Ezura H. 2022. Morpho-physiologicalresponsesof iaa9 tomato mutants to different levels of PEG simulated drought stress. Biodiversitas 23: 3115-3126.This study aimed to analyze the morphological and physiological responses of iaa9 mutants and its WT-MT to different levels of drought stress in in vitro growing medium. This study applied a completely randomized design with two factors, i.e., tomato genotypes and polyethylene glycol (PEG) - induced drought stress levels. The factor of varieties consisted of three levels, i.e., WT-MT as control (G1), iaa9-3(G2), and iaa9-5 (G3). The factor of PEG-induced drought stress also consisted of four levels, i.e., 0% PEG as control (PEG0), 5% PEG (PEG5), 10% PEG (PEG10), and 15% PEG (PEG15). The results observed 12 weeks after culture showed the variations of the morpho-physiological response of WT-MT and mutant genotypes to PEG-induced in vitro drought stress. The WT-MT showed a higher reduction in plantlet height, root number, and root length than mutants under severe drought conditions. The plantlet fresh and dry weight of iaa9-3and iaa9-5were higher than its WT-MT under no drought conditions. The total chlorophyll content of WT-MT was lower than iaa9-5due to the significant gain of chlorophyll-b on that mutant rather than its WT-MT. However, the analysis of principal components and correlation revealed the reduction of morphological size and leaf pigment content in response to drought stress, irrespective of genotype factor. These results suggest that in vitro selection techniques using PEG is useful for the initial screening of drought-tolerant tomato.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • New records of mycobiota associated with stored wheat and its by-products
           in Iraq

    • Authors: WASAN F. FADHIL, ABDULLAH H. AL-SAADOON, FALEH M. AL-MOUSSAWI
      Abstract: Abstract. Fadhil WF, Al-Saadoon AH, Al-Moussawi FM. 2022. New records of mycobiota associated with stored wheat and its by-products in Iraq. Biodiversitas 23: 3099-3107. Wheat is a staple food for the Iraqi population and is an important feed source due to its high nutritional value. Consequently, wheat and wheat by-products are susceptible to various species of fungi during processing, transportation, or storage. In this paper, thirty-two selected fungal isolates were subjected to morphological and molecular analysis for identification through combined sequences of ITS regions, actin, calmodulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and '-tubulin genes according to the target fungal genus. The results showed that eighteen fungal species were identified from wheat grains, flour, and bran samples collected from different silos and mills in three provinces in southern Iraq. In addition, nine species were recorded for the first time from Iraq, i.e., Alternaria consortialis, A. japonica, A. lolii, A. multiformis, A. ventricosa, Aspergillus montevidensis, Cladosporium halotolerans, C. versiforme, and Staganosporopsis tanaceti. Brief descriptions of the new records are presented. This study represents an important addition to the mycobiota of Iraq.
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • An Algerian endemic species in danger to disappear due to pandemic,
           Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum (Desf.) Letsw

    • Authors: IMENE ADOUANI, NACIRA BOULAACHEB
      Abstract: Abstract. Adouani I, Boulaacheb N. 2022. An Algerian endemic species in danger to disappear due to pandemic, Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum (Desf.) Letsw. Biodiversitas 23: 3147-3155. Algeria is known for its rich flora, and the traditional use of medicinal plants is very ancient. The use of medicinal plants is extremely intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. To enumerate the most used species by the Algerian population, two ethnobotanical surveys have been conducted from October to December 2021. Thirty herbalists were interviewed, and 165 respondents participated in an online survey. The results showed that a total of 25 species belonging to 16 botanical families had been reported to be used in different modes of preparation to prevent or treat the infection. One of the locally used species is Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum (Desf.) letsw. Generally, Algerians internally use this species as a tea or as a powder preparation with honey or only the powder with water to treat many health problems such as diarrhea, colds, coughs, respiratory infections, rheumatism, and menstrual symptoms. Otherwise, the powder of the plant is externally used alone or with olive oil to cure several illnesses such as rheumatism, and skin irritations. Due to the extensive use of this species during the pandemic, the demand in the market has increased, as also the price. Herbalists reported that they have received between 30-300 people affected or not by COVID-19 per day. The price went from 1500-5000 DA per kg (10.33-34.42 USD). Therefore, the increase rate is expected to be 50-80% for the demand, and 50-90% for the price. This increase in demand during COVID-19 has led to an exaggerated and random collection of species at different stages of the development of the plant. Although O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum is a common species, but it can be rare or even disappear due to the extensive collection without protective measures due to COVID-19. Therefore, it is important to engage policies for the conservation and cultivation of O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum.
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Range of host plants, spatial distribution, and insect predator of
           Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as an emerging pest of
           cassava plants in Bali, Indonesia

    • Authors: I Wayan Supartha, Dwi Widaningsih , I Wayan Susila, I Kadek Wisma Yudha, I Wayan Eka Karya Utama, Putu Angga Wiradana
      Abstract: Abstract. Supartha IW, Widaningsih D, Susila IW, Yudha IKW, Utama IWEK, Wiradana PA. 2022. Range of host plants, spatial distribution, and insect predator of Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as an emerging pest of cassava plants in Bali. Biodiversitas 23: 3022-3030. The cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a very destructive pest in cassava farming in Indonesia. The insect has already made its way into Indonesia, where it has attacked cassava plants with indications of a bunchy top, which may cause plant death. The objectives of this study were to 1) discover and identify an invasive pest of cassava mealybug pest, P. manihoti, that attacks cassava plants in Bali; 2) map the distribution and abundance of these pest species populations on cassava plants in Bali; 3) describe the structure of the pest population in cassava plantations in Bali; 4) identify the dominant factors that influence the population structure of P. manihoti in Bali, and 5) evaluate the predator fauna in regulating the population. The findings revealed that the mealybug species that attacked cassava in Bali was P. manihoti, an exotic species that had never been published earlier. With a high population abundance, the pest has spread far and effectively overall in regencies/cities in Bali Province. In all regency/city regions, the population structure of P. manihoti was dominated by age groups of instar-1 and two nymphs, with the exception of the Buleleng Regency, which was dominated by age groups of nymphs instar 3 and 4. The nature of polyphagy and cosmopolite features that are readily adaptable to the environment and host plant variables, farming pattern, temperature and rainfall factors were the key factors impacting the population structure of P. manihoti in the field. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Chrysoperla carnea, and Scymnus sp. were discovered to have a role in managing P. manihoti populations in the field. The predator fauna community is structurally diverse, abundant, and has a low dominance. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri was the most dominant of the three producer species in the field. These results indicate that there is a positive potential shown by predatory mealybugs in the field and can be used as an initial model by related parties in formulating policies related to controlling insect pests of cassava plants.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Genetic diversity based on SSR markers of 30 Aeridinae sub-tribe orchid
           genetic resources of Indonesian Ornamental Crop Research Institute,
           Cianjur, Indonesia

    • Authors: MEGA WEGADARA, MINANGSARI DEWANTI, ERNIAWATI DININGSIH, FITRI RACHMAWATI, DEWI SUKMA, SUDARSONO SUDARSONO
      Abstract: Abstract. Wegadara M, Dewanti M, Diningsih E, Rachmawati F, Sukma D, Sudarsono. 2022. Genetic diversity based on SSR markers of 30 Aeridinaesub-tribe orchid genetic resources of Indonesian Ornamental Crop Research Institute, Cianjur, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2943-2956. Advances in molecular biotechnology encourage molecular markers to identify plant diversity to become increasingly common. Using SSR markers, this study will determine the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 30 accessions from five parental genera of Aeridinaeorchids from the IOCRI genetic resource collection. Molecular characterization of 30 orchid sub-tribes Aeridinaegenetic resources of IOCRI was carried out using 17 polymorphic SSR markers. The resulting binary data was then analyzed using the GenAlEX program to determine Na, Ne, Ho, He, and the PowerMarker V3.25 program to determine the values of MAF, D, and PIC. Molecular characterization using 17 SSR primers generated 240 amplified DNA fragments across 30 accessions, with the fragment sizes ranging from 56-4818 bp. Factorial analysis (PCoA) and phylogenetic tree construction clustered the 30 Aeridinae accessions into three major clusters. Accessions belonging to the Vanda genus are clustered into three clusters (Clusters I, II, and III). The Vascostylisis in Cluster I, along with 12 Vanda accessions. Two accessions of Vanda, two Aranthera, three Arachnis, and one Aerides genera are clustered into Cluster III. This study showed that interspecific hybrids among accessions of Vanda within Cluster I and Cluster II should be possible since they are genetically closely related. Intergeneric hybrids among the accession of Vascostylis and Vanda's genera belonging to Cluster I, should also be possible. Furthermore, intergeneric hybrids among Aerides, Arachnis, Aranthera, and Vanda accessions within Cluster III should also be possible. The generated data from this study should be helpful for future Aeridinae breeding activities intended to generate new hybrid varieties.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Screening, isolation, and characterization of amylase-producing bacteria
           from Poring Hot Spring Sabah, Malaysia

    • Authors: BAK ZAIBAH FAZAL, CAHYO BUDIMAN, ZARINA AMIN, CLEMENTE MICHAEL WONG VUI LING
      Abstract: Abstract. Fazal BZ, Budiman C, Amin Z, Ling CMW. 2022. Screening, isolation, and characterization of amylase-producing bacteria from Poring Hot Spring Sabah, Malaysia. Biodiversitas 23: 2807-2815. Thermostable '-amylases are being used in a wide range of industries, including food, textiles, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and fine chemicals. A good source of thermostable '-amylases in thermophilic bacteria is found in high-temperature habitats like hot springs. Hence, this study aimed to screen, isolate, and characterize amylase-producing bacteria (APB) from the Poring hot spring in Sabah. Sediment and water samples were collected from the hot springs, serially diluted, plated onto the Luria Bertani agar medium containing starch, and incubated at 60°C for 48 hours. The amylase-producing bacterium was identified by the halo formation around the colony after the agar medium was stained with Lugol's solution. Nine colonies were found to be able to form halo zones, with a creamy colony (A7 strain) producing the highest amylolytic index (4.24). Further characterization of the A7 strain showed that the isolate was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, with a positive reaction upon oxidase and catalase tests. The 16S rRNA sequence showed that the A7 strain had 99.81% similarity with the Anoxybacillus flavithermus, and therefore identified as A. flavithermus A7 strain. Further, the growth curve analysis indicated that the A7 strain grew well at 60°C. The 3, 5-dinitrosalicyclic acid (DNS) assay showed the crude enzyme secreted by the A7 strain exhibited optimum amylase activity at 60°C with 8.6 x 10-2 U/ml. This is the first APB obtained from hot springs in Sabah and promising for further studies and applications.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Mangrove species of Mantehage Island, Bunaken National Park, North
           Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: RIGNOLDA DJAMALUDDIN, BRAMA DJABAR
      Abstract: Abstract. Djamaluddin R, Djabar B. 2022. Mangrove species of Mantehage Island, Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2845-2852. A study on mangrove species in Mantehage Island, Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, is important due to the large extent of mangrove forest, geographical position, and geomorphological characteristics of the island. Many mangrove species are expected to occur on this island. This study was conducted to explore the biological diversity of mangrove species and to evaluate the biogeography and conservation status of certain species occurring on this island. Extensive surveys were conducted throughout the island on the areas covered with mangroves, with a total of 58 locations surveyed using spot check and quadrat-transect methods, and species identification was based on morphological characteristics. Results showed that in Mantehage Island there were 20 species of true mangrove belonging to 13 genera and 11 families, including Acanthus ilicifolius L., Acrostichum spesiosum Willd., Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk., Bruguiera parvilora Weight & Arnold ex Griffith, Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob, Excoecaria agallocha L., Heritiera littoralis Dryand, Nypa fruticans (Thunb.) Wurmb., Rhizophora apiculata Bl., Rhizophora mucronata Lamk., Rhizophora stylosa Griff., Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn., Sonneratia alba J. Smith, Sonneratia ovata Blake., Xylocarpus granatum K'enig. Three rare species in the mangrove of Bunaken National Park, Camptostemon philippinense (Vidal) Becc., Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Bl. and Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. were also recorded. The presence of C. philippinense could explain its distribution limit on the northern coast of North Sulawesi. Indication of putative hybrids in the genera of Rhizophora was found, but this needs further investigation. Two species of conservation concern, C. philippinense and S. ovata, are categorized as endangered and near-threatened species, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Selection of tomato breeding lines based on morphological traits
           associated with high yield potential in double-cross population

    • Authors: WITRI NUR ANISA, ENIK NURLAILI AFIFAH, RUDI HARI MURTI
      Abstract: Abstract. Anisa WN, Afifah EN, Murti RH. 2022. Selection of tomato breeding lines based on morphological traits associated with high yield potential in double-cross population. Biodiversitas 23: 2973-2980. Low tomato production is a global problem. Plant breeding has been intensified to develop high-yield varieties and meet the high production of vegetable crops. Selection is an essential part of plant breeding to evaluate desirable traits of breeding lines. This study aimed to identify tomato breeding lines with high yield potential from 13 breeding lines and 2 commercial tomatoes. Collected data were analyzed using analysis of variance, post hoc, path, and principal component analysis. Results showed that 9 tomato lines, namely, BV-1, BV-2, BV-3, BV-6, BV-7, BV-9, BV-11, BV-12, and BV-13 had a high yield potential based on the number of fruits per plant and fruit weight. Given their high path coefficient value and significant correlation (P<0.05) with the yield potential, these two characteristics are highly recommended to be used as selection criteria for the high yield potential of tomato plants. The following characteristics had a high value of heritability: fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit firmness, fruit locules, fruit pericarp thickness, total soluble solid, number of flowers per bunch, number of fruits per bunch, number of fruits per plant, and harvesting age.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Diversity and antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from the
           medicinal plant of Syzygium jambos

    • Authors: KURRATUL ‘AINI, ELFITA ELFITA, HARY WIDJAJANTI, ARUM SETIAWAN
      Abstract: Abstract. ‘Aini K, Elfita, Widjajanti H, Setiawan A. 2022. Diversity and antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from the medicinal plant of Syzygium jambos. Biodiversitas 23: 2981-2989. Currently, antimicrobial resistance is one of the most important threats to global public health. This is due to the various mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the need for new sources of bioactive compounds outside conventional antibiotics is a top priority. This investigation evaluated the diversity and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from the leaves and root bark of jambu mawar (Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston). The endophytic fungi were grown on PDA media, and their antibacterial activities were tested using the Kirby-Bauer method on two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria. A total of 10 (SJD1-SJD10) and 11 isolates (SJA1-SJA11) of endophytic fungi were identified from the leaves and root bark of S. jambos, respectively. Among them, SJA8 isolate exhibited strong antibacterial activity. Based on morphological characterization and phylogenetic tree analysis, SJA8 was identified as Pleiocarpon livistonae. Isolation and identification of pure compounds from the fungi may reveal potential candidates for new antibiotic substances.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Phytochemical test and optimization of transdermal patches of Carica
           papaya extract: Formulation design of candidate drug for wound healing

    • Authors: TAHARA DILLA SANTI, TONGKU NIZWAN SIREGAR, AMALIA SUTRIANA, RITA ANDINI, ADITYA CANDRA
      Abstract: Abstract. Santi TD, Siregar TN, Sutriana A, Andini R, Candra A. 2022. Phytochemical test and optimization of transdermal patches of Carica papaya extract: Formulation design of transdermal patch as candidate drug for wound healing. Biodiversitas 23: 2904-2913. Papaya leaves contain metabolite compounds thathave anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties. This leaf extract as a transdermal patch allows easy application for wound healing. This study aimed to examine the phytochemicals of papaya leaves and determine the formulation of the transdermal patch. This study employed qualitative methods with color testing and quantitative methods with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) to determine the phytochemical profiles of papaya leaves. The optimization test of patches used Response Surface Methodology with Box-Behnken design on Expert Version 12 software. There were three factors (x) tested in the study, namely PVP, ethyl cellulose, and Ethanol Extract of Papaya Leaves (EECP). There were also three responses (y) investigated, namely thickness, weight, and moisture content. The phytochemical color testingresults revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroid, terpenoid, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and the GC-MS analysis showed six compounds with the widest areas. From an ANOVA analysist, the p-value was significant (<0.5) while the match value was less significant (p-value >5%). The optimal patch found in this study was the one containing PVP (0.3 mg), ethyl cellulose (0.4 mg), and EECP (0.3 mg). In terms of response values (y), the patch had a ''thickness of 0.25 mm, a weight of 82 mg, and a moisture content of 4.39%.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Comparative foliar morphological and palynological studies of Cleomaceae
           of Assam, India

    • Authors: BARNALI DAS, SHILPA ROY, SUSHMITA KALITA, KRISHNA KUMAR BORO, MADHUSHMITA NATH, NAMITA NATH
      Abstract: Abstract. Das B, Roy S, Kalita S, Boro KK, Nath M, Nath N. 2022. Comparative foliar morphological and palynological studies of Cleomaceae of Assam, India. Biodiversitas 23: 2920-2934. The Cleomaceae is a well-known angiospermic family. There is no record of extensive study on the members of the family Cleomaceae in the state of Assam. Though the species Cleome houtteana is found abundantly in the studied area, it was not reported in any of the major floristic works of the region and it was misidentified as Gynandropsis gynandra by many of the earlier workers. So, the present work was carried out to do a detailed comprehensive study on the morphology, foliar macro and micro-morphology (epidermis, stomata, and trichome), leaf venation pattern, along with palynological characters of the four species of Cleomaceae viz. Gynandropsis gynandra, Cleome houtteana, Sieruela rutidosperma, and Arivela viscosa of Assam, India. These species show similarities with each other, but can be well differentiated using the studied characters here. Detailed taxonomic descriptions have been given along with relevant information and color photographs for the correct identification of all four different species.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A comparative study among dairy goat breeds in Lumajang and Malang (East
           Java, Indonesia) based on milk organoleptic and milk composition

    • Authors: Mira Fatmawati , LUCIA TRI SUWANTI, Mufasirin Mufasirin, Woro Hambarrukmi, LUCIA ENDAH SUKESI, Rofiah Rofiah, Endra Novianto, BINAR KINASIH WAHYUTYAS
      Abstract: Abstract. Fatmawati M, Suwanti LT, Mufasirin, Hambarruk W, Sukesi LE, Rofiah, Novianto E, Wahyuningtyas BK. 2022. A comparative study among dairy goat breeds in Lumajang and Malang, East Java based on milk organoleptic and milk composition. Biodiversitas 23: 2899-2903. The Regencies of Lumajang and Malang have the potential for local dairy goats to support food security and food safety. In Lumajang and Malang there are a diversity of dairy goats that breed Senduro, Crossbreed Etawa, Sapera, and Menggolo. This study aimed to compare the milk quality of various breeds of dairy goats in Lumajang and Malang regencies based on organoleptic and composition tests. The total sample was 161 milk samples from Lumajang (115 dairy goats) and Malang (56 dairy goats). The organoleptic test of milk was carried out by testing the freshness, smell, taste, viscosity, and color of the milk. The milk composition test used lactoscan. The analysis consisted of the Chi-Square test for organoleptic and the Kruskal Wallis for milk composition test. The results show that the quality of goat's milk is of premium quality. The order of milk quality based on fat content is milk from Menggolo, Senduro, Etawa, and Sapera breeds. This study concluded that the breed of dairy goat influence the composition and quality of goat's milk. The milk quality of all dairy goat breeds from Lumajang and Malang was premium quality, but the Menggolo goat is the best, so it can be developed to increase local food productivity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Carbon storage potential of Eucalyptus urophylla at several density levels
           and forest management types in dry land ecosystems

    • Authors: LUSIA SULO MARIMPAN, RIS HADI PURWANTO, WAHYU WARDHANA, SUMARDI SUMARDI
      Abstract: Abstract. Marimpan LS, Purwanto RH, Wardhana W, Sumardi. 2022. Carbon storage potential of Eucalyptus urophylla at several density levels and forest management types in dry land ecosystems. Biodiversitas 23: 2830-2837. Tropical forests can store high amounts of carbon because they have suitable environmental factors. Furthermore, they are different from others that grow in dry areas, which tend to experience limited rainfall. Ampupu (Eucalyptus urophylla) is an endemic tree in East Nusa Tenggara, which is continuously damaged. This is caused by various anthropogenic activities, which increase along with the population around the forest. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the carbon content stored in natural forest areas of E. urophylla at different density levels and land use types. Field inventory was carried out in the study location using the stratified sampling method, after which the density levels were divided into three groups, viz. high, medium, and low. Sampling was then carried out in 3 different land-use areas, including production, protection, and conservation forests. Furthermore, a total of 90 plots were used, where each land-use type consists of 30 plots with a size of 25 m × 40 m. The results showed that the carbon content at the low, medium and high-density levels were 108.20, 185.24, and 291.33 MgCha-1, respectively. Values of 211.91, 214.69, and 221.14 MgCha-1 were also obtained from the production, protection, and conservation forests, respectively. Based on the results, the natural forests of E. urophylla have a significant effect on carbon sequestration in East Nusa Tenggara.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Profiling the natural settlement habitat of spiny lobster, Panulirus spp.
           

    • Authors: Muhamad Amin, Ledhyana Ika Harlyan, Khamsiah Khamad, Rara Diantari
      Abstract: Abstract. Amin M, Harlyan LI, Achmad K, Diantari R. 2022. Profiling the natural settlement habitat of spiny lobster, Panulirus spp. to determine potential diets and rearing conditions in a lobster hatchery. Biodiversitas 23: 2893-2898. The high demand for spiny lobster seeds has triggered research on seed production in a hatchery system. However, the remaining challenges are still in determining suitable live diets and environmental conditions at the early life stages. Thus, the present study investigated the natural settlement habitat of lobster larvae as basic information for developing diets and rearing conditions in an indoor system. One of the most common natural settlement habitats for lobster larvae in Indonesia, indicated by the high catching rates, Gerupuk Bay located in West-Nusa Tenggara, was selected as a studied area. Physicochemical and biological parameters were investigated to obtain the habitat profiles. The results showed that Gerupuk Bay was 18-30 m water depth, 5-6 m transparency, a sandy, and rocky bottom, 27-31oC temperature, 0.1-0.2 m.s-1 current, 5-6 mg/L dissolved oxygen, <0.01 mg/L nitrate, 0.4-0.6 mg/m3 chlorophyll concentration, and salinity of 30-34 practical salinity unit (psu). Furthermore, the present study found at least 16 zooplankton species and 25 phytoplankton species at 0-5 m water depth. The most dominant species on the surface were Echinocamptus hiemalis elongates (90 indi./L), Tortanus derjugini (20 ind./L) at 2.5 m and Oithona sp. with 46 ind./L at 5 m depth. While the most dominant phytoplankton was Oscillatoria sp. (9 ind./L) followed by Rhizosolenia sp. (4 ind./L) at 2.5 m depth, and Favella ehrenbergii (13 ind./L).
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Multidrug-resistant Salmonella species from chicken meat sold at Surabaya
           Traditional Markets, Indonesia

    • Authors: FARAH FANISSA, MUSTOFA HELMI EFFENDI, WIWIEK TYASNINGSIH, EMMANUEL NNABUIKE UGBO
      Abstract: Abstract. Fanissa F, Effendi MH, Tyasningsih W, Ugbo EN. 2022. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella species from chicken meat sold at Surabaya Traditional Markets, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2823-2829. Salmonella species is one of the major infectious pathogens associated with poultry birds, which also has an impact on public health. Antimicrobials are used as growth promoters or treatment of diseases thus; this encourages the persistent spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This study aimed to identify multidrug-resistant Salmonella species from traditional chicken meat sold at Surabaya markets. A total of 150 chicken meat swab samples were collected from five different traditional markets and identified using microbiological standard methods. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method identified multidrug-resistant Salmonella species on five different antibiotics discs. A low prevalence of Salmonella species was detected with a frequency of 11.3% (17/150). Some of the Salmonella isolates showed strong resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, aztreonam, and chloramphenicol. Five (29.4%) out of seventeen were multidrug-resistant Salmonella species. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella species in these traditional markets is worrisome, since, it can lead to an outbreak of Salmonellosis as a result of the consumption of contaminated chicken meat. Therefore, the detection of multidrug-resistant Salmonella species is significant in understanding their prevalence and development of AMR. More strong awareness education and monitoring programs are recommended to mitigate the persistent spread of antimicrobial resistance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Profile of Multidrug Resistance and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus
           aureus (MRSA) on dairy cows and risk factors from farmer

    • Authors: ASWIN RAFIF KHAIRULLAH, SRI AGUS SUDJARWO, MUSTOFA HELMI EFFENDI, SANCAKA CASHYER RAMANDINIANTO, MARIA AEGA GELOLODO, AGUS WIDODO, KATTY HENDRIANA PRISCILIA RIWU, DYAH AYU KURNIAWATI, SAIFUR REHMAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Khairullah AR, Sudjarwo SA, Effendi MH, Ramandininto SC, Gelolodo MA, Widodo A, Riwu KHP, Kurniawati DA, Rehman S. 2022. Profile of Multidrug Resistance and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on dairy cows and risk factors from farmer. Biodiversitas 23: 2853-2858. Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccus that causes mastitis and is one of the most widespread pathogenic bacteria in dairy farming. These bacteria can quickly develop into antibiotic-resistant strains due to inappropriate antibiotic administration. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that have Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) properties can be known as Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) if these bacteria are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. The high number of MDR and MRSA contamination in dairy farms as a result of excessive administration of antibiotics in the treatment of dairy cows and the spread of these bacteria cannot be separated from the sanitation management at the time of milking, it can be from milk that is milked from the udder and it can also be from the hands of farmers during the milking process. This study tests antibiotic resistance and detects Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains sourced from milk and hand swabs of farmers in Probolinggo, East Java, Indonesia. A total of 109 dairy cow’s milk samples and 41 samples of farmers’ hand swabs were taken from each farm. Samples were cultured and purified using Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA). Staphylococcus aureus resistance profile was performed by disk diffusion test using antibiotic disks such as Oxacillin, Cefoxitin, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, and Gentamicin. Staphylococcus aureus isolates that were resistant to Oxacillin and Cefoxitin antibiotics were then tested for Oxacillin Resistance Screening Agar Base (ORSAB) as a confirmation test for Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The results of the isolation and identification found 80 (53.33%) S. aureus isolates, then the results of the resistance test found 8 (10%) S. aureus isolates that were Multidrug-Resistant (MDR), and in the Oxacillin Resistance Screening Agar Base (ORSAB) test there were 3 isolates of S. aureus MDR were ORSAB positive. It can be found that there are several S. aureus isolates that are Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in dairy farms. The S. aureus that is MDR and MRSA can be spread to the community and will endanger public health. Thus, prevention and control measures are needed to suppress the spread of S. aureus infection on a dairy farm in Probolinggo, East Java, Indonesia.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Bacterial vaginosis pattern and antibiotic susceptibility testing in
           female patients using high vaginal swabs

    • Authors: ISRAA ABDUL AMEER AL-KRAETY, SDDIQ GHANI AL-MUHANNA, SHAIMA RABEA BANOON, ABDOLMAJID GHASEMIAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Al-Kraety IAA, Al-Muhanna SG, Banoon SR, Ghasemian A. 2022. Bacterial vaginosis pattern and antibiotic susceptibility testing in female patients using high vaginal swabs. Biodiversitas 23: 2838-2844. Bacterial species found in the vaginal environment encompass a wide variety of species. A common cause of vaginal discharge in women is bacterial vaginosis BV (BV). Various Gram-positive and Gram-negative rod shaped bacteria, including E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Raoultella ornithinolytica, and Staphylococcus spp. contribute significantly to bacterial vaginosis. In this study, vaginal swabs (VS) were obtained from 50 individuals with symptoms of vaginal discharge. The swabs were inoculated on blood, Mannitol, and MacConkey agar culture media. Biochemical tests were performed after an overnight incubation period to determine growth and colonial morphology. In addition to VITEK® 2 compact system and PCR technique by using a 16s RNA gene where all bacteria isolates were positive for this gene. Antibiotic sensitivity was investigated through compact VITEK® 2 and sensitivity cards (AST-P580), (AST-N222), and (AST-GN76). The bacterial isolates including 20 (43.4%) of E. coli, 8 (17.3%) of Klebsiella spp. and 8 (17.3%) of Staphylococcus spp. were investigated in present study. Additionally, 4 (8.6%) isolates of Enterobacter spp., 3 (6.5%) of E. faecalis, and 3 (6.5%) of R. ornithinolytica. The E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., E. faecalis and R. ornithinolytica isolates were found resistant to several antibiotics and considered multi-resistance (MDR).
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • High impact of Clerodendrum paniculatum leaf extract to suppress zucchini
           yellow mosaic virus infection in zucchini plants

    • Authors: NI PUTU PANDAWANI, LISTIHANI LISTIHANI, I KETUT WIDNYANA, PUTU EKA PASMIDI ARIATI, DEWA GEDE WIRYANGGA SELANGGA
      Abstract: Abstract. Pandawani NP, Listihani L, Widnyana IK, Ariati PEP, Selangga DGW. 2022. High impact of Clerodendrum paniculatum leaf extract to suppress zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection in zucchini plants. Biodiversitas 23: 2914-2919. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an important virus in zucchini plants (Cucurbita pepo L.). ZYMV infection is prevalent in C. pepo in Bali and is extremely difficult to eradicate. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of pagoda leaf extract (Clerodendrum paniculatum L.) in reducing yield loss in C. pepo. A factorial randomized block design with two variables was employed in this study. The application time of the C. paniculatum extract was the first variable, and concentration was the second. Plant extract was applied during seed immersion, one day before and after inoculation, and on the same day of virus inoculation. The concentrations of C. paniculatum extract employed were 10%, 30%, and 50%. The crude extract was sprayed onto the C. pepo leaves. Plants treated with extract one day after virus inoculation at 10%, 30%, and 50% concentrations exhibited yellowing, yellowing with cupping, mosaic, mosaic with cupping, and stunting. While application of extract one day before virus inoculation at 30% and 50% concentrations resulted in yellowing and yellowing with cupping signs. Plants infected with ZYMV first showed flowering at 37 DAP, whereas plants treated with C. paniculatum leaf extract one day before virus inoculation started flowering at 32 DAP. Application of C. paniculatum leaf extract one day before ZYMV inoculation on C. pepo effectively suppressed 40% yield loss. The findings of present investigation revealed information about the potential of C. paniculatum leaf extract as a plant virus control agent through the mechanism of induction in C. pepo.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Stable isotope analysis to assess the trophic level of arthropod in
           sugarcane ratoon agroecosystem

    • Authors: HERI PRABOWO, BAMBANG TRI RAHARDJO, GATOT MUDJIONO, AKHMAD RIZALI
      Abstract: Abstract. Prabowo H, Rahardjo BT, Mudjiono G, Rizali A. 2022. Stable isotope analysis to assess the trophic level of arthropod in sugarcane ratoon agroecosystem. Biodiversitas 23: 2871-2881. Arthropods represent one of the main components of soil inhabitants and play an important role in maintaining soil health, as well as providing ecosystem services. The description of the trophic level of the ratoon sugarcane agroecosystem is needed to describe the role of organisms in the ecosystem to maximize the role of detritivores, predators, and parasitoids in the ratoon sugarcane agroecosystem. The stable isotope approach is widely used in various studies to describe trophic levels in an agroecosystem. The stable isotope technique, especially the one that uses stable isotopes of carbon ('13C) and nitrogen ('15N), can measure the trophic position that integrates energy assimilation or mass flow through all the different trophic pathways leading to an organism. Stable isotopes '13C and '15N can be used to identify the roles of arthropods in the ratoon sugarcane agroecosystem by identifying the composition of both isotopes. The ratio of arthropod's carbon assimilation ('13C) to sugarcane ranges from-1.4 to-5.45‰. In contrast, the ratio of nitrogen assimilation ('15N) of arthropod to sugarcane ranges from 3.86 to 39.7‰. The values of stable isotope '13C and '15N on predator and parasitoids are varied. The stable isotope value of carbon ('13C) for predators varies from-10.14 to-11.62‰. In contrast, the predator's stable isotope value of nitrogen ('15N) varies from 9.17 to 18.1%. The parasitoids' carbon stable isotope value ('13C) varies from 10.5 to 11.05‰. In contrast, parasitoids' nitrogen stable isotope value ('15N) varies from 12.8 to 17.05‰. The value of carbon ('13C) stable isotope assimilation between herbivores and predators varies from 0.006 to 1.38‰. While the value of nitrogen ('15N) stable isotope assimilation varies in the range of 0.33 to 10.3‰. Furthermore, the value of carbon ('13C) stable isotope assimilation between herbivores and parasitoids varies in the range of 5.3 to 9.23‰. While the value of nitrogen ('15N) stable isotope assimilation varies in the range of 3.79 to 10.3‰. Isotope content ('13C) shows the food resources of arthropods in the agroecosystem, while isotope value ('15N) shows the roles of arthropods in the sugarcane ratoon agroecosystem. Carbon stable isotope values of predator and parasitoids are close to zero. While the stable nitrogen isotope ('15N) values on arthropods are averagely above 10‰, values are suspected of having roles as predators or parasitoids. Knowing the trophic level of predators and parasitoids through stable isotopes in agroecosystems can be used to conserve and optimize natural enemies to suppress the development of herbivores.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Assessing soil properties in various agroforestry lands in Kuningan
           District, West Java, Indonesia using Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure
           (VESS)

    • Authors: TEGUH JATI PURNAMA, NURHENI WIJAYANTO, BASUKI WASIS
      Abstract: Abstract. Purnama TJ, Wijayanto N, Wasis B. 2022. Assessing soil properties in various agroforestry lands in Kuningan District, West Java, Indonesia using Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS). Biodiversitas 23: 3012-3021. Land conversion from the forest into intensive agriculture and plantation causes soil degradation. Agroforestry is promoted as a win-win solution to land management that conserves and improves soil quality using a tree-based farming system. This study aimed to evaluate the physical soil quality of various land-use patterns, including agroforestry in Kuningan District, West Java. In doing so, we employed the Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) method to be compared with laboratory analysis. Soil physical quality of seven land-use types was evaluated, namely natural forest, complex agroforestry of coffee, complex agroforestry of galangal, simple agroforestry of coffee, simple agroforestry of sweet potato, coffee monoculture and maize monoculture. The VESS technique was used to assess the quality of soil structure, whereas the conventional soil analysis method was used to determine soil bulk density and porosity. Other soil properties including soil organic carbon, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), pH, and soil macrofauna and mesofauna as well as dry litter weight, vegetation composition and individuals’ density were also obtained. The results of the VESS method (reflected as Sq value) revealed that the soil physical quality varied, ranging from Sq value of 1.16-3.1. Complex agroforestry of galangal had Sq value of 1.56 which was not significantly different from that of natural forest land (Sq 1.16), implying that both land uses had a similar physical soil quality. The VESS score and the soil property parameters have a reasonable correlation (r) (BD = 0.80, soil porosity = -0.80, SOC = -0.88, CEC = 0.89, diversity of fauna soil index = 0.82). This study shows that a multi-strata agroforestry system can be a strategy for recovering soil quality on degraded lands, and the VESS method can be used to analyze soil quality in these areas.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The diversity of Carangidae (Carangiformes) was revealed by DNA barcoding
           collected from the traditional fish markets in Java and Bali, Indonesia

    • Authors: SAPTO ANDRIYONO, MD. JOBAIDUL ALAM, LAKSMI SULMARTIWI, A. SHOFY MUBARAK, HERU PRAMONO, SUCIYONO SUCIYONO, GDE RAKA ANGGA KARTIKA, ALFI HERMAWATI WASKITA SARI, SINAR PAGI SEKTIANA
      Abstract: Abstract. Andriyono S, Alam MJ, Sumartiwi L, Mubarak AS, Pramono H, Suciyono, Kartika GRA, Sari AHW, Sektiana SP. 2022. The diversity of Carangidae (Carangiformes) was revealed by DNA barcoding collected from the traditional fish markets in Java and Bali, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2799-2806. Biodiversity has been utilized in various ways, including in fulfilling the protein needs of fish for coastal communities. For the island of Java, with the largest population in Indonesia, the intensive fisheries in the Java Sea are sufficient to support domestic food needs. This Carangid fish diversity study in Java is the beginning to identify commercial fish in Indonesia, which have been exploited for a long time. In this study, identification was carried out molecularly in the Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region with the universal primary set and found a great variety of Carangids fish species. Thirty-three fish specimens have been identified, indicating two suborder groups, Caranginae (31) and Scomberoidenae (2). The Caranginae suborder group is more dominated with the most types of which are Megalaspis cordyla (3), Atule mate (3), and Decapterus macarellus (4). Meanwhile, the Scomberoidinae suborder is Scomberoides commersonnianus and Scomberoides tala. This study also found two species that have the potential to be ciguatera poisoning agents that need to be watched out for (Decapterus macarellus and Selar crumenophthalmus). Food safety in the fisheries sector has received considerable attention for a long time. Fishery commodities in highly polluted habitats are among the chains in increasing heavy metals concentration and the other residual chemical compounds that may impact human health.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Additional distribution records of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera)
           with seven species new to Nepal

    • Authors: Sajan KC, ANISHA SAPKOTA
      Abstract: Abstract. Sajan KC, Sapkota A. 2022. Additional distribution records of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) with seven species new to Nepal. Biodiversitas 23: 2711-2743. New distribution records of some butterflies of Nepal are given in terms of geographical area, season and elevation based on our observations since early 2017 to late 2021. Seven new species: Hasora taminatus (Hübner, 1818), Hasora vitta (Butler, 1870), Celaenorrhinus pyrrha de Nicéville, 1889, Seseria sambara (Moore, [1866]), Coladenia agni (de Nicéville, [1884]), Erionota thrax (Linnaeus, 1767) and Tarucus balkanicus (Freyer, 1844), one new subspecies: Pelopidas conjuncta narooa (Moore, 1878) are added to the known butterfly fauna of Nepal along with two other species which need further confirmation: Rohana tonkiniana Fruhstorfer, 1906 and Neptis capnodes Fruhstorfer, 1908. Six species: Gerosis sinica (C. & R. Felder, 1862), Aeromachus kali (de Nicéville, 1885), Aeromachus pygmaeus (Fabricius, 1775), Niphanda cymbia de Nicéville, [1884], Tarucus nara (Kollar, 1848) and Discophora timora Westwood, [1850] have been reported for the second time in Nepal. This paper provides an updated distribution record of close to 200 species of butterflies in Nepal while discussing the possible causes of change in their distribution.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230555
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The structure communities of gastropods in the permanently inundated
           mangrove forest on the north coast of Jakarta, Indonesia

    • Authors: Endang Hilmi, Lilik Kartika Sari, Tri Nur Cahyo, Rose Dewi, Tjahjo Winanto
      Abstract: Abstract. Hilmi E, Sari LK, Cahyo TN, Dewi R, Winanto T. 2022. The structure communities of gastropods in the permanently inundated mangrove forest on the north coast of Jakarta, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2699-2710. The permanently inundated mangrove ecosystem support gastropods communities to live and grow. The gastropods communities require a mangrove ecosystem for feeding, spawning, nursing, distributing, and breading. The distribution of gastropod communities is shown by the number, association, and clustering of gastropods and is influenced by the potential of permanent water inundation. This research used association, clustering, and correlation methods to describe the distribution of gastropod communities. The results of this research showed that the mangrove ecosystem on the north coast of Jakarta was dominated by Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cerbera manghas, Excoecaria agallocha, Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora stylosa, Sonneratia caseolaris, Terminalia catappa, and Thespesia populnea with density between 20-2800 trees/ha. However, the gastropods communities in the mangrove ecosystem were dominated by Cassidula angulifera, Cassidula aurisfelis, Cassidula plecotrematoides, Cassidula rugata, Ellobium aurisjudae, Ellobium gangeticum, Pythia plicata, Cerithidea obtusa, Cerithidea quoyii, and Melanoidessarius tuberculata with abundance between 0.36 to 6.68 ind/m2, 12 pairs positive association from 78 pairs, had uniform distribution (Moroshita index 0-0.87), and two clusters.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230554
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Application of sexual dimorphism-derived variation in morphometrics and
           intraspecific interaction likelihood in Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) to
           increase species encounter rates

    • Authors: Novriyanti Novriyanti, Mariana Takandjandji
      Abstract: Abstract. Novriyanti N, Takandjandji M. 2022. Application of sexual dimorphism-derived variation in morphometrics and intraspecific interaction likelihood in Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) to increase species encounter rates. Biodiversitas 23: 2753-2759. Effectively encounters opportunities of Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) in natural habitats is still necessary to have more research. A diversity of pangolins' physical and biological characteristics has been disclosed to facilitate the identification process in natural habitats. However, pangolins are animals that tend to be solitary; they have fast movement, so the area coverage is extensive; this condition complicates the data collection process. It is unknown yet, whether pangolins of different sexes usually exist in the same space and time, either in terms of foraging or other interactions, known as intra-specific interactions. Thus, this study aimed to predict intraspecific interactions of M. javanica to increase the encountering of pangolins chance in natural habitats. As many as 29 individual pangolins (14 males and 15 females) be measured its morphometric data. To convincingly justify that morphometric variation can be used as encounter rate opportunities in natural habitats, a series of analyses, i.e., univariate test, correlation analysis, and multiple regression, were applied to this research. Other estimations from feeding activity data were also carried out to detect pangolins' niche width and its overlap according to sexual dimorphism. Univariate analysis shows that overall, the total body length (head to tail) of both males and females does not differ significantly. But, the correlation coefficient indicates the physical character of female and male body length is related to each other (value 0.769**). The resulting regression model indicates that the presence of pangolins in their sex similarity in a particular place tends to be avoided, while there is a 1:1 probability of sexual dimorphism. This also means that males and females can be used as the same individual in ecological observations.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230557
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Foraging habitat characterization of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, in
           the Cenderawasih Bay, Papua, Indonesia: Insights from satellite tag
           tracking and seagrass survey

    • Authors: RICARDO F. TAPILATU, HENGKI WONA, BENYAMIN MOFU, DUAIT KOLIBONGSO, NUR ALZAIR, MARK ERDMANN, BRAM MARUANAYA
      Abstract: Abstract. Tapilatu RF, Wona H, Mofu B, Kolibingso D, Alzair N, Erdmann M, Marunaya B. 2022. Foraging habitat characterization of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, in the Cenderawasih Bay, Papua, Indonesia: Insights from satellite tag tracking and seagrass survey. Biodiversitas 23: 2783-2789. The distribution area of green turtles is not yet known in Cenderawasih Bay. On 20 November 2020, two satellite transmitters were attached to two female green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) on Kalilemon, Southwest Cenderawasih Bay, Papua Province, Indonesia. Kalilemon area and Mangga Island as part of Kwatisore waters are the major foraging areas for this species and are under threat of turtle opportunistic poachers. The results show that the two turtles (Mary and Nona) dispersed and used limited but consistent and different foraging grounds during the tracking period through the satellite tags between November 2020-April 2021 at Mangga Island and Kalilemon. The composition of seagrass at both stations consisted of the same five species belonging to the families Cymodoceae and Hydrocharitaceae, with relatively different qualitative abundances. Overall, the mean chlorophyll-a content during the study period from November 2020-April 2021 ranged from 0.25-0.55mg/m3 at both foraging grounds (Mangga Island and Kalilemon). The mean SST during the study period ranged from 30.61-31.77oC in both locations. Before the next tracking attempt, more data on seasonal foraging and nesting activities are required. The result of this research is vital to determine the foraging grounds for green turtles related to the seagrass species with its abundance and key environmental factors in the management and conservation of sea turtles in the Cenderawasih Bay area.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The building size effect on bird community assemblages in tropical urban
           ecosystem

    • Authors: ABDIEL ADAM UTAMA, Sandy Nurvianto
      Abstract: Abstract. Utama AA, Nurvianto S. 2022. The building size effect on bird community assemblages in tropical urban ecosystem. Biodiversitas 23: 2775-2782. The construction of buildings is one of the factors that cause landscape changes in urban areas. Landscape changes can result in the fragmentation of animal habitats that live in urban areas. Characteristics of urban structures, such as spatial configuration and distribution of building types, are some of the factors that influence the distribution pattern and abundance of bird species in urban areas. This research aimed to describe the effect of building type on the diversity of bird species in Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, or Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY). Bird data were recorded using the point count method, while building type data and vegetation height were obtained by subtracting Digital Surface Model (DSM) data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data in the built-up area. The data was recorded from three levels of urbanization, namely urban, suburban and rural. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to visualize the response of birds to the type of building. After that, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to determine the effect of the type of building on the diversity of bird species. The results showed that shrub cover affected species richness and abundance of birds. The building types with a height below 18 meters had a negative effect on the abundance and diversity of birds in suburban areas. The abundance of birds in urban areas was positively affected by the type of building with a height of between 18 and 30 meters. The existence of buildings in urban areas can reduce bird feed sources. Making spatial plans that provide more variety of plant cover and diversity of building heights are expected to increase bird diversity in urban areas.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230560
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Ginger family from Bueng Kan Province, Thailand: Diversity, conservation
           status, and traditional uses

    • Authors: AREERAT RAGSASILP, PIYAPORN SAENSOUK, SURAPON SAENSOUK
      Abstract: Abstract. Ragsasilp A, Saensouk P, Saensouk S. 2022. Ginger family from Bueng Kan Province, Thailand: Diversity, conservation status, and traditional uses. Biodiversitas 23: 2739-2753. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity, conservation status, and traditional uses of Zingiberaceae in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand. The family Zingiberaceae was collected during field surveys in Bueng Kan Province, northeastern Thailand between January and December 2021. Three tribes, 13 genera, and 67 species of Zingiberaceae were found. The genera with the highest diversity were Curcuma (12 species), Zingiber (11 species), Globba (10 species), Alpinia (eight species), Kaempferia (seven species), Amomum (six species), Caulokaempferia (four species), Boesenbergia (three species), Gagnepainia (two species), Etlingera (one species), Hedychium (one species), Meistera (one species) and Wurfbainia (one species). Bung Khla district was found to have the most diverse species in this family with 64 species. The family was discovered in five ecosystem types, deciduous dipterocarp forest (20 species), mixed deciduous forest (21 species), dry evergreen forest (20 species), river basin (two species), and cultivated in home gardens (24 species). There were 41 native species found (62.68%), while 16 species (23.88%) were recognized as being cultivated in home gardens. The highest phenology rate was recorded from March to September. Thirty-eight species were reported to have the conservation status as rare species. Twenty-eight species were recognized as common species. Nine species, namely Alpinia macrostaminodia, Amomum biphyllum, A. wandokthong, Globba laeta, Boesenbergia baimaii, Caulokaempferia jirawongsei, Ca. Phutonkensis, Ca. phuwoaensis and Ca. phulangkaensis were recorded as endemic species to Thailand. Moreover, A. macrostaminodia, A. biphyllum, A. monophyllum, C. jirawongsei, Ca. phutokensis, Ca. phuwoaensis and Curcuma pygmaea, were found only in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand. This study reported nine species to be rare plants in Bueng Kan Province. Twenty-nine species of the family Zingiberaceae from Bueng Kan Province were presented in IUCN (2022): CR (1 species), DD (9 species), EN (2 species) LC (16 species), NT (1 species). The Zingiberaceae in Bueng Kan Province had popular uses as food, spice, rituals, and ornamentals. For the medicinal use of Zingiberaceae in this study, they were in relation to flatulence, laxative, diuretic, stomachache, treatment of inguinal hernia, uterine involution, antipruritic, cosmetic, skin disease, carminative, antiflatulent, intoxication, and tonic. In Thailand, 42 species of Zingiberaceae are reported for the first time to have traditional uses. Therefore, the information on the diversity, conservation status, and traditional uses are important as biological resources of the Zingiberaceae in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230556
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Genetic diversity of Sterculia quadrifida from Kupang based on ISSR
           profiles, stomatal density, and chlorophyll content

    • Authors: NUR JANNAH, MADE PHARMAWATI, USLAN USLAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Jannah N, Pharmawati M, Uslan. 2022. Genetic diversity of Sterculia quadrifida from Kupang based on ISSR profiles, stomatal density, and chlorophyll content. Biodiversitas 23: 2690-2698. This study investigated the genetic diversity of Sterculia quadrifida R.Br.or faloak based on Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) molecular markers and determined stomatal density and chlorophyll content from several localities in Kupang District, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. For genetic diversity analysis, samples were collected from the Oelsonbai forest area of Maulafa Sub-district, Kupang City, whereas for stomatal density and chlorophyll content analysis, samples were collected from areas with various degrees of anthropogenic activity from Kupang city. DNA was isolated using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) method and amplified by three ISSR primers (UBC 811, UBC 812, and UBC 815), whereas stomatal density was observed using a microscope and chlorophyll content was determined using a spectrophotometer. Genetic data were analyzed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method and Nei & Li coefficient similarity in the MVSP software. A total of 78 ISSR bands ranging from 320-3200 bp were obtained, where populations were divided into four main clusters and six sub-clusters, similarly having moderate heterozygosity (He=0.50) not clustered based on their geographical distribution. There was a difference in stomatal density and chlorophyll content, probably influenced by anthropogenic disturbances. A conservation action plan is required to ensure the S. quadrifida's survival in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230553
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Spatio-temporal analysis of dholes (Cuon alpinus) in Khao Yai National
           Park, Thailand

    • Authors: NORASET KHOEWSREE, MANANYA PLA-ARD, RONGLARP SUKMASUANG, PAANWARIS PAANSRI, YUWALUK CHANACHAI, BUNYATIPORN KAEWDEE, PHANITSUPHA PHENGTHONG
      Abstract: Abstract. Khoewsree N, Pla-ard M, Sukmasuang R, Paansri P, Chanachai Y, Kaewdee B, Phengthong P. 2022. Spatio-temporal analysis of dholes (Cuon alpinus) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Biodiversitas 23: 2668-2678. The relationship of the occurrence of key wildlife species and other wildlife in the ecosystems is complex and unique as a result of interactions between species as well as responses to complex environments. Spatio-temporal analysis of dholes (Cuon alpinus) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, aimed to study of the coexistence of the dhole with its main prey, humans, and other physical factors based on camera trapping. The temporal and spatial overlap analysis found that dholes coexist with five prey species and also with humans. The dhole also occurred with a significant positive temporal or spatial overlap with 20 other potential prey species. It was found that water sources and villages had a negative effect on the dhole's occupancy while there was a positive effect from roads, elevation, and slope. The dhole's occupancy model was most closely related to small rodent proximity. It also was found that the dhole's occupation was also related to humans. Based on the results of this study, some recommendations were developed to advocate the strict management of recreation areas. There should also be a boundary between the area of ''human activities and the natural forest of the area and this should include the control of illegal entry into the area from the area surrounding the national park to reduce interactions between human activities and wildlife.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230551
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Genetic diversity of rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia) in Yogyakarta,
           Indonesia for plus trees selection

    • Authors: INDIRA RIASTIWI, WITJAKSONO WITJAKSONO, DIAH RATNADEWI, ULFAH JUNIARTI SIREGAR
      Abstract: Abstract. Riastiwi I, Witjaksono, Ratnadewi D, Siregar UJ. 2022. Genetic diversity of rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia for plus trees selection. Biodiversitas 23: 2630-2639. Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.) or sonokeling is an important woody plant species with a high selling value. However, due to overexploitation, this species has been listed in Appendix II of CITES and its trade is strictly regulated. Therefore, the cultivation of this plant needs encouragement, and superior planting materials from selected plus trees are needed. This study aimed to examine the genetic diversity of the rosewood population and select plus trees in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. The plus tree selection was performed by comparing plus tree candidates with five other trees nearby in four districts, i.e. Bantul, Gunungkidul, Kulon Progo, and Sleman. As many as 61 plus tree candidates have been identified. Genetic diversity was assessed using 10 selected ISSR primers, resulting in 101 ISSR loci with average Polymorphic Loci values ''of 64.71% and Nei Heterozygosity of 0.23. The highest gene diversity (He=0.29) was found in the Kulon Progo population, and the lowest He=0.17 was in the Bantul population. The dendogram and PCA analysis put Gunungkidul and Bantul populations into one group, separated from the Sleman and Kulon Progo populations. Based on morphological and molecular analysis, six superior plus trees were obtained.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230546
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Impact of organic and microbiological pollution on the quality of water in
           Boussellam Valley and its environment, Setif City, Northeast Algeria

    • Authors: ZOUHIR BOULGUERAGUER, HICHAM CHAFFAI, LAKHDAR GASMI, LARBI DJABRI, AZZEDINE HANI
      Abstract: Abstract. Boulgueraguer Z, Chaffai H, Gasmi L, Djabri L, Hani A. 2022. Impact of organic and microbiological pollution on the quality of water in Boussellam Valley and its environment, Setif City, Northeast Algeria. Biodiversitas 23: 2621-2629. Water pollution is a major threat and a global challenge that endangers life on earth at risk because water plays a major role in daily life. Several sources of water pollutants, i.e., organic, industrial, domestic and microbial pollution, may trigger an outbreak of water-borne diseases. Boussellam Valley crosses the Quaternary formations, which dominate the extent of the plain surrounding the region of Sétif in the North-East of Algeria. It is one of the main water resources, mainly for drinking water supply and irrigation. The shallow water table composed of the geological formations containing this aquifer is very heterogeneous in texture and varies considerably from upstream to downstream of the sub-watershed. Thus, the North and East zones are marked by chloride-calcium facies, the central part by a Bicarbonate-calcium facies. At the same time, sulfate-magnesium facies characterize the West zone. This study aimed to evaluate the pollution by organic elements: nitrites, nitrates, and microbiological elements: total and fecal coliforms and streptococci and their impact on the water quality. Samples were collected during May and June 2021 from 5 stations along the valley, and 18 wells were spread out on the plain. The analysis of nitrites and nitrates was carried out by liquid chromatography. In addition, the colony counting of coliforms and streptococci was carried out according to the recommendations of the Algerian water company. The results show an increase in the concentration of nitrites, nitrates, total and fecal coliforms, and the streptococci, particularly in valley waters with very high levels that exceed the normal threshold of drinking water. This increase may be due to wastewater discharges and the intensive use of fertilizers, septic tanks, leaching of animal manure, runoff water, and rearing of domestic or wild animals. The increased levels of nitrites, nitrates, total and fecal coliforms, and the streptococci increase the risk of the vulnerability of the waters of the plain to pollution and degradation of surface waters and the environment in general.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230545
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Vegetation diversity, structure and composition of three forest ecosystems
           in Angsana coastal area, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    • Authors: YUSANTO NUGROHO, SUYANTO SUYANTO, DINDIN MAKINUDIN, SILVYNA ADITIA, DINDA DEWI YULIMASITA, AHMAD YUSUF AFANDI, MOEHAR MARAGHIY HARAHAP, JERIELS MATATULA, PANDU YUDHA ADI PUTRA WIRABUANA
      Abstract: Abstract. Nugroho Y, Suyanto, Makinudin D, Aditia S, Yulimasita DD, Afandi AY, Harahap MM, Matatula J, Wirabuana PYAP. 2022. Vegetation diversity, structure and composition of three forest ecosystems in Angsana coastal area, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2640-2647. Vegetation communities around coastal ecosystems play important roles in mitigating natural disaster and climate change. However, available information about vegetation communities in coastal areas is still limited despite being a requirement in developing strategies for environmental preservation. Angsana coastal area in South Kalimantan, Indonesia has unique characteristics in which it has three different forest ecosystems, namely heath forest (HF), beach forest (BF), and mangrove forest (MF). This study aimed to identify the vegetation diversity, structure and composition of the three forest ecosystems in Angsana coastal area. A field survey was conducted using transect line methods with a sampling plot size of 10 × 10 m and an interval of 20 m. Vegetation communities were assessed using species abundance, plant diversity, importance value index (IVI), and similarity level. Results showed that 37 species from 25 families were recorded at the study site. The highest species abundance was observed in HF (22 species), followed by BF (18 species) and MF (7 species). The same trend was found for vegetation diversity, in which HF had the highest richness (Dmg = 4.52), heterogeneity (H' = 2.86), and evenness (J' = 0.94). Hibiscus tiliaceus L. had the highest IVI in BF in all vegetation stages, and Rhizophora mucronata Lam. consistently had the greatest IVI in MF in all stages. Species thet exhibited the highest IVI in HF were Adina minutiflora Valeton (seedlings), Rhodedomia tomentosa and Premna serratifolia L. (saplings), Tristania maingayi Duthie (poles), and Vitex ovata Thunb. (trees). Our study also observed that species abundance in forest ecosystems gradually declined from seedlings to trees, except in MF. Among the three forest types, vegetation composition was highly similar between MF and BF, with a similarity level of 47.1%. Based on these results, this study concluded that the three forest ecosystems in Angsana coastal area exhibit a highly diverse vegetation structure, and each type of forest has specific characteristics as its entity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230547
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Construction of CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-OsCKX2 module cassette and its
           introduction into rice cv. Mentik Wangi mediated by Agrobacterium
           tumefaciens

    • Authors: MARINA RUZYATI, ATMITRI SISHARMINI, ANIVERSARI APRIANA, TRI JOKO SANTOSO, EDI PURWANTO, SAMANHUDI SAMANHUDI, AHMAD YUNUS
      Abstract: Abstract. Ruzyati M, Sisharmini A, Apriana A, Santoso TJ, Purwanto E, Samanhudi, Yunus A. 2022. Construction of CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-OsCKX2 module cassette and its introduction into rice cv. Mentik Wangi mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biodiversitas 23: 2679-2689. Mentik Wangi is an aromatic superior rice variety from the tropical japonica group with high posture and low productivity. The tall plant posture causes Mentik Wangi rice to be prone to lodging, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, improvement of plant height and productivity of Mentik Wangi is still required. The sd-1 (OsGA20ox-2) and CKX2 genes are responsible for the semi-dwarf character and high productivity. The study aimed to construct a CRISPR/Cas9 cassette module carrying a gRNA of OsCKX2 gene and introduce this construct to Mentik Wangi rice mediated by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector strain LBA4404. The introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-GA20ox-2 cassette plasmid that was constructed in previous research into Mentik Wangi rice was also carried out. The results showed that the CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-CKX2 cassette module had been successfully constructed using the Golden gate cloning method. The introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-CKX2 and CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-GA20ox-2 cassette modules into Mentik Wangi rice resulted in 30 putative transformant lines that passed the hygromycin selection. PCR analysis showed that from the 30 transformant lines, 15 lines were positive for the hygromycin resistance gene. Further analysis is necessary to be conducted to identify the occurrence of mutagenesis in the OsCKX2 and GA20ox-2 target genes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230552
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Antioxidant activity and metabolite profiles of
           leaves and stem extracts of Vitex negundo

    • Authors: MUHAMMAD ALFARABI, TURHADI TURHADI, TRINI SURYOWATI, NURIN AYU IMANELI, PRETTY OKTAVIANI SIHOMBING
      Abstract: Abstract. Alfarabi M, Turhadi, Suryowati T, Imaneli NA, Sihombing PO. 2022. Short Communication: Antioxidant activity and metabolite profiles of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex negundo. Biodiversitas 23: 2663-2667. Many plantspecies could be used as natural sources of antioxidants, one of which is Vitex negundo or lagundi which grows widely in Southeast and South Asia. Due to the wide distribution of growth areas, so different habitats could be a factor causing variations in V. negundo bioactivity, especially antioxidant activity. In addition to environmental factors, extract derived from different plant parts could also contribute to variations in the content of metabolites that affect bioactivity. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of leaf and stem extracts of V. negundo and evaluate the metabolites contained in the extracts. Antioxidant activity analysis was performed using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and GC-MS analysis was used to identify bioactive metabolites. Leafand stem extract of V. negundo showed antioxidant activity directly proportional to the increasein extract concentration. A total of 8 metabolites were identified from the three extracts, i.e., acrolein, hydroquinone, sitosterol, naphthalene, pyrogallol, squalene, phytol, and hexadecenoic acid. There were correlations between antioxidant activity and the metabolites contained in the three extracts. It is suggested that the bioactivity of the extract is due to the interaction of these metabolites.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230550
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Identification of phytochemical constituents of
           Syzygium aromaticum L. using gas chromatography coupled with mass
           spectrometry and evaluation of antimicrobial activity

    • Authors: ZOUBIDA BENMAKHLOUF, OUAFA BENSERRADJ, RABAH KELLAB
      Abstract: Abstract. Benmakhlouf Z, Benserradj O, Kellab R. 2022. Short Communication: Identification of phytochemical constituents of Syzygium aromaticum L. using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and evaluation of antimicrobial activity. Biodiversitas 23: 2586-2593. Syzygium aromaticum L. is a traditional spice that has various pharmacological activities attributed to its content of bioactive molecules. The purpose of this work is to evaluate phytochemical constituents of S. aromaticum L. extract using gas chromatography coupled spectrometry mass (CG/MS). The number detected of phenolic compounds was 45, which the most abundant being eugenol (54.63%), followed by Phenol,2-metoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-, acetate (eugenol acetate) (21.57%) and caryophyllene (16.71%). In addition, the antimicrobial activity was screened by the paper disc diffusion method for three bacterial strains, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus 6538) and by the direct contact method on three fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The results showed that extract presents an inhibitory activity with all the strains tested. Salmonella sp. is very sensitive (++) to the stock solution (100mg/ml), sensitive (+) to dilutions (50 and 25) mg/ml with inhibition diameters of (16, 12, 10) mm respectively. The other bacterial strains are sensitive (+) only to the stock solution. The results of our experiment confirm that fungi strains: A. niger, A. flavus and C. albicans show a remarkable antifungal activity at 100mg/ml. The result indicated that the extract obtained from dried buds of S. aromaticum could be considered an agent for antibacterial and antifungal in the pharmaceutical field.
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230540
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Biological control agent for Spodoptera litura on
           vegetable plants

    • Authors: Nurhayati - Damiri, Pujiastuti Yulia, Mulawarman Mulawarman, Astuti Dessy Tri, Afriani Siti Rakhmi, Rahim Supli Effendi
      Abstract: Abstract. Damiri N, Pujiastuti Y, Mulawarman, Astuti DT, Afriani SR, Rahim SE. 2022. Short Communication: Biological control agent for Spodoptera litura on vegetable plants. Biodiversitas 23: 2609-2613. This study aimed to assess the population dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis and its potency as a bio-agent against Spodoptera litura. The field study was conducted in Musi Banyuasin District, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Isolation and exploration of B. thuringiensis were carried out by taking the soil around the roots or rhizosphere of the fruit plants. The results showed that 13 isolates of B. thuringiensis, i.e., 1 isolate from Lansium domesticum (D1), 3 isolates from Artocarpus heterophyllus (N1,2,3), 1 isolate from Averrhoa carambola (B1), 4 isolates from Nephelium lappaceum (R1,2,3,4), 1 isolate from Musa paradisiaca (P1), 1 isolate from Mangifera indica (M1), 1 isolate from Garcinia mangostana (M2) and 1 isolate from Psidium guajava (JB1) were isolated from the rhizosphere of various fruit tree. The screening test results showed that isolates R2 and R3 had the highest toxicity, i.e., 51.14 and 50.77%, respectively, in controlling S. litura on vegetable plants.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230543
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Burkholderia cepacia strain IrV1 multi-resistant to copper and dyes
           isolated from laboratory wastewater effluent

    • Authors: WAHYU IRAWATI, VALENTINE LINDARTO, REINHARD PINONTOAN, TRIWIBOWO YUWONO, FEBRI MANGOMO MANGUNSONG, DESTYA WATY SILALAHI
      Abstract: Abstract. Irawati W, Lindarto V, Pinontoan R, Yuwono T, Mangunsong FM, Silalahi DW. 2022. Burkholderia cepacia strain IrV1 multi-resistant to copper and dyes isolated from laboratory wastewater effluent. Biodiversitas 23: 2614-2620. Copper and dye multi-resistant bacteria may be cultivated to increase the efficiency of waste bioremediation processes. Multi-resistant bacteria can be isolated from waste containing copper and dyes, including laboratory waste. The aims of this study were to: (i) isolate copper-resistant bacteria from wastewater, (ii) determine the multi-resistance of bacteria against copper and dyes, and (iii) observe the ability of bacteria to remove colors methylene blue, basic fuchsin, and Congo red. Selected bacterial isolates were identified based on the 16S rDNA gene. One highly copper resistant bacterial strain IrV, showed resistance to 7 mM CuSO4, 100 ppm methylene blue, 100 ppm basic fuchsin, and 100 ppm Congo red. Based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence, strain IrV belongs to Burkholderia cepacia with 99.86% similarity. The addition of copper on the medium resulted in colony color changes from light yellow to green indicated Cu binding within the cell. Moreover, a clear zone around the colony was observed, suggesting that the strain is capable of decolorizing methylene blue, Congo red, and basic fuchsin dyes. The results thus demonstrate that bacterial strain IrV is multi-resistant to copper and dyes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230544
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effect of water content on conidia of Trichoderma spp., indole acetic acid
           content, electrical conductivity, and pH

    • Authors: BENANG PURWANTO, SUMADI SUMADI, ANNE NURAINI, MIEKE ROCHIMI SETIAWATI
      Abstract: Abstract. Purwanto B, Sumadi, Nuraini A, Setiawati MR. 2022. Effect of water content on conidia of Trichoderma spp., indole acetic acid content, electrical conductivity, and pH. Biodiversitas 23: 2553-2560. Trichoderma sp. is a soil-borne saprophytic fungus that can increase plant resistance to combat drought stress. However, some species are unable to survive in a low water environment. Therefore, this research aimed to determine the effect of water content on different species of Trichoderma with respect to total conidial growth, IAA content, electrical conductivity (EC), and the media’s pH. A factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 2 factors, namely the water content of the media consisting of 3 levels (5%, 25%, and 50%) and the inoculation of Trichoderma spp. which includes Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma asperellum, and Trichoderma viride. Furthermore, an experimental method was adopted by analyzing the total conidial growth, indole acetic acid content (IAA), electrical conductivity (EC), and acidity (pH) of the media. Incubation was carried out for 14 days, data were analyzed using one way ANOVA, and Duncan's Multiple Distance Test was applied to determine the parameters that have a significant effect. The results showed that the total conidia of T. harzianum at the lowest water content (5% of the dry weight of the media) showed an increase from 7th to 14th days after inoculation (DAI), the highest was 23.6%, followed by T. asperellum (12.6%) and T. viride (10.7%). Similarly, the total conidia of Trichoderma spp. positively correlated with the levels of IAA, EC, and pH of the media. This indicates that an increase in total conidia is followed by an increase in the IAA content, EC, and pH. The highest total of T. harzianum conidial growth at the lowest water content indicated that it had better resistance to drought stress than T. asperellum and T. viride.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230536
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Spatio-temporal of heavy metal Pb (Lead) in seawater, sediment, and
           different organs of Cymodocea rotundata in Doreri Gulf, Manokwari, West
           Papua, Indonesia

    • Authors: LUKY SEMBEL, DWI SETIJAWATI, DEFRI YONA, YENNY RISJANI
      Abstract: Abstract. Sembel L, Setijawati D, Yona D, Risjani Y. 2022. Spatio-temporal of heavy metal Pb (Lead) in seawater, sediment, and different organs of Cymodocea rotundata in Doreri Gulf, Manokwari, West Papua, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2482-2492. The Doreri Gulf is a high-activity area that serves as a collection point for pollutants from the mainland, which are conveyed directly or indirectly through five rivers in a semi-enclosed area. Cymodocea rotundata in Doreri Gulf is classified as a pioneer seagrass with high density in areas close to pollution sources. Therefore, analysis of Pb concentrations in aquatic and sedimentary environments as well as the reaction of C. rotundata to Pb in the Doreri Gulf is required considering its relevance in seagrass ecosystems. This research, then, aims to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of Pb in waters and sediments, as well as determine the bioaccumulation in the organs of C. rotundata, such as roots, rhizomes, and leaves. Besides, an analysis was also carried out on the potential for bioconcentration and translocation of Pb in Doreri Gulf, Manokwari Regency, West Papua Province, from February to April and August to October 2020. The locations were divided into Yankarwar coastal, Nusmapi Islands, and Tanjung Manggewa. Parameter measurement refers to the Standard Methods for examining Water and Wastewater (APHA 2017). The heavy metal analysis was conducted using the SNI 6989.8:2009 procedure, and the temporal distribution showed that concentrations of Pb in water, sediment, and seagrass organs were high and low in the rainy and dry season. The spatial distribution of Pb in sediments between the Coastal Yankarwar and Nusmapi Islands, as well as between the Coastal Yankarwar locations and Tanjung Manggewa, were very different. However, there were no differences between the Nusmapi Islands and Tanjung Manggewa. Each location showed BCF bioconcentration <1, indicating the lack of ability to mobilize Pb from sediment to roots. Translocation factors for each location showed TF values < 1, showing the lack of ability of C. rotundata to transfer Pb to organ tissues. Additionally, translocation of elements from sediment to roots and within plant tissues was related to many factors, including pH, potency reduction, temperature, salinity, and organic matter content. Other factors such as seasonal variations and heavy metal concentrations contribute to bioaccumulation and internal translocation capacity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230528
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated
           with Casuarina equisetifolia in saline sandy environment, North Sumatra,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: DELVIAN DELVIAN, ADRIAN HARTANTO
      Abstract: Abstract. Delvian, Hartanto A. 2022. Short Communication: Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Casuarina equisetifolia in saline sandy environment, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2520-2525. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic association with plant roots to cope in the extreme environments including the saline and sandy soils in the coastal areas. In this study, the occurrence of AMF associated with Casuarina equisetifolia that has been planted for coastal rehabilitation located at Cermin Beach, North Sumatra was investigated including its abiotic-biotic interactions from topsoils (0-20 cm) to subsoils (20-80 cm). A total of 10 AM fungal morphotypes were documented with Glomeraceae as the dominant AM fungal taxa (9 morphotypes) and a Glomoid morphotype exists in all soil depths. The number of AMF spores decreased as soil depth increased following other environmental conditions such as pH, soil P availability and soil moisture based on the result of Pearson’s correlation test. The results showed a moderate-to-low level of biodiversity of AMF based on Shannon’s diversity index. The findings revealed the vertical distribution of AMF in a saline environment and supported the planting of C. equisetifolia which successfully recruited the indigenous AMF to form a symbiosis to thrive in the stressful environment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230532
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Biodiversity of nekton in the Barumun Watershed, Labuhanbatu District,
           North Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Authors: Desrita Desrita, ‪Ridahati Rambey‬, ‪Ahmad Muhtadi, Onrizal Onrizal, Vindy Rilani Manurung, Julia Syahriani Hasibuan, Isten Sweno Tamba
      Abstract: Abstract. Dersita, Rambey R, Muhtadi A, Onrizal O, Mamurung VR, Hasibuan JS, Tamba IS. 2022. Biodiversity of nekton in the Barumun Watershed, Labuhanbatu District, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2426-2432. Biodiversity is a very valuable source of germplasm for science and sustainable development. Therefore, research on freshwater biodiversity is very important to support the sustainability of this development. The research investigated three rivers in South Labuhanbatu District, North Sumatra, Indonesia: Barumun, Tasik, and Titi Kembar rivers. This investigation aims to ascertain the composition, distribution, and variety of nekton. From April to August 2020, the trial lasted five months. Nekton samples were collected with the aid of nets and fishing nets. While installed in the afternoon, the nets are removed the following day. Additionally, at each observation point, stocking nets were operated three times. The investigation discovered 38 fish species and one shrimp species. Two species of fish discovered, are protected by the government of the Republic of Indonesia. Both fish species are Tenualosa terubuk, a fish with little protection, and Fluvitrygon signifer, a ray fish with complete protection. The study site's sole shrimp species was the gigantic prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the Barumun river. The index of nekton diversity discovered in the three rivers was not identical. Compared to other rivers, the Tasik river station has a high diversity. This makes the Tasik river rich in fish compared to the Barumun and Titi Kembar rivers. The Tasik river is recommended as water suitable for fish life from these results.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230521
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Diversity and distribution pattern of scorpions from the Ouarsenis massif
           of Tissemsilt, North-West Algeria

    • Authors: ABDELWAHAB CHEDAD, MOHAMED AIT HAMMOU , HICHAM CHELGHOUM, ABDESSALEM CHEDAD, OMAR OULD AMARA, MAYSSARA EL BOUHISSI, WALID DAHMANI, SALAH EDDINE SADINE
      Abstract: Abstract. Chedad AW, Hammou MA, Chelghoum H, Chedad A, Amara OO, El Bouhissi M, Dahmani W, Sadine SE. 2022. Diversity and distribution pattern of scorpions from the Ouarsenis massif of Tissemsilt, North-West Algeria. Biodiversitas 23: 2444-2450. Ecological barriers such as mountains are important factors leading to fragmentation of the range of different species and the important cause of vicariance events. Ouarsenis massif (Tissemsilt, North-West Algeria) is an important protected Park. This paper presents a preliminary study of scorpion diversity and assesses this biodiversity change in this Mountain range along a gradient of many ecological descriptors, including elevation, vegetation cover, slope, and soil types. During 2020 and 2021, we sampled 179 specimens of scorpions by direct hunting from the eight biotopes in Ouarsenis massif. Only adult individuals were used for identification after being killed and kept in 70% alcohol. Based on morphological criteria, we identified eight species distributed in two genera and two families. The family Buthidae was represented by five species with the highest relative abundance (RA) was Buthus tunetanus (RA: 47.49%). Furthermore, the family Scorpionidae was represented by three species with the highest RA was Scorpio maurus (RA: 25.14%). The Shannon index (H’: 2.71 bits) indicated that Ouarsenis massif region had a high level of scorpion diversity and the value of evenness (E: 0.90) reflected the high equilibrium between the effectiveness of sampled species. The main determinant descriptor of scorpion distribution was the elevation and soil types, while the vegetation cover could be considered an ancillary factor.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230523
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • The relationship between seagrass abundance, distribution and the abiotic
           factors in Big Gifton and Abu Minqar islands, Red Sea, Egypt

    • Authors: MOHAMED A.W.S. EBEAD, HUSSEIN N.M. HUSSEIN, HASSANIEN GOMAA, MOHAMED ABDELMOTTALEB, ALDOUSHY MAHDY
      Abstract: Abstract. Ebead MAS, Hussein HNM, Gomaa H, Abdelmottaleb M, Mahdy A. 2022. The relationship between seagrass abundance, distribution and the abiotic factors in Big Gifton and Abu Minqar islands, Red Sea, Egypt. Biodiversitas 23: 2295-2303. Seagrass communities represent spatially complex and biomass-producing systems. The current research aims to understand the relationship between the abundance and distribution of seagrass communities and the abiotic factors in Big Gifton Island and Abu Minqar Island, Red Sea, Egypt. Seasonal seagrass samples were collected during 2019-2020 using line-transect and quadrat techniques. Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to determine the effect of environmental factors on the occurrence and abundance of seagrass species. Three seagrass species, i.e., Halophila stipulacea, Halodule uninervis, and Halophila ovalis were recorded in the two islands. The most dominant seagrass species in both locations was H. stipulacea, which accounted for 54% in Big Gifton and 45% in Abu Minqar Island, while H. uninervis and H. ovalis were less numerous, with a percentage cover of 23 and 24%; and 8 and 5% in Big Gifton and Abu Minqar island, respectively. Halophila stipulacea was highest in the winter season with a percentage of 62 % and lowest in the spring (47%) in Big Gifton, whereas it was highest in the spring (62%) and lowest in the winter (47%) on Abu Minqar Island (22%). Statistical analysis showed highly significant differences between both sites and seasons in terms of conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, and the presence of H. uninervis and H. ovalis. On the other hand, there were non-significant differences between both sites and seasons in terms of temperatures, dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, phosphorus and the presence of H. stipulacea. Throughout the year, Big Gifton had a higher mean phosphate value than Abu Minqar Island and this may be related to the highest abundance of H. stipulacea in Big Gifton Island. The findings of this study may aid decision-makers in the management of natural resources, particularly the seagrass beds of Big Gifton and Abu Minqar Island.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230507
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoid species in rice cultivation and their
           correlation with environmental factors in tidal swamp land

    • Authors: Zahlul Ikhsan
      Abstract: Abstract. Ikhsan Z. 2022. Diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoid species in rice cultivation and their correlation with environmental factors in tidal swamp land. Biodiversitas 23: 2262-2269. Environmental factors can affect biodiversity in a landscape. Differences in microclimate conditions can affect the presence of parasitic Hymenoptera in rice cultivation. This study investigated: (i) Landscape structure and microclimate on tidal swamp rice; (ii) Diversity and abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera; (iii) Correlation of parasitic Hymenoptera with their landscapes and microclimate. Determination of sample plots was made using the line transect method in rice cultivation in four tidal swampland landscapes. Data analysis was performed by calculating the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), the Margalef species richness index (D), and the Pielou species evenness index. The relationship between parasitic Hymenoptera and environmental factors was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and canonical correlation analysis. Based on the diversity index (H'), three rice fields in complex landscapes had a higher diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoid species than simple landscapes. The presence of Parasitic Hymenoptera on tidal swamp rice can be affected by the landscape's structure and microclimates. Humidity is the microclimate variable that most influences the abundance of Parasitic Hymenoptera in the tidal swamp landscape. Good microclimate management is needed to increase the presence of Parasitic Hymenoptera in tidal swamp rice.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230503
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Morphological and molecular characterization of mole crab (Genus: Emerita)
           in the Cilacap coastlines of Indonesia, with particular focus on genetic
           diversity of Emerita sp. nov.

    • Authors: DIAN BHAGAWATI, AGUS NURYANTO, ELLY TUTY WINARNI, ANASTASIA ENDANG PULUNGSARI
      Abstract: Abstract.Bhagawati D, Nuryanto A, Winarni ET, Pulungsari AE. 2022. Morphological and molecular characterization of mole crab (Genus: Emerita) in the Cilacap coastlines of Indonesia, with particular focus on genetic diversity of Emerita sp. nov. Biodiversitas 23: 2395-2404. Previous studies reported Emerita emeritus is the only species of the Genus Emerita inhabiting the coastal ecosystem of the Cilacap District. A recent study reported the presence of suspected new Emerita species living on the Cilacap sandy beach but used a small number of specimens and no reports about genetic diversity. This study used more Emerita samples than the previous study. This study aimed to identify Emerita specimens based on the morphology and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene and analyzed the genetic diversity of Emerita sp. nov. Emerita samples were collected from three different beaches in Cilacap District, Central Java, Indonesia. Morphological identification placed the samples into two different morphotypes. Morphotype A was identified as Emerita emeritus. Morphotype B was determined as Emerita sp. nov. Molecular data support the placement of Emerita samples into Emerita emeritus, and Emeritasp. nov. Emeritasp. nov. has haplotype diversity of 0.857±0.057, indicating a high genetic diversity. Haplotype H2 was suggested as the most primitive one because other haplotypes radiated from it. This study concluded that two sympatric Emerita species inhabit Cilacap coastlines, and Emeritasp. nov. has high genetic diversity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230517
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Bird diversity in three Ficus species in the Kuningan Lowland Forest, West
           Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: YAYAN HENDRAYANA, EMING SUDIANA, ILHAM ADHYA, AGUS YADI ISMAIL
      Abstract: Abstract. Hendrayana Y, Sudiana E, Adhya I, Ismail AY. 2022. Bird diversity in three Ficus species in the Kuningan Lowland Forest, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2255-2261. Frugivorous birds are an important group in tropical forests, as they promote a wide diversity of plant species and animal communities via tree seed dispersal. The presence of these avifauna depends on food, such as fruits provided by Ficus spp. This study examined the diversity of birds in three species of fruiting Ficus trees located in a secondary, natural lowland forest in Mount Tilu, Kuningan, West Java, Indonesia. Bird numbers in Ficus benjamina L., Ficus sinuata Thunb., and Ficus kurzii King were determined using the concentration count method. The data were analyzed using the Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H'), evenness index (E), and dominance index (Simpson’s D). The results showed diversity index values of H´ = 2.255, E = 0.353, and D = 0.8342 for F. benjamina; H' = 2.305, E = 0.5014, and D = 0.8376 for F. sinuata; and H' = 2.305, E = 0.5014, and D = 0.8694 for F. kurzii. The bird species with the highest number of individuals was Pycnonotus simplex Lesson, 1839 (378 individuals, 20.8%), followed by Megalaima australis (Horsfield, 1821) (320, 17.7%), Pericrocotus flammeus (J.R.Forster, 1781) (203, 11.2%), Dicaeum trigonostigma (Scopoli, 1786) (116, 6.4%) and Pycnonotus melanicterus (Gmelin, 1789) (109, 6,01%). By (Horsfield, 1821) knowing the important role of ficus trees as a source of food for various species of birds, this information becomes important and can be used by forest managers to support biodiversity conservation, especially bird conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230502
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Spatial distribution of tree species composition and carbon stock in Tozi
           tropical dry forest, Sinnar State, Sudan

    • Authors: EMAD HASsAN ELAWAD YASIN, BUDI MULYANA
      Abstract: Abstract. Yasin EHE, Mulyana B. 2022. Spatial distribution of tree species composition and carbon stock in Tozi tropical dry forest, Sinnar State, Sudan. Biodiversitas 23: 2359-2368. Dryland forest ecosystem in Sudan plays an important role, either ecologically or economically, for the community around the forest areas. However, land-use change, illegal logging and grazing have caused dryland forests in the country to degrade. The research aimed to investigate the species composition and carbon stock in a Tozi tropical dry forest (TTDF), a typical dryland forest ecosystem in Sinnar state, Sudan. A total of 306 circular sample plots (1000 m2 for each) were established using a systematic sampling grid method. The distance between plots was 400 m and between survey lines 500 m. In each plot, all living trees were identified and counted, and their diameter at the breast height (DBH) was recorded. Research findings showed that there were 2,339 individual trees representing four species (Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca, Acacia senegal and Acacia mellifera) that belong to two families. The B. aegyptiaca and A. seyal were the dominant species widely distributed in the TTDF. The average tree density was 175 trees/ha and the Shannon-Weiner index for trees diversity was 0.264. For the seedlings stage, A. mellifera showed a high value of frequency and density, followed by B. aegyptiaca and A. seyal. The structure of seedlings, saplings, and adults trees formed a reverse J-shape in which the density of seedlings was the highest and followed by saplings and adult trees. Carbon stock of A. seyal, B. aegyptiaca, A. senegal, and A. mellifera were 990.95, 2602.78, 1085.82, and 249.20 kg C/ha, respectively. Spatial analysis showed that sites composed of three species resulted in the highest above ground carbon stock compared to single species, two species, and four species compositions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230513
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Locating the unique biodiversity of Balikpapan Bay as an ecotourism
           attraction in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    • Authors: Karnila Willard, Marlon I Aipassa, Mustofa Agung Sardjono, Rujehan RUJEHAN, YOSEP RUSLIM, Rochadi Kristiningrum
      Abstract: Abstract. Willard K, Aipassa MI, Sardjono MA, Rujehan, Ruslim Y, Kristiningrum R. 2022. Locating the unique biodiversity of Balikpapan Bay as an ecotourism attraction in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2342-2357. Balikpapan Bay is rich in biodiversity and natural beauty that present unique opportunities for the developing ecotourism industry in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. This study aimed to identify biodiversity hotspots with potential as ecotourism attractions. Four field surveys by boat, each survey taking between 10 to 22 hours duration, tracked the river and tidal flow through the Bay, recording highlights of biodiversity at 19 defined observation points. The study results recorded observations on five species listed in the IUCN protected species classification, namely: Lesser Adjutant Stork (Leptoptilos javanicus) - classified as a Vulnerable species; Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus), Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) and Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) - classified as Endangered species; and the Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) - classified as Critically Endangered. In addition, details were recorded of a unique variant of the mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata, with leaves that have a vibrant yellow color instead of the usual green. Combined with great views, including at night when there are enchanting displays of Fireflies (Lampyridae) on several riverbanks, the biodiversity of the waterways results in Balikpapan Bay having great potential as an ecotourism destination. Therefore, this study provides useful input to relevant agencies charged with responsibility for conserving and managing the natural resources of the Bay for the benefit of communities who stand to gain economically from developing this ecotourism potential.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230512
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Human-wildlife interactions in a major tourist destination: Manuel Antonio
           National Park, Costa Rica

    • Authors: LAURA P. PORRAS-MURILLO, GRACE WONG, IRIA S. CHACÓN
      Abstract: Abstract. Porras-Murillo LP, Wong G, Chacón IS. 2022. Human-wildlife interactions in a major tourist destination: Manuel Antonio National Park, Costa Rica. Biodiversitas 23: 2417-2425. This study characterized the interactions between tourists and wildlife in terms of the most common interactions and the species that interact the most. Interactions were observed during 65 sampling days between 2012 and 2020. In each event, the following data were recorded: date, time (hour), site, type of interaction, and species that participated. To characterize the interactions, the effects of the day of the week, the season, the daily period, and the site on the number of daily interactions were evaluated. Also, to understand the more frequent interactions, the effect of species and type of interaction on ''the number of daily interactions were evaluated. The results indicated more interactions in the dry season, between 10 am and 2 pm, at Manuel Antonio Beach, Costa Rica. Although interactions were recorded for 39 species, white-faced monkey and raccoon were the species with the most interactions. Raccoons had more interactions related to food than the tourists called or approached them; white-faced monkeys had a similar number of interactions in these categories. Interactions between tourists and wildlife in the Manuel Antonio National Park (PNMA), Costa Rica, coincide with the times and places in the park with the highest concentration of tourists. Therefore, there is evidence of the need to promote tourism with appropriate behavior of observation and respectful appreciation of wildlife, and the use of more sectors of the park is essential to avoid damage to fauna.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230520
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Analysis of the ultimate wood composition of a forest
           plantation species, Eucalyptus pellita, to estimate its bioelectricity
           potency

    • Authors: MUHAMMAD TAUFIQ HAQIQI, DUDU HUDAYA, HELMI ALFATH SEPTIANA, RICO RAMADHAN, YULIANSYAH YULIANSYAH, WIWIN SUWINARTI, RUDIANTO AMIRTA
      Abstract: Abstract. Haqiqi MT, Hudaya D, Septiana HA, Ramadhan R, Yuliansyah, Suwinarti W, Amirta R. 2022. Short Communicarion: Analysis of the ultimate wood composition of a forest plantation species, Eucalyptus pellita, to estimate its bioelectricity potency. Biodiversitas 23: 2389-2394. Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell is one of the short rotation wood crop species widely planted in tropical countries, including Indonesia. Woody biomass obtained from this species is commonly utilized to produce fiber in the pulp and paper industry. Due to the growing interest in expanding E. pellita plantations, the potential application of E. pellita woody biomass to provide sustainable energy feedstock has been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the ultimate composition of E. pellita wood (carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O)) to estimate its higher heating value (HHV) and bioelectricity potency. The wood samples were harvested at different plant ages, from the first to the fifth year. The percentage of biomass composition, including cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractives, was also calculated. The results demonstrated that lignin in the E. pellita wood increased to align with the increased plant age. Thus, this pattern was followed by significantly increased C content in the wood since lignin contained a primary source of C. Hence, this condition might enhance the HHV and electricity potency. The ratio of H/C and O/C was found to be one of the most promising factors in improving HHV compared to the extractive/lignin ratio. In the fifth year, the electricity potency of E. pellita showed the highest value (1.71 MWh ton-1). Therefore, this study suggests that E. pellita possesses the potential to be one of the promising crops for green electricity production.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230516
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short communication: Pattern of chlorophylls content declined during
           partial submergence for rice varieties cultivated in North Sulawesi at the
           vegetative stage

    • Authors: SONG AI NIO, DANIEL PETER MANTILEN LUDONG, RATNA SIAHAAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Nio SA, Ludong DPM, Siahaan R. 2022. Short communication: Pattern of chlorophylls content declined during partial submergence for rice varieties cultivated in North Sulawesi at the vegetative stage. Biodiversitas 23: 2451-2456. Submergence or flooding stress limits plant growth in various physiological, anatomical, and morphological aspects. This study examined leaf chlorophyll content as a physiological response in some rice varieties cultivated in North Sulawesi during partial submergence imposed at the vegetative stage. Ten rice cultivars, i.e., Permata, Superwin, Cigeulis, Pulo Manado, TB, Ombong, Serayu, Temo, Burungan, and Inpari 31, were grown in plastic trays on planting media in the greenhouse, then watered to field capacity using a mixture of water and fertilizer every second day for two weeks. The plants were submerged 18 cm from the media's surface, and the content of leaf chlorophylls (total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b) were measured using a spectrophotometer (' 649 and 665 nm) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days of partial submergence. The chlorophylls (total, a, and b) content decreased during the 9 days of treatment. The highest chlorophylls contents were observed in rice cv. Superwin and the chlorophylls content at day 0 (before partial submergence commenced) were higher than at 3, 6, and 9 days after treatment (p<0.05). The data presented here supported that leaf chlorophylls content is a potential physiological indicator of partial submergence stress in rice, including the North Sulawesi local rice, at the vegetative phase.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230524
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Human-wildlife conflict in indigenous communities of the Nairi Awari
           Indigenous Territory of East Central Costa Rica

    • Authors: CAROLINA SÁENZ-BOLAÑOS, TODD K. FULLER, LYNNETTE SIEVERT, EDUARDO CARRILLO
      Abstract: Abstract. Sáenz-Bolaños C, Fuller TK, Sievert L, Carrillo E. 2022. Human-wildlife conflict in indigenous communities of the Nairi Awari Indigenous Territory of East Central Costa Rica. Biodiversitas 23: 2238-2244. Human-wildlife conflict is essential for conservation because it is necessary to maintain the balance of requirements needed by humans and wildlife. Indigenous territories are not exempt from interactions with wildlife, and in this study, we focus on one indigenous territory of the Cabécar Indigenous Group of Costa Rica called Nairi Awari. We wanted to know which are the most common wildlife species, which interactions with these species the Nairi Awari consider negative, and what are the possible solutions to these interactions. To do this, we administered 24 semi-structured questionnaires to indigenous people from March-August 2019. The results showed 16 species as “problematic animals”, the jaguar (Panthera onca) being the most common, followed by hawks. Of the six problem categories identified, predation on poultry was the most cited category, but it raised fewer negative feelings among respondents than some other problems. Possible solutions to pig or cow predation, problems which most maddened respondents, included improved management (48%), scaring animals (12%), and killing big cats (16%). It is important to understand these perceptions in order to address future management to benefit conservation and human welfare. In particular, there is potential to work in the long term to improve the management of domestic animals.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230460
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of insects diversity with the influence of industrial
           pollutants in agricultural zones of District Sialkot, Pakistan

    • Authors: AYESHA ASGHAR, OMEMA QADEER, SAJIDA MUSHTAQ, SADIA MAALIK, WAQAR MAJEED, NAHEED BANO, SHAHLA NARGIS
      Abstract: Abstract. Asghar A, Qadeer O, Mushtaq S, Maalik S, Majeed W, Bano N, Nargis S. 2022. Assessment of insects diversity with the influence of industrial pollutants in agricultural zones of District Sialkot, Pakistan. Biodiversitas 23: 2047-2053. Insects are the most important creatures on earth due to their multifunctional role in the environment by providing different services such as biological indicators, decomposers, pollinators, scavengers, pests, and predators agroecosystem. However, with time due to anthropogenic activities such as environmental pollution, industrial waste, and the use of effluents for agriculture, insect fauna has been facing a dramatic threat to their diversity, particularly in most polluted areas. The present study was designed to find insects diversity variation under polluted environments (heavy metals) in agriculture fields having brassica and Rice crops. Two different sites, the tannery and non-tannery areas were selected to sample insects. The total number of insects found in tannery area fields were 2195 and 3753 from the non-tannery area. The abundance of Melanoplus bivittatus (Say, 1825) was highest in the non-tannery area, and Acrida exaltata (Walker, 1859) was highest in tannery area fields. From the tannery area and non-tannery area, the maximum abundance of 32% and 37% were found for order orthoptera. The cadmium concentration in tannery rice crops was 0.626 ppm, and brassica concentration was 0.315 ppm. The cadmium concentration in non-tannery area samples was 0.115 ppm for rice and 0.101 ppm for brassica plants, while 0.1231 ppm for rice and 0.104 ppm for brassica insects. The lead concentration in tannery areas of rice crops was 0.637 ppm, and brassica concentration was 0.672 ppm. The lead concentration in non-tannery area samples was 0.324 ppm for rice and 0.267 ppm for brassica plants, while 0.214 ppm for rice and 0.266 ppm for brassica insects. The diversity and richness were recorded at 3.11 and 3.525 for rice and 3.124 and 3.913 for brassica fields. The species maximum was seen in the non-tannery area, and less abundance was recorded in the tannery area. It is further suggested that preventive measures should be taken to protect insect diversity from balancing nature's ecological balance.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230440
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Assessing the potential of tembawang, a traditional forest management in
           Sanggau, West Kalimantan, Indonesia for ecotourism

    • Authors: EMI ROSLINDA, ADI SISWOYO, NIKOMEDES NANTAH
      Abstract: Abstract. Roslinda E, Siswoyo A, Nantah N. 2022. Assessing the potential of tembawang, a traditional forest management in Sanggau, West Kalimantan, Indonesia for ecotourism. Biodiversitas 23: 2184-2192. Tembawang is a traditional land management system practiced by the Dayak community in Kalimantan, Indonesia. It resembles a miniature tropical forest that can be developed as an ecotourism alternative. This study aimed to assess the potential of Tembawang Kampung Lama in Sanggau District, West Kalimantan, as a natural tourist attraction. The research used a survey method and data collection was carried out by distributing questionnaires to respondents, in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions, direct observation, and document analysis. Assessment and analysis of data followed guidelines from the government. The results showed that Tembawang Kampung Lama has a moderate potential to be developed as an ecotourism destination. The elements of tourist attractions, supporting infrastructure and availability of clean water were in a good category, while the accessibility was in the moderate category, and the socio-economic conditions and accommodation were in the bad category. The development of tembawang as a tourist attraction must be supported by improving accessibility and accommodation facilities. In addition, tour packages can be developed by integrating landscape tours consisting of rice fields, tembawang, secondary forests in the hills and cascades around the tembawang to attract more tourists to visit.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230454
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The role of urban green space design to support bird community in the
           urban ecosystem

    • Authors: DANA RISQY PRIHANDI, SANDY NURVIANTO
      Abstract: Abstract. Prihandi DR, Nurvianto S. 2022. The role of urban green space design to support bird community in the urban ecosystem. Biodiversitas 23: 2137-2145. The increase in human population due to urbanization causes the expansion of urban areas that threatens forest lands to be lost and makes a serious threat to its biodiversity. Along with changes in the landscape due to urbanization, open green space is an alternative solution to maintaining biological diversity in urban areas. However, various types of open green spaces were developed following certain objectives of landscape management that potentially have different effects on biodiversity. This research aimed to identify the role of various open green spaces designs on bird biodiversity. Birds can be a good indicator of environmental quality because birds are a type of animal that can move in different habitat types and habitat areas and are often used as an indicator of habitat quality in urban areas. Bird observation was conducted using the point count method, while the environmental conditions were recorded using the nested and protocol sampling method. Those data were collected in five different open green spaces of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Province. Species diversity shows the diversity of species in a bird community in a certain area using the Shanon-Wiener index. Bird communities were also analyzed using rarefaction analysis. This analysis was used to standardize the species abundance in each type of green open space to estimate the ideal species richness of open green space from the different number of samples. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the value of diversity, richness, and relative abundance of bird species among five different types of open green space. We used Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) to visualize the bird's response toward environmental gradients. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was employed to determine the effect of the environmental factors on the diversity of bird species. The result showed that different types of urban green spaces have different richness and relative abundance of bird species. We found 5925 individual birds from 40 species in five different types of open green spaces. The garden was the type of open green space with the highest bird species diversity. Of the many variables taken, the slope and the number of vehicles per minute affected the diversity of species. Those two variables were also negatively correlated with the diversity of bird species in the five types of open green spaces. The number of vehicles causes noise and pollution, which causes a decrease in bird populations. Flat slopes can also help birds get food, such as seeds on a flat surface. Creating more gardens for public and private spaces becomes an alternative solution to enhance bird diversity in the urban area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230449
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Taxonomy and ethnobotany of Acmella (Asteraceae) in Thailand

    • Authors: PRATEEP PANYADEE, ANGKHANA INTA
      Abstract: Abstract. Panyadee P, Inta A. 2022. Taxonomy and ethnobotany of Acmella (Asteraceae) in Thailand. Biodiversitas 23: 2177-2183. Thai toothache plant is an ethno-species, referred to as any species in the genus Acmella of the aster family (Asteraceae). The plants are used commonly in Thailand as vegetables and medicine. However, in earlier phytochemistry and ethnobotanical studies, missed scientific names: Acmella olearcea and Spilanthes acmella, were applied to these species. In this study, we have clarified the identity of these ethno-species and related species in the genus Acmella. There were six species of Acmella in Thailand, including two native species and four introduced species. The keys and brief description of these species are provided. In ethnobotanical studies, A. oleracea and S. acmella were mentioned as nearly 80% of total use records. These names could be referred to A. paniculata which is one of the native species and most widely distributed. Although there were a reasonable amount of studies on the Thai toothache plant, more comparative studies for their bioactivities are still needed according to the taxonomical confusion of their names.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230453
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Kaempferia sipraiana (Zingiberaceae), a new species from Thailand and a
           new record of Kaempferia pseudoparviflora for Myanmar

    • Authors: THAWATPHONG BOONMA, SURAPON SAENSOUK, PIYAPORN SAENSOUK
      Abstract: Abstract. Boonma T, Saensouk S, Saensouk P. 2022. Kaempferia sipraiana (Zingiberaceae), a new species from Thailand and a new record of Kaempferia pseudoparviflora for Myanmar. Biodiversitas 23: 2203-2211. Kaempferia sipraiana Boonma & Saensouk, a new species of Kaempferia subgenus Protanthium (Zingiberaceae) from northern Thailand and K. pseudoparviflora Saensouk P. & Saensouk, a new record species of Kaempferia subgenus Kaempferia for Myanmar are described, illustrated, and photographed. The dominant characters of Kaempferia sipraiana were leaves narrowly elliptic, green with short white stripes arranged parallel along the leaf edges, between the midrib and both sides of the edges, apex acuminate with slightly mucronate, base attenuate-oblique; peduncle glabrous; bracts apex mucronate, glabrous, red with dark red veins; bracteoles glabrous; floral tube shorter than calyx; calyx glabrous; staminodes oblanceolate, apex 3-lobes like curly brackets; labellum white at the base with pinkish purple in the middle gradually fade to pale pink and to reach to white tip and edge respectively, apex 3-lobes like curly brackets, each lobe 3.0–3.3 cm long; apex 4 lobes, outer lobes acute, inner lobes obtuse rarely combined to truncate; stigma with pink lips. The dominant characters of K. pseudoparviflora were one leaf and dark green with light grey markings, the inflorescence looks like inflorescence of K. parviflora. The information on vernacular name, distribution, phenology, ecology, conservation status, specimens examined, and an identification key to both species of Kaempferia in Thailand is revised and presented.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230456
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Phytochemicals, characterization and antimicrobial tests of red betel
           leaves on three solvent fractions as candidates for endometritis
           phytotherapy in Aceh cattlePhytochemicals, characterization and
           antimicrobial tests of red betel leaves on three solvent fractions as
           candidates for endometritis phytotherapy in Aceh cattle, Indonesia

    • Authors: TEUKU ARMANSYAH, TONGKU NIZWAN SIREGAR, SUHARTONO SUHARTONO, AMALIA SUTRIANA
      Abstract: Abstract. Armansyah T, Siregar TN, Suhartono, Sutriana A. 2022. Phytochemicals, characterization and antimicrobial tests of red betel leaves on three solvent fractions as candidates for endometritis phytotherapy in Aceh cattle, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2111-2117. The use of antibiotics to treat endometritis in cattle carries with it some weaknesses in the form of toxicity risks and unexpected side effects. The use of medicinal plants as antimicrobials and immunomodulators has the potential to be an alternative therapy. Red betel leaves could be considered viable candidates for phytotherapy in cattle with endometritis. This study aimed to determine the differences in biological activity and antibacterial ability of red betel leaf through the use of three different solvents, namely n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The highest yield of betel leaf extract was obtained from the ethyl acetate solvent fraction consisting of flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, phenolics, and saponins. The highest biological compounds in red betel leaf identified by GC-MS in n-hexane solvent, ethyl acetate, and ethanol were 5-isobutylidene-N, N-dimethylbarbituric acid, benzenamine, 4,4' - (1,2-ethenediyl) bis-, and 9-octadecadienoic acid, respectively. Among the three solvent fractions of red betel leaf extract, it was observed that ethyl acetate exhibited higher antibacterial activity than hexane and ethanol. Hence, it can be concluded that ethyl acetate extract of red betel leaves solvent has secondary metabolites and better antibacterial potential than ethanol and n-hexane solvents.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230446
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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