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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Biomarker Sciences and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
All Life     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Phycology     Open Access  
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in the Life Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access  
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioeduscience     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Bioinformatics Advances : Journal of the International Society for Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.203
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1412-033X - ISSN (Online) 2085-4722
Published by Society for Indonesian Biodiversity Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Additional distribution records of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera)
           with seven species new to Nepal

    • Authors: Sajan KC, ANISHA SAPKOTA
      Abstract: Abstract. Sajan KC, Sapkota A. 2022. Additional distribution records of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) with seven species new to Nepal. Biodiversitas 23: 2711-2743. New distribution records of some butterflies of Nepal are given in terms of geographical area, season and elevation based on our observations since early 2017 to late 2021. Seven new species: Hasora taminatus (Hübner, 1818), Hasora vitta (Butler, 1870), Celaenorrhinus pyrrha de Nicéville, 1889, Seseria sambara (Moore, [1866]), Coladenia agni (de Nicéville, [1884]), Erionota thrax (Linnaeus, 1767) and Tarucus balkanicus (Freyer, 1844), one new subspecies: Pelopidas conjuncta narooa (Moore, 1878) are added to the known butterfly fauna of Nepal along with two other species which need further confirmation: Rohana tonkiniana Fruhstorfer, 1906 and Neptis capnodes Fruhstorfer, 1908. Six species: Gerosis sinica (C. & R. Felder, 1862), Aeromachus kali (de Nicéville, 1885), Aeromachus pygmaeus (Fabricius, 1775), Niphanda cymbia de Nicéville, [1884], Tarucus nara (Kollar, 1848) and Discophora timora Westwood, [1850] have been reported for the second time in Nepal. This paper provides an updated distribution record of close to 200 species of butterflies in Nepal while discussing the possible causes of change in their distribution.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The structure communities of gastropods in the permanently inundated
           mangrove forest on the north coast of Jakarta, Indonesia

    • Authors: Endang Hilmi, Lilik Kartika Sari, Tri Nur Cahyo, Rose Dewi, Tjahjo Winanto
      Abstract: Abstract. Hilmi E, Sari LK, Cahyo TN, Dewi R, Winanto T. 2022. The structure communities of gastropods in the permanently inundated mangrove forest on the north coast of Jakarta, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2699-2710. The permanently inundated mangrove ecosystem support gastropods communities to live and grow. The gastropods communities require a mangrove ecosystem for feeding, spawning, nursing, distributing, and breading. The distribution of gastropod communities is shown by the number, association, and clustering of gastropods and is influenced by the potential of permanent water inundation. This research used association, clustering, and correlation methods to describe the distribution of gastropod communities. The results of this research showed that the mangrove ecosystem on the north coast of Jakarta was dominated by Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cerbera manghas, Excoecaria agallocha, Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora stylosa, Sonneratia caseolaris, Terminalia catappa, and Thespesia populnea with density between 20-2800 trees/ha. However, the gastropods communities in the mangrove ecosystem were dominated by Cassidula angulifera, Cassidula aurisfelis, Cassidula plecotrematoides, Cassidula rugata, Ellobium aurisjudae, Ellobium gangeticum, Pythia plicata, Cerithidea obtusa, Cerithidea quoyii, and Melanoidessarius tuberculata with abundance between 0.36 to 6.68 ind/m2, 12 pairs positive association from 78 pairs, had uniform distribution (Moroshita index 0-0.87), and two clusters.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Application of sexual dimorphism-derived variation in morphometrics and
           intraspecific interaction likelihood in Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) to
           increase species encounter rates

    • Authors: Novriyanti Novriyanti, Mariana Takandjandji
      Abstract: Abstract. Novriyanti N, Takandjandji M. 2022. Application of sexual dimorphism-derived variation in morphometrics and intraspecific interaction likelihood in Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) to increase species encounter rates. Biodiversitas 23: 2753-2759. Effectively encounters opportunities of Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) in natural habitats is still necessary to have more research. A diversity of pangolins' physical and biological characteristics has been disclosed to facilitate the identification process in natural habitats. However, pangolins are animals that tend to be solitary; they have fast movement, so the area coverage is extensive; this condition complicates the data collection process. It is unknown yet, whether pangolins of different sexes usually exist in the same space and time, either in terms of foraging or other interactions, known as intra-specific interactions. Thus, this study aimed to predict intraspecific interactions of M. javanica to increase the encountering of pangolins chance in natural habitats. As many as 29 individual pangolins (14 males and 15 females) be measured its morphometric data. To convincingly justify that morphometric variation can be used as encounter rate opportunities in natural habitats, a series of analyses, i.e., univariate test, correlation analysis, and multiple regression, were applied to this research. Other estimations from feeding activity data were also carried out to detect pangolins' niche width and its overlap according to sexual dimorphism. Univariate analysis shows that overall, the total body length (head to tail) of both males and females does not differ significantly. But, the correlation coefficient indicates the physical character of female and male body length is related to each other (value 0.769**). The resulting regression model indicates that the presence of pangolins in their sex similarity in a particular place tends to be avoided, while there is a 1:1 probability of sexual dimorphism. This also means that males and females can be used as the same individual in ecological observations.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Foraging habitat characterization of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, in
           the Cenderawasih Bay, Papua, Indonesia: Insights from satellite tag
           tracking and seagrass survey

    • Authors: RICARDO F. TAPILATU, HENGKI WONA, BENYAMIN MOFU, DUAIT KOLIBONGSO, NUR ALZAIR, MARK ERDMANN, BRAM MARUANAYA
      Abstract: Abstract. Tapilatu RF, Wona H, Mofu B, Kolibingso D, Alzair N, Erdmann M, Marunaya B. 2022. Foraging habitat characterization of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, in the Cenderawasih Bay, Papua, Indonesia: Insights from satellite tag tracking and seagrass survey. Biodiversitas 23: 2783-2789. The distribution area of green turtles is not yet known in Cenderawasih Bay. On 20 November 2020, two satellite transmitters were attached to two female green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) on Kalilemon, Southwest Cenderawasih Bay, Papua Province, Indonesia. Kalilemon area and Mangga Island as part of Kwatisore waters are the major foraging areas for this species and are under threat of turtle opportunistic poachers. The results show that the two turtles (Mary and Nona) dispersed and used limited but consistent and different foraging grounds during the tracking period through the satellite tags between November 2020-April 2021 at Mangga Island and Kalilemon. The composition of seagrass at both stations consisted of the same five species belonging to the families Cymodoceae and Hydrocharitaceae, with relatively different qualitative abundances. Overall, the mean chlorophyll-a content during the study period from November 2020-April 2021 ranged from 0.25-0.55mg/m3 at both foraging grounds (Mangga Island and Kalilemon). The mean SST during the study period ranged from 30.61-31.77oC in both locations. Before the next tracking attempt, more data on seasonal foraging and nesting activities are required. The result of this research is vital to determine the foraging grounds for green turtles related to the seagrass species with its abundance and key environmental factors in the management and conservation of sea turtles in the Cenderawasih Bay area.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The building size effect on bird community assemblages in tropical urban
           ecosystem

    • Authors: ABDIEL ADAM UTAMA, Sandy Nurvianto
      Abstract: Abstract. Utama AA, Nurvianto S. 2022. The building size effect on bird community assemblages in tropical urban ecosystem. Biodiversitas 23: 2775-2782. The construction of buildings is one of the factors that cause landscape changes in urban areas. Landscape changes can result in the fragmentation of animal habitats that live in urban areas. Characteristics of urban structures, such as spatial configuration and distribution of building types, are some of the factors that influence the distribution pattern and abundance of bird species in urban areas. This research aimed to describe the effect of building type on the diversity of bird species in Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, or Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY). Bird data were recorded using the point count method, while building type data and vegetation height were obtained by subtracting Digital Surface Model (DSM) data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data in the built-up area. The data was recorded from three levels of urbanization, namely urban, suburban and rural. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to visualize the response of birds to the type of building. After that, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to determine the effect of the type of building on the diversity of bird species. The results showed that shrub cover affected species richness and abundance of birds. The building types with a height below 18 meters had a negative effect on the abundance and diversity of birds in suburban areas. The abundance of birds in urban areas was positively affected by the type of building with a height of between 18 and 30 meters. The existence of buildings in urban areas can reduce bird feed sources. Making spatial plans that provide more variety of plant cover and diversity of building heights are expected to increase bird diversity in urban areas.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: First report of Nectria haematococca causing a moler
           disease on shallots in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    • Authors: MARIANI MARIANI, DEWA NGURAH SUPRAPTA, I MADE SUDANA, I GEDE RAI MAYA TEMAJA, I MADE SUDANTHA
      Abstract: Abstract. Mariani, Suprapta DN, Sudana IM, Temaja IGRM, Sudantha IM. 2022. Short Communication: First report of Nectria haematococca causing a moler disease on shallots in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2768-2774. Moler disease caused by Nectria haematococca is the main disease of shallots in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Moler disease caused significant yield loss and even crop failure. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the pathogen causing moler disease on shallots. This research was conducted from February 2018 to November 2019. Survey was conducted at 13 shallot planting locations in West Nusa Tenggara, namely: Ngali, Ncera, Cenggu, Renda, Sajang, Rensing, Dasan Baru, Batu Layar, Anyar, Sembalun, Jerowaru, Batujai and Sakuru Village. Ten infected plants were taken, at each observation point, then put in a labeled plastic bag and brought to the laboratory for isolation purposes. The results showed that pathogen causing moler disease on shallot was isolated NTB2018. On PDA isolate NTB2018 produced white color colony, the mycelium growth direction was sideways with smooth mycelium structure, sideways growth direction of mycelium and fine structure mycelium. The fungus produced insulated mycelium consisting of macroconidia and microconidia as asexual spores and ascospores as sexual spores. Based on analysis of 18S rRNA gene, isolate NTB2018 DNA fragment of ±569 bp.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Estimated economic value of pollination by Tetragonula laeviceps
           (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) on tomato and chili

    • Authors: Nadzirum Mubin, Allen Okta Kusmita, Atia Rohmah, Ali Nurmansyah
      Abstract: Abstract. Mubin N, Kusmita AO, Rohmah A, Nurmansyah A. 2022. Estimated economic value of pollination by Tetragonula laeviceps (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) on tomato and chili. Biodiversitas 23: 2544-2552. Insects have various roles, one of which is as pollinators. Horticultural crops such as tomatoes and chilies need the help of pollinating insects to increase productivity. The stingless bee, Tetragonula laeviceps, is one of the potential pollinating agents. This study aimed to determine the effect of pollination by T. laeviceps on crop production and estimated pollinating insect’ economic value. The study was conducted using a field experiment with 3 pollination treatments included pollination with the help of T. laeviceps (open pollination / OP), pollination by wind (WP), and self-pollination (SP). The estimated economic value of pollination was calculated using a bio-economic approach based on the level of dependence of the plant on pollination. The results showed that open pollination (OP) treatment by T. laeviceps increased fruit set and seed set by 2-3 times that of wind pollination and 4-5 times that of self-pollination. The open pollination treatment significantly affected on the diameter and weight of tomato fruit compared to the WP and SP treatments but not on chili. Meanwhile, open pollination can increase the length of chili fruit. OP, WP, and SP treatments had no significant effect on tomatoes and chilies’ weight loss, damage level, and hardness level. Based on tomato and chili production, the economic value of T. laeviceps was 44 times (tomato) and 20 times (chili) from self-pollination and 65 times (tomato) and 11 times (chili) from wind pollination.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Ginger family from Bueng Kan Province, Thailand: Diversity, conservation
           status, and traditional uses

    • Authors: AREERAT RAGSASILP, PIYAPORN SAENSOUK, SURAPON SAENSOUK
      Abstract: Abstract. Ragsasilp A, Saensouk P, Saensouk S. 2022. Ginger family from Bueng Kan Province, Thailand: Diversity, conservation status, and traditional uses. Biodiversitas 23: 2739-2753. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity, conservation status, and traditional uses of Zingiberaceae in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand. The family Zingiberaceae was collected during field surveys in Bueng Kan Province, northeastern Thailand between January and December 2021. Three tribes, 13 genera, and 67 species of Zingiberaceae were found. The genera with the highest diversity were Curcuma (12 species), Zingiber (11 species), Globba (10 species), Alpinia (eight species), Kaempferia (seven species), Amomum (six species), Caulokaempferia (four species), Boesenbergia (three species), Gagnepainia (two species), Etlingera (one species), Hedychium (one species), Meistera (one species) and Wurfbainia (one species). Bung Khla district was found to have the most diverse species in this family with 64 species. The family was discovered in five ecosystem types, deciduous dipterocarp forest (20 species), mixed deciduous forest (21 species), dry evergreen forest (20 species), river basin (two species), and cultivated in home gardens (24 species). There were 41 native species found (62.68%), while 16 species (23.88%) were recognized as being cultivated in home gardens. The highest phenology rate was recorded from March to September. Thirty-eight species were reported to have the conservation status as rare species. Twenty-eight species were recognized as common species. Nine species, namely Alpinia macrostaminodia, Amomum biphyllum, A. wandokthong, Globba laeta, Boesenbergia baimaii, Caulokaempferia jirawongsei, Ca. Phutonkensis, Ca. phuwoaensis and Ca. phulangkaensis were recorded as endemic species to Thailand. Moreover, A. macrostaminodia, A. biphyllum, A. monophyllum, C. jirawongsei, Ca. phutokensis, Ca. phuwoaensis and Curcuma pygmaea, were found only in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand. This study reported nine species to be rare plants in Bueng Kan Province. Twenty-nine species of the family Zingiberaceae from Bueng Kan Province were presented in IUCN (2022): CR (1 species), DD (9 species), EN (2 species) LC (16 species), NT (1 species). The Zingiberaceae in Bueng Kan Province had popular uses as food, spice, rituals, and ornamentals. For the medicinal use of Zingiberaceae in this study, they were in relation to flatulence, laxative, diuretic, stomachache, treatment of inguinal hernia, uterine involution, antipruritic, cosmetic, skin disease, carminative, antiflatulent, intoxication, and tonic. In Thailand, 42 species of Zingiberaceae are reported for the first time to have traditional uses. Therefore, the information on the diversity, conservation status, and traditional uses are important as biological resources of the Zingiberaceae in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Genetic diversity of Sterculia quadrifida from Kupang based on ISSR
           profiles, stomatal density, and chlorophyll content

    • Authors: NUR JANNAH, MADE PHARMAWATI, USLAN USLAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Jannah N, Pharmawati M, Uslan. 2022. Genetic diversity of Sterculia quadrifida from Kupang based on ISSR profiles, stomatal density, and chlorophyll content. Biodiversitas 23: 2690-2698. This study investigated the genetic diversity of Sterculia quadrifida R.Br.or faloak based on Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) molecular markers and determined stomatal density and chlorophyll content from several localities in Kupang District, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. For genetic diversity analysis, samples were collected from the Oelsonbai forest area of Maulafa Sub-district, Kupang City, whereas for stomatal density and chlorophyll content analysis, samples were collected from areas with various degrees of anthropogenic activity from Kupang city. DNA was isolated using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) method and amplified by three ISSR primers (UBC 811, UBC 812, and UBC 815), whereas stomatal density was observed using a microscope and chlorophyll content was determined using a spectrophotometer. Genetic data were analyzed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method and Nei & Li coefficient similarity in the MVSP software. A total of 78 ISSR bands ranging from 320-3200 bp were obtained, where populations were divided into four main clusters and six sub-clusters, similarly having moderate heterozygosity (He=0.50) not clustered based on their geographical distribution. There was a difference in stomatal density and chlorophyll content, probably influenced by anthropogenic disturbances. A conservation action plan is required to ensure the S. quadrifida's survival in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Spatio-temporal analysis of dholes (Cuon alpinus) in Khao Yai National
           Park, Thailand

    • Authors: NORASET KHOEWSREE, MANANYA PLA-ARD, RONGLARP SUKMASUANG, PAANWARIS PAANSRI, YUWALUK CHANACHAI, BUNYATIPORN KAEWDEE, PHANITSUPHA PHENGTHONG
      Abstract: Abstract. Khoewsree N, Pla-ard M, Sukmasuang R, Paansri P, Chanachai Y, Kaewdee B, Phengthong P. 2022. Spatio-temporal analysis of dholes (Cuon alpinus) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Biodiversitas 23: 2668-2678. The relationship of the occurrence of key wildlife species and other wildlife in the ecosystems is complex and unique as a result of interactions between species as well as responses to complex environments. Spatio-temporal analysis of dholes (Cuon alpinus) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, aimed to study of the coexistence of the dhole with its main prey, humans, and other physical factors based on camera trapping. The temporal and spatial overlap analysis found that dholes coexist with five prey species and also with humans. The dhole also occurred with a significant positive temporal or spatial overlap with 20 other potential prey species. It was found that water sources and villages had a negative effect on the dhole's occupancy while there was a positive effect from roads, elevation, and slope. The dhole's occupancy model was most closely related to small rodent proximity. It also was found that the dhole's occupation was also related to humans. Based on the results of this study, some recommendations were developed to advocate the strict management of recreation areas. There should also be a boundary between the area of ''human activities and the natural forest of the area and this should include the control of illegal entry into the area from the area surrounding the national park to reduce interactions between human activities and wildlife.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Genetic diversity of rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia) in Yogyakarta,
           Indonesia for plus trees selection

    • Authors: INDIRA RIASTIWI, WITJAKSONO WITJAKSONO, DIAH RATNADEWI, ULFAH JUNIARTI SIREGAR
      Abstract: Abstract. Riastiwi I, Witjaksono, Ratnadewi D, Siregar UJ. 2022. Genetic diversity of rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia for plus trees selection. Biodiversitas 23: 2630-2639. Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.) or sonokeling is an important woody plant species with a high selling value. However, due to overexploitation, this species has been listed in Appendix II of CITES and its trade is strictly regulated. Therefore, the cultivation of this plant needs encouragement, and superior planting materials from selected plus trees are needed. This study aimed to examine the genetic diversity of the rosewood population and select plus trees in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. The plus tree selection was performed by comparing plus tree candidates with five other trees nearby in four districts, i.e. Bantul, Gunungkidul, Kulon Progo, and Sleman. As many as 61 plus tree candidates have been identified. Genetic diversity was assessed using 10 selected ISSR primers, resulting in 101 ISSR loci with average Polymorphic Loci values ''of 64.71% and Nei Heterozygosity of 0.23. The highest gene diversity (He=0.29) was found in the Kulon Progo population, and the lowest He=0.17 was in the Bantul population. The dendogram and PCA analysis put Gunungkidul and Bantul populations into one group, separated from the Sleman and Kulon Progo populations. Based on morphological and molecular analysis, six superior plus trees were obtained.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Impact of organic and microbiological pollution on the quality of water in
           Boussellam Valley and its environment, Setif City, Northeast Algeria

    • Authors: ZOUHIR BOULGUERAGUER, HICHAM CHAFFAI, LAKHDAR GASMI, LARBI DJABRI, AZZEDINE HANI
      Abstract: Abstract. Boulgueraguer Z, Chaffai H, Gasmi L, Djabri L, Hani A. 2022. Impact of organic and microbiological pollution on the quality of water in Boussellam Valley and its environment, Setif City, Northeast Algeria. Biodiversitas 23: 2621-2629. Water pollution is a major threat and a global challenge that endangers life on earth at risk because water plays a major role in daily life. Several sources of water pollutants, i.e., organic, industrial, domestic and microbial pollution, may trigger an outbreak of water-borne diseases. Boussellam Valley crosses the Quaternary formations, which dominate the extent of the plain surrounding the region of Sétif in the North-East of Algeria. It is one of the main water resources, mainly for drinking water supply and irrigation. The shallow water table composed of the geological formations containing this aquifer is very heterogeneous in texture and varies considerably from upstream to downstream of the sub-watershed. Thus, the North and East zones are marked by chloride-calcium facies, the central part by a Bicarbonate-calcium facies. At the same time, sulfate-magnesium facies characterize the West zone. This study aimed to evaluate the pollution by organic elements: nitrites, nitrates, and microbiological elements: total and fecal coliforms and streptococci and their impact on the water quality. Samples were collected during May and June 2021 from 5 stations along the valley, and 18 wells were spread out on the plain. The analysis of nitrites and nitrates was carried out by liquid chromatography. In addition, the colony counting of coliforms and streptococci was carried out according to the recommendations of the Algerian water company. The results show an increase in the concentration of nitrites, nitrates, total and fecal coliforms, and the streptococci, particularly in valley waters with very high levels that exceed the normal threshold of drinking water. This increase may be due to wastewater discharges and the intensive use of fertilizers, septic tanks, leaching of animal manure, runoff water, and rearing of domestic or wild animals. The increased levels of nitrites, nitrates, total and fecal coliforms, and the streptococci increase the risk of the vulnerability of the waters of the plain to pollution and degradation of surface waters and the environment in general.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Vegetation diversity, structure and composition of three forest ecosystems
           in Angsana coastal area, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    • Authors: YUSANTO NUGROHO, SUYANTO SUYANTO, DINDIN MAKINUDIN, SILVYNA ADITIA, DINDA DEWI YULIMASITA, AHMAD YUSUF AFANDI, MOEHAR MARAGHIY HARAHAP, JERIELS MATATULA, PANDU YUDHA ADI PUTRA WIRABUANA
      Abstract: Abstract. Nugroho Y, Suyanto, Makinudin D, Aditia S, Yulimasita DD, Afandi AY, Harahap MM, Matatula J, Wirabuana PYAP. 2022. Vegetation diversity, structure and composition of three forest ecosystems in Angsana coastal area, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2640-2647. Vegetation communities around coastal ecosystems play important roles in mitigating natural disaster and climate change. However, available information about vegetation communities in coastal areas is still limited despite being a requirement in developing strategies for environmental preservation. Angsana coastal area in South Kalimantan, Indonesia has unique characteristics in which it has three different forest ecosystems, namely heath forest (HF), beach forest (BF), and mangrove forest (MF). This study aimed to identify the vegetation diversity, structure and composition of the three forest ecosystems in Angsana coastal area. A field survey was conducted using transect line methods with a sampling plot size of 10 × 10 m and an interval of 20 m. Vegetation communities were assessed using species abundance, plant diversity, importance value index (IVI), and similarity level. Results showed that 37 species from 25 families were recorded at the study site. The highest species abundance was observed in HF (22 species), followed by BF (18 species) and MF (7 species). The same trend was found for vegetation diversity, in which HF had the highest richness (Dmg = 4.52), heterogeneity (H' = 2.86), and evenness (J' = 0.94). Hibiscus tiliaceus L. had the highest IVI in BF in all vegetation stages, and Rhizophora mucronata Lam. consistently had the greatest IVI in MF in all stages. Species thet exhibited the highest IVI in HF were Adina minutiflora Valeton (seedlings), Rhodedomia tomentosa and Premna serratifolia L. (saplings), Tristania maingayi Duthie (poles), and Vitex ovata Thunb. (trees). Our study also observed that species abundance in forest ecosystems gradually declined from seedlings to trees, except in MF. Among the three forest types, vegetation composition was highly similar between MF and BF, with a similarity level of 47.1%. Based on these results, this study concluded that the three forest ecosystems in Angsana coastal area exhibit a highly diverse vegetation structure, and each type of forest has specific characteristics as its entity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Construction of CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-OsCKX2 module cassette and its
           introduction into rice cv. Mentik Wangi mediated by Agrobacterium
           tumefaciens

    • Authors: MARINA RUZYATI, ATMITRI SISHARMINI, ANIVERSARI APRIANA, TRI JOKO SANTOSO, EDI PURWANTO, SAMANHUDI SAMANHUDI, AHMAD YUNUS
      Abstract: Abstract. Ruzyati M, Sisharmini A, Apriana A, Santoso TJ, Purwanto E, Samanhudi, Yunus A. 2022. Construction of CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-OsCKX2 module cassette and its introduction into rice cv. Mentik Wangi mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biodiversitas 23: 2679-2689. Mentik Wangi is an aromatic superior rice variety from the tropical japonica group with high posture and low productivity. The tall plant posture causes Mentik Wangi rice to be prone to lodging, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, improvement of plant height and productivity of Mentik Wangi is still required. The sd-1 (OsGA20ox-2) and CKX2 genes are responsible for the semi-dwarf character and high productivity. The study aimed to construct a CRISPR/Cas9 cassette module carrying a gRNA of OsCKX2 gene and introduce this construct to Mentik Wangi rice mediated by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector strain LBA4404. The introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-GA20ox-2 cassette plasmid that was constructed in previous research into Mentik Wangi rice was also carried out. The results showed that the CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-CKX2 cassette module had been successfully constructed using the Golden gate cloning method. The introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-CKX2 and CRISPR/Cas9_gRNA-GA20ox-2 cassette modules into Mentik Wangi rice resulted in 30 putative transformant lines that passed the hygromycin selection. PCR analysis showed that from the 30 transformant lines, 15 lines were positive for the hygromycin resistance gene. Further analysis is necessary to be conducted to identify the occurrence of mutagenesis in the OsCKX2 and GA20ox-2 target genes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Antioxidant activity and metabolite profiles of
           leaves and stem extracts of Vitex negundo

    • Authors: MUHAMMAD ALFARABI, TURHADI TURHADI, TRINI SURYOWATI, NURIN AYU IMANELI, PRETTY OKTAVIANI SIHOMBING
      Abstract: Abstract. Alfarabi M, Turhadi, Suryowati T, Imaneli NA, Sihombing PO. 2022. Short Communication: Antioxidant activity and metabolite profiles of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex negundo. Biodiversitas 23: 2663-2667. Many plantspecies could be used as natural sources of antioxidants, one of which is Vitex negundo or lagundi which grows widely in Southeast and South Asia. Due to the wide distribution of growth areas, so different habitats could be a factor causing variations in V. negundo bioactivity, especially antioxidant activity. In addition to environmental factors, extract derived from different plant parts could also contribute to variations in the content of metabolites that affect bioactivity. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of leaf and stem extracts of V. negundo and evaluate the metabolites contained in the extracts. Antioxidant activity analysis was performed using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and GC-MS analysis was used to identify bioactive metabolites. Leafand stem extract of V. negundo showed antioxidant activity directly proportional to the increasein extract concentration. A total of 8 metabolites were identified from the three extracts, i.e., acrolein, hydroquinone, sitosterol, naphthalene, pyrogallol, squalene, phytol, and hexadecenoic acid. There were correlations between antioxidant activity and the metabolites contained in the three extracts. It is suggested that the bioactivity of the extract is due to the interaction of these metabolites.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Identification of phytochemical constituents of
           Syzygium aromaticum L. using gas chromatography coupled with mass
           spectrometry and evaluation of antimicrobial activity

    • Authors: ZOUBIDA BENMAKHLOUF, OUAFA BENSERRADJ, RABAH KELLAB
      Abstract: Abstract. Benmakhlouf Z, Benserradj O, Kellab R. 2022. Short Communication: Identification of phytochemical constituents of Syzygium aromaticum L. using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and evaluation of antimicrobial activity. Biodiversitas 23: 2586-2593. Syzygium aromaticum L. is a traditional spice that has various pharmacological activities attributed to its content of bioactive molecules. The purpose of this work is to evaluate phytochemical constituents of S. aromaticum L. extract using gas chromatography coupled spectrometry mass (CG/MS). The number detected of phenolic compounds was 45, which the most abundant being eugenol (54.63%), followed by Phenol,2-metoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-, acetate (eugenol acetate) (21.57%) and caryophyllene (16.71%). In addition, the antimicrobial activity was screened by the paper disc diffusion method for three bacterial strains, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus 6538) and by the direct contact method on three fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The results showed that extract presents an inhibitory activity with all the strains tested. Salmonella sp. is very sensitive (++) to the stock solution (100mg/ml), sensitive (+) to dilutions (50 and 25) mg/ml with inhibition diameters of (16, 12, 10) mm respectively. The other bacterial strains are sensitive (+) only to the stock solution. The results of our experiment confirm that fungi strains: A. niger, A. flavus and C. albicans show a remarkable antifungal activity at 100mg/ml. The result indicated that the extract obtained from dried buds of S. aromaticum could be considered an agent for antibacterial and antifungal in the pharmaceutical field.
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Biological control agent for Spodoptera litura on
           vegetable plants

    • Authors: Nurhayati - Damiri, Pujiastuti Yulia, Mulawarman Mulawarman, Astuti Dessy Tri, Afriani Siti Rakhmi, Rahim Supli Effendi
      Abstract: Abstract. Damiri N, Pujiastuti Y, Mulawarman, Astuti DT, Afriani SR, Rahim SE. 2022. Short Communication: Biological control agent for Spodoptera litura on vegetable plants. Biodiversitas 23: 2609-2613. This study aimed to assess the population dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis and its potency as a bio-agent against Spodoptera litura. The field study was conducted in Musi Banyuasin District, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Isolation and exploration of B. thuringiensis were carried out by taking the soil around the roots or rhizosphere of the fruit plants. The results showed that 13 isolates of B. thuringiensis, i.e., 1 isolate from Lansium domesticum (D1), 3 isolates from Artocarpus heterophyllus (N1,2,3), 1 isolate from Averrhoa carambola (B1), 4 isolates from Nephelium lappaceum (R1,2,3,4), 1 isolate from Musa paradisiaca (P1), 1 isolate from Mangifera indica (M1), 1 isolate from Garcinia mangostana (M2) and 1 isolate from Psidium guajava (JB1) were isolated from the rhizosphere of various fruit tree. The screening test results showed that isolates R2 and R3 had the highest toxicity, i.e., 51.14 and 50.77%, respectively, in controlling S. litura on vegetable plants.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effects of water parameters on population structure of mud crab from
           Buntal Mangroves, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia: A GLM analysis

    • Authors: ABANG MOHAMMAD HUDZAIFAH ABANG SHAKAWI, RUHANA HASSAN, DURRAH SYAZWANI MUSTAPAH
      Abstract: Abstract. Shakawi AMHA, Hassan R, Mustapah DS. 2022. Effects of water parameters on population structure of mud crab from Buntal Mangroves, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia: A GLM analysis. Biodiversitas 23: 2580-2585. Buntal Mangroves, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, is an area that is abundant with biological resources but contains minimal biodiversity information. Mud crab fisheries by the locals exist on small scales at Buntal Mangroves, but there is a tendency to overfish due to the increasing demand for this resource. The relationship between the population structure of mud crabs and the environmental factors in Buntal Mangroves has not been explored. Therefore, this study aimed to apply the generalized linear models (GLM) for analyzing the population structure of mud crabs with selected water parameters in Buntal Mangroves. Scylla olivacea (Herbst, 1796) has the highest abundance in Buntal compared to S. tranquebarica (Fabricius, 1798) and other types of mud crab. Three GLM with carapace length, carapace width, and body weight as dependent variables were constructed. These GLMs with gamma-distributed response variables indicated that depth, pH, salinity, and turbidity positively affected body weight, carapace width, and carapace length, while temperature had a negative impact on the dependent variables. The results emphasized the importance of adopting the GLM to describe a relationship where the response variable followed a non-normal distribution. The findings provide a basis for future studies at Buntal Mangroves, not only for conservation purposes but also to support the utilization of this valuable resource sustainably.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Burkholderia cepacia strain IrV1 multi-resistant to copper and dyes
           isolated from laboratory wastewater effluent

    • Authors: WAHYU IRAWATI, VALENTINE LINDARTO, REINHARD PINONTOAN, TRIWIBOWO YUWONO, FEBRI MANGOMO MANGUNSONG, DESTYA WATY SILALAHI
      Abstract: Abstract. Irawati W, Lindarto V, Pinontoan R, Yuwono T, Mangunsong FM, Silalahi DW. 2022. Burkholderia cepacia strain IrV1 multi-resistant to copper and dyes isolated from laboratory wastewater effluent. Biodiversitas 23: 2614-2620. Copper and dye multi-resistant bacteria may be cultivated to increase the efficiency of waste bioremediation processes. Multi-resistant bacteria can be isolated from waste containing copper and dyes, including laboratory waste. The aims of this study were to: (i) isolate copper-resistant bacteria from wastewater, (ii) determine the multi-resistance of bacteria against copper and dyes, and (iii) observe the ability of bacteria to remove colors methylene blue, basic fuchsin, and Congo red. Selected bacterial isolates were identified based on the 16S rDNA gene. One highly copper resistant bacterial strain IrV, showed resistance to 7 mM CuSO4, 100 ppm methylene blue, 100 ppm basic fuchsin, and 100 ppm Congo red. Based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence, strain IrV belongs to Burkholderia cepacia with 99.86% similarity. The addition of copper on the medium resulted in colony color changes from light yellow to green indicated Cu binding within the cell. Moreover, a clear zone around the colony was observed, suggesting that the strain is capable of decolorizing methylene blue, Congo red, and basic fuchsin dyes. The results thus demonstrate that bacterial strain IrV is multi-resistant to copper and dyes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Cassava starch/bacterial cellulose-based bioplastics with Zanthoxylum
           acanthopodium

    • Authors: SAHARMAN GEA, KHATARINA MELDAWATI PASARIBU, APPEALWAN ALTRUISTIS SARUMAHA, SRI RAHAYU
      Abstract: Abstract. Gea S, Pasaribu KM, Sarumaha AA, Rahayu S. 2022. Cassava starch/bacterial cellulose-based bioplastics with Zanthoxylum acanthopodium. Biodiversitas 23: 2601-2608. The use of conventional plastics has become one of the biggest environmental problems because of their difficulties in decomposing. Bioplastics are plastics that are decompose easily in nature as they are naturally sourced. The purpose of this research was to create antimicrobial bioplastics from cassava starch with the addition of bacterial cellulose (BC) as a reinforcement material and Zanthoxylum acanthopodium (andaliman) as an antibacterial agent. Furthermore, this study determines the optimal concentration of BC and the antibacterial effect of Z. acanthopodium extract in bioplastics produced by the solution casting method. The addition of BC to bioplastics changed the properties of bioplastics, according to FTIR, XRD, TGA, SEM, and tensile strength analysis. Mechanical analysis showed an increase in tensile strength with higher amount of BC. The best tensile strength was observed in CS2BCA sample (2.34 MPa). The antibacterial test of bioplastic samples showed good inhibition zone (10.8 mm) against Bacillus cereus.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Development of a protected birds identification system using a
           convolutional neural network

    • Authors: IRMAN HERMADI, WULANDARI WULANDARI, DHANA DHIRA
      Abstract: Abstract. Hermadi I, Wulandari, Dhira D. 2022. Development of a protected birds identification system using a convolutional neural network. Biodiversitas 23: 2561-2569. The protected animals are the animals having small populations, a sharp decline in the number of individuals in the wild, or endemic. The government has banned owning, keeping, or trading these animals. The first step in conserving these animals is identification. The government of the Republic of Indonesia has defined 564 species of bird as protected. This issue becomes a challenge to bird species identification. This study aims to develop a web application that implements a convolutional neural network (CNN) model for image-based protected bird species identification. This study uses the images of ten protected bird species in Indonesia as the research subject. This study consists of the stages viz. data collection, data preprocessing, data splitting, CNN model development, model evaluation, and web development using the Prototyping method. This study has successfully developed a model that gained 97% accuracy, 98% precision, and 97% recall on testing data. The study utilized HTML, CSS, Javascript, and Tensorflow.js for Web development. The black-box testing result shows that the prototype is acceptable.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effect of water content on conidia of Trichoderma spp., indole acetic acid
           content, electrical conductivity, and pH

    • Authors: BENANG PURWANTO, SUMADI SUMADI, ANNE NURAINI, MIEKE ROCHIMI SETIAWATI
      Abstract: Abstract. Purwanto B, Sumadi, Nuraini A, Setiawati MR. 2022. Effect of water content on conidia of Trichoderma spp., indole acetic acid content, electrical conductivity, and pH. Biodiversitas 23: 2553-2560. Trichoderma sp. is a soil-borne saprophytic fungus that can increase plant resistance to combat drought stress. However, some species are unable to survive in a low water environment. Therefore, this research aimed to determine the effect of water content on different species of Trichoderma with respect to total conidial growth, IAA content, electrical conductivity (EC), and the media’s pH. A factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 2 factors, namely the water content of the media consisting of 3 levels (5%, 25%, and 50%) and the inoculation of Trichoderma spp. which includes Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma asperellum, and Trichoderma viride. Furthermore, an experimental method was adopted by analyzing the total conidial growth, indole acetic acid content (IAA), electrical conductivity (EC), and acidity (pH) of the media. Incubation was carried out for 14 days, data were analyzed using one way ANOVA, and Duncan's Multiple Distance Test was applied to determine the parameters that have a significant effect. The results showed that the total conidia of T. harzianum at the lowest water content (5% of the dry weight of the media) showed an increase from 7th to 14th days after inoculation (DAI), the highest was 23.6%, followed by T. asperellum (12.6%) and T. viride (10.7%). Similarly, the total conidia of Trichoderma spp. positively correlated with the levels of IAA, EC, and pH of the media. This indicates that an increase in total conidia is followed by an increase in the IAA content, EC, and pH. The highest total of T. harzianum conidial growth at the lowest water content indicated that it had better resistance to drought stress than T. asperellum and T. viride.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Diversity of leaf rust resistance in Indonesian sorghum genetic resources

    • Authors: FAWWAZ DINANTY, DESTA WIRNAS, TRIKOESOEMANINGTYAS TRIKOESOEMANINGTYAS, ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH
      Abstract: Abstract. Dinanty F, Wirnas D, Trikoesoemaningtyas, Nawangsih AA. 2022. Diversity of leaf rust resistance in Indonesian sorghum genetic resources. Biodiversitas 23: 2570-2579. Sorghum is an alternative source as a substitute for rice. Leaf rust (Puccinia purpurea) is a constraint in sorghum cultivation and resistance to rust disease is a condition for releasing sorghum varieties. This study aimed to screen sorghum accessions for resistance to leaf rust disease. The screening was carried out on 48 sorghum accessions and seven check varieties, namely Numbu, Kawali, Bioguma 1, Pahat, Soraya 1, Soraya 2, and Soraya 3. Evaluation of leaf rust resistance under field conditions was carried out in IPB University experimental field Cikarawang-Bogor (275 asl) from February 2021 to June 2021. The experiment was conducted in an augmented design with four replications for check varieties. Identification of leaf rust resistance was also carried out using molecular markers designed from the Lr34 and Rp1D genes. The results revealed that 5 genotypes, namely genotypes 31 (Demak 2), 24 (IS 18551), 43 (Lokal bima 3), 17 (ICSV 93036), and 33 (Demak 5) were resistant to leaf rust with high yield potential. The results of identification using molecular markers showed that all accessions had Lr34 and Rp1D gene fragments.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Spatio-temporal of heavy metal Pb (Lead) in seawater, sediment, and
           different organs of Cymodocea rotundata in Doreri Gulf, Manokwari, West
           Papua, Indonesia

    • Authors: LUKY SEMBEL, DWI SETIJAWATI, DEFRI YONA, YENNY RISJANI
      Abstract: Abstract. Sembel L, Setijawati D, Yona D, Risjani Y. 2022. Spatio-temporal of heavy metal Pb (Lead) in seawater, sediment, and different organs of Cymodocea rotundata in Doreri Gulf, Manokwari, West Papua, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2482-2492. The Doreri Gulf is a high-activity area that serves as a collection point for pollutants from the mainland, which are conveyed directly or indirectly through five rivers in a semi-enclosed area. Cymodocea rotundata in Doreri Gulf is classified as a pioneer seagrass with high density in areas close to pollution sources. Therefore, analysis of Pb concentrations in aquatic and sedimentary environments as well as the reaction of C. rotundata to Pb in the Doreri Gulf is required considering its relevance in seagrass ecosystems. This research, then, aims to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of Pb in waters and sediments, as well as determine the bioaccumulation in the organs of C. rotundata, such as roots, rhizomes, and leaves. Besides, an analysis was also carried out on the potential for bioconcentration and translocation of Pb in Doreri Gulf, Manokwari Regency, West Papua Province, from February to April and August to October 2020. The locations were divided into Yankarwar coastal, Nusmapi Islands, and Tanjung Manggewa. Parameter measurement refers to the Standard Methods for examining Water and Wastewater (APHA 2017). The heavy metal analysis was conducted using the SNI 6989.8:2009 procedure, and the temporal distribution showed that concentrations of Pb in water, sediment, and seagrass organs were high and low in the rainy and dry season. The spatial distribution of Pb in sediments between the Coastal Yankarwar and Nusmapi Islands, as well as between the Coastal Yankarwar locations and Tanjung Manggewa, were very different. However, there were no differences between the Nusmapi Islands and Tanjung Manggewa. Each location showed BCF bioconcentration <1, indicating the lack of ability to mobilize Pb from sediment to roots. Translocation factors for each location showed TF values < 1, showing the lack of ability of C. rotundata to transfer Pb to organ tissues. Additionally, translocation of elements from sediment to roots and within plant tissues was related to many factors, including pH, potency reduction, temperature, salinity, and organic matter content. Other factors such as seasonal variations and heavy metal concentrations contribute to bioaccumulation and internal translocation capacity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Growth and yield of maize in t’sen, a local wisdom of planting in one
           planting hole, typical cropping pattern of West Timor's

    • Authors: YOHANNIS HARRY DIMU-HEO, DIDIK INDRADEWA, EKA TARWACA SUSILO PUTRA, BENITO HERU PURWANTO
      Abstract: Abstract. Dimu-Heo YH, Indradewa D, Putra ETS, Purwanto BH. 2022. Growth and yield of maize in t’sen, a local wisdom of planting in one planting hole, typical cropping pattern of West Timor's. Biodiversitas 23: 2502-2511. West Timor farmers have a strategy to anticipate the short rainy season and relatively low rainfall, namely planting maize, cowpeas, and pumpkin together in one planting hole, known as the local wisdom t’sen cropping pattern or t’sen. This study aims to study the growth and yield of maize and obtain maize varieties that are adaptive to the t’sen. The research was conducted at the experimental garden of the Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, from April to August 2019. The study was arranged using a split-plot design with three replications. The t’sen as the main plot consisted of: monoculture maize, maize + cowpea, maize + pumpkin, maize + cowpea + pumpkin, while the varieties as sub-plots consisted of local varieties of maize from Kupang, Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS), Timor Tengah Utara (TTU), Malaka, and superior varieties Lamuru, and Pioneer p35. The results showed that all maize varieties experienced decreased growth and production in the t’sen compared to monoculture. The lowest decrease in growth and yield occurred in one planting hole of maize + cowpea, followed by maize + cowpea + pumpkin, and the highest was maize + pumpkin. The TTS and Kupang varieties have the highest average growth and production, which shows their resistance to competition and stress in t’sen.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Community structure of dragonflies (Odonata) in Gunung Bromo’s Forest
           Area with Special Purpose (FASP), Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: AYU ASTUTI, IKE NURJUITA NAYASILANA, SUGIYARTO SUGIYARTO, AGUNG BUDIHARJO
      Abstract: Abstract. Astuti A, Nayasilana IN, Sugiyarto, Budiharjo A. 2022. Community structure of dragonflies (Odonata) in Gunung Bromo’s Forest Area with Special Purpose (FASP), Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2493-2501. Dragonflies are one component of biodiversity in Indonesia, which function both as predators and bioindicators of water quality. Dragonfly habitat is widespread ranging from highland forest areas, lowland forests, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, swamps, and rice fields to settlements. One location that becomes dragonfly habitat is in the Gunung Bromo’s Forest Area with Special Purpose (FASP), Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia. This study aims to determine the community structure and habitat preferences of dragonflies in Gunung Bromo’s FASP. Data resulting from this study is expected used as a database for Gunung Bromo’s FASP managing. The study was conducted along the Bamban river which is located in the Gunung Bromo’s FASP area, in June-July 2019. Dragonflies were collected in 14 observation stations. At each observation, station transects were 100 m in length and 10 m in width. Data collection included the dragonflies species, the individual numbers, and environmental factors both abiotic and biotic factors. Data analysis included the diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity of dragonfly species. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the dragonfly abundance pattern and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to determine the relationship between dragonflies and their environmental factors. The results showed there were 23 species of dragonflies in the Gunung Bromo’s FASP with a diversity index of 1.96. PCA results indicate the abundance of dragonflies is not much different in each species. Meanwhile, CCA results show almost of the dragonflies in the Gunung Bromo’s FASP are influenced by abiotic and biotic factors, except on Orthetrum sabina and Copera marginipes. They are assumed have unspecific habitat preferences.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated
           with Casuarina equisetifolia in saline sandy environment, North Sumatra,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: DELVIAN DELVIAN, ADRIAN HARTANTO
      Abstract: Abstract. Delvian, Hartanto A. 2022. Short Communication: Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Casuarina equisetifolia in saline sandy environment, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2520-2525. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic association with plant roots to cope in the extreme environments including the saline and sandy soils in the coastal areas. In this study, the occurrence of AMF associated with Casuarina equisetifolia that has been planted for coastal rehabilitation located at Cermin Beach, North Sumatra was investigated including its abiotic-biotic interactions from topsoils (0-20 cm) to subsoils (20-80 cm). A total of 10 AM fungal morphotypes were documented with Glomeraceae as the dominant AM fungal taxa (9 morphotypes) and a Glomoid morphotype exists in all soil depths. The number of AMF spores decreased as soil depth increased following other environmental conditions such as pH, soil P availability and soil moisture based on the result of Pearson’s correlation test. The results showed a moderate-to-low level of biodiversity of AMF based on Shannon’s diversity index. The findings revealed the vertical distribution of AMF in a saline environment and supported the planting of C. equisetifolia which successfully recruited the indigenous AMF to form a symbiosis to thrive in the stressful environment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Biodiversity of nekton in the Barumun Watershed, Labuhanbatu District,
           North Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Authors: Desrita Desrita, ‪Ridahati Rambey‬, ‪Ahmad Muhtadi, Onrizal Onrizal, Vindy Rilani Manurung, Julia Syahriani Hasibuan, Isten Sweno Tamba
      Abstract: Abstract. Dersita, Rambey R, Muhtadi A, Onrizal O, Mamurung VR, Hasibuan JS, Tamba IS. 2022. Biodiversity of nekton in the Barumun Watershed, Labuhanbatu District, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2426-2432. Biodiversity is a very valuable source of germplasm for science and sustainable development. Therefore, research on freshwater biodiversity is very important to support the sustainability of this development. The research investigated three rivers in South Labuhanbatu District, North Sumatra, Indonesia: Barumun, Tasik, and Titi Kembar rivers. This investigation aims to ascertain the composition, distribution, and variety of nekton. From April to August 2020, the trial lasted five months. Nekton samples were collected with the aid of nets and fishing nets. While installed in the afternoon, the nets are removed the following day. Additionally, at each observation point, stocking nets were operated three times. The investigation discovered 38 fish species and one shrimp species. Two species of fish discovered, are protected by the government of the Republic of Indonesia. Both fish species are Tenualosa terubuk, a fish with little protection, and Fluvitrygon signifer, a ray fish with complete protection. The study site's sole shrimp species was the gigantic prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the Barumun river. The index of nekton diversity discovered in the three rivers was not identical. Compared to other rivers, the Tasik river station has a high diversity. This makes the Tasik river rich in fish compared to the Barumun and Titi Kembar rivers. The Tasik river is recommended as water suitable for fish life from these results.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Population density survey of white-bearded gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis)
           in high conservation value forest area of palm oil plantation company,
           Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    • Authors: SANDY NURVIANTO, DWI T. ADRIYANTI, FAUZI HAMDAN, JOKO TRIYANTO, AGUS DARMANTO
      Abstract: Abstract. Nurvianto S, Adrianti DT, Hamdan F, Triyanto J, Darmanto A. 2022. Population density survey of white-bearded gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis) in high conservation value forest area of palm oil plantation company, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2245-2254. Bornean white-bearded gibbon (Hylobates albibarbis Lyon, 1911) or Bornean agile gibbon or southern gibbon is an endemic primate of Borneo and its distribution is limited to the forest areas in Central Kalimantan and West Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, its habitat is not restricted to the natural and undisturbed forest because this species also utilizes some forest blocks around rubber and palm oil plantation as habitats. This study aimed to estimate this species' population density and distribution in the five conservation blocks of PT Sawit Sumbermas Sarana (PT SSS), Indonesia and identify factors affecting its distribution. A field survey was conducted in five high conservation value forest areas inside the PT SSS management area, namely Pondok Duku Block, East Bravo Rangda Block, West Bravo Rangda Block, Tanjung Biru Block, and forest blocks around Kenambui Lake. Data was collected from April to May 2019 using the auditory sampling method through predetermined fixed Listening Posts (LP) to record population data. In addition, the protocol sampling technique was employed to systematically record the habitat features within the research site by establishing 0.04 ha plots systematically with a distance between plots of 400 m. Factors affecting gibbon distribution were identified using binary logistic regression. From the field survey, we identified that the southern gibbon was only found in East Bravo Rangda Block and Tanjung Biru Block with a population density of 4.26 ± 0.12 group/km² or 8.53 ± 0.34 individual/km² and 4.26 ± 0.12 group/km² or 8.53 ± 0.34 individual/km², respectively. Gibbon distribution was significantly associated with the number of seedlings (0.024±0.010, P=0.015), saplings (0.128±0.042, P=0.002), and trees (0.225±0.110, P=0.042. This result showed that vegetation condition strongly influences the presence of gibbon in an area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Two new taxa of Curcuma sect. Ecomata (Zingiberaceae: Zingibereae), from
           coastal Central Vietnam

    • Authors: DANH DUC NGUYEN, TUAN ANH LE, QUOC HUY HOANG, QUOC THUONG LE, EMMY NGUYEN
      Abstract: Abstract. Nguyen DD, Le TA, Hoang QH, Le QT, Nguyen E. 2022. Two new taxa of Curcuma sect. Ecomata (Zingiberaceae: Zingibereae), from coastal Central Vietnam. Biodiversitas 23: 2512-2519. Curcuma sixsensesensis and Curcuma vinhlinhensis, two new species belonging to subgenus Ecomata from Coastal Central Vietnam, are described and illustrated in the present articles. The C. sixsensesensis easily gets confused with C. newmanii Škorni'k. in compact rhizome; short lateral inflorescence composing of a few bracts; white corolla lobes and lateral staminodes; white labellum with a yellow mid-rid band but readily distinguished in rhomboid lateral staminodes (vs. obovate) with apex acuminated (vs. rounded); labellum 3-lobed (vs. emarginated), a mid-rid band being yellow at apex half, white at the base (vs. yellow throughout); anther crest presented (vs. reduced); oblong (lightly arching) (vs. L- shaped) anther in side view with slender and inward-pointing (vs. stout and outward-facing) spurs. The second one is similar to C. pambrosima Škorni'k. & N. S. Lý in general habit and shape of the spike but differs in reduced ligule ca. 1 (vs. 4-5) mm long; lateral staminodes orange throughout (vs. yellow at apex, white at base), elliptic with round apex (vs. unequally ovate-rhomboid with acute apex); anther spurs elongate into the acute apex, outward-facing (vs. curved inward), ca. 2-3 (vs. ca. 1,5) mm long, anther crest reduced, up to 0.5 mm, 2-lobed (vs. prominent anther crest, ca. 1.5 mm apex round). Data for each described species comprises standard citation of type specimens, description, proposed species epithet etymology, data on ecology and distribution, and short taxonomic notes and morphological comparison of these new species with its allies species, a revised key to species of Curcuma sect. Ecomata in Vietnam is included.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Molecular phylogeny of anchovy (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) from southern
           waters of Lombok using mitochondrial DNA CO1 gene sequences

    • Authors: H. MAHRUS, AGIL AL IDRUS, LALU ZULKIFLI
      Abstract: Abstract. Mahrus H, Idrus AA, Zulkifli L. 2022. Molecular phylogeny of anchovy (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) from southern waters of Lombok using mitochondrial DNA CO1 gene sequences. Biodiversitas 23: 2433-2443. This study aimed to identify anchovy samples genetically and evaluate their phylogenetic relationship to anchovies using the CO1 genetics markers. Fragment amplification of COI gene anchovy used a pair of COI commercially available primer with a length amplicon of about 693 base pairs (bp), coding for 231 amino acids successfully. The reconstruction of the phylogenetic tree with the neighbor-joining (NJ) method using Kimura 2 Parameters (K2P) by employing a bootstrap of 1000 replications. The genetic distance analysis between 19 fishes species in different families and 13 species in the genera Spartelloides acceded from NCBI indicated the closest distance between anchovy samples from the southern waters of Lombok and Spratelloides delicatulus from Australia is 0.02. The comparisons results of homology with the NCBI and the BOLD database show the anchovy sample has similarities to the CO1 sequences of S. delicatulus with a similar of 99%. The results of the phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the anchovy samples from the southern waters of Lombok were in the same clade as S. delicatulus from Australia. The study concluded a fish sample of anchovy from the southerly waters of Lombok was a closed related species to S. delicatulus.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Coupling Indonesian indigenous Citrobacter freundii and Chlorella
           pyrenoidosa strain on the anode of microbial fuel cell with various
           substrates

    • Authors: IRFAN ANWAR FAUZAN, ANJA MERYANDINI, RONI RIDWAN, RUSLI FIDRIYANTO, NI WAYAN SRI AGUSTINI, DWI ANDREAS SANTOSA
      Abstract: Abstract. Fauzan IA, Meryandini A, Ridwan R, Fidriyanto R, Agustini NWS, Santosa DA. 2022. Coupling Indonesian indigenous Citrobacter freundii and Chlorella pyrenoidosa strain on the anode of microbial fuel cell with various substrates. Biodiversitas 23: 2471-2481. Microorganism plays a crucial role in the development of MFC systems. Indigenous to Indonesia, Citrobacter freundii GBH253 is a potential exoelectrogenic bacterium that could be developed into an MFC system. Coupling C. freundii GBH253 with potentially electricity-producing microalgae indigenous to Indonesia, such as Chlorella pyrenoidosa INK, in the anode of an MFC, could result in a more stable and higher electricity output. This study used C. freundii GBH253 and C. pyrenoidosa INK to produce electricity in various substrates. This research was conducted using a Factorial Randomized Block Design and Tukey’s test to determine significant differences between treatments. The result shows that electricity was generated in all treatments. The Bacterium-microalgae combination in acetate substrate can generate power density up to 211,97 mW m-2 and is the most stable compared to others. Bacterium dominates the electricity production in this combination, but the microalgae also play a role in producing electricity and increasing Chemical Oxygen Demand. The pH value of all treatments was higher than 7. Volatile Fatty Acids, like acetate and phenol, were produced in all treatments, whereas butyric acid and propionic acid were produced in several treatments. The Pearson correlation showed that some VFAs are highly correlated with power density.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Diversity and distribution pattern of scorpions from the Ouarsenis massif
           of Tissemsilt, North-West Algeria

    • Authors: ABDELWAHAB CHEDAD, MOHAMED AIT HAMMOU , HICHAM CHELGHOUM, ABDESSALEM CHEDAD, OMAR OULD AMARA, MAYSSARA EL BOUHISSI, WALID DAHMANI, SALAH EDDINE SADINE
      Abstract: Abstract. Chedad AW, Hammou MA, Chelghoum H, Chedad A, Amara OO, El Bouhissi M, Dahmani W, Sadine SE. 2022. Diversity and distribution pattern of scorpions from the Ouarsenis massif of Tissemsilt, North-West Algeria. Biodiversitas 23: 2444-2450. Ecological barriers such as mountains are important factors leading to fragmentation of the range of different species and the important cause of vicariance events. Ouarsenis massif (Tissemsilt, North-West Algeria) is an important protected Park. This paper presents a preliminary study of scorpion diversity and assesses this biodiversity change in this Mountain range along a gradient of many ecological descriptors, including elevation, vegetation cover, slope, and soil types. During 2020 and 2021, we sampled 179 specimens of scorpions by direct hunting from the eight biotopes in Ouarsenis massif. Only adult individuals were used for identification after being killed and kept in 70% alcohol. Based on morphological criteria, we identified eight species distributed in two genera and two families. The family Buthidae was represented by five species with the highest relative abundance (RA) was Buthus tunetanus (RA: 47.49%). Furthermore, the family Scorpionidae was represented by three species with the highest RA was Scorpio maurus (RA: 25.14%). The Shannon index (H’: 2.71 bits) indicated that Ouarsenis massif region had a high level of scorpion diversity and the value of evenness (E: 0.90) reflected the high equilibrium between the effectiveness of sampled species. The main determinant descriptor of scorpion distribution was the elevation and soil types, while the vegetation cover could be considered an ancillary factor.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • The relationship between seagrass abundance, distribution and the abiotic
           factors in Big Gifton and Abu Minqar islands, Red Sea, Egypt

    • Authors: MOHAMED A.W.S. EBEAD, HUSSEIN N.M. HUSSEIN, HASSANIEN GOMAA, MOHAMED ABDELMOTTALEB, ALDOUSHY MAHDY
      Abstract: Abstract. Ebead MAS, Hussein HNM, Gomaa H, Abdelmottaleb M, Mahdy A. 2022. The relationship between seagrass abundance, distribution and the abiotic factors in Big Gifton and Abu Minqar islands, Red Sea, Egypt. Biodiversitas 23: 2295-2303. Seagrass communities represent spatially complex and biomass-producing systems. The current research aims to understand the relationship between the abundance and distribution of seagrass communities and the abiotic factors in Big Gifton Island and Abu Minqar Island, Red Sea, Egypt. Seasonal seagrass samples were collected during 2019-2020 using line-transect and quadrat techniques. Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to determine the effect of environmental factors on the occurrence and abundance of seagrass species. Three seagrass species, i.e., Halophila stipulacea, Halodule uninervis, and Halophila ovalis were recorded in the two islands. The most dominant seagrass species in both locations was H. stipulacea, which accounted for 54% in Big Gifton and 45% in Abu Minqar Island, while H. uninervis and H. ovalis were less numerous, with a percentage cover of 23 and 24%; and 8 and 5% in Big Gifton and Abu Minqar island, respectively. Halophila stipulacea was highest in the winter season with a percentage of 62 % and lowest in the spring (47%) in Big Gifton, whereas it was highest in the spring (62%) and lowest in the winter (47%) on Abu Minqar Island (22%). Statistical analysis showed highly significant differences between both sites and seasons in terms of conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, and the presence of H. uninervis and H. ovalis. On the other hand, there were non-significant differences between both sites and seasons in terms of temperatures, dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, phosphorus and the presence of H. stipulacea. Throughout the year, Big Gifton had a higher mean phosphate value than Abu Minqar Island and this may be related to the highest abundance of H. stipulacea in Big Gifton Island. The findings of this study may aid decision-makers in the management of natural resources, particularly the seagrass beds of Big Gifton and Abu Minqar Island.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoid species in rice cultivation and their
           correlation with environmental factors in tidal swamp land

    • Authors: Zahlul Ikhsan
      Abstract: Abstract. Ikhsan Z. 2022. Diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoid species in rice cultivation and their correlation with environmental factors in tidal swamp land. Biodiversitas 23: 2262-2269. Environmental factors can affect biodiversity in a landscape. Differences in microclimate conditions can affect the presence of parasitic Hymenoptera in rice cultivation. This study investigated: (i) Landscape structure and microclimate on tidal swamp rice; (ii) Diversity and abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera; (iii) Correlation of parasitic Hymenoptera with their landscapes and microclimate. Determination of sample plots was made using the line transect method in rice cultivation in four tidal swampland landscapes. Data analysis was performed by calculating the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), the Margalef species richness index (D), and the Pielou species evenness index. The relationship between parasitic Hymenoptera and environmental factors was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and canonical correlation analysis. Based on the diversity index (H'), three rice fields in complex landscapes had a higher diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoid species than simple landscapes. The presence of Parasitic Hymenoptera on tidal swamp rice can be affected by the landscape's structure and microclimates. Humidity is the microclimate variable that most influences the abundance of Parasitic Hymenoptera in the tidal swamp landscape. Good microclimate management is needed to increase the presence of Parasitic Hymenoptera in tidal swamp rice.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Morphological and molecular characterization of mole crab (Genus: Emerita)
           in the Cilacap coastlines of Indonesia, with particular focus on genetic
           diversity of Emerita sp. nov.

    • Authors: DIAN BHAGAWATI, AGUS NURYANTO, ELLY TUTY WINARNI, ANASTASIA ENDANG PULUNGSARI
      Abstract: Abstract.Bhagawati D, Nuryanto A, Winarni ET, Pulungsari AE. 2022. Morphological and molecular characterization of mole crab (Genus: Emerita) in the Cilacap coastlines of Indonesia, with particular focus on genetic diversity of Emerita sp. nov. Biodiversitas 23: 2395-2404. Previous studies reported Emerita emeritus is the only species of the Genus Emerita inhabiting the coastal ecosystem of the Cilacap District. A recent study reported the presence of suspected new Emerita species living on the Cilacap sandy beach but used a small number of specimens and no reports about genetic diversity. This study used more Emerita samples than the previous study. This study aimed to identify Emerita specimens based on the morphology and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene and analyzed the genetic diversity of Emerita sp. nov. Emerita samples were collected from three different beaches in Cilacap District, Central Java, Indonesia. Morphological identification placed the samples into two different morphotypes. Morphotype A was identified as Emerita emeritus. Morphotype B was determined as Emerita sp. nov. Molecular data support the placement of Emerita samples into Emerita emeritus, and Emeritasp. nov. Emeritasp. nov. has haplotype diversity of 0.857±0.057, indicating a high genetic diversity. Haplotype H2 was suggested as the most primitive one because other haplotypes radiated from it. This study concluded that two sympatric Emerita species inhabit Cilacap coastlines, and Emeritasp. nov. has high genetic diversity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Bird diversity in three Ficus species in the Kuningan Lowland Forest, West
           Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: YAYAN HENDRAYANA, EMING SUDIANA, ILHAM ADHYA, AGUS YADI ISMAIL
      Abstract: Abstract. Hendrayana Y, Sudiana E, Adhya I, Ismail AY. 2022. Bird diversity in three Ficus species in the Kuningan Lowland Forest, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2255-2261. Frugivorous birds are an important group in tropical forests, as they promote a wide diversity of plant species and animal communities via tree seed dispersal. The presence of these avifauna depends on food, such as fruits provided by Ficus spp. This study examined the diversity of birds in three species of fruiting Ficus trees located in a secondary, natural lowland forest in Mount Tilu, Kuningan, West Java, Indonesia. Bird numbers in Ficus benjamina L., Ficus sinuata Thunb., and Ficus kurzii King were determined using the concentration count method. The data were analyzed using the Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H'), evenness index (E), and dominance index (Simpson’s D). The results showed diversity index values of H´ = 2.255, E = 0.353, and D = 0.8342 for F. benjamina; H' = 2.305, E = 0.5014, and D = 0.8376 for F. sinuata; and H' = 2.305, E = 0.5014, and D = 0.8694 for F. kurzii. The bird species with the highest number of individuals was Pycnonotus simplex Lesson, 1839 (378 individuals, 20.8%), followed by Megalaima australis (Horsfield, 1821) (320, 17.7%), Pericrocotus flammeus (J.R.Forster, 1781) (203, 11.2%), Dicaeum trigonostigma (Scopoli, 1786) (116, 6.4%) and Pycnonotus melanicterus (Gmelin, 1789) (109, 6,01%). By (Horsfield, 1821) knowing the important role of ficus trees as a source of food for various species of birds, this information becomes important and can be used by forest managers to support biodiversity conservation, especially bird conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Spatial distribution of tree species composition and carbon stock in Tozi
           tropical dry forest, Sinnar State, Sudan

    • Authors: EMAD HASsAN ELAWAD YASIN, BUDI MULYANA
      Abstract: Abstract. Yasin EHE, Mulyana B. 2022. Spatial distribution of tree species composition and carbon stock in Tozi tropical dry forest, Sinnar State, Sudan. Biodiversitas 23: 2359-2368. Dryland forest ecosystem in Sudan plays an important role, either ecologically or economically, for the community around the forest areas. However, land-use change, illegal logging and grazing have caused dryland forests in the country to degrade. The research aimed to investigate the species composition and carbon stock in a Tozi tropical dry forest (TTDF), a typical dryland forest ecosystem in Sinnar state, Sudan. A total of 306 circular sample plots (1000 m2 for each) were established using a systematic sampling grid method. The distance between plots was 400 m and between survey lines 500 m. In each plot, all living trees were identified and counted, and their diameter at the breast height (DBH) was recorded. Research findings showed that there were 2,339 individual trees representing four species (Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca, Acacia senegal and Acacia mellifera) that belong to two families. The B. aegyptiaca and A. seyal were the dominant species widely distributed in the TTDF. The average tree density was 175 trees/ha and the Shannon-Weiner index for trees diversity was 0.264. For the seedlings stage, A. mellifera showed a high value of frequency and density, followed by B. aegyptiaca and A. seyal. The structure of seedlings, saplings, and adults trees formed a reverse J-shape in which the density of seedlings was the highest and followed by saplings and adult trees. Carbon stock of A. seyal, B. aegyptiaca, A. senegal, and A. mellifera were 990.95, 2602.78, 1085.82, and 249.20 kg C/ha, respectively. Spatial analysis showed that sites composed of three species resulted in the highest above ground carbon stock compared to single species, two species, and four species compositions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Locating the unique biodiversity of Balikpapan Bay as an ecotourism
           attraction in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    • Authors: Karnila Willard, Marlon I Aipassa, Mustofa Agung Sardjono, Rujehan RUJEHAN, YOSEP RUSLIM, Rochadi Kristiningrum
      Abstract: Abstract. Willard K, Aipassa MI, Sardjono MA, Rujehan, Ruslim Y, Kristiningrum R. 2022. Locating the unique biodiversity of Balikpapan Bay as an ecotourism attraction in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2342-2357. Balikpapan Bay is rich in biodiversity and natural beauty that present unique opportunities for the developing ecotourism industry in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. This study aimed to identify biodiversity hotspots with potential as ecotourism attractions. Four field surveys by boat, each survey taking between 10 to 22 hours duration, tracked the river and tidal flow through the Bay, recording highlights of biodiversity at 19 defined observation points. The study results recorded observations on five species listed in the IUCN protected species classification, namely: Lesser Adjutant Stork (Leptoptilos javanicus) - classified as a Vulnerable species; Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus), Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) and Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) - classified as Endangered species; and the Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) - classified as Critically Endangered. In addition, details were recorded of a unique variant of the mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata, with leaves that have a vibrant yellow color instead of the usual green. Combined with great views, including at night when there are enchanting displays of Fireflies (Lampyridae) on several riverbanks, the biodiversity of the waterways results in Balikpapan Bay having great potential as an ecotourism destination. Therefore, this study provides useful input to relevant agencies charged with responsibility for conserving and managing the natural resources of the Bay for the benefit of communities who stand to gain economically from developing this ecotourism potential.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Human-wildlife interactions in a major tourist destination: Manuel Antonio
           National Park, Costa Rica

    • Authors: LAURA P. PORRAS-MURILLO, GRACE WONG, IRIA S. CHACÓN
      Abstract: Abstract. Porras-Murillo LP, Wong G, Chacón IS. 2022. Human-wildlife interactions in a major tourist destination: Manuel Antonio National Park, Costa Rica. Biodiversitas 23: 2417-2425. This study characterized the interactions between tourists and wildlife in terms of the most common interactions and the species that interact the most. Interactions were observed during 65 sampling days between 2012 and 2020. In each event, the following data were recorded: date, time (hour), site, type of interaction, and species that participated. To characterize the interactions, the effects of the day of the week, the season, the daily period, and the site on the number of daily interactions were evaluated. Also, to understand the more frequent interactions, the effect of species and type of interaction on ''the number of daily interactions were evaluated. The results indicated more interactions in the dry season, between 10 am and 2 pm, at Manuel Antonio Beach, Costa Rica. Although interactions were recorded for 39 species, white-faced monkey and raccoon were the species with the most interactions. Raccoons had more interactions related to food than the tourists called or approached them; white-faced monkeys had a similar number of interactions in these categories. Interactions between tourists and wildlife in the Manuel Antonio National Park (PNMA), Costa Rica, coincide with the times and places in the park with the highest concentration of tourists. Therefore, there is evidence of the need to promote tourism with appropriate behavior of observation and respectful appreciation of wildlife, and the use of more sectors of the park is essential to avoid damage to fauna.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Farmers' lives and adaptation strategies toward the forest and
           peatland fires in Indonesia: Evidence from Central and South Kalimantan,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: ZUHUD ROZAKI, ETI DEWI NOPEMBERENI, LESTARI RAHAYU, NUR RAHMAWATI, MAHARANI LULU MURHIDAYAH, TRISTYA MEIRANI REJEKI, AHMAD SHABUDIN ARIFFIN, SOFA NUR AZIZAH, MALOSE MOSES TJALE
      Abstract: Abstract. Rozaki Z, Nopembereni ED, Rahayu L, Rahmawati N, Murhidayah ML, Rejeki TM, Ariffin AS, Azizah SN, Tjale MM. 2022. Farmers' lives and adaptation strategies toward the forest and peatland fires in Indonesia: Evidence from Central and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2379-2388. The frequency of forest and peatland fires in Kalimantan is high yearly, impacting many farmers’ agricultural activities and the environment, especially in the dry season. Farmers conduct agricultural activities in this vulnerable area. This study aimed to analyze farmers’ livelihood and adaptation strategies in Central and South Kalimantan, an area prone to forest and peatland fires. The sample comprised 200 farmers as respondents while the data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive and rank spearman analysis. The results showed that the willingness to adapt, community resilience, and government support play important roles in dealing with forest and peatland fires. Therefore, inter-stakeholder coordination should be conducted appropriately for effective risk management to benefit farmers and all impacted parties.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • The behavior of catfish traders on the food safety perspective in Malang
           Markets, Indonesia

    • Authors: Hartati Kartikaningsih, Yahya, Dwi Setijawati, Harris Imam Fathoni
      Abstract: Abstract. Kartikanigsih H, Yahya, Setijawan D, Fathoni HI. 2022. The behavior of catfish traders on the food safety perspective in Malang Markets (Indonesia). Biodiversitas 23: 2270-2275. Catfish markets in Malang are supported by catfish farmers in Tulungagung regency, delivered every two days, and distributed to 37 catfish traders in 16 traditional Markets. The study aimed to understand the behavior of catfish traders in traditional markets in Malang City in terms of food safety. Our deep interviews regarding catfish disease showed that the understanding of catfish traders was the dead catfish (97.3%), the skin wound of catfish was not caused by bacteria (97.3%), unnecessary to separate unsold catfish from the new one (94.6%), not necessarily in water replacement at catfish shelter (87.5%), no sanitation of containers and equipment prior opening stalls (97.3%), no sanitizing containers and equipment with water and soap when closing stalls (18.9%) and using sanitizing work equipment to prevent bacteria contamination (0%). The guaranteed replacement of dead catfish from the supplier (100%), catfish trading knowledge from relatives (89%), elementary school background of catfish traders (81.1%), and no consumer complaints (94.6%) were fundamental things in the behavior of catfish traders in a food safety perspective. From the swab test of catfish, skin wounds were found Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhosa, and Proteus mirabilis.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Hunting of wild animals by Saubeba Community in Manokwari, West Papua,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: Saremay Sawaki, Denisa Taran, Fransiskus Taran, Robi Bomoi, Marsia Rumateray
      Abstract: Abstract. Sawaki S, Taran D, Taran F, Bomoi R, Rumateray M. 2022. Hunting of wild animals by Saubeba Community in Manokwari, West Papua, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2411-2416. Hunting is a way to harvest wild animals from nature and it is still a common practice by local communities in Papua, Indonesia. This study aims to investigate traditional ecological knowledge of hunting wild animals by Saubeba community in Manokwari, West Papua, Indonesia. The data was collected through open interviews to 32 respondents determined using the snowball sampling technique. The result showed that hunting is performed in a group of 4-8 members when the dark moon happens. A group of hunters consists of adult men and teenage boys aged above 15 years old. They hunt 3-4 times per month with a duration of 2-3 days in the forest. Modern hunting is carried out using weapons, while traditional hunting is performed with the help of dogs, used arrows, spears and snares. Women are not allowed to hunt and they are prohibited to touch all hunting equipment and the catches. Among the wild animals hunted, nine out of sixteen species are categorized as protected animals and some of them have high conservation concerns in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and Convention on International Trades on Endangered Species (CITES) list. No conservation efforts are planned and applied by the hunters and the community. However, there is a shift in the diet, in which eleven respondents stop hunting and start to raise livestock for consumption purposes. This suggests that assistance in livestock rearing programs by government is required to reduce the hunting pressure on the remaining wild animals.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Analysis of the ultimate wood composition of a forest
           plantation species, Eucalyptus pellita, to estimate its bioelectricity
           potency

    • Authors: MUHAMMAD TAUFIQ HAQIQI, DUDU HUDAYA, HELMI ALFATH SEPTIANA, RICO RAMADHAN, YULIANSYAH YULIANSYAH, WIWIN SUWINARTI, RUDIANTO AMIRTA
      Abstract: Abstract. Haqiqi MT, Hudaya D, Septiana HA, Ramadhan R, Yuliansyah, Suwinarti W, Amirta R. 2022. Short Communicarion: Analysis of the ultimate wood composition of a forest plantation species, Eucalyptus pellita, to estimate its bioelectricity potency. Biodiversitas 23: 2389-2394. Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell is one of the short rotation wood crop species widely planted in tropical countries, including Indonesia. Woody biomass obtained from this species is commonly utilized to produce fiber in the pulp and paper industry. Due to the growing interest in expanding E. pellita plantations, the potential application of E. pellita woody biomass to provide sustainable energy feedstock has been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the ultimate composition of E. pellita wood (carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O)) to estimate its higher heating value (HHV) and bioelectricity potency. The wood samples were harvested at different plant ages, from the first to the fifth year. The percentage of biomass composition, including cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractives, was also calculated. The results demonstrated that lignin in the E. pellita wood increased to align with the increased plant age. Thus, this pattern was followed by significantly increased C content in the wood since lignin contained a primary source of C. Hence, this condition might enhance the HHV and electricity potency. The ratio of H/C and O/C was found to be one of the most promising factors in improving HHV compared to the extractive/lignin ratio. In the fifth year, the electricity potency of E. pellita showed the highest value (1.71 MWh ton-1). Therefore, this study suggests that E. pellita possesses the potential to be one of the promising crops for green electricity production.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Short communication: Pattern of chlorophylls content declined during
           partial submergence for rice varieties cultivated in North Sulawesi at the
           vegetative stage

    • Authors: SONG AI NIO, DANIEL PETER MANTILEN LUDONG, RATNA SIAHAAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Nio SA, Ludong DPM, Siahaan R. 2022. Short communication: Pattern of chlorophylls content declined during partial submergence for rice varieties cultivated in North Sulawesi at the vegetative stage. Biodiversitas 23: 2451-2456. Submergence or flooding stress limits plant growth in various physiological, anatomical, and morphological aspects. This study examined leaf chlorophyll content as a physiological response in some rice varieties cultivated in North Sulawesi during partial submergence imposed at the vegetative stage. Ten rice cultivars, i.e., Permata, Superwin, Cigeulis, Pulo Manado, TB, Ombong, Serayu, Temo, Burungan, and Inpari 31, were grown in plastic trays on planting media in the greenhouse, then watered to field capacity using a mixture of water and fertilizer every second day for two weeks. The plants were submerged 18 cm from the media's surface, and the content of leaf chlorophylls (total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b) were measured using a spectrophotometer (' 649 and 665 nm) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days of partial submergence. The chlorophylls (total, a, and b) content decreased during the 9 days of treatment. The highest chlorophylls contents were observed in rice cv. Superwin and the chlorophylls content at day 0 (before partial submergence commenced) were higher than at 3, 6, and 9 days after treatment (p<0.05). The data presented here supported that leaf chlorophylls content is a potential physiological indicator of partial submergence stress in rice, including the North Sulawesi local rice, at the vegetative phase.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • The potential of Lactobacillus buchneri isolated from spontaneous rabbit
           meat fermented - bekasam against Salmonella typhimurium by in vivo
           evaluation

    • Authors: EKA WULANDARI, HUSMY YURMIATI, TOTO SUBROTO, OKTA WISMANDANU, SHAFIA KHAIRANI
      Abstract: Abstract. Wulandari E, Yurmiati H, Subroto T, Wismandanu O, Khairani S. 2022. The potential of Lactobacillus buchneri isolated from spontaneous rabbit meat fermented - bekasam against Salmonella typhimurium by in vivo evaluation. Biodiversitas 23: 2304-2310. Rabbit meat bekasam is a traditional fermented food and is considered a healthy and functional food due to its nutrient content and microorganism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was dominant microorganism and Lactobacillus buchneri E3 is one of LAB isolated during fermentation of the bekasam. Lactobacillus buchneri E3 has antimicrobial activity against pathogen bacteria. The present study aimed to investigate in vivo assessment of antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium using BALB/c mice. Oral administrations of three doses of L. buchneri E3(108, 109, and 1010 CFU/day/mouse) were performed for seven consecutive days. On the 8th day, each animal was inoculated with a single S. typhimurium, and on the 13th day, the mice were sacrificed for observation. The result showed that oral administration of L. buchneri E3 significantly increased the total population of LAB, significantly decreased S. typhimurium populations in the intestines, liver, and spleen, while increasing beneficial bacterial population and maintaining the normal hematology in the mice. The probiotic also maintained the histological examination of spleen and liver. These suggest that L. buchneri E3 is safe and could be used as the starter for fermentation products.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Bioclimatic modeling for the prediction of the suitable regional
           geographical distribution of selected bright-spored myxomycetes in the
           Philippine archipelago

    • Authors: JAMES EDUARD LIMBO-DIZON, KING JOSHUA ALMADRONES-REYES, SITTIE AISHA B. MACABAGO, NIKKI HEHERSON A. DAGAMAC
      Abstract: Abstract. Limbo-Dizon JE, Almadrones-Reyes KJ, Macabago SAB, Dagamac NHA. 2022. Bioclimatic modeling for the prediction of the suitable regional geographical distribution of selected bright-spored myxomycetes in the Philippine archipelago. Biodiversitas 23: 2285-2294. Myxomycetes communities in the Philippines have been well studied in terms of diversity patterns projected by their enigmatic fructifications. To predict potential suitable geographical distributions of three different bright-spored myxomycetes with known variations in its occurrences, namely, Arcyria cinerea, Perichaena depressa, and Hemitrichia serpula, species distribution modeling was utilized. Three different modeling approaches employing MaxEnt were performed in this study and have calculated high model performances based on the AUC values generated (0.778-0.873). In all of the modeling approaches, the three myxomycetes species were predicted to have an expansion of their localized fundamental niches pointing to the influence of isothermality (BIO3) as an important macroclimatic predictor for modeling approaches 1 and 2. Highly suitable habitats for the three bright-spored species were discovered primarily in terrestrial landscapes on the regions of Luzon Island, as well as in small parts of the Visayas and Mindanao Islands. The predicted models in this study do not tell missing geographical information but rather may use as tools for the exploration of potentialities, such as understanding the possible distribution patterns of the three bright-spored myxomycetes species in the Philippines. This can serve as a useful baseline to enhance the conservation efforts for most habitats in the country that are directly affecting microbial communities due to rampant habitat loss and rapid urbanization.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • RP-HPLC based analysis of different polyphenols in seven species of Carex
           L. (Cyperaceae Juss.) from West Bengal, India

    • Authors: POOJA RAJAK, ASOK GHOSH
      Abstract: Abstract. Rajak P, Ghosh A. 2022. RP-HPLC based analysis of different polyphenols in seven species of Carex L. (Cyperaceae Juss.) from West Bengal, India. Biodiversitas 23: 2329-2341. Carex L. is one of the important genera of the family Cyperaceae having immense ecological significance and probable therapeutic potentiality due to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals i.e. polyphenols. RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) based evaluation of polyphenols concerned with the chemotaxonomy of this genus, was a fundament of reported research but the evaluation of its therapeutic possibilities are still an open field of research. In concerned with the above aim, phytochemical investigation was done by analyzing the seven species of Indian Carexto to evaluate polyphenols employing RP-HPLC. The above-mentioned analysis reveals differences in the presence as well as the amount of these marker phytochemical components compositions of each and every studied species of Carex. Total of nine polyphenols was used as standard among which, except coumaric acid, all of the polyphenols were detected in considerable amount in the studied species. Among these seven species, Carex stramentitia Boott ex Boeckeler and C. alopecuroides D. Don were found to contain a higher number of polyphenols. Gallic acid was quantified in the highest amount in C. baccans Nees. A higher amount of phloroglucinol was also detected in C. insignis Boott and C. baccans. Remarkably, biochanin A, a highly significant therapeutic phytochemical, was only observed in higher amounts in C. alopecuroides.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Wolbachia genetic similarity in different insect host species: Drosophila
           

    • Authors: ANWAR ROVIK, EDWIN WIDYANTO DANIWIJAYA, ENDAH SUPRIYATI, AYU RAHAYU, DIAN ARUNI KUMALAWATI, UTARI SARASWATI, ANASTASIA EVI HANDAYANINGSIH, MIFTA PRATIWI RACHMAN, RISKY OKTRIANI, IRIANTI KURNIASARI, DAMIANA SAPTA CANDRASARI, INDAH NURHAYATI, RIZKI SHOLEH, BUDI ARIANTO, WARSITO TANTOWIJOYO, RIRIS ANDONO AHMAD, ADI UTARINI, EGGI ARGUNI
      Abstract: Abstract. Rovik A, Daniwijaya EW, Supriyati E, Rahayu A, Kumalawati DA, Saraswati U, Handayaningsih AE, Rachman MP, Oktriani R, Kurniasari I, Candrasari DS, Nurhayati I, Sholeh R, Arianto B, Tantowijoyo W, Ahmad RA, Utarini A, Arguni E. 2022. Wolbachia genetic similarity in different insect host species: Drosophila melanogaster and Yogyakarta’s (Indonesia) Aedes aegypti as a novel host. Biodiversitas 23: 2321-2328. Wolbachia naturally presents in a large number of insects and other arthropod species. The Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster has been stably transinfected into Aedes aegypti where it stops the mosquito host from being infected with medically important arbovirus like dengue. Consequently, Ae. aegypti infected with wMel have been released in Indonesia as a public health intervention against dengue. This study genetically compared wMel from Yogya field-caught D. melanogaster and the wMel in stably transfected Ae. aegypti used for field releases in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The genetic similarity between wMel Wolbachia was evaluated by sequencing of Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene and some polymorphic genomic regions of insertion sites (IS) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) loci. The sequence of the Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene was 100% identical between hosts. There is no insertion sequence among specimens. The insertion sequence IS-WD1310 was identical between wMel from both hosts and among other strains, as well as the IS-WD516/7. The VNTR-141 period was identical within wMel from both hosts and among other strains, the VNTR-105 as well. Wolbachia Yogya field-caught D. melanogaster and Wolbachia strain wMel present in Ae. aegypti used for bio-control of dengue were genetically identical. These findings provide beneficial understanding to answer the public attention on safety issues, especially on the genetic similarity between Wolbachia strain in the natural and transfected hosts of this novel technology for dengue control.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Human-wildlife conflict in indigenous communities of the Nairi Awari
           Indigenous Territory of East Central Costa Rica

    • Authors: CAROLINA SÁENZ-BOLAÑOS, TODD K. FULLER, LYNNETTE SIEVERT, EDUARDO CARRILLO
      Abstract: Abstract. Sáenz-Bolaños C, Fuller TK, Sievert L, Carrillo E. 2022. Human-wildlife conflict in indigenous communities of the Nairi Awari Indigenous Territory of East Central Costa Rica. Biodiversitas 23: 2238-2244. Human-wildlife conflict is essential for conservation because it is necessary to maintain the balance of requirements needed by humans and wildlife. Indigenous territories are not exempt from interactions with wildlife, and in this study, we focus on one indigenous territory of the Cabécar Indigenous Group of Costa Rica called Nairi Awari. We wanted to know which are the most common wildlife species, which interactions with these species the Nairi Awari consider negative, and what are the possible solutions to these interactions. To do this, we administered 24 semi-structured questionnaires to indigenous people from March-August 2019. The results showed 16 species as “problematic animals”, the jaguar (Panthera onca) being the most common, followed by hawks. Of the six problem categories identified, predation on poultry was the most cited category, but it raised fewer negative feelings among respondents than some other problems. Possible solutions to pig or cow predation, problems which most maddened respondents, included improved management (48%), scaring animals (12%), and killing big cats (16%). It is important to understand these perceptions in order to address future management to benefit conservation and human welfare. In particular, there is potential to work in the long term to improve the management of domestic animals.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230460
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of insects diversity with the influence of industrial
           pollutants in agricultural zones of District Sialkot, Pakistan

    • Authors: AYESHA ASGHAR, OMEMA QADEER, SAJIDA MUSHTAQ, SADIA MAALIK, WAQAR MAJEED, NAHEED BANO, SHAHLA NARGIS
      Abstract: Abstract. Asghar A, Qadeer O, Mushtaq S, Maalik S, Majeed W, Bano N, Nargis S. 2022. Assessment of insects diversity with the influence of industrial pollutants in agricultural zones of District Sialkot, Pakistan. Biodiversitas 23: 2047-2053. Insects are the most important creatures on earth due to their multifunctional role in the environment by providing different services such as biological indicators, decomposers, pollinators, scavengers, pests, and predators agroecosystem. However, with time due to anthropogenic activities such as environmental pollution, industrial waste, and the use of effluents for agriculture, insect fauna has been facing a dramatic threat to their diversity, particularly in most polluted areas. The present study was designed to find insects diversity variation under polluted environments (heavy metals) in agriculture fields having brassica and Rice crops. Two different sites, the tannery and non-tannery areas were selected to sample insects. The total number of insects found in tannery area fields were 2195 and 3753 from the non-tannery area. The abundance of Melanoplus bivittatus (Say, 1825) was highest in the non-tannery area, and Acrida exaltata (Walker, 1859) was highest in tannery area fields. From the tannery area and non-tannery area, the maximum abundance of 32% and 37% were found for order orthoptera. The cadmium concentration in tannery rice crops was 0.626 ppm, and brassica concentration was 0.315 ppm. The cadmium concentration in non-tannery area samples was 0.115 ppm for rice and 0.101 ppm for brassica plants, while 0.1231 ppm for rice and 0.104 ppm for brassica insects. The lead concentration in tannery areas of rice crops was 0.637 ppm, and brassica concentration was 0.672 ppm. The lead concentration in non-tannery area samples was 0.324 ppm for rice and 0.267 ppm for brassica plants, while 0.214 ppm for rice and 0.266 ppm for brassica insects. The diversity and richness were recorded at 3.11 and 3.525 for rice and 3.124 and 3.913 for brassica fields. The species maximum was seen in the non-tannery area, and less abundance was recorded in the tannery area. It is further suggested that preventive measures should be taken to protect insect diversity from balancing nature's ecological balance.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230440
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Assessing the potential of tembawang, a traditional forest management in
           Sanggau, West Kalimantan, Indonesia for ecotourism

    • Authors: EMI ROSLINDA, ADI SISWOYO, NIKOMEDES NANTAH
      Abstract: Abstract. Roslinda E, Siswoyo A, Nantah N. 2022. Assessing the potential of tembawang, a traditional forest management in Sanggau, West Kalimantan, Indonesia for ecotourism. Biodiversitas 23: 2184-2192. Tembawang is a traditional land management system practiced by the Dayak community in Kalimantan, Indonesia. It resembles a miniature tropical forest that can be developed as an ecotourism alternative. This study aimed to assess the potential of Tembawang Kampung Lama in Sanggau District, West Kalimantan, as a natural tourist attraction. The research used a survey method and data collection was carried out by distributing questionnaires to respondents, in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions, direct observation, and document analysis. Assessment and analysis of data followed guidelines from the government. The results showed that Tembawang Kampung Lama has a moderate potential to be developed as an ecotourism destination. The elements of tourist attractions, supporting infrastructure and availability of clean water were in a good category, while the accessibility was in the moderate category, and the socio-economic conditions and accommodation were in the bad category. The development of tembawang as a tourist attraction must be supported by improving accessibility and accommodation facilities. In addition, tour packages can be developed by integrating landscape tours consisting of rice fields, tembawang, secondary forests in the hills and cascades around the tembawang to attract more tourists to visit.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230454
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Interspecific and intraspecific cross-compatibility of Durio kutejensis
           and hybrid Durio zibethinus x kutejensis

    • Authors: Rudarmono Rudarmono, NOER RAHMI ARDIARINI, BUDI WALUYO, SUMERU ASHARI
      Abstract: Abstract. Rudarmono, Ardiarini NR, Waluyo B, Ashari S. 2022. Interspecific and Intraspecific cross-compatibility of Durio kutejensis and hybrid Durio zibethinus x kutejensis. Biodiversitas 23: 1837-1843. Lai (Durio kutejensis) and Mandong (Durio zibethinus x kutejensis) fruits that have advantages and high consumer preference values. Fruit productivity and development of Lai and Mandong plant varieties are still not optimal. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of incompatibility of interspecific and intraspecific crosses between Lai (D. kutejensis) and Mandong (D. zibethinus x kutejensis hybrid) plants. Artificial crosses were made utilizing flower samples from Mahakam, Kutai, and Batuah types of Lai plants, as well as Mandong varieties of Mandong, employing a scheme of 20 crossings that included a combination of these varieties (12 treatments), as well as each variety from the same flower and tree (8 treatments). The intensity level and incompatibility classification were determined according to Wang's (1963) method, which was based on the number of fruits formed from artificial crosses, and the pollen incompatibility intensity level (IIL) was determined according to the ratio of flowers that produced fruit from the cross to the total number of flowers crossed. The results showed that overall crosses of the same flower (selfing) from three varieties of Lai and one variety of Mandong were incompatible. Lai Mahakam x Lai Batuah crosses yielded 14.28 % harvested fruit, Lai Mahakam x Lai Mahakam crosses yielded 18.75 % harvested fruit, Lai Kutai x Lai Kutai crossings yielded 14.81 % harvested fruit, while a cross of Durian Mandong x Lai Batuah yielded 16.67 % harvested fruit. It shows partially compatible. The complete compatibility value showed the number of harvested fruit ranged from 23.44 to 46.77%, with the most significant being obtained from a Lai Mahakam x Durian Mandong cross. The Mahakam, Kutai, Batuah, and Mandong varieties are compatible with all pollen sources.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230416
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Assessing the seagrasses meadows status and condition: A case study of
           Wori Seagrass Meadows, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: CALVYN FREDRIK ALDUS SONDAK, ERLY YOSEF KALIGIS
      Abstract: Abstract. Sondak CFA, Kaligis EY. 2022. Assessing the seagrasses meadows status and condition: A case study of Wori Seagrass Meadows, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2156-2166. Seagrass meadows play an important role in the coastal ecosystem through the services they provide, however, they are one of the most threatened ecosystems in the coastal environment due to anthropogenic influences and rapid environmental changes. Seagrass meadows extent is not validated and the health condition is left unmonitored and unreported. In Indonesia, the information about the current status of seagrass meadows’ extent and health conditions is limited. We assess the seagrass meadow abundance, status, and health condition. We provide information about species abundance, density threats, and the health status of seagrass meadows in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, particularly in Wori District. This district has a vast extent of seagrass meadows but has been affected by the expansion of the industrial/tourism area within the region. This study found that seagrass meadows’ coverages were moderate, but their health status was unhealthy. Six seagrass species are found in this area, including Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Royle, Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers, Cymodocea rotundata (Asch. & Schweinf.), Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog, Halophila ovalis (R.Br.) Hook. F., and Syringodium isoetifolium (Asch.) Dandy. Our results highlight the communities’ activities, including gleaning, boat propeller, anchoring, mooring, sedimentation, and the effects of climate change on the environment as factors that could affect seagrass meadows' extent and health condition in the study sites.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230451
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The role of urban green space design to support bird community in the
           urban ecosystem

    • Authors: DANA RISQY PRIHANDI, SANDY NURVIANTO
      Abstract: Abstract. Prihandi DR, Nurvianto S. 2022. The role of urban green space design to support bird community in the urban ecosystem. Biodiversitas 23: 2137-2145. The increase in human population due to urbanization causes the expansion of urban areas that threatens forest lands to be lost and makes a serious threat to its biodiversity. Along with changes in the landscape due to urbanization, open green space is an alternative solution to maintaining biological diversity in urban areas. However, various types of open green spaces were developed following certain objectives of landscape management that potentially have different effects on biodiversity. This research aimed to identify the role of various open green spaces designs on bird biodiversity. Birds can be a good indicator of environmental quality because birds are a type of animal that can move in different habitat types and habitat areas and are often used as an indicator of habitat quality in urban areas. Bird observation was conducted using the point count method, while the environmental conditions were recorded using the nested and protocol sampling method. Those data were collected in five different open green spaces of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Province. Species diversity shows the diversity of species in a bird community in a certain area using the Shanon-Wiener index. Bird communities were also analyzed using rarefaction analysis. This analysis was used to standardize the species abundance in each type of green open space to estimate the ideal species richness of open green space from the different number of samples. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the value of diversity, richness, and relative abundance of bird species among five different types of open green space. We used Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) to visualize the bird's response toward environmental gradients. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was employed to determine the effect of the environmental factors on the diversity of bird species. The result showed that different types of urban green spaces have different richness and relative abundance of bird species. We found 5925 individual birds from 40 species in five different types of open green spaces. The garden was the type of open green space with the highest bird species diversity. Of the many variables taken, the slope and the number of vehicles per minute affected the diversity of species. Those two variables were also negatively correlated with the diversity of bird species in the five types of open green spaces. The number of vehicles causes noise and pollution, which causes a decrease in bird populations. Flat slopes can also help birds get food, such as seeds on a flat surface. Creating more gardens for public and private spaces becomes an alternative solution to enhance bird diversity in the urban area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230449
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The potency of selected ethnomedicinal plants from East Kalimantan,
           Indonesia as antidiabetic agents and free-radical scavengers

    • Authors: RICO RAMADHAN, PREECHA PHUWAPRAISIRISAN, RUDIANTO AMIRTA, MUHAMMAD FADIL BAGAS DARMAWAN, KAUTSAR UL-HAQ, IRAWAN WIJAYA KUSUMA, HERY SUWITO, NURLITA ABDULGANI, AHMAD MUKHDLOR, SAPARWADI SAPARWADI
      Abstract: Abstract. Ramadhan R, Phuwapraisirisan P, Amirta R, Darmawan MFB, Ul-Haq K, Kusuma IW, Suwito H, Abdulgani N, Mukhdlor A, Saparwadi. 2022. The potency of selected ethnomedicinal plants from East Kalimantan, Indonesia as antidiabetic agents and free-radical scavengers. Biodiversitas 23: 2225-2231. Ten ethnomedicinal plant extracts from East Kalimantan flora, traditionally used to treat blood sugar levels and other diabetes-related diseases, were examined in vitro for their antidiabetic and free radical scavenging activities by inhibiting rat alpha-glucosidase and several free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS, and Nitric oxide respectively. Out of the ten plant species investigated for their antidiabetic activity against maltase and sucrase rat alpha-glucosidase, three exhibited the strongest '-glucosidaseinhibitory activity with maltose as a substrate, namely extracts of Garcinia nervosa, Syzygium caudatilimbum, and Shorea balangeran with IC50 values of 0.046; 0.037; 0.045 mg/mL. Meanwhile, quercetin as a positive control appeared to have a comparable IC50value. Furthermore, among the ten extracts, Syzygium caudatilimbum, Shorea balangeran, and Ixora javanica showed good inhibition against sucrase rat alpha-glucosidase. Moreover, the antioxidant test showed that the ten methanol extracts of plants from East Kalimantan have an antioxidant activity indicated by IC50values. The present study confirms that the ethnopharmacological use of selected plants from East Kalimantan might have potential as an antidiabetic and natural antioxidant.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230458
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii
           and Enhalus acoroides from Pulau Sembilan, South Sulawesi Province,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: DWI ROSALINA, KATARINA HESTY ROMBE, KHAIRUL JAMIL, AGUS SURACHMAT
      Abstract: Abstract. Rosalina D, Rombe KH, Jamil K, Surachmat A. 2022. Analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides from Pulau Sembilan, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2139-2145. Seagrasses are flowering plants (Angiospermae) with fruit, flowers, leaves, rhizomes and roots that grow in shallow marine waters. The seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides have been observed growing around Pulau Sembilan in Sinjai Regency, Indonesia, specifically Kambuno, Katindoang, and Liang-Liang Islands. Meanwhile, human activities such as seaweed cultivation, recreation, marine transportation, fishing boats and ports/piers, and human settlements produce heavy metals that affect these plants. Therefore, this research was conducted to measure the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) content in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides (roots and leaves) as well as in the water column and sediment in Pulau Sembilan, Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The research was conducted using a descriptive method and the sites were determined through purposive sampling. The Pb and Cd content were analyzed at the Laboratory of the Makassar Plantation Product Center using the AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) method. The results showed that both seagrasses accumulated Pb and Cd in leaves and roots. Seagrass Pb content was higher than Cd content: in T. hemprichii, the Pb content in roots and leaves was 1.485 mg/kg and 2.861 mg/kg, respectively; in E. acoroides they were 1.512 mg/kg and 8.343 mg/kg, respectively. Pb content was also higher than Cd content in the water column (1.083 mg/L) and sediment (7.753 mg/kg). Concentrations of both heavy metals exceeded the Indonesian environmental quality standard in the seagrasses and in the ambient environment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230448
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Food traditions and biodiversity conservation of the Javanese Community in
           Gunungkidul Karst, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

    • Authors: EKA SULISTIYOWATI, SETIADI SETIADI, EKO HARYONO
      Abstract: Local traditions manifested through foods and rituals may have contributed to the conservation of plants. In this study, we explore how the Javanese community living in the dryland Karst Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta Province, uses food traditions and rituals to conserve plant diversity and, to some extent, conserve the ecosystem. The primary method was free listing interviews with 109 respondents, which was followed by in-depth interviews with 19 people of senior members of the community, local leaders (sesepuh), and customary leaders (juru kunci). The study found that there are 43 species of 19 families used by local people to produce ten culinary varieties as the local food traditions. In addition, 29 rituals involve the use of food traditions. Some rituals such as rasulan, gumregan, and life cycle rituals reflect local ecological knowledge to support biodiversity and ecosystem conservation in the area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230443
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Phylogeography of Aplocheilus panchax in Indonesia, with special focus on
           the Bangka Island population

    • Authors: Diah Mustikasari, Agus Nuryanto, Suhestri Suryaningsih
      Abstract: Abstract. Mustikasari D, Nuryanto A, Suryaningsih S. 2022. Phylogeography of Aplocheilus panchax in Indonesia, with special focus on the Bangka Island population. Biodiversitas 23: 2035-2046. Previous studies divided Blue panchax, Aplocheilus panchax into three different clades, namely West (W), Central (C), and East (E) clades. Blue panchax populations from Indonesia belong to the Central and East clades. However, that study did not include blue panchax samples from pits with harsh conditions in Bangka Island, Indonesia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the phylogeography of blue panchax in Indonesia with a special focus on the Bangka Island population using the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene. The results showed that genetic distance within Bangka Island population was less than 2%, while genetic distances between Bangka population and other populations were ranged from 103.87% to 122.10%. There was also a clear genetic gap between the Bangka and other populations, with the minimum gap was 101.94%. Furthermore, the seventy-nine sequences analyzed resulted 28 haplotypes with genetic variability of 0.221 for nucleotide diversity (p), 0.923 for Haplotype diversity (Hd), 68.028 for Fu’s Fs-test, 2.00 (P < 0.02) for Fu and Li’s D-test, and 2.365 (P < 0.02) for Fu and Li’s F-test; and 1.927 for Tajima's D test (0.10 > P > 0.05). The Bangka population of Aplocheilus panchax established a distinct clade from the Western (W), Eastern (E), and Central (C) clades. Molecular data established that the population on Bangka Island is a novel clade for Indonesia and a global blue panchax phylogeographic.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230439
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of nudibranch Chromodoris lineolata associated
           bacteria against skin diseases pathogens from Jepara Coastal Waters,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: ALDI PRATAMA WIJAYA, AGUS SABDONO, MADA TRIANDALA SIBERO, AGUS TRIANTO, OCKY KARNA RADJASA
      Abstract: Abstract. Wijaya AP, Sabdono A, Sibero MT, Trianto A, Radjasa OK. 2022. Antimicrobial activity of nudibranch Chromodoris lineolata associated bacteria against skin diseases pathogens from Jepara Coastal Waters, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1911-1919. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) skin pathogens has caused the treatment of skin diseases to become increasingly ineffective using by conventional antibiotics. As a source of antimicrobial compounds against MDR pathogens, marine invertebrate-associated bacteria have been widely known for their valuable biological activity. Therefore, this study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of nudibranch Chromodoris lineolata associated bacteria against various skin pathogens and to detect the presence of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC) through a molecular approach. A total of 14 nudibranch-associated bacteria were successfully isolated from Awur Bay and Panjang Island. Antimicrobial activity screening using the agar plug method indicated that three bacterial strains showed antimicrobial activity against two skin pathogens, Propionibacterium acnes and Malassezia furfur. Based on the biochemical test, these potential strains were classified into the Terrabacteria and Proteobacteria groups. Through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, potential strains were identified as Streptomyces lateritius, Labrenzia marina, and Halomonas meridiana through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results of BGC detection showed the presence of a type II polyketide synthase (PKS II) biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces lateritius and Labrenzia marina strains at 600bp-650bp.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230425
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) chromosomes

    • Authors: IMANOVTA ICHTI SANTOSO PUTRI, ENDANG YUNIASTUTI, PARJANTO PARJANTO
      Abstract: Abstract. Putri IIS, Yuniastuti E, Parjanto. 2022. The rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) chromosomes. Biodiversitas 23: 2196-2202. Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is an annual plant with a wide distribution, it generates this plant to have diversity. The diversity is more often found in morphological characters, in this case, its genetics has not been discovered. The genetics of rambutan could also be indicated by its chromosome karyotype. This research was conducted using the squashing method. The genetic material used was four rambutan varieties which are: Ace, Binjai, Lebak Bulus, and Rapiah. For each variety, the study process will be repeated three times. The results of the study showed rambutan chromosome number in all varieties was 22 chromosomes (2n=22) with an average chromosome size of Ace was 1.777±0.363 µm, followed by Binjai was 1.477±0.392 µm, Lebak Bulus was 1.418±0.320 µm, and Rapiah was 1.443±0.315 µm, and the chromosome shape is metacentric. The karyotype formula obtained was 2n=2x=22=11m.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230455
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Role of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) as seed dispersal agent in a
           Sumatran lowland tropical forest

    • Authors: MUHAMMAD FARHAN ADYN, MARSYA CHRISTYANTI SIBARANI, LAJI UTOYO UTOYO, RIKHA ARYANIE SURYA, AGUNG SEDAYU
      Abstract: Abstract. Adyn MF, Sibarani MC, Utoyo L, Surya RA, Sedayu A. 2022. Role of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) as seed dispersal agent in a Sumatran lowland tropical forest. Biodiversitas 23: 2101-2110. Seed dispersal is mutualistic interaction between angiosperms and dispersal agents. One of the important dispersers for lowland tropical forests, including in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (BBSNP), is siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus Raffles, 1821). This study aimed to determine the seed dispersal pattern, composition of dispersed seeds, and the seed fate dispersed by siamangs at Way Canguk Research Station, BBSNP, Lampung, Indonesia, from February-April 2021. We used the continuous focal sampling method to observe siamang behavior, while the purposive sampling method collected feces and seeds. Siamangs dispersed endozoochory dominantly, all fecal contained seeds, deposited more in the morning, and more scattered than clumped. With a gut passage time of 22.5 ± 3 hours, the seed dispersal distance was 223.9 ± 142 meters from the parents. Seeds < 3 mm were more numerous, but seeds > 3 mm were dispersed more often. Siamang was recorded to disperse a mean of 3.3 ± 1.4 species/feces, and 22 species were dispersed. The germination test showed that only 28% of total planted seeds successfully germinated. Based on in situ monitoring, the remaining deposit sites only accounted for 12% of total records, while the germination rate of dispersed seeds from these deposit sites varied. Further studies are needed with a larger sample to test the consistency of these findings.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230445
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Assessing the relationship of Sumatran elephant’s
           movement (Elephas maximus sumatranus) with vegetation intensity in
           Kotaagung Utara, Lampung Province, Indonesia using NDVI method

    • Authors: SAMSUL BAKRI, DELLA TIARA MONIK, AGUS SETIAWAN, GUNARDI DJOKO WINARNO
      Abstract: Abstract. Bakri S, Monik DT, Setiawan A, Winarno GD. 2022. Short Communication: Assessing the relationship of Sumatran elephant’s movement (Elephas maximus sumatranus) with vegetation intensity in Kotaagung Utara, Lampung Province, Indonesia using NDVI method. Biodiversitas 23: 1920-1928. The Indonesian Elephant Conservation Forum stated that the population of Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) had decreased dramatically up to 70% in the last 20-30 years due to illegal hunting, land conversion, and encroachment, so the availability of elephant food in the wild is gradually inadequate. With the decline of the elephant population in Indonesia, several parties such as the government, NGO, and the public are beginning to monitor the Sumatran elephant. The monitoring is carried out by observing and studying the movements of elephants using a GPS Collar. The research aims to find out the consistency of elephant movement and its relationship to the availability of feed as indicated by the intensity of vegetation in KPH Kotaagung Utara, Lampung Province, Indonesia. This research used GIS technology (Correlation Citra Landsat 8 OLI and BIG Demnas Data), elephant movement data using GPS Collar in 2020, and land use data by BPKH Lampung. The results showed that the monthly movement pattern of elephants in 2020 was consistently monitored. From January-July, elephants are in the North area, while in August-December are in the South. The intensity of elephant movement in the Mixed Shrub Dryland Agriculture area is higher than in the other areas, at 107 points or about 90% of all the areas in KPH Kotaagung Utara. Meanwhile, in the Dryland and Shrub Agriculture areas, there are 6 points each, or about 5% of all the areas. The vegetation classification in KPH Kotaagung Utara is dense with an NDVI value range of 0.63-0.85. Furthermore, the regression results prove that NDVI and the monthly season affect the movement of elephants with a p-value of <0.001.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230426
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Spatial distribution and temporal patterns of food tree availability of
           hornbills (Bucerotidae) at Way Canguk Research Station, Bukit Barisan
           Selatan National Park, Indonesia

    • Authors: RIZKI AKBAR FITRIANSYAH, Agus Setiawan, ELLY LESTARI RUSTIATI, LAJI UTOYO, Marsya Christyanti Sibarani
      Abstract: Abstract. Fitriansyah RA, Setiawan A, Rustiati EL, Utoyo L, Sibarani MC. 2022. Spatial distribution and temporal patterns of food tree availability of hornbills (Bucerotidae) at Way Canguk Research Station, Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1990-1997. The presence of hornbills in an area is associated with food availability. As more food sources become available, the hornbill population in the area may increase. The purpose of this research was to determine the spatial distribution of hornbill food trees and to determine the long-term temporal fruiting pattern of hornbill food trees at Way Canguk Research Station (WCRS), Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Indonesia. We surveyed vegetation plots across the research station to assess the spatial distribution and analyzed long-term phenology survey data of the research station that have been collected from February 1998 to December 2020. We recorded 64 species of hornbill food trees with a total of 911 individuals in 197 of 200 survey plots. The temporal fruiting pattern of hornbill food trees during the last 22 years was relatively stable, with an average of fruiting tree percentage of 10.4% (SD: 3.2%, N: 260 months). The highest percentage of fruiting food trees occurred in September 2008, which amounted to 18.3% and the lowest percentage occurred in September 1998 with a percentage of 2.2%.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230433
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • DNA barcoding of freshwater fish in Siberut Island, Mentawai Archipelago,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: Dewi Roesma, DJONG HON TJONG, Muhammad Janra, Dyta Aidil
      Abstract: Abstract. Roesma DI, Tjong DH, Janra MN, Aidil DR. 2022. DNA barcoding of freshwater fish in Siberut Island, Mentawai Archipelago, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1795-1806. Information regarding molecular data of freshwater fish in Siberut Island, Mentawai Archipelago, Indonesia, is not available. This study was conducted to provide DNA barcodes of freshwater fish in Siberut island. The cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene was chosen to make DNA barcodes because it has been used as a tool capable of identifying organisms up to the species level. Specimens were collected directly captured in the three rivers from Siberut Island. A total of 40 individuals were selected from 200 individuals that have been identified morphologically and strengthened by the results of the molecular marker (DNA barcodes) consisting of 13 species, namely Gobiopterus cf. brachypterus (BOLD: ADF5945), Eleotris fusca (BOLD: AAF0108), Butis cf. butis (BOLD: AAL8960), Stiphodon semoni (BOLD: ACQ3312), Giuris margaritacea (BOLD: ACP9929), Anabas testudineus (BOLD: AAO2846), Rasbora jacobsoni, Rasbora vulcanus, Barbodes banksi, Redigobius cf. bikolanus, Periophthalmus argentilineatus, Hypseleotris cf. compressa, and Oryzias cf. javanicus (in a queue in the BOLD system). The average Kimura two-Parameter model (K2P) genetic distances within species, genera, families, and orders were 0.16%, 11.4%, 23.2%, and 26.0%, respectively. The interspecific K2P distance was higher than the intraspecific distance. The present study supports that COI Barcodes effectively identify fish up to the species level. Future research is needed, especially to species that may have potential as new species. In contrast, DNA barcodes as genetic information will contribute as the basic data to future studies in the monitoring, conservation, and management of freshwater fish in Siberut Island, Mentawai Islands. Therefore, the creation of DNA barcodes is immediately carried out.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230411
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Taxonomy and ethnobotany of Acmella (Asteraceae) in Thailand

    • Authors: PRATEEP PANYADEE, ANGKHANA INTA
      Abstract: Abstract. Panyadee P, Inta A. 2022. Taxonomy and ethnobotany of Acmella (Asteraceae) in Thailand. Biodiversitas 23: 2177-2183. Thai toothache plant is an ethno-species, referred to as any species in the genus Acmella of the aster family (Asteraceae). The plants are used commonly in Thailand as vegetables and medicine. However, in earlier phytochemistry and ethnobotanical studies, missed scientific names: Acmella olearcea and Spilanthes acmella, were applied to these species. In this study, we have clarified the identity of these ethno-species and related species in the genus Acmella. There were six species of Acmella in Thailand, including two native species and four introduced species. The keys and brief description of these species are provided. In ethnobotanical studies, A. oleracea and S. acmella were mentioned as nearly 80% of total use records. These names could be referred to A. paniculata which is one of the native species and most widely distributed. Although there were a reasonable amount of studies on the Thai toothache plant, more comparative studies for their bioactivities are still needed according to the taxonomical confusion of their names.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230453
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Kaempferia sipraiana (Zingiberaceae), a new species from Thailand and a
           new record of Kaempferia pseudoparviflora for Myanmar

    • Authors: THAWATPHONG BOONMA, SURAPON SAENSOUK, PIYAPORN SAENSOUK
      Abstract: Abstract. Boonma T, Saensouk S, Saensouk P. 2022. Kaempferia sipraiana (Zingiberaceae), a new species from Thailand and a new record of Kaempferia pseudoparviflora for Myanmar. Biodiversitas 23: 2203-2211. Kaempferia sipraiana Boonma & Saensouk, a new species of Kaempferia subgenus Protanthium (Zingiberaceae) from northern Thailand and K. pseudoparviflora Saensouk P. & Saensouk, a new record species of Kaempferia subgenus Kaempferia for Myanmar are described, illustrated, and photographed. The dominant characters of Kaempferia sipraiana were leaves narrowly elliptic, green with short white stripes arranged parallel along the leaf edges, between the midrib and both sides of the edges, apex acuminate with slightly mucronate, base attenuate-oblique; peduncle glabrous; bracts apex mucronate, glabrous, red with dark red veins; bracteoles glabrous; floral tube shorter than calyx; calyx glabrous; staminodes oblanceolate, apex 3-lobes like curly brackets; labellum white at the base with pinkish purple in the middle gradually fade to pale pink and to reach to white tip and edge respectively, apex 3-lobes like curly brackets, each lobe 3.0–3.3 cm long; apex 4 lobes, outer lobes acute, inner lobes obtuse rarely combined to truncate; stigma with pink lips. The dominant characters of K. pseudoparviflora were one leaf and dark green with light grey markings, the inflorescence looks like inflorescence of K. parviflora. The information on vernacular name, distribution, phenology, ecology, conservation status, specimens examined, and an identification key to both species of Kaempferia in Thailand is revised and presented.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230456
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Phytochemicals, characterization and antimicrobial tests of red betel
           leaves on three solvent fractions as candidates for endometritis
           phytotherapy in Aceh cattlePhytochemicals, characterization and
           antimicrobial tests of red betel leaves on three solvent fractions as
           candidates for endometritis phytotherapy in Aceh cattle, Indonesia

    • Authors: TEUKU ARMANSYAH, TONGKU NIZWAN SIREGAR, SUHARTONO SUHARTONO, AMALIA SUTRIANA
      Abstract: Abstract. Armansyah T, Siregar TN, Suhartono, Sutriana A. 2022. Phytochemicals, characterization and antimicrobial tests of red betel leaves on three solvent fractions as candidates for endometritis phytotherapy in Aceh cattle, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2111-2117. The use of antibiotics to treat endometritis in cattle carries with it some weaknesses in the form of toxicity risks and unexpected side effects. The use of medicinal plants as antimicrobials and immunomodulators has the potential to be an alternative therapy. Red betel leaves could be considered viable candidates for phytotherapy in cattle with endometritis. This study aimed to determine the differences in biological activity and antibacterial ability of red betel leaf through the use of three different solvents, namely n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The highest yield of betel leaf extract was obtained from the ethyl acetate solvent fraction consisting of flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, phenolics, and saponins. The highest biological compounds in red betel leaf identified by GC-MS in n-hexane solvent, ethyl acetate, and ethanol were 5-isobutylidene-N, N-dimethylbarbituric acid, benzenamine, 4,4' - (1,2-ethenediyl) bis-, and 9-octadecadienoic acid, respectively. Among the three solvent fractions of red betel leaf extract, it was observed that ethyl acetate exhibited higher antibacterial activity than hexane and ethanol. Hence, it can be concluded that ethyl acetate extract of red betel leaves solvent has secondary metabolites and better antibacterial potential than ethanol and n-hexane solvents.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230446
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Diversity, domination and behavior of mosquitoes in filariasis endemic
           area of Bogor District, West Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: Muhammad Nirwan, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Susi Soviana, Fadjar Satrija, Surachmi Setiyaningsih
      Abstract: Abstract. Nirwan M, Hadi UK, Soviana S, Satrija F, Setiyaningsih S. 2022. Diversity, domination and behavior of mosquitoes in filariasis endemic area of Bogor District, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2093-2100. A study on the diversity, dominance and behavior of mosquitoes was done in the two filariasis endemic areas in Bogor District, West Java, Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to determine the diversity, dominance and behavior of mosquitoes and their importance as vectors of filariasis in two endemic areas in Bogor District, namely Tamansari Village (rural) and Cimanggis Village (urban). This research was carried out from September 2019 to February 2020. Mosquitoes were collected from 6.00 pm to 6.00 am, twice a month in each village, by using the bare leg collection technique. The collected mosquitoes were identified and analyzed. Filaria detection was carried out by dissecting technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The result indicated eight (8) species of mosquitoes in the rural area (Tamansari village), i.e., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Cx. vishnui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Armigeres kesseli, Ar. subalbatus, Ae. albopictus, Mansonia annulata. On the other hand, there were six (6) species found in the urban area (Cimanggis village), i.e., Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, Ar. kesseli, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were found to be the most dominant in Tamansari village (90.46) and also in Cimanggis Village (95.67). Based on the analysis showed that the mosquito diversity index was low in both the Tamansari village (H’: 0.444) and the Cimanggis village (H’: 0.238). In general, mosquito-biting behavior prefers to suck blood indoors (anthropophilic) with a peak density in the range of 23.00-04.00. The results of filarial detection using dissecting technique and PCR methods against mosquitoes caught in Tamansari Village and Cimanggis Village did not find any L3 larvae and microfilariae in the examined mosquitoes. Culex quinquefasciatus was found to be very potential as the main vector for the spread of filariasis both in rural and urban areas of endemic filariasis of Bogor District, Indonesia.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230444
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Morphological and molecular characterization of Distichochlamys citrea
           M.F. Newman in Bach Ma National Park, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam

    • Authors: TRAN VAN CHEN, NGUYEN DUC TUAN, NGUYEN THANH TRIET, NGUYEN HOANG AN, PHAN THI THAO NGUYEN, NGUYEN THI THANH HAI, NGUYEN THANH TO NHI, NGUYEN QUANG CO, HO THI HOANG NHI, HOANG VIET HUONG, TRUONG THI BICH PHUONG, NGUYEN THI AI NHUNG
      Abstract: Abstract. Chen TV, Tuan ND, Triet NT, An NH, Nguyen PTT, Hai NTT, Nhi NTT, Co NQ, Nhi HTH, Huong HV, Phuong TTB, Nhung NTA. 2022. Morphological and molecular characterization of Distichochlamys citrea M.F. Newman in Bach Ma National Park, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. Biodiversitas 23: 2066-2079. Distichochlamys citrea (Black Ginger or gung den) is a medicinal plant endemic to Vietnam. However, this species is not easily identified due to the lack of a detailed description. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize morphological and molecular aspects of D. citrea from Bach Ma National Park, Vietnam. Six representative plants were selected for the following analyses. Macromorphological features were observed and compared with previous studies. The rhizomes, roots, petioles, and leaves were then histologically analyzed using iodine green-carmine staining. The ground rhizomes and leaves were also microscopically examined for powder characteristics. Finally, the D. citrea DNA barcode was amplified by Internal Transcribe Spacer (ITS) primers. Macromorphologically, D. citrea differs from other Distichochlamys species. Black Ginger, particularly, has elongated rhizomes (with scars from the shoots of previous years), green leaves, spread inflorescences, and yellow labellum (with deep slits). Additionally, D. citrea’s micromorphological structures (epidermis, exodermis, hypodermis, cortex, endodermis, and root pith) are similar to the genus Zingiber. However, the absence of calcium oxalate and silica crystals in the root is unique and can be used to distinguish this plant from other Zingiberaceae members. The sequenced amplicons (96.54% similar to Genbank's D. citrea ITS) demonstrated the ITS marker’s ability to identify Black Ginger.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230442
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Commercial marine fish species from Weh Island, Indonesia: Checklist,
           distribution pattern and conservation status

    • Authors: Ilham Zulfahmi, Mauriza Apriansyah, Agung Setia Batubara, Neri Kautsari, Kizar Ahmed Sumon, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Firman M Nur
      Abstract: Abstract. Zulfahmi I, Apriansyah M, Batubara AS, Kautsari N, Sumon KA, Rahman MM, Nur FM. 2022. Commercial marine fish species from Weh Island, Indonesia: Checklist, distribution pattern and conservation status. Biodiversitas 23: 1977-1989. In this study, we first report a systematic checklist of commercial marine fish species from Weh Island, Indonesia, including notes on their distribution pattern, conservation status, and commercial value. Fish sampling was conducted at three major fish markets in Weh Island, and these specifically were Cangkoan Fish Market, Kuta Timu Fish Market, and Balohan Fish Market. A total of 50 fish species belonging to 8 orders and 24 families were documented. Carangidae (12%, 6 species) was the predominant family, followed by the Scaridae (10%, 5 species) and other families (78%, 22 families, 39 species). Based on the IUCN red list, commercial marine fish species in Weh Island were dominated by the "Least Concern" category (78%, 39 species), followed by the "Not Evaluated" (14%, 7 species), the "Near Threatened" (4%, 2 species), and the "Data Deficient" (4%, 2 species). The market price of the fish ranged from 0.34 USD/kg to 6.19 USD/kg, with three fish families included in the high commercial value, namely the Clupeidae, Carcharhinidae, and Serranidae.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230432
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Floral biology, floral volatile organic compounds and floral visitors of
           Chromolaena odorata, an invasive alien species in West Bengal, India

    • Authors: UJJWAL LAYEK, ALOKESH DAS, UDAY DAS
      Abstract: Abstract. Layek U, Das A, Das U. 2022. Floral biology, floral volatile organic compounds and floral visitors of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob., an invasive alien species in West Bengal, India. Biodiversitas 23: 2118-2129. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. is a fast-growing weed native to the Neotropics and introduced in several regions of Africa, the Pacific Islands, and Southeast Asia, including West Bengal in India. It is one of the world’s most widespread and troublesome invasive alien plant species (IAPS) that severely infest natural habitats and crop fields. However, extensive data documents about the reproductive ecology are unknown, especially within West Bengal. This study assesses the floral biology, floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and floral visitors of the weed. The weed species flowers from October to January. Florets are white to purple, with short, narrow corolla tubes and deep-seated nectar. Abundant VOCs are benzyl stearate, 2,4-decadienal, n-hexadecanoic acid, 1-hexyl-2-nitrocyclohexane, and o-decyl hydroxylamine. Flower heads were visited by numerous insect groups, though the diversity of Lepidoptera (mainly butterflies) was higher than the other insect orders. The weed is pollinated by diverse insect groups (e.g., butterflies, flies, honeybees, leafcutter bees, solitary bees, and wasps). However, vital pollination services to the weed were provided by butterflies (based on the ‘approximate pollination value’). Our findings may conclude that the clustered capitula, longer stigmatic receptivity, and broad array of pollinators resulted in too much fruit set. It is one of the critical factors that support the high growth rate and invasive nature of the weed in dry habitats.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230447
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Variability total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Curcuma
           zanthorrhiza and C. aeruginosa cultivated in three different locations in
           West Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: SURYANI SURYANI, ASMAUL CHUSNA AL ANSHORY, MARLIN MARLIN, I MADE ARTIKA, LAKSMI AMBARSARI, Waras Nurcholis
      Abstract: Abstract. Suryani, Al Anshory AC, Marlin, Artika IM, Ambarsari L, Nurcholis W. 2022. Variability total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Curcuma zanthorrhiza and C. aeruginosa cultivated in three different locations in West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1998-2003. Curcuma zanthorrhiza Roxb. and C. aeruginosa Roxb. are medicinal plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, which contained phenolic compounds. Phenolic is one of the antioxidant compounds. This study aimed to investigate variation on the total phenolic and antioxidant activity of three C. zanthorrhiza varieties and twenty C. aeruginosa genotypes cultivated in three different locations in West Java, Indonesia. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, whereas antioxidant activity was used spectrophotometry using DPPH method. The total phenolic content ranged from 2.403 to 7.539 mg GAE/ g DW) differed significantly among the C. zanthorrhiza and C. aeruginosa varieties/genotypes, with the highest concentration found in the Cursina 3 variety of C. zanthorrhiza in Cianjur. The antioxidant activity ranged from 2.443 to 14.960 µmol TE/g DW, with the maximum activity identified in the Cursina 2 variety of C. zanthorrhiza in the Bogor location. G1, G6, G13, and G16 were identified as stable genotypes for phenolic antioxidant production. Three C. zanthorrhiza cultivars demonstrated higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than all C. aeruginosa genotypes in all planting areas. C. zanthorrhiza cultivars are the most promising source of phenolic content and antioxidant activity and are thus recommended for mass plantation at suitable locations in West Java, Indonesia to maximize potential.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230434
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Impact of soil fertilization on arthropod abundance and diversity on
           soybean agroecosystem

    • Authors: Rosma Hasibuan, Olivia Cindowarni, Jamalam Lumbanraja, Favorisen Rosyking Lumbanraja
      Abstract: Abstract. Hasibuan R, Cindowarni O, Lumbanraja J, Lumbanraja FR. 2022. Impact of soil fertilization on arthropod abundance and diversity on soybean agroecosystem. Biodiversitas 23: 1828-1835. Arthropods are biotic components that play an important role in the ecosystem. The field experiment consisting five fertilizer treatments: 100% NPK, 100% organic fertilizer, 100% NPK and 50% organic fertilizer, 50% NPK and 100% organic fertilizer, and no fertilizer was conducted to study the arthropod abundance and diversity in soybean agroecosystem. Pitfall traps were set up for collecting soil arthropods, while data for foliar arthropods were obtained by visual observation. During the study, the soybean agroecosystem was inhabited by 2756 arthropods that belong to 64 families. The results of arthropod community composition indicated that soil and foliar arthropods were most dominated by Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Predators were the most abundant in pitfall traps and herbivores with a visual inspection. Additionally, predators had the highest number of families. Soil fertilizer treatments had a significant impact on the abundance of foliar arthropods and soil arthropods. The highest numbers of foliar arthropods were found in soybean plants treated by inorganic fertilizer (NPK) either alone or in combination. However, soil arthropods were most abundant in soybean treated by organic fertilizer. The application of organic fertilizers to the soybean agroecosystem was able to increase the diversity of ground-dwelling arthropods and foliage-inhabiting arthropods across sampling periods.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230415
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Diversity of potassium solving microbes on andisol soil affected by the
           eruption of Mount Sinabung, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Authors: MARIANI SEMBIRING, T. SABRINA
      Abstract: Abstract. Sembiring M, Sabrina T. 2022. Diversity of potassium solving microbes on andisol soil affected by the eruption of Mount Sinabung, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1759-1764. Potassium (K) is one of the macronutrients needed by plants for seeds' growth, development, and quality. Andisols covered by volcanic ash from Mount Sinabung contain potassium ranging from 0.39-0.58 me/100g. The use of microbes is one of the alternatives methods to increase the availability of potassium in the soil that can be absorbed by plants. This study aimed to find environment-specific superior potassium-solvent microbes. Soil sampling was carried out in Kutarayat Village, Nama Teran Sub-district, Karo District, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The method used is random composite sampling by taking samples from 4 different locations. Sampling points were taken on Andisol soil that had been processed, covered with thin, medium, and thick ash. Sampling was carried out at a depth of 0-20 cm from the ground surface around the rhizosphere area. Isolation of bacteria and fungi was carried out by using multilevel dilutions. The microbes obtained after using the pour plate method were identified at molecular level by using PCR. Microbial potential test was carried out by using andisol soil which was incubated for 30 days. Parameters observed were soil pH, exchangeable potassium, soil organic carbon, and microbial population. 7 bacterial isolates and 3 potassium solubilizing fungi were isolated and identified during the present study. All bacterial and fungal isolates obtained were able to increase the availability of potassium soil exchange. The research results show that Talaromyces pinophilus can increase potassium soil exchange up to 102.94%.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230406
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Genetic diversity of Central Javanese duck (Indonesia) based on Inter
           Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    • Authors: R. SUSANTI, AGUSTIN DIAN KARTIKASARI, FITRI ARUM SASI, DYKEN DWI ARLINDA
      Abstract: Abstract. Susanti R, Kartikasari AD, Sasi FA, Arlinda DD. 2022. Genetic diversity of Central Javanese duck (Indonesia) based on Inter Simple Sequence Repeat markers. Biodiversitas 23: 1807-1813. Genetic resources of local livestock need to be documented and conserved to prevent genetic erosion of the germplasm. This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Central Java, Indonesia, based on Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. There were seven types of Central Javanese ducks used in this research. DNA was extracted from feathers samples. To give rise to ISSR profile of duck DNA, 5 different ISSR markers were used. Annealing temperature used in PCR was the result of the optimization. The ISSR-PCR results showed that all primers (100%) were polymorphic. From a total of five ISSR primers, resulted in 44 obvious bands in all duck samples, with 41 (91.78%) bands being polymorphic. The quantity of alleles was numerous from 7-14 polymorphic loci, the mean quantity of alleles according to locus was 8.8, and the average PIC score for the Central Javanese duck was 0.777. The relationship investigation showed that the Central Javanese local duck was clustered into two primary offshoots, one heading to Pengging duck breeds and another one consisting of all other Central Javanese local duck. The genetic diversity among Central Javanese local duck based on ISSR primer was high. The ISSR loci were polymorphic for Central Javanese duck and may be useful for study of genetic diversity and genome evolution of Central Javanese ducks in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230412
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Potential extracts of wedge sea hare (Dolabella auricularia) as
           immunostimulators in comet fish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected by
           Aeromonas hydrophila

    • Authors: Nurhalisa Nurhalisa, Indriyani Nur, Suryani Suryani
      Abstract: Abstract. Nurhalisa N, Nur I, Suryani S. 2022. Potential extracts of wedge sea hare (Dolabella auricularia) as immunostimulators in comet fish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Biodiversitas 23: 1884-1893. Microencapsulation is an innovative method to protect the active compound of pharmaceutical material from environmental impacts or unwanted conditions. This study aims to determine the active compound content and appropriate concentration of wedge sea hare extract (Dolabella auricularia) using the microencapsulation method to treat Aeromonas hydrophila bacterial which infected in comet fish (Carassius auratus auratus). The treatment consisted of three concentrations of D. auricularia extract (6.3, 7 and 7.7 g/kg feed) and commercial feed as a positive control in triplicates. C. a. auratus fed with experimental diets twice a day (8.00 a.m and 4.00 p.m) for 30 days of culture period before being challenged with an injection of A. hydrophila. Blood profile, weight gain, survival and relative survival of C. a. auratus were observed before and after the challenge test. The characteristics and types of active compounds in the extract were observed qualitatively, as well as the morphology and particle size distribution of the microcapsules. The results showed that D. auricularia extract contained phenol, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and saponins. The microcapsules in all treatments were a spherical shape. The average diameter was similar to all extract treatments. The addition of D. auricularia extract microcapsules in the feed produced significantly different results on the blood profile, weight gain and survival. The highest of total leukocytes, total erythrocytes, hematocrit and blood hemoglobin were obtained in addition to 7.7 g D. auricularia extract/kg of feed with respective values ''of 7.35±0.94×104 cell.mm-3, 2.83±0.03×106 cell.mm-3, 22.43±0.03% and 6.72±0.02 g.dL-1, respectively. The highest weight gain was found in fish-fed diets contained of 7.7 g of D. auricularia extract (3.37 g). The highest relative survival and survival were found in the treatment of 7 and 7.7 g extract/kg of feed, which was 100%. This study concluded that microencapsulated with D. auricularia extract at dose 7 g extract/kg of feed was the optimum dose for C. a. auratus infected with A. hydrophila.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230422
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Ecological role and potential extinction of Amorphophallus variabilis in
           Central Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: BAIQ FARHATUL WAHIDAH, NORMA AFIATI, JUMARI JUMARI
      Abstract: Abstract. Wahidah BF, Afiati N, Jumari. 2022. Ecological role and potential extinction of Amorphophallus variabilis in Central Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1765-1773. Amorphophallus variabilis Blume is a member of the genus Amorphophallus which is known as a wild plant that lives in forests, including Central Java, Indonesia. This plant has a high diversity but its existence is neglected and is rarely used by the community. This study aims to introduce A. variabilis through the inherent biological characteristics of the species, local the community’s knowledge, ecological functions and the threat of extinction. Data on biological characteristics covering morphological characters were obtained from field observations, while data on anatomy were obtained by making semi-permanent preparations using a modified Ruzin method. Data on community’s knowledge were obtained by conducting semi-structural interviews. The results showed that its morphological and ecological characters were very similar to other members of Amorphophallus, but with a very wide variety of patterns on the petiole. The anatomical structure of the leaf blade has a dorsiventral type consisting of several layers, namely a thin cuticle layer, flat upper epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, vascular tissue and lower epidermis. The tissue that composes the petiole consists of the epidermis, hypodermis, collenchyma supporting tissue, vascular bundles and secretory cells, while the tuber consists of periderm, cortex, vascular bundles, and pith tissue. This species has almost the same potential as Amorphophallus mueleri Blume which was previously known to have economic and medicinal values. However, the community’s knowledge about the A. variabialis is still poor, resulting in neglect of this species that possibly causes its extinction and may have an impact on the ecological balance.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230407
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Sustainability of ecological dimension in peatland
           management in The Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Landscape, Riau, Indonesia

    • Authors: ZULKARNAINI ZULKARNAINI, SUJIANTO SUJIANTO, WAWAN WAWAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Zulkarnaini, Sujianto, Wawan. 2022. Short Communication: Sustainability of ecological dimension in peatland management in The Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Landscape, Riau, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1822-1827. The Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu (GSKBB) in Riau Province, Indonesia, is assigned as a biosphere reserve due to its importance in terms of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision, particularly due to the existence of large tracts of peat swamp forest. However, GSKBB landscape is threatened by various anthropogenic activities of using peatland resources because such activities are often carried out in an exploitative and destructive manner. This study aims to analyze the sustainability of the ecological dimension in peatland management in the GSKBB landscape. Methodologically, the design of this research used a mixed approach by combining quantitative and qualitative methods to determine the sustainability of peatland management. Primary data was collected through field observations and in-depth interviews with key informants from the GSKBB Biosphere Reserve management board, local government, private companies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other local stakeholders. Computer programming RAPPEAT was used to analyze the sustainability index. The results of sustainability analysis of the ecological dimension of peatland management in the GSKBB landscape obtained a sustainability index of 46.5% or classified as less sustainable (<50). This value suggests that the condition of the peatland ecosystem is under pressure viewed from the ecological aspect. This is reinforced by the results of field observations which showed that the peatland ecosystem is experiencing damage and quality degradation such as land degradation, illegal logging, and land conversion. Leverage analysis obtained two attributes that are sensitive to the sustainability index of ecological dimension, namely land use (RMS = 3.84) and land conversion (RMS = 3.11). These two attributes indicate that the condition of the peatland ecosystem is strongly influenced by plantation activities in the area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230414
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Fish behavior based on the effect of variations in oceanographic condition
           variations in FADs Area of Bone Bay Waters, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: Arham Rumpa, Najamuddin, Safruddin, Muhammad Abduh Ibnu Hajar
      Abstract: Abstract. Rumpa A, Najamuddin, Safruddin, Hajar MAI. 2022. Fish behavior based on the effect of variations in oceanographic condition variations in FADs Area of Bone Bay Waters, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1875-1883. Fish behavior is the response of fish to conditions existing in their environment. One of the causes is oceanographic factors, which can affect the schooling movement of fish. This study aimed to identify the schooling behavior of fish based on the influence of oceanographic variations in the Fish Aggregating Device (FADs) area. Study took place from March to September 2021 in Bone Bay Waters, Indonesia. The type of research was experimental fishing with an acoustic approach for 57 times. Parameters observed were current velocity, current direction, and water temperature to the distance of schooling fish from FADs vertically and horizontally in the afternoon, evening, night, and early morning. The behavioral data of fish species were namely Decapterus russelli. The results showed namely the variation in current velocity affected the horizontal distance; variation in the direction of currents affected the horizontal distribution distance, while the water temperature affected the vertical schooling of fish. In the operation of fishing gear, especially in the early morning, in terms of the concentration pattern of schooling fish under FADs. The ideal current velocity was in the range of 0.2-0.29 [m s-1], while the ideal current direction is direct current was at the angle of 0°-60°. The schooling of fish approached to the surface and was concentrated under FADs at >30°C. Understanding on the distribution of horizontal and vertical movements and the time of concentration of fish schooling at the central point of FADs due to oceanographic variations will facilitate the effectiveness of fishing gear operation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230421
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Sustainability status of small-scale fisheries resources in Jakarta Bay,
           Indonesia after reclamation

    • Authors: Andi Muhammad Yuslim Patawari, ZUZY ANNA, PURNA HINDAYANI, YAYAT DHAHIYAT, ZAHIDAH HASAN, INTAN ADHI PERDANA PUTRI
      Abstract: Abstract. Patawari AMY, Anna Z, Hindayani P, Dhahiyat Y, Hasan Z, Putri IAP. 2022. Sustainability status of small-scale fisheries resources in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia after reclamation. Biodiversitas 23: 1715-1725. Reclamation in Jakarta Bay was initially implemented by constructing a giant 60 km long embankment in the area and 17 small islands in front of the coast of North Jakarta, but then it was stopped in 2018. After reclamation closures have affected fishery resources, especially small-scale ones that rely on catchment areas around the coastal waters of Jakarta Bay. To ensure the resource utilization level that meets the needs of the present and future generations, managing sustainably small-scale fish resources is crucial. This study aimed to analyze the sustainability status of small-scale fisheries in Jakarta Bay after reclamation. The results showed that efforts to manage small-scale fishery resources in the waters of Jakarta Bay-from the dimensions of fisheries, ecological, social, legal and institutional- are in unsustainable conditions. To improve the status, policy makers should consider 16 prioritized attributes on ecology, resource potential, economic, social, legal and institutional.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230401
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Species density and morphometric variation of species belonging to Conus
           (Gastropoda: Conidae) genera in the coastal waters of Ambon Island,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: LILIAN ANGRIANI TEBIARY, FREDY LEIWAKABESSY, DOMINGGUS RUMAHLATU
      Abstract: Abstract. Tebiary LA, Leiwakabessy F, Rumahlatu D. 2022. Species density and morphometric variation of species belonging to Conus (Gastropoda: Conidae) genera in the coastal waters of Ambon Island, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1664-1676. Genus Conus Linnaeus, 1758 belongs to the class Gastropods, order Neogastropoda, family Conidae, and its presence in marine ecosystem is influenced by multiple environmental factors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density and morphometric variations of Conus species in the coastal waters of Ambon Island, Indonesia. This study was carried out from March-April 2021 using the purposive sampling method. The environmental parameters: temperature, salinity, pH, and DO of seawater were measured in-situ, the Conus species were identified at the Central Marine Research Laboratory, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Ambon, Indonesia while the density data and morphometric variation were determined quantitatively. The results of environmental physico-chemical parameters showed varying values; temperatures ranged from 25.00-29.50oC, salinity 34.00-35.00‰, pH 6.00-7.53, and dissolved oxygen (DO) 4.00-8.00 mg/L. Meanwhile, 7 Conus species was recorded with the density ranging from C. ebraeus with 0.16-0.18 ind/m2, C. rattus, C. sponsalis, and C. lividus ranging from 0.13-0.11 ind/m2, C. monachus, C. muriculatus, and C. coronatus ranging from 0.10 ind/m2. The results of morphometric measurements including shell length (SL), width (SW), thickness (ST), spire height (SH), shell aperture length (SAL), and aperture width (SAW) showed varying values, while the regression analysis results showed that there was a varied relationship between environmental physicochemical parameters and morphometric variations in Conus species. Furthermore, the physico-chemical parameters such as temperature and DO provided the most effective contribution to all morphometric variables.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Stygobiotic isopod Stenasellus sp. in Sarongge Jompong cave, Tasikmalaya
           karst area, Indonesia

    • Authors: Isma Dwi Kurniawan, Cahyo Rahmadi, Rahmat Taufik Mustahiq Akbar, Tatag Bagus Putra Prakarsa
      Abstract: Abstract. Kurniawan ID, Rahmadi C, Akbar RTM, Prakarsa TBP. 2022. Stygobiotic isopod Stenasellus sp. in Sarongge Jompong cave, Tasikmalaya karst area, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1495-1504. Stenasellus, a stygobiotic isopod, was first reported in Tasikmalaya karst by local cavers in 2018 in Sarongge Jompong Cave. This study aimed to investigate the population, activities, and habitat characteristics of Stenasellus sp. in Sarongge Jompong, Tasikmalaya karst area, Indonesia. Population and activities were recorded through direct intuitive search. We measured several important physicochemical parameters to study habitat characteristics. Statistical analyses-namely Non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling and Detrended Correspondence Analysis-were conducted to understand the difference in water characteristics among microhabitats and the relation between water characteristics and population size. The results showed that the population was distributed in 4 microhabitats with the maximum observed individuals of 8. Several activities were successfully monitored, including crawling, resting, hiding in crevices, and moving to different locations through the water. All microhabitats were wet gours connected to small water currents located in the dark zone of the cave passage. Water characteristics of microhabitat site 1 were more similar to site 2 and the numbers of individuals in these sites were larger than sites 3 and 4. Among water parameters, resistivity showed the most robust relation with Stenasellus population in which both variables were positively correlated. This correlation indicated that Stenasellus sp. preferred microhabitats with less contamination. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors may potentially threaten the population. The potential threats and conservation challenges need to be identified and mitigated to reduce the risk of biodiversity loss to these isopods, mainly due to their small population size, specific microhabitat, and susceptibility to disturbance. Considering these factors, research on taxonomy will be essential for conservation efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Reproductive aspects of javaen barb fish, Systomus orphoides in the
           initial domestication program

    • Authors: Priyo Susatyo, Windiariani Lestari, Sugiharto, Titi Chasanah
      Abstract: Abstract. Susatyo P, Lestari W, Sugiharto, Chasanah T. 2022. Reproductive aspects of javaen barb fish, Systomus orphoides in the initial domestication program. Biodiversitas 23: 1511-1519. The population of Javaen barb, Systomus orphoides (Valenciennes, 1842) in the Serayu River Central Java has declined, and domestication is one of the most critical conservation initiatives. This research aimed to evaluate the reproductive aspect of javaen barb, Systomus orphoides in an initial domestication program. Furthermore, fish samples were collected from the Serayu River and reared in traditional ponds. The bred broodstocks were injected with artificial hormones before spawning, and several reproductive aspects were measured and analyzed descriptively according to the literature. Fish specimens had gonadosomatic indexes ranging from 11±0.3% to 16.2±0.9%. The values represented all phases of oogenesis and spermatogenesis in females and males. The reproductive hormone titer consisted of 854.85-1058.06 pg/mL of 17ß estradiol, 0.29-0.72 ng/mL of progesterone, 10.87-15.68 mIU/mL of follicle-stimulating hormone, and 4.18-9.92 ng/mL of testosterone. These findings demonstrated that the Serayu River's wild Javaen barb population reached all reproductive phases and that broodstocks can be domesticated in the traditional pond.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Screening of soil fungi as bioremediation fungicide and its effect on
           growth of potato plants

    • Authors: ABDUL LATIEF ABADI, FERY ABDUL CHOLIQ, MUTHIA OKTAVIANITA, NOVIA ARINATA, MOCHAMMAD SYAMSUL HADI, YOGO SETIAWAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Abadi AL, Choliq FA, Oktavianita M, Arinata N, Hadi MS, Setiawan Y. 2022. Screening of soil fungi as bioremediation fungicide and its effect on growth of potato plants. Biodiversitas 23: 1605-1610. The negative impact of using fungicides on the environment can lead to chemical residues in the soil. The chemical degradation process can be carried out in several ways, one of which is by biological means by using microbes such as soil fungi. This study aimed to evaluate soil fungi isolated from natural forests for bioremediation of Mancozeb fungicide commonly used in potato fields in Indonesia. Isolated soil fungi were identified based on morphological and molecular level (PCR). The inhibition assay was carried out by growing fungal isolates on PDA media containing a fungicide with an active ingredient of 80% Mancozeb. Trichoderma harzianum isolated as a soil fungus from natural forest could grow in the fungicide Mancozeb medium. The biodegradation assay showed that treatment of Trichoderma harzianum and Mancozeb fungicide did not inhibit the growth of potato plants (plant height, number of leaves, and root length) as compared to the control. Based on the results of degradation test using HPLC method, T. harzianum both isolates can reduce the residue of fungicide Mancozeb in soil during the vegetative growth period of potato plants.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Molecular identification and assessment of bacterial
           contamination of frozen local and imported meat and chicken in Basrah,
           Iraq using 16S rDNA gene

    • Authors: ANSAM JASIM MOHAMMAD, NASSIR ABDULLAH ALYOUSIF
      Abstract: Abstract. Mohammad AJ, Alyousif NA. 2022. Short Communication: Molecular identification and assessment of bacterial contamination of frozen local and imported meat and chicken in Basrah, Iraq using 16S rDNA gene. Biodiversitas 23: 1598-1604. Meat is the main food source of daily meals with highly beneficial effects on human health. It is susceptible to the growth and reproduction of various bacteria due to its composition, which leads to its spoilage, and being an important carrier of pathogenic bacteria. The study aimed to isolate and identify the bacteria contamination of frozen local and imported meat and chicken samples using 16S rDNA gene. Twenty meat samples were collected randomly from local and imported meat sold in markets of Basrah province, Iraq. The results showed that the total aerobic bacteria count was within acceptable limits in all samples. Fifty-seven bacterial isolates were isolated and identified by amplification and sequencing of 16S rDNA gene, where the gram-positive bacteria were the most abundant 34(59.6%), and S. pasteuri is the most common species in the samples with 14 (24%) bacterial isolates out of the total isolates. Fifteen isolates were identified as new strains and their sequences were deposited at GenBank (NCBI) under different accession numbers (MZ964582-MZ964596). The meat and chicken have many bacteria on their surface, therefore the products must be frozen, and sanitary precautions should be taken into consideration.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Estimation of genetic parameters and heterosis through line × tester
           crosses of national sorghum varieties and local Indonesian cultivars

    • Authors: Fathur Rachman, TRIKOESOEMANINGTYAS TRIKOESOEMANINGTYAS, DESTA WIRNAS, REFLINUR REFLINUR
      Abstract: Abstract. Rachman F, Trikoesoemaningtyas, Wirnas D, Reflinur. 2022. Estimation of genetic parameters and heterosis through line × tester crosses of national sorghum varieties and local Indonesian cultivars. Biodiversitas 23: 1588-1597. Diverse gene sources possessed by local sorghum cultivars are potentially useful for superior varieties development. This study aimed to determine the genetic parameters and heterosis of sorghum lines derived from national varieties and local cultivars crosses. A total of eight F1 hybrids derived from line × tester mating design with four lines (PI-150-20A, Soraya 3 IPB, Kawali, Bioguma 1 Agritan) and two testers (Pulut 3 and Pulut 5) were used in the present study. This experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Results showed that several agronomical important traits, such as plant height, leaf number, days to flowering, days to harvesting, panicle length, panicle diameter, and 1000-grain weight were significantly affected by additive gene action, while others by non-additive gene action. Based on field observation, three out of six parental lines showed the best performance of grain yields traits. Of these, Soraya 3 IPB × Pulut 5 and Bioguma 1 Agritan × Pulut 5 crosses were the best cross combination showing high values for both combining ability and heterosis parameters. These findings would help breeders to determine the selection methods for desirable traits and cross combinations to develop a new variety with high yield performance.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Short communication: ‘Crystal’ guava fruit quality in response to
           altitude variation of growing location

    • Authors: RADEN AJENG DIANA WIDYASTUTI, RAHMAT BUDIARTO, HAYANE ADELINE WARGANEGARA, PAUL BENYAMIN TIMOTIWU, INDAH LISTIANA, HELVI YANFIKA
      Abstract: Abstract. Widyastuti RAD, Budiarto R, Warganegara HA, Timotiwu PB, Listiana I, Yanfika H. 2022. Short Communication: ‘Crystal’ guava fruit quality in response to altitude variation of growing location. Biodiversitas 23: 1546-1552. ‘Crystal’ guava is a popular fruit with high demand due to its delicious taste and super nutritious content. This study aimed to analyze the fruit production and quality of ‘Crystal’ guava in response to different altitudes of growing location, i.e., highland and lowland in the tropics. Ten individual guava trees were maintained in a nested design by small-scale farmers in both lowland (Brajaselebah orchard, 25 m asl) and highland (Gunung Batu orchard, 1000 m asl). The result showed that the altitude of the growing location affected the plant production and fruit quality of ‘Crystal’ guava. Although there was no significant difference in vegetative and generative shoot numbers among the two growing locations, there was a tendency for a dominant generative shoot in highland. Lowland orchards produced a significantly heavier fruit compared to highland orchards. ‘Crystal’ guava tree was able to produce 41 to 46 fruits per tree with a total fruit production of about 8.69 to 9.21 kg per tree. The significantly lower incidence of fruit smoothness in lowland compared to highland was affected by a significantly higher incidence of fruit scars in the lowland. Guava fruit from the lowland had a significantly higher TSS, while fruit from the highland contained a significantly higher vitamin C than lowland.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Changes of nutritional composition of tempeh during fermentation with the
           addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    • Authors: SAMSUL RIZAL, MARIA ERNA KUSTYAWATI, A. S. SUHARYONO, VIRDA AULIA SUYARTO
      Abstract: Abstract. Rizal S, Kustyawati ME, Suharyono AS, Suyarto VA. 2022. Changes of nutritional composition of tempeh during fermentation with the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biodiversitas 23: 1553-1559. This study aimed to determine the effect of the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on changes in nutritional composition during tempeh fermentation. The study used a Completely Randomized Block Design with two treatments and two replications. The first treatment was the type of tempeh inoculum with 4 levels, namely 0.2% commercial inoculum (Raprima), 1% Rhizopus oligosporus inoculum, 1% S. cerevisiae inoculum, and a mixture of 1% R. oligosporus inoculum, and 1% S. cerevisiae inoculum. The second treatment was the length of fermentation with 4 levels, namely 0 hours, 15 hours, 30 hours, and 45 hours. Observation parameters include fat, protein, ash, moisture, carbohydrates, and '-glucan content during fermentation of tempeh. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using the Barlett and Tukey test then continued with the ANOVA test and the Orthogonal Polynomial-Orthogonal Comparison (OP-OC) test at the 5% level. The results showed that the addition of S. cerevisiae as an inoculum in making tempeh had an effect on changes in nutritional content during tempeh fermentation. The fat content, ash content, and moisture content of tempeh increased during fermentation, while the fat content and carbohydrate content decreased. The addition of 1% S. cerevisiae to tempeh fermentation by 1% R. oligosporus at 45 hours of fermentation resulted in the best nutritional content of tempeh with 17.40% protein content, 8.23% fat content, 65.74% moisture content, 1.33 ash content, 7.30% carbohydrate content, and 0.13% '-glucan content.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Revealing herpetofauna diversity at Brantas River, East Java Indonesia:
           Evidence of decreasing populations

    • Authors: Fatchur Rohman, Bagus Priambodo, Farid Akhsani, Sofia Ery Rahayu, Sansareeya Wangkulang, Maisuna Kundariati
      Abstract: Abstract. Rohman F, Priambodo B, Akhsani F, Rahayu SE, Wangkulang S, Kundariati M. 2022. Revealing herpetofauna diversity at Brantas River, East Java, Indonesia: Evidence of decreasing populations. Biodiversitas 23: 1475-1481. Conservation planning is very important to preserve nature and ecosystems. Based on this, exploration and species inventory in nature need to be carried out. Group of animals that have an important role in the environment is herpetofauna. This study aims to reveal the abundance, evenness, and richness of herpetofauna in Brantas River's streams connection. This study uses the Visual Encounter Surveys (VES) sampling method at 8 points located in Blitar, Tulungagung, Malang, Mojokerto, Kediri, and Batu City, East Java, Indonesia. The results showed that the diversity index (H') 1 < 2, 3959 < 3, with the criteria for the diversity index being moderate. The value of e is 0.74 > 0.6, which means high species uniformity. Specific richness has a value of 4.53 which means in the moderate category. There were 12 species of amphibians and 14 reptile species. Five species are of low-risk status with decreasing population in nature and two species is of vulnerable status. Species in the declining category are Odorrana hosii, Limnonectes microdiscus Wijayarana masonii, Leptobrachium hasseltii, and Philautus aurifasciatus. Species in the vulnerable category are Microhyla orientalis and Gonocephalus kuhlii. Species in the declining category require attention from conservation efforts because their presence is important in various aspects of the ecosystem, such as the food chain, bioindicators, and natural enemies.
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Diversity and carbon sequestration capacity of naturally growth vegetation
           in ex-nickel mining area in Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: DANANG WAHYU PURNOMO, LILIK BUDI PRASETYO, DIDIK WIDYATMOKO, SITI BADRIYAH RUSHAYATI, IKAR SUPRIYATNA, AKHMAD YANI
      Abstract: Abstract. Purnomo DW, Prasetyo LB, Widyatmoko D, Rushayati SB, Supriyatna I, Yani A. 2022. Diversity and carbon sequestration capacity of naturally growth vegetation in ex-nickel mining area in Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1433-1442. Efforts to restore forest integrity on ex-mining lands are essential to improve environmental quality and sequester carbon. One such effort is through revegetation of post-mined land including in ex-nickel mining in Southeast Sulawesi. This research analyzes the diversity of naturally regenerating plant species in the ex-nickel mining area in Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi and determines several local tree species with the potential for carbon sequestration. Vegetation survey was conducted using a systematic nested sampling method at the post-mined site with three vegetation types: secondary forest, shrubs and bushes, and a reference/control site (i.e., natural forest in the nearby Lamedai Nature Reserve). Different types of vegetation were analyzed based on factors using Discriminant Analysis. Vegetation composition was analyzed using the Importance Value Index. Furthermore, biodiversity indicators were analyzed using Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index, Species Evenness Index, and Sorensen Similarity Index. Carbon absorption was measured using the leaf sample method and carbohydrate test. The results showed that the condition of the research site had been disturbed, and the succession process was still ongoing. The species diversity at all plant levels was classified as moderate category and the distribution of the community was unstable. At the tree level, the undisturbed areas had higher diversity. Eradication of Chromolaena odorata was needed to preserve the native vegetation and accelerate forest succession. Tree species recommended for restoring the ex-nickel mining area and carbon sequestration as core plants include Vitex glabrata R.Br., Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.Don, Lithocarpus celebicus (Miq.) Rehder, Callicarpa pentandra Roxb., Dacryodes rugosa (Blume) H.J.Lam, Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson, Glochidion rubrum Blume, Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb., and Psychotria calocarpa Ruiz & Pav., and other pioneer plants of Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Müll.Arg., Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll.Arg., and Macaranga hispida (Blume) Müll.Arg.
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Molecular and morpho-physiological identification of yellow leaf curl
           disease of cucumber in Salatiga, Indonesia

    • Authors: THERESA D. KURNIA, AZIZ PURWANTORO, SRI SULANDARI, PANJISAKTI BASUNANDA, AGUS B. SETIAWAN, YENI FATMAWATI, IGNATIUS P. ANDIKA
      Abstract: Abstract. Kurnia TD, Purwantoro A, Sulandari S, Basunanda P, Setiawan AB, Fatmawati Y, Andika IP. 2022. Molecular and morpho-physiological identification of yellow leaf curl disease of cucumber in Salatiga, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1466-1474. Plant viruses are a limiting factor in Indonesian cucumber production. However, because numerous viruses generate identical symptoms on infected plants across cucumber cultivars, identify the virus discovered in the field. The management of virus diseases on plants is dependent on accurately identifying symptoms associated with certain viruses among cucumber cultivars and evaluating possible insect vectors. Because there have been several reports of infected viruses on cucumbers, generating resistant cultivars, identifying phenotypic and physiological disorders, and probable insect vectors are all important aspects of plant disease management. This study aimed to determine the virus and putative insect vectors of yellow leaf curl disease and its symptoms, including morphology and physiology disorders in cucumber cultivars. Common symptoms found included curling, yellow spots, malformed shapes, mortality from severely infested leaves, yellowing, and malformed cucumbers, with occurrences varying among cucumber cultivars. Curling and yellow spots were found on >70% samples of all tested cultivars. Virus infection affected agronomic features and fruit characteristics differently depending on cucumber cultivars. Molecular detection confirmed that polerovirus infected plants and insects tested also carried the Polerovirus. This study provides initial information on monitoring various infection stages of yellow curling disease and potential insect vectors of this disease that will later be useful to synthesize effective management practice in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Molecular identification of Eurycoma longifolia Jack from Sumatra,
           Indonesia using trnL-F region

    • Authors: KUSUMADEWI SRI YULITA, ARIDA SUSILOWATI, HENTI HENDALASTUTI RACHMAT, SUSILA SUSILA, ASEP HIDAYAT, FIFI GUS DWIYANTI
      Abstract: Abstract. Yulita KS, Susilowati A, Rachmat HH, Susila, Hidayat A, Dwiyanti FG. 2022. Molecular identification of Eurycoma longifolia Jack from Sumatra, Indonesia using trnL-F region. Biodiversitas 23: 1374-1382. Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Simaroubaceae) or pasak bumi is a popular medicinal plant from Southeast Asia’s rainforests that is used as an aphrodisiac, antimicrobial, anti-malaria antidiabetic, antiulcer, and anticancer agent. However, the increasing demand for this species for medicinal industries has led to illegal export in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the specific genetic variation and develop DNA barcode using trnL-Fregion for E. longifolia originating from Sumatra, Indonesia. Twenty-two samples of the species were collected from four locations in Sumatra. An aligned sequence of the trnL-Fwas 960 bp with an A/T rich region (A: 30.2%, T: 34.5%, C: 16.7%, and G: 18.7%). The homology search using BLASTn of the GenBank NCBI showed that the nucleotide composition of the species was similar (99.9%) to the partial trnL-Fregion of E. longifolia MH751519 and E. apiculata GU593014. Close examination of the gene structure and composition showed that the DNA sequences have five nucleotides variations that were not possessed by the reference E. longifolia, and other taxa used. The obtained variations occurred mostly in the trnL intron region, and the phylogenetic analysis showed that the correct identity of the species of the samples by their position was at a similar clade as the other accessions of E. longifolia.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Spatial distribution of mangrove vegetation species, salinity, and mud
           thickness in mangrove forest in Pangarengan, Cirebon, Indonesia

    • Authors: RIS HADI PURWANTO, BUDI MULYANA, RYAN ADI SATRIA, EMAD HASSAN ELAWAD YASIN, ILHAM SATRIA RADITYA PUTRA, AGIK DWIKA PUTRA
      Abstract: Abstract. Purwanto RH, Mulyana B, Satria RA, Yasin EHE, Putra ISR, Putra AD. 2022. Spatial distribution of mangrove vegetation species, salinity, and mud thickness in mangrove forest in Pangarengan, Cirebon, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1384-1392. The mangrove rehabilitation programs in the northern coastline of West Java showed varying levels of success due to the lack of information on habitat suitability and species distribution. This research aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of mangrove vegetation species, salinity, and mud thickness in Pangarengan mangrove forest, Cirebon, Indonesia. Data on mangrove vegetation, salinity, and mud thickness were collected from 78 randomly distributed sample plots. Species composition was analyzed using important value index, and spatial distribution was examined using QGIS. Results revealed that Rhizophora mucronata was the most dominant and widely distributed species in all areas of Pangarengan mangrove forest with the important value index (IVI) for seedlings, saplings, poles, and trees were 178.69%, 219.71%, 242.21%, and 167.56%, respectively. Avicennia marina showed significant IVI in saplings (59.41%) and trees (105.21%). Other species had an IVI of less than 20% for each growth stage. Salinity ranged from 0-28 ppt and gradually decreased from the shoreline to settlement areas. Mud thickness ranged from 55 to 175 cm but with no regular pattern observed. In conclusion, the Pangarengan mangrove forest was dominated by R. mucronata. Our findings suggest that to enhance the likelihood of success in mangrove rehabilitation programs, R. mucronata might be a good choice, but to increase the species diversity other species might need to be planted by applying specific treatments, such as a vertical aquaponic system.
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Short Communication: Preharvest drought stress varies grain physical
           characteristics, milling percentage, and nutritional quality of two
           Job’s tears varieties

    • Authors: FIKY YULIANTO WICAKSONO, TRI WAHYU SUGANDA, RUMINTA RUMINTA, UMA RANI SINNIAH, YUYUN YUWARIAH, TATI NURMALA
      Abstract: Abstract. Wicaksono FY, Suganda TW, Wuminta, Sinniah UR, Yuwariah Y, Nurmala T. 2022. Short Communication: Preharvest drought stress varies grain physical characteristics, milling percentage, and nutritional quality of two Job’s tears varieties. Biodiversitas 23: 1443-1448. Preharvest drought stress is one of the limiting factors that may affect the quality of the harvested yield. This study aimed to evaluate the grain physical characteristics, milling percentage, and nutritional quality of two varieties of Job’s tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) in response to preharvest drought stress. Two varieties of Job’s tears were used in the present study, namely ma-yuen (cultivar Watani Wado)and stenocarpa (cultivar Watani Kiara Payung) at Ciparanje research station (6.9164° S, 107.7717° E) from July 2018 (dry season) to January 2019 (rainy season). A water-sufficient condition was achieved by irrigating the plant once a day, while a water-deficient condition was formed by the irrigation every 3 days using a sprinkler system. The results showed that preharvest drought stress caused a significant reduction of seed size in both varieties. However, the stenocarpa was the only one with a significant reduction in milling yield due to its long seed length. In terms of nutritional quality, ma-yuen showed no significant response to preharvest drought, while stenocarpa showeda significant gain in protein and calcium. This finding opened the high potential of stenocarpa variety to be used both as an ornament, just like recent usage, and also functional food.
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Feeding ecology of Neoarius leptaspis in the Rawa Biru Lake, Merauke,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: Dwi Nugroho Wibowo, SITI RUKAYAH, NUR LAILA RAHAYU, NORCE MOTE
      Abstract: Abstract. Wibowo DN, Rukayah S, Wahayu NL, Mote N. 2022. Feeding ecology of Neoarius leptaspis in the Rawa Biru Lake, Merauke, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 1327-1335. A few studies have been carried out on Neoarius leptaspis (Bleeker, 1862), however, its feeding ecology was not examined, especially for the sample from Rawa Biru Lake, Merauke, Papua, Indonesia. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the feeding ecology of N. leptaspis at 8 sampling sites in the lake, which were sampled in the morning and evening. The parameters observed were natural food diversity, mouth width ratio, intestine length ratio, stomach fullness and content, preponderance index, and electivity index. The result showed that 25 plankton species were observed in the waters. Neoarius leptaspis has a mouth width ratio of approximately 75% of head width. The full stomach was observed in the samples collected in the evening, where the diets were dominated by animal materials as indicated by the indexes of preponderance and electivity. The mouth width ratio, feeding periodicity, intestine length, and dominant diets were similar to the previous reports on the same species from other regions. This showed that N. leptaspis is a predatory fish species based on the feeding ecology data, which provides essential information for fisheries and conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Assessing the relationship between biodiversity conservation and slow food
           culture in selected protected areas in Albania

    • Authors: Spase Shumka, ENKELEDA BERBERI, MANJOLA KULICI, SUADA MUÇAJ, FLORJAN VLADI
      Abstract: Abstract. Shumka S, Berberi E, Kulici M, Muçaj S, Vladi F. 2022. Assessing the relationship between biodiversity conservation and slow food culture in selected protected areas in Albania. Biodiversitas 23: 1319-1326. Information on the knowledge, uses, and abundance of natural resources in protected areas can provide insight into conservation status and strategies in these locations and human attitudes. The slow-food concept is introduced to accommodate agriculture and food production with strong consideration on environment sustainability, biodiversity conservation and social justice. This paper investigates the slow food knowledge, perception, and contribution to nature conservation in Albania's five protected areas. The performed work is based on a field survey and structured questionnaire aiming to link the current stands within slow food, biodiversity conservation and perceptions of the tourism sector in the protected areas. Our integrated analysis found that the coverage of food biodiversity items related to slow food culture that are relevant to prescribed management plans of the protected areas was at the low level from 4-9 out of 17 considered categories. This was directly related to the low level of conservation at the mid-term assessment that varied from 0 to 62% of originally planned ones. The data also confirmed that the visitors were imposed to a situation of readiness for paying extra for the consumption of the locally based product (i.e., in line with slow food concept) within a specific protected area with their response ranging from 0 to 18%. The information can be used towards generating sustainable use and conservation plans that are appropriate for the local communities and protected areas.
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Increasing the diversity of marigold (Tagetes sp.) by acute and chronic
           chemical induced mutation of EMS (Ethyl Methane Sulfonate)

    • Authors: DEWI YANNY LENAWATY, DEWI SUKMA, MUHAMAD SYUKUR, DEWA NGURAH SUPRAPTA, WARAS NURCHOLIS, SYARIFAH IIS AISYAH
      Abstract: Abstract. Lenawaty DY, Sukma D, Syukur M, Suprapta DN, Nurcholis W, Aisyah SI. 2022. Increasing the diversity of marigold (Tagetes sp.) by acute and chronic chemical induced mutation of EMS (Ethyl Methane Sulfonate). Biodiversitas 23: 1399-1407. Increasing the diversity of marigold (Tagetes sp.) can be carried out through chemical induction mutations with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS).This study aims to obtain the LC50value, determine the sensitivity level of plants, and obtain plant diversity of Tagetes sp.with EMS both acutely and chronically. The genetic material used in this study was derived from T. erecta genotype MG04 and T. patula genotype MG21. The acute mutation technique was performed by soaking the seeds in EMS concentration for 4 hours under 10 different concentration levels (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 3.0%). The chronic mutation technique was carried out by diluting the concentration of EMS LC501/10x, 1/100x, 1/1000x and immersion time of 6 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The study used a Completely Randomized Block Design. Observationswere made on the percentage of surviving plants, quantitative and qualitative characters. The data obtained were analyzed using Boxplot and ANOVA. The results showed that the LC50 value of T. erecta is 0.82% and LC50of T. patula is 1.87%, which means that the sensitivity level of T. erecta to EMS treatment is quite higher than T. patula. The acute application method shows a relatively low mutation rate and limited diversity of flower types. The chronic application method produced various flower shapes and whiter flower color in T. erectaand T. patula resulting in a redder flower color than the acute application method.
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Whole-genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis G8 isolated from natto

    • Authors: DIKSON DIKSON, HANS VICTOR, DELVIN JONG, ASTIA SANJAYA, ARIELA SAMANTHA, JUANDY JO, REINHARD PINONTOAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Dikson, Victor H, Jong D, Sanjaya A, Samantha A, Jo J, Pinontoan R. 2022. Whole-genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis G8 isolated from natto. Biodiversitas 23: 1293-1300. Bacillus subtilis-fermented soy-based food is associated with multiple health benefits. Various bacterial strains have been isolated from it, includingB. subtilisG8, recent isolation from Japanese natto commercially available in Indonesia. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fibrinolytic activity characterization have been performed and published in prior studies. After comparison to the genome of a natto-isolated reference strain (i.e., B. subtilisBEST195), the B. subtilis G8 genome showed a similar guanine-cytosine (GC) content, predicted number of coding sequences (CDS) and predicted number of tRNA genes, but had a shorter sequence length and fewer predicted rRNA genes. Further analysis using multiple genome alignment with Mauve, average nucleotide identity (ANI) matrix calculation, and phylogenetic inference indicated that B. subtilis G8 was more related to natto-derived B. subtilis than to cheonggukjang-derived B. subtilis and B. subtilis 168. Finally, sequence analyses of a gene encoding nattokinase as well as two genes regulating poly-gamma-glutamic acid ('-PGA) production in B. subtilis G8, B. subtilis BEST195 and B. subtilis 168 clearly indicated that B. subtilis G8 is able to produce nattokinase and '-PGA, which both contribute to natto’s fermentation process. Therefore, it is proposed that B. subtilis G8 should be reclassified as B. subtilis subsp. natto G8 to reflect that it is a natto-derived B. subtilis strain.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
       
 
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