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Showing 1401 - 1600 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
The Condor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
The Enzymes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The FASEB Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
The Herpetological Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Journal of Technology Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
The Knee     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
The Lancet Microbe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Lichenologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Nucleus     Hybrid Journal  
The Plant Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
The Protein Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical Population Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Therya     Open Access  
Tissue and Cell     Hybrid Journal  
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Tissue Engineering Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Traffic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Transcription     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transgenic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Transportation Planning and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tree Genetics & Genomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Trends in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141)
Trends in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Trends in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Trends in Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Trends in Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Tropical Drylands     Open Access  
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Freshwater Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology     Open Access  
Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
UNM Journal of Biological Education     Open Access  
Unnes Journal of Biology Education     Open Access  
Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Cell     Open Access  
Vegetation Classification and Survey     Open Access  
Victorian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
View     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Virchows Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Virologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal  
Virology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Virulence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Virus Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Virus Genes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Virus Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, medicine     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Water Biology and Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Webbia : Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography     Hybrid Journal  
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Western Undergraduate Research Journal : Health and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Wildlife Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - System Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Developmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Membrane Transport and Signaling     Hybrid Journal  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : RNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Xenobiotica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Yeast     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zebrafish     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Zitteliana     Open Access  
Zygote     Hybrid Journal  

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Virus Evolution
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2057-1577
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • Determinants of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to guide vaccination strategy in
           an urban area

    • Authors: Brüningk S; Klatt J, Stange M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractTransmission chains within small urban areas (accommodating ∼30 per cent of the European population) greatly contribute to case burden and economic impact during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic and should be a focus for preventive measures to achieve containment. Here, at very high spatio-temporal resolution, we analysed determinants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in a European urban area, Basel-City (Switzerland). We combined detailed epidemiological, intra-city mobility and socio-economic data sets with whole-genome sequencing during the first SARS-CoV-2 wave. For this, we succeeded in sequencing 44 per cent of all reported cases from Basel-City and performed phylogenetic clustering and compartmental modelling based on the dominating viral variant (B.1-C15324T; 60 per cent of cases) to identify drivers and patterns of transmission. Based on these results we simulated vaccination scenarios and corresponding healthcare system burden (intensive care unit (ICU) occupancy). Transmissions were driven by socio-economically weaker and highly mobile population groups with mostly cryptic transmissions which lacked genetic and identifiable epidemiological links. Amongst more senior population transmission was clustered. Simulated vaccination scenarios assuming 60–90 per cent transmission reduction and 70–90 per cent reduction of severe cases showed that prioritising mobile, socio-economically weaker populations for vaccination would effectively reduce case numbers. However, long-term ICU occupation would also be effectively reduced if senior population groups were prioritised, provided there were no changes in testing and prevention strategies. Reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission through vaccination strongly depends on the efficacy of the deployed vaccine. A combined strategy of protecting risk groups by extensive testing coupled with vaccination of the drivers of transmission (i.e. highly mobile groups) would be most effective at reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 within an urban area.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • ANI analysis of poxvirus genomes reveals its potential application to
           viral species rank demarcation

    • Authors: Deng Z; Xia X, Deng Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAverage nucleotide identity (ANI) is a prominent approach for rapidly classifying archaea and bacteria by recruiting both whole genomic sequences and draft assemblies. To evaluate the feasibility of ANI in virus taxon demarcation, 685 poxviruses were assessed. Prior to the analysis, the fragment length and threshold of the ANI value were optimized as 200 bp and 98 per cent, respectively. After ANI analysis and network visualization, the resulting sixty-one species (ANI species rank) were clustered and largely consistent with the groupings found in National Center for Biotechnology Information Virus [within the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Master Species List]. The species identities of thirty-four other poxviruses (excluded by the ICTV Master Species List) were also identified. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis and Guanine-Cytosine (GC) content comparison done were found to support the ANI analysis. Finally, the BLAST identity of concatenated sequences from previously identified core genes showed 91.8 per cent congruence with ANI analysis at the species rank, thus showing potential as a marker gene for poxviruses classification. Collectively, our results reveal that the ANI analysis may serve as a novel and efficient method for poxviruses demarcation.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac031
  • Defining virus-carrier networks that shape the composition of the mosquito
           core virome of a local ecosystem

    • Authors: Konstantinidis K; Dovrolis N, Kouvela A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMosquitoes are the most important vectors of emerging infectious diseases. During the past decade, our understanding of the diversity of viruses they carry has greatly expanded. Most of these viruses are considered mosquito-specific, but there is increasing evidence that these viruses may affect the vector competence of mosquitoes. Metagenomics approaches have focused on specific mosquito species for the identification of what is called the core virome. Despite the fact that, in most ecosystems, multiple species may participate in virus emergence and circulation, there is a lack of understanding of the virus-carrier/host network for both vector-borne and mosquito-specific viruses. Here, we studied the core virome of mosquitoes in a diverse local ecosystem that had 24 different mosquito species. The analysis of the viromes of these 24 mosquito species resulted in the identification of 34 viruses, which included 15 novel viruses, as determined according to the species demarcation criteria of the respective virus families. Most of the mosquito species had never been analysed previously, and a comparison of the individual viromes of the 24 mosquito species revealed novel relationships among mosquito species and virus families. Groups of related viruses and mosquito species from multiple genera formed a complex web in the local ecosystem. Furthermore, analyses of the virome of mixed-species pools of mosquitoes from representative traps of the local ecosystem showed almost complete overlap with the individual-species viromes identified in the study. Quantitative analysis of viruses’ relative abundance revealed a linear relationship to the abundance of the respective carrier/host mosquito species, supporting the theory of a stable core virome in the most abundant species of the local ecosystem. Finally, our study highlights the importance of using a holistic approach to investigating mosquito viromes relationships in rich and diverse ecosystems.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac036
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus incursions of subtype H5N8, H5N5,
           H5N1, H5N4, and H5N3 in Germany during 2020-21

    • Authors: King J; Harder T, Globig A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractFrom October 2020 to July 2021, five different subtypes (H5N8, H5N5, H5N1, H5N4, and H5N3) and seven genotypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) belonging to clade were detected in a broad array of avian hosts in Germany. Initial incursion by wild birds with an unprecedented involvement of charadriiforme species at the Wadden Sea coast only carrying subtype H5N3, lateral spread between poultry with detection of novel reassortants and mixed infections in poultry holdings, suspected spillback of HPAIV from poultry to wild birds, and detection of HPAIV-infected wild birds during the following summer in 2021 were hallmarks of this epizootic. Local reassortment events with low pathogenic AIV strains were detected by phylogenetic analyses, with a dominating HP H5N8 and later HP H5N1 strain responsible for most cases. In addition, the first-ever described HPAIV strain of subtype H5N4 could be genetically characterized.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac035
  • Molecular epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 in Japan, 2020–1

    • Authors: Ode H; Nakata Y, Nagashima M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThere were five epidemic waves of coronavirus disease 2019 in Japan between 2020 and 2021. It remains unclear how the domestic waves arose and abated. To better understand this, we analyzed the pangenomic sequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and characterized the molecular epidemiological features of the five epidemic waves in Japan. In this study, we performed deep sequencing to determine the pangenomic SARS-CoV-2 sequences of 1,286 samples collected in two cities far from each other, Tokyo Metropolis and Nagoya. Then, the spatiotemporal genetic changes of the obtained sequences were compared with the sequences available in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) database. A total of 873 genotypes carrying different sets of mutations were identified in the five epidemic waves. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that sharp displacements of lineages and genotypes occurred between consecutive waves over the 2 years. In addition, a wide variety of genotypes were observed in the early half of each wave, whereas a few genotypes were detected across Japan during an entire wave. Phylogenetically, putative descendant genotypes observed late in each wave displayed regional clustering and evolution in Japan. The genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 displayed uneven dynamics during each epidemic wave in Japan. Our findings provide an important molecular epidemiological basis to aid in controlling future SARS-CoV-2 epidemics.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac034
  • Human land use impacts viral diversity and abundance in a New Zealand

    • Authors: French R; Charon J, Lay C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAlthough water-borne viruses have important implications for the health of humans and other animals, little is known about the impact of human land use on viral diversity and evolution in water systems such as rivers. We used metatranscriptomic sequencing to compare the diversity and abundance of viruses at sampling sites along a single river in New Zealand that differed in human land-use impacts, ranging from pristine to urban. From this, we identified 504 putative virus species, of which 97 per cent were novel. Many of the novel viruses were highly divergent and likely included a new subfamily within the Parvoviridae. We identified at least sixty-three virus species that may infect vertebrates—most likely fish and water birds—from the Astroviridae, Birnaviridae, Parvoviridae, and Picornaviridae. No putative human viruses were detected. Importantly, we observed differences in the composition of viral communities at sites impacted by human land use (farming and urban) compared to native forest sites (pristine). At the viral species level, the urban sites had higher diversity (327 virus species) than the farming (n = 150) and pristine sites (n = 119), and more viruses were shared between the urban and farming sites (n = 76) than between the pristine and farming or urban sites (n = 24). The two farming sites had a lower viral abundance across all host types, while the pristine sites had a higher abundance of viruses associated with animals, plants, and fungi. We also identified viruses linked to agriculture and human impact at the river sampling sites in farming and urban areas that were not present at the native forest sites. Although based on a small sample size, our study suggests that human land use can impact viral communities in rivers, such that further work is needed to reduce the impact of intensive farming and urbanisation on water systems.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac032
  • Evolutionary analyses of emerging GII.2[P16] and GII.4 Sydney [P16]

    • Authors: Zheng G; Zhu Z, Cui J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractGII.2[P16] and GII.4 Sydney [P16] are currently the two predominant norovirus genotypes. This study sought to clarify their evolutionary patterns by analyzing the major capsid VP1 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes. Sequence diversities were analyzed at both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Selective pressures were evaluated with the Hyphy package in different models. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood method from full VP1 sequences, and evolutionary rates were estimated by the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. The results showed that (1) several groups of tightly linked mutations between the RdRp and VP1 genes were detected in the GII.2[P16] and GII.4[P16] noroviruses, and most of these mutations were synonymous, which may lead to a better viral fitness to the host; (2) although the pattern of having new GII.4 variants every 2–4 years has been broken, both the pre- and the post-2015 Sydney VP1 had comparable evolutionary rates to previously epidemic GII.4 variants, and half of the major antigenic sites on GII.4 Sydney had residue substitutions and several caused obvious changes in the carbohydrate-binding surface that may potentially alter the property of the virus; and (3) GII.4 Sydney variants during 2018–21 showed geographical specificity in East Asia, South Asia, and North America; the antigenic sites of GII.2 are strictly conserved, but the GII.2 VP1 chronologically evolved into nine different sublineages over time, with sublineage IX being the most prevalent one since 2018. This study suggested that both VP1 and RdRp of the GII.2[P16] and GII.4 Sydney [P16] noroviruses exhibited different evolutionary directions. GII.4[P16] is likely to generate potential novel epidemic variants by accumulating mutations in the P2 domain, similar to previously epidemic GII.4 variants, while GII.2[P16] has conserved predicted antigenicity and may evolve by changing the properties of nonstructural proteins, such as polymerase replicational fidelity and efficiency. This study expands the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of GII.2[P16] and GII.4[P16] noroviruses and may predict the emergence of new variants.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac030
  • Genome-wide diversity of Zika virus: Exploring spatio-temporal dynamics to
           guide a new nomenclature proposal

    • Authors: Seabra S; Libin P, Theys K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe Zika virus (ZIKV) disease caused a public health emergency of international concern that started in February 2016. The overall number of ZIKV-related cases increased until November 2016, after which it declined sharply. While the evaluation of the potential risk and impact of future arbovirus epidemics remains challenging, intensified surveillance efforts along with a scale-up of ZIKV whole-genome sequencing provide an opportunity to understand the patterns of genetic diversity, evolution, and spread of ZIKV. However, a classification system that reflects the true extent of ZIKV genetic variation is lacking. Our objective was to characterize ZIKV genetic diversity and phylodynamics, identify genomic footprints of differentiation patterns, and propose a dynamic classification system that reflects its divergence levels. We analysed a curated dataset of 762 publicly available sequences spanning the full-length coding region of ZIKV from across its geographical span and collected between 1947 and 2021. The definition of genetic groups was based on comprehensive evolutionary dynamics analyses, which included recombination and phylogenetic analyses, within- and between-group pairwise genetic distances comparison, detection of selective pressure, and clustering analyses. Evidence for potential recombination events was detected in a few sequences. However, we argue that these events are likely due to sequencing errors as proposed in previous studies. There was evidence of strong purifying selection, widespread across the genome, as also detected for other arboviruses. A total of 50 sites showed evidence of positive selection, and for a few of these sites, there was amino acid (AA) differentiation between genetic clusters. Two main genetic clusters were defined, ZA and ZB, which correspond to the already characterized ‘African’ and ‘Asian’ genotypes, respectively. Within ZB, two subgroups, ZB.1 and ZB.2, represent the Asiatic and the American (and Oceania) lineages, respectively. ZB.1 is further subdivided into ZB.1.0 (a basal Malaysia sequence sampled in the 1960s and a recent Indian sequence), ZB.1.1 (South-Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, and Micronesia sequences), and ZB.1.2 (very similar sequences from the outbreak in Singapore). ZB.2 is subdivided into ZB.2.0 (basal American sequences and the sequences from French Polynesia, the putative origin of South America introduction), ZB.2.1 (Central America), and ZB.2.2 (Caribbean and North America). This classification system does not use geographical references and is flexible to accommodate potential future lineages. It will be a helpful tool for studies that involve analyses of ZIKV genomic variation and its association with pathogenicity and serve as a starting point for the public health surveillance and response to on-going and future epidemics and to outbreaks that lead to the emergence of new variants.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac029
  • Large-scale analysis of SARS-CoV-2 synonymous mutations reveals the
           adaptation to the human codon usage during the virus evolution

    • Authors: Ramazzotti D; Angaroni F, Maspero D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMany large national and transnational studies have been dedicated to the analysis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome, most of which focused on missense and nonsense mutations. However, approximately 30 per cent of the SARS-CoV-2 variants are synonymous, therefore changing the target codon without affecting the corresponding protein sequence.By performing a large-scale analysis of sequencing data generated from almost 400,000 SARS-CoV-2 samples, we show that silent mutations increasing the similarity of viral codons to the human ones tend to fixate in the viral genome overtime. This indicates that SARS-CoV-2 codon usage is adapting to the human host, likely improving its effectiveness in using the human aminoacyl-tRNA set through the accumulation of deceitfully neutral silent mutations.One-Sentence Summary. Synonymous SARS-CoV-2 mutations related to the activity of different mutational processes may positively impact viral evolution by increasing its adaptation to the human codon usage.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac026
  • The early SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Senegal was driven by the local emergence
           of B.1.416 and the introduction of B.1.1.420 from Europe

    • Authors: Perez L; Orf G, Berg M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMolecular surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is growing in west Africa, especially in the Republic of Senegal. Here, we present a molecular epidemiology study of the early waves of SARS-CoV-2 infections in this country based on Bayesian phylogeographic approaches. Whereas the first wave in mid-2020 was characterized by a significant diversification of lineages and predominance of B.1.416, the second wave in late 2020 was composed primarily of B.1.1.420. Our results indicate that B.1.416 originated in Senegal and was exported mainly to Europe. In contrast, B.1.1.420 was introduced from Italy, gained fitness in Senegal, and then spread worldwide. Since both B.1.416 and B.1.1.420 lineages carry several positive selected mutations in the spike and nucleocapsid genes, each of which may explain their local dominance, their mutation profiles should be carefully monitored. As the pandemic continues to evolve, molecular surveillance in all regions of Africa will play a key role in stemming its spread.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac025
  • Replacement of the Gamma by the Delta variant in Brazil: Impact of lineage
           displacement on the ongoing pandemic

    • Authors: Giovanetti M; Fonseca V, Wilkinson E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Brazil was driven mainly by the spread of Gamma (P.1), a locally emerged variant of concern (VOC) that was first detected in early January 2021. This variant was estimated to be responsible for more than 96 per cent of cases reported between January and June 2021, being associated with increased transmissibility and disease severity, a reduction in neutralization antibodies and effectiveness of treatments or vaccines, and diagnostic detection failure. Here we show that, following several importations predominantly from the USA, the Delta variant rapidly replaced Gamma after July 2021. However, in contrast to what was seen in other countries, the rapid spread of Delta did not lead to a large increase in the number of cases and deaths reported in Brazil. We suggest that this was likely due to the relatively successful early vaccination campaign coupled with natural immunity acquired following prior infection with Gamma. Our data reinforce reports of the increased transmissibility of the Delta variant and, considering the increasing concern due to the recently identified Omicron variant, argues for the necessity to strengthen genomic monitoring on a national level to quickly detect the emergence and spread of other VOCs that might threaten global health.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac024
  • Exploring a prolonged enterovirus C104 infection in a severely ill patient
           using nanopore sequencing

    • Authors: Cassidy H; Schuele L, Lizarazo-Forero E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractChronic enterovirus infections can cause significant morbidity, particularly in immunocompromised patients. This study describes a fatal case associated with a chronic untypeable enterovirus infection in an immunocompromised patient admitted to a Dutch university hospital over nine months. We aimed to identify the enterovirus genotype responsible for the infection and to determine potential evolutionary changes. Long-read sequencing was performed using viral targeted sequence capture on four respiratory and one faecal sample. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood method, along with a root-to-tip regression and time-scaled phylogenetic analysis to estimate evolutionary changes between sample dates. Intra-host variant detection, using a Fixed Ploidy algorithm, and selection pressure, using a Fixed Effect Likelihood and a Mixed Effects Model of Evolution, were also used to explore the patient samples. Near-complete genomes of enterovirus C104 (EV-C104) were recovered in all respiratory samples but not in the faecal sample. The recovered genomes clustered with a recently reported EV-C104 from Belgium in August 2018. Phylodynamic analysis including ten available EV-C104 genomes, along with the patient sequences, estimated the most recent common ancestor to occur in the middle of 2005 with an overall estimated evolution rate of 2.97 × 10−3 substitutions per year. Although positive selection pressure was identified in the EV-C104 reference sequences, the genomes recovered from the patient samples alone showed an overall negative selection pressure in multiple codon sites along the genome. A chronic infection resulting in respiratory failure from a relatively rare enterovirus was observed in a transplant recipient. We observed an increase in single-nucleotide variations between sample dates from a rapidly declining patient, suggesting mutations are weakly deleterious and have not been purged during selection. This is further supported by the persistence of EV-C104 in the patient, despite the clearance of other viral infections. Next-generation sequencing with viral enrichment could be used to detect and characterise challenging samples when conventional workflows are insufficient.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veab109
  • Tracking SARS-CoV-2 mutations and variants through the COG-UK-Mutation

    • Authors: Wright D; Harvey W, Hughes J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractCOG-UK Mutation Explorer (COG-UK-ME,—last accessed date 16 March 2022) is a web resource that displays knowledge and analyses on SARS-CoV-2 virus genome mutations and variants circulating in the UK, with a focus on the observed amino acid replacements that have an antigenic role in the context of the human humoral and cellular immune response. This analysis is based on more than 2 million genome sequences (as of March 2022) for UK SARS-CoV-2 data held in the CLIMB-COVID centralised data environment. COG-UK-ME curates these data and displays analyses that are cross-referenced to experimental data collated from the primary literature. The aim is to track mutations of immunological importance that are accumulating in current variants of concern and variants of interest that could alter the neutralising activity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), convalescent sera, and vaccines. Changes in epitopes recognised by T cells, including those where reduced T cell binding has been demonstrated, are reported. Mutations that have been shown to confer SARS-CoV-2 resistance to antiviral drugs are also included. Using visualisation tools, COG-UK-ME also allows users to identify the emergence of variants carrying mutations that could decrease the neutralising activity of both mAbs present in therapeutic cocktails, e.g. Ronapreve. COG-UK-ME tracks changes in the frequency of combinations of mutations and brings together the curated literature on the impact of those mutations on various functional aspects of the virus and therapeutics. Given the unpredictable nature of SARS-CoV-2 as exemplified by yet another variant of concern, Omicron, continued surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 remains imperative to monitor virus evolution linked to the efficacy of therapeutics.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac023
  • Evolutionary history and introduction of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha VOC/B.1.1.7 in
           Pakistan through international travelers

    • Authors: Nasir A; Bukhari A, Trovão N, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continue to emerge, and their identification is important for the public health response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Genomic sequencing provides robust information but may not always be accessible, and therefore, mutation-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches can be used for rapid identification of known variants. International travelers arriving in Karachi between December 2020 and February 2021 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. A subset of positive samples was tested for S-gene target failure (SGTF) on TaqPathTM COVID-19 (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and for mutations using the GSD NovaType SARS-CoV-2 (Eurofins Technologies) assays. Sequencing was conducted on the MinION platform (Oxford Nanopore Technologies). Bayesian phylogeographic inference was performed integrating the patients’ travel history information. Of the thirty-five COVID-19 cases screened, thirteen had isolates with SGTF. The travelers transmitted infection to sixty-eight contact cases. The B.1.1.7 lineage was confirmed through sequencing and PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of sequence data available for six cases included four B.1.1.7 strains and one B.1.36 and B.1.1.212 lineage isolate. Phylogeographic modeling estimated at least three independent B.1.1.7 introductions into Karachi, Pakistan, originating from the UK. B.1.1.212 and B.1.36 were inferred to be introduced either from the UK or the travelers’ layover location. We report the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and other lineages in Pakistan by international travelers arriving via different flight routes. This highlights SARS-CoV-2 transmission through travel, importance of testing, and quarantine post-travel to prevent transmission of new strains, as well as recording detailed patients’ metadata. Such results help inform policies on restricting travel from destinations where new highly transmissible variants have emerged.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac020
  • Phylogenetic estimation of the viral fitness landscape of HIV-1 set-point
           viral load

    • Authors: Zhao L; Wymant C, Blanquart F, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractSet-point viral load (SPVL), a common measure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virulence, is partially determined by viral genotype. Epidemiological evidence suggests that this viral property has been under stabilising selection, with a typical optimum for the virus between 104 and 105 copies of viral RNA per ml. Here we aimed to detect transmission fitness differences between viruses from individuals with different SPVLs directly from phylogenetic trees inferred from whole-genome sequences. We used the local branching index (LBI) as a proxy for transmission fitness. We found that LBI is more sensitive to differences in infectiousness than to differences in the duration of the infectious state. By analysing subtype-B samples from the Bridging the Evolution and Epidemiology of HIV in Europe project, we inferred a significant positive relationship between SPVL and LBI up to approximately 105 copies/ml, with some evidence for a peak around this value of SPVL. This is evidence of selection against low values of SPVL in HIV-1 subtype-B strains, likely related to lower infectiousness, and perhaps a peak in the transmission fitness in the expected range of SPVL. The less prominent signatures of selection against higher SPVL could be explained by an inherent limit of the method or the deployment of antiretroviral therapy.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac022
  • Expanding the RNA virome of nematodes and other soil-inhabiting organisms

    • Authors: Vieira P; Subbotin S, Alkharouf N, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn recent years, several newly discovered viruses infecting free-living nematodes, sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes, and migratory root lesion nematodes have been described. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive research focusing exclusively on metagenomic analysis of the soil nematode community virome has thus far been carried out. In this work, we have attempted to bridge this gap by investigating viral communities that are associated with soil-inhabiting organisms, particularly nematodes. This study demonstrates a remarkable diversity of RNA viruses in the natural soil environment. Over 150 viruses were identified in different soil-inhabiting hosts, of which more than 139 are potentially new virus species. Many of these viruses belong to the nematode virome, thereby enriching our understanding of the diversity and evolution of this complex part of the natural ecosystem.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac019
  • Evolution and diversity of inherited viruses in the Nearctic phantom
           midge, Chaoborus americanus

    • Authors: Ballinger M; Christian R, Moore L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractInherited mutualists, parasites, and commensals occupy one of the most intimate ecological niches available to invertebrate-associated microbes. How this transmission environment influences microbial evolution is increasingly understood for inherited bacterial symbionts, but in viruses, research on the prevalence of vertical transmission and its effects on viral lineages is still maturing. The evolutionary stability of this strategy remains difficult to assess, although phylogenetic evidence of frequent host shifts and selective sweeps have been interpreted as strategies favoring parasite persistence. In this study, we describe and investigate a natural insect system in which species-wide sweeps have been restricted by the isolation of host populations. Previous work identified evidence of pronounced mitochondrial genetic structure among North American populations of the phantom midge, Chaoborus americanus. Here we take advantage of the geographical isolation in this species to investigate the diversity and persistence of its inherited virome. We identify eight novel RNA viruses from six families and use small RNA sequencing in reproductive tissues to provide evidence of vertical transmission. We report region-specific virus strains that mirror the continental phylogeography of the host, demonstrating that members of the inherited virome have independently persisted in parallel host lineages since they last shared a common ancestor in the Mid-Pleistocene. We find that the small interfering RNA pathway, a frontline of antiviral defense in insects, targets members of this inherited virome. Finally, our results suggest that the Piwi-mediated RNA silencing pathway is unlikely to function as a general antiviral defense in Chaoborus, in contrast to its role in some mosquitoes. However, we also report that this pathway generates abundant piRNAs from endogenous viral elements closely related to actively infecting inherited viruses, potentially helping to explain idiosyncratic patterns of virus-specific Piwi targeting in this insect.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac018
  • The rise and spread of the SARS-CoV-2 AY.122 lineage in Russia

    • Authors: Klink G; Safina K, Nabieva E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDelta has outcompeted most preexisting variants of SARS-CoV-2, becoming the globally predominant lineage by mid-2021. Its subsequent evolution has led to the emergence of multiple sublineages, most of which are well-mixed between countries. By contrast, here we show that nearly the entire Delta epidemic in Russia has probably descended from a single import event, or from multiple closely timed imports from a single poorly sampled geographic location. Indeed, over 90 per cent of Delta samples in Russia are characterized by the nsp2:K81N + ORF7a:P45L pair of mutations which is rare outside Russia, putting them in the AY.122 sublineage. The AY.122 lineage was frequent in Russia among Delta samples from the start, and has not increased in frequency in other countries where it has been observed, suggesting that its high prevalence in Russia has probably resulted from a random founder effect rather than a transmission advantage. The apartness of the genetic composition of the Delta epidemic in Russia makes Russia somewhat unusual, although not exceptional, among other countries.
      PubDate: Sat, 05 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac017
  • Quantifying rates of HIV-1 flow between risk groups and geographic
           locations in Kenya: A country-wide phylogenetic study

    • Authors: Nduva G; Otieno F, Kimani J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn Kenya, HIV-1 key populations including men having sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) and female sex workers (FSW) are thought to significantly contribute to HIV-1 transmission in the wider, mostly heterosexual (HET) HIV-1 transmission network. However, clear data on HIV-1 transmission dynamics within and between these groups are limited. We aimed to empirically quantify rates of HIV-1 flow between key populations and the HET population, as well as between different geographic regions to determine HIV-1 ‘hotspots’ and their contribution to HIV-1 transmission in Kenya. We used maximum-likelihood phylogenetic and Bayesian inference to analyse 4058 HIV-1 pol sequences (representing 0.3 per cent of the epidemic in Kenya) sampled 1986–2019 from individuals of different risk groups and regions in Kenya. We found 89 per cent within-risk group transmission and 11 per cent mixing between risk groups, cyclic HIV-1 exchange between adjoining geographic provinces and strong evidence of HIV-1 dissemination from (i) West-to-East (i.e. higher-to-lower HIV-1 prevalence regions), and (ii) heterosexual-to-key populations. Low HIV-1 prevalence regions and key populations are sinks rather than major sources of HIV-1 transmission in Kenya. Targeting key populations in Kenya needs to occur concurrently with strengthening interventions in the general epidemic.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac016
  • Effects of host and pathogenicity on mutation rates in avian influenza A

    • Authors: Kim G; Shin H, Kim H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMutation is the primary determinant of genetic diversity in influenza viruses. The rate of mutation, measured in an absolute time-scale, is likely to be dependent on the rate of errors in copying RNA sequences per replication and the number of replications per unit time. Conditions for viral replication are probably different among host taxa, potentially generating the host specificity of the viral mutation rate, and possibly between highly and low pathogenic (HP and LP) viruses. This study investigated whether mutation rates per year in avian influenza A viruses depend on host taxa and pathogenicity. We inferred mutation rates from the rates of synonymous substitutions, which are assumed to be neutral and thus equal to mutation rates, at four segments that code internal viral proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP). On the phylogeny of all avian viral sequences for each segment, multiple distinct subtrees (clades) were identified that represent viral subpopulations, which are likely to have evolved within particular host taxa. Using simple regression analysis, we found that mutation rates were significantly higher in viruses infecting chickens than domestic ducks and in those infecting wild shorebirds than wild ducks. Host dependency of the substitution rate was also confirmed by Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. However, we did not find evidence that the mutation rate is higher in HP than in LP viruses. We discuss these results considering viral replication rate as the major determinant of mutation rate per unit time.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac013
  • Phycova — a tool for exploring covariates of pathogen spread

    • Authors: Blokker T; Baele G, Lemey P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractGenetic analyses of fast-evolving pathogens are frequently undertaken to test the impact of covariates on their dispersal. In particular, a popular approach consists of parameterizing a discrete phylogeographic model as a generalized linear model to identify and analyse the predictors of the dispersal rates of viral lineages among discrete locations. However, such a full probabilistic inference is often computationally demanding and time-consuming. In the face of the increasing amount of viral genomes sequenced in epidemic outbreaks, there is a need for a fast exploration of covariates that might be relevant to consider in formal analyses. We here present PhyCovA (short for ‘Phylogeographic Covariate Analysis’), a web-based application allowing users to rapidly explore the association between candidate covariates and the number of phylogenetically informed transition events among locations. Specifically, PhyCovA takes as input a phylogenetic tree with discrete state annotations at the internal nodes, or reconstructs those states if not available, to subsequently conduct univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, as well as an exploratory variable selection analysis. In addition, the application can also be used to generate and explore various visualizations related to the regression analyses or to the phylogenetic tree annotated by the ancestral state reconstruction. PhyCovA is freely accessible at and also distributed in a dockerized form obtainable from The source code and tutorial are available from the GitHub repository
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac015
  • The emergence and transmission dynamics of HIV-1 CRF07_BC in Mainland

    • Authors: Li X; Li Y, Liu H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA total of 1155 partial pol gene sequences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 CRF07_BC were sampled between 1997 and 2015, spanning 13 provinces in Mainland China and risk groups [heterosexual, injecting drug users (IDU), and men who have sex with men (MSM)] to investigate the evolution, adaptation, spatiotemporal and risk group dynamics, migration patterns, and protein structure of HIV-1 CRF07_BC. Due to the unequal distribution of sequences across time, location, and risk group in the complete dataset (‘full1155’), subsampling methods were used. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis as well as discrete trait analysis of geographical location and risk group were carried out. To study mutations of a cluster of HIV-1 CRF07_BC (CRF07-1), we performed a comparative analysis of this cluster to the other CRF07_BC sequences (‘backbone_295’) and mapped the mutations observed in the respective protein structure. Our findings showed that HIV-1 CRF07_BC most likely originated among IDU in Yunnan Province between October 1992 to July 1993 [95 per cent hightest posterior density (HPD): May 1989–August 1995] and that IDU in Yunnan Province and MSM in Guangdong Province likely served as the viral sources during the early and more recent spread in Mainland China. We also revealed that HIV-1 CRF07-1 has been spreading for roughly 20 years and continues to cause local transmission in Mainland China and worldwide. Overall, our study sheds light on the dynamics of HIV-1 CRF07_BC distribution patterns in Mainland China. Our research may also be useful in formulating public health policies aimed at controlling acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Mainland China and globally.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac014
  • Unrecognized introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into the US state of Georgia
           shaped the early epidemic

    • Authors: Babiker A; Martin M, Marvil C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn early 2020, as diagnostic and surveillance responses for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ramped up, attention focused primarily on returning international travelers. Here, we build on existing studies characterizing early patterns of SARS-CoV-2 spread within the USA by analyzing detailed clinical, molecular, and viral genomic data from the state of Georgia through March 2020. We find evidence for multiple early introductions into Georgia, despite relatively sparse sampling. Most sampled sequences likely stemmed from a single or small number of introductions from Asia three weeks prior to the state’s first detected infection. Our analysis of sequences from domestic travelers demonstrates widespread circulation of closely related viruses in multiple US states by the end of March 2020. Our findings indicate that the exclusive focus on identifying SARS-CoV-2 in returning international travelers early in the pandemic may have led to a failure to recognize locally circulating infections for several weeks and point toward a critical need for implementing rapid, broadly targeted surveillance efforts for future pandemics.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac011
  • Emergence and spread of a sub-lineage of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant B.1.1.7
           in Europe, and with further evolution of spike mutation accumulations
           shared with the Beta and Gamma variants

    • Authors: Stadtmüller M; Laubner A, Rost F, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolution plays a significant role in shaping the dynamics of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To monitor the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants, through international collaborations, we performed genomic epidemiology analyses on a weekly basis with SARS-CoV-2 samples collected from a border region between Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic in a global background. For identified virus mutant variants, active viruses were isolated and functional evaluations were performed to test their replication fitness and neutralization sensitivity against vaccine-elicited serum neutralizing antibodies. Thereby we identified a new B.1.1.7 sub-lineage carrying additional mutations of nucleoprotein G204P and open-reading-frame-8 K68stop. Of note, this B.1.1.7 sub-lineage is the predominant B.1.1.7 variant in several European countries such as Czech Republic, Austria, and Slovakia. The earliest samples belonging to this sub-lineage were detected in November 2020 in a few countries in the European continent, but not in the UK. We have also detected its further evolution with extra spike mutations D138Y and A701V, which are signature mutations shared with the Gamma and Beta variants, respectively. Antibody neutralization assay of virus variant isolations has revealed that the variant with extra spike mutations is 3.2-fold less sensitive to vaccine-elicited antibodies as compared to the other B.1.1.7 variants tested, indicating potential for immune evasion, but it also exhibited reduced replication fitness, suggesting lower transmissibility. The wide spread of this B.1.1.7 sub-lineage was related to the pandemic waves in early 2021 in various European countries. These findings about the emergence, spread, evolution, infection, and transmission abilities of this B.1.1.7 sub-lineage add to our understanding about the pandemic development in Europe and highlight the importance of international collaboration on virus mutant surveillance.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac010
  • Transmission dynamics of low pathogenicity avian influenza (H2N2) viruses
           in live bird markets of the Northeast United States of America,

    • Authors: Chung D; Torchetti M, Killian M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractLive bird market (LBM) surveillance was conducted in the Northeast United States (US) to monitor for the presence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry and market environments. A total of 384 H2N2 low pathogenicity AIV (LPAIV) isolated from active surveillance efforts in the LBM system of New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland during 2013–2019 were included in this analysis. Comparative phylogenetic analysis showed that a wild-bird-origin H2N2 virus may have been introduced into the LBMs in Pennsylvania and independently evolved since March 2012 followed by spread to LBMs in New York City during late 2012–early 2013. LBMs in New York state played a key role in the maintenance and dissemination of the virus to LBMs in the Northeast US including reverse spread to Pennsylvania LBMs. The frequent detections in the domestic ducks and market environment with viral transmissions between birds and environment possibly led to viral adaptation and circulation in domestic gallinaceous poultry in LBMs, suggesting significant roles of domestic ducks and contaminated LBM environment as reservoirs in maintenance and dissemination of H2N2 LPAIV.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac009
  • Limited genomic reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2 transmission history within
           local epidemiological clusters

    • Authors: Gallego-García P; Varela N, Estévez-Gómez N, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA detailed understanding of how and when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission occurs is crucial for designing effective prevention measures. Other than contact tracing, genome sequencing provides information to help infer who infected whom. However, the effectiveness of the genomic approach in this context depends on both (high enough) mutation and (low enough) transmission rates. Today, the level of resolution that we can obtain when describing SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks using just genomic information alone remains unclear. In order to answer this question, we sequenced forty-nine SARS-CoV-2 patient samples from ten local clusters in NW Spain for which partial epidemiological information was available and inferred transmission history using genomic variants. Importantly, we obtained high-quality genomic data, sequencing each sample twice and using unique barcodes to exclude cross-sample contamination. Phylogenetic and cluster analyses showed that consensus genomes were generally sufficient to discriminate among independent transmission clusters. However, levels of intrahost variation were low, which prevented in most cases the unambiguous identification of direct transmission events. After filtering out recurrent variants across clusters, the genomic data were generally compatible with the epidemiological information but did not support specific transmission events over possible alternatives. We estimated the effective transmission bottleneck size to be one to two viral particles for sample pairs whose donor–recipient relationship was likely. Our analyses suggest that intrahost genomic variation in SARS-CoV-2 might be generally limited and that homoplasy and recurrent errors complicate identifying shared intrahost variants. Reliable reconstruction of direct SARS-CoV-2 transmission based solely on genomic data seems hindered by a slow mutation rate, potential convergent events, and technical artifacts. Detailed contact tracing seems essential in most cases to study SARS-CoV-2 transmission at high resolution.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac008
  • Intra-host analysis of hepaciviral glycoprotein evolution reveals
           signatures associated with viral persistence and clearance

    • Authors: Gömer A; Brown R, Pfaender S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractEven 30 years after the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans there is still no vaccine available. Reasons for this include the high mutation rate of HCV, which allows the virus to escape immune recognition and the absence of an immunocompetent animal model for vaccine development. Phylogenetically distinct hepaciviruses (genus Hepacivirus, family Flaviviridae) have been isolated from diverse species, each with a narrow host range: the equine hepacivirus (EqHV) is the closest known relative of HCV. In this study, we used amplicon-based deep-sequencing to investigate the viral intra-host population composition of the genomic regions encoding the surface glycoproteins E1 and E2. Patterns of E1E2 substitutional evolution were compared in longitudinally sampled EqHV-positive sera of naturally and experimentally infected horses and HCV-positive patients. Intra-host virus diversity was higher in chronically than in acutely infected horses, a pattern which was similar in the HCV-infected patients. However, overall glycoprotein variability was higher in HCV compared to EqHV. Additionally, selection pressure in HCV populations was higher, especially within the N-terminal region of E2, corresponding to the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) in HCV. An alignment of glycoprotein sequences from diverse hepaciviruses identified the HVR1 as a unique characteristic of HCV: hepaciviruses from non-human species lack this region. Together, these data indicate that EqHV infection of horses could represent a powerful surrogate animal model to gain insights into hepaciviral evolution and HCVs HVR1-mediated immune evasion strategy.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac007
  • A time-series meta-transcriptomic analysis reveals the seasonal, host, and
           gender structure of mosquito viromes

    • Authors: Feng Y; Gou Q, Yang W, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAlthough metagenomic sequencing has revealed high numbers of viruses in mosquitoes sampled globally, our understanding of how their diversity and abundance varies in time and space as well as by host species and gender remains unclear. To address this, we collected 23,109 mosquitoes over the course of 12 months from a bat-dwelling cave and a nearby village in Yunnan province, China. These samples were organized by mosquito species, mosquito gender, and sampling time for meta-transcriptomic sequencing. A total of 162 eukaryotic virus species were identified, of which 101 were novel, including representatives of seventeen RNA virus multi-family supergroups and four species of DNA virus from the families Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, and Nudiviridae. In addition, two known vector-borne viruses—Japanese encephalitis virus and Banna virus—were found. Analyses of the entire virome revealed strikingly different viral compositions and abundance levels in warmer compared to colder months, a strong host structure at the level of mosquito species, and no substantial differences between those viruses harbored by male and female mosquitoes. At the scale of individual viruses, some were found to be ubiquitous throughout the year and across four mosquito species, while most of the other viruses were season and/or host specific. Collectively, this study reveals the diversity, dynamics, and evolution of the mosquito virome at a single location and sheds new lights on the ecology of these important vector animals.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac006
  • Whole-genome analysis to determine the rate and patterns of intra-subtype
           reassortment among influenza type-A viruses in Africa

    • Authors: Nabakooza G; Pastusiak A, Kateete D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractInfluenza type-A viruses (IAVs) present a global burden of human respiratory infections and mortality. Genome reassortment is an important mechanism through which epidemiologically novel influenza viruses emerge and a core step in the safe reassortment-incompetent live-attenuated influenza vaccine development. Currently, there are no data on the rate, spatial and temporal distribution, and role of reassortment in the evolution and diversification of IAVs circulating in Africa. We aimed to detect intra-subtype reassortment among Africa pandemic H1N1pdm09 (2009–10), seasonal H1N1pdm09 (2011–20), and seasonal H3N2 viruses and characterize the genomic architecture and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of the resulting reassortants. Our study was nested within the Uganda National Influenza Surveillance Programme. Next-generation sequencing was used to generate whole genomes (WGs) from 234 H1N1pdm09 (n = 116) and H3N2 (n = 118) viruses sampled between 2010 and 2018 from seven districts in Uganda. We combined our newly generated WGs with 658 H1N1pdm09 and 1131 H3N2 WGs sampled between 1994 and 2020 across Africa and identified reassortants using an automated Graph Incompatibility Based Reassortment Finder software. Viral reassortment rates were estimated using a coalescent reassortant constant population model. Phylogenetic analysis was used to assess the effect of reassortment on viral genetic evolution. We observed a high frequency of intra-subtype reassortment events, 12 · 4 per cent (94/758) and 20 · 9 per cent (256/1,224), and reassortants, 13 · 3 per cent (101/758) and 38 · 6 per cent (472/1,224), among Africa H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. H1N1pdm09 reassorted at higher rates (0.1237–0.4255) than H3N2 viruses (0 · 00912–0.0355 events/lineage/year), a case unique to Uganda. Viral reassortants were sampled in 2009 through 2020, except in 2012. 78 · 2 per cent (79/101) of H1N1pdm09 reassortants acquired new non-structural, while 57 · 8 per cent (273/472) of the H3N2 reassortants had new hemagglutinin (H3) genes. Africa H3N2 viruses underwent more reassortment events involving larger reassortant sets than H1N1pdm09 viruses. Viruses with a specific reassortment architecture circulated for up to five consecutive years in specific countries and regions. The Eastern (Uganda and Kenya) and Western Africa harboured 84 · 2 per cent (85/101) and 55 · 9 per cent (264/472) of the continent’s H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 reassortants, respectively. The frequent reassortment involving multi-genes observed among Africa IAVs showed the intracontinental viral evolution and diversification possibly sustained by viral importation from outside Africa and/or local viral genomic mixing and transmission. Novel reassortant viruses emerged every year, and some persisted in different countries and regions, thereby presenting a risk of influenza outbreaks in Africa. Our findings highlight Africa as part of the global influenza ecology and the advantage of implementing routine whole-over partial genome sequencing and analyses to monitor circulating and detect emerging viruses. Furthermore, this study provides evidence and heightens our knowledge on IAV evolution, which is integral in directing vaccine strain selection and the update of master donor viruses used in recombinant vaccine development.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac005
  • Genetic and biological characteristics of species A rotaviruses detected
           in common shrews suggest a distinct evolutionary trajectory

    • Authors: Falkenhagen A; Tausch S, Labutin A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractSpecies A rotaviruses (RVAs) are important aetiological agents of severe diarrhoea in young children. They are also widely distributed in mammals and birds, and increasing evidence indicates the possibility of zoonotic transmission of RVA strains between animals and humans. Moreover, reassortment of the eleven segments of the RVA genome can result in rapid biological changes and may influence pathogenic properties. Here, the nearly complete genome of an RVA strain from a common shrew (Sorex araneus) was sequenced, which showed high nucleotide sequence similarity to additionally determined partial sequences from common shrew RVAs but only very low identity (below 68 per cent) to RVAs from other animal species and humans. New genotypes were assigned to most genome segments of the novel common shrew RVA strain KS14/269, resulting in the genome constellation G39-P[55]-I27-R26-C22-M22-A37-N26-T26-E30-H26. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the common shrew RVAs as ancestral branches of other mammalian and avian RVAs for most of the genome segments, which is in contrast to the phylogeny of the hosts. Nevertheless, conserved sequences typical for all RVAs were identified at the 5ʹ- and 3ʹ- non-coding segment termini. To explore whether the common shrew RVA can exchange genetic material with other mammalian RVAs by reassortment, a reverse genetics system based on the simian RVA strain SA11 was used. However, no viable reassortants could be rescued by exchanging the VP4-, VP6-, or VP7-encoding genome segment alone or in combinations. It can be concluded that highly divergent RVAs are present in common shrews, indicating an evolution of these viruses largely separated from other mammalian and avian RVAs. The zoonotic potential of the virus seems to be low but needs to be further analysed in future.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac004
  • Strong selection and high mutation supply characterize experimental
           Chlorovirus evolution

    • Authors: Retel C; Kowallik V, Becks L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractCharacterizing how viruses evolve expands our understanding of the underlying fundamental processes, such as mutation, selection and drift. One group of viruses whose evolution has not yet been extensively studied is the Phycodnaviridae, a globally abundant family of aquatic large double-stranded (ds)DNA (dsDNA) viruses. Here we studied the evolutionary change of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 during experimental coevolution with its algal host. We used pooled genome sequencing of six independently evolved populations to characterize genomic change over five time points. Across six experimental replicates involving either strong or weak demographic fluctuations, we found single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at sixty-seven sites. The occurrence of genetic variants was highly repeatable, with just two of the SNPs found in only a single experimental replicate. Three genes A122/123R, A140/145R and A540L showed an excess of variable sites, providing new information about potential targets of selection during Chlorella–Chlorovirus coevolution. Our data indicated that the studied populations were not mutation-limited and experienced strong positive selection. Our investigation highlighted relevant processes governing the evolution of aquatic large dsDNA viruses, which ultimately contributes to a better understanding of the functioning of natural aquatic ecosystems.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac003
  • A scenario for the emergence of protoviroids in the RNA world and for
           their further evolution into viroids and viroid-like RNAs by modular
           recombinations and mutations

    • Authors: Flores R; Navarro B, Serra P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractViroids are tiny, circular, and noncoding RNAs that are able to replicate and systemically infect plants. The smallest known pathogens, viroids have been proposed to represent survivors from the RNA world that likely preceded the cellular world currently dominating life on the earth. Although the small, circular, and compact nature of viroid genomes, some of which are also endowed with catalytic activity mediated by hammerhead ribozymes, support this proposal, the lack of feasible evolutionary routes and the identification of hammerhead ribozymes in a large number of DNA genomes of organisms along the tree of life have led some to question such a proposal. Here, we reassess the origin and subsequent evolution of viroids by complementing phylogenetic reconstructions with molecular data, including the primary and higher-order structure of the genomic RNAs, their replication, and recombination mechanisms and selected biological information. Features of some viroid-like RNAs found in plants, animals, and possibly fungi are also considered. The resulting evolutionary scenario supports the emergence of protoviroids in the RNA world, mainly as replicative modules, followed by a further increase in genome complexity based on module/domain shuffling and combination and mutation. Such a modular evolutionary scenario would have facilitated the inclusion in the protoviroid genomes of complex RNA structures (or coding sequences, as in the case of hepatitis delta virus and delta-like agents), likely needed for their adaptation from the RNA world to a life based on cells, thus generating the ancestors of current infectious viroids and viroid-like RNAs. Other noninfectious viroid-like RNAs, such as retroviroid-like RNA elements and retrozymes, could also be derived from protoviroids if their reverse transcription and integration into viral or eukaryotic DNA, respectively, are considered as a possible key step in their evolution. Comparison of evidence supporting a general and modular evolutionary model for viroids and viroid-like RNAs with that favoring alternative scenarios provides reasonable reasons to keep alive the hypothesis that these small RNA pathogens may be relics of a precellular world.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veab107
  • Wildlife in Cameroon harbor diverse coronaviruses, including many closely
           related to human coronavirus 229E

    • Authors: Ntumvi N; Ndze V, Gillis A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractZoonotic spillover of animal viruses into human populations is a continuous and increasing public health risk. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights the global impact of emergence. Considering the history and diversity of coronaviruses (CoVs), especially in bats, SARS-CoV-2 will likely not be the last to spillover from animals into human populations. We sampled and tested wildlife in the Central African country Cameroon to determine which CoVs are circulating and how they relate to previously detected human and animal CoVs. We collected animal and ecological data at sampling locations and used family-level consensus PCR combined with amplicon sequencing for virus detection. Between 2003 and 2018, samples were collected from 6,580 animals of several different orders. CoV RNA was detected in 175 bats, a civet, and a shrew. The CoV RNAs detected in the bats represented 17 different genetic clusters, coinciding with alpha (n = 8) and beta (n = 9) CoVs. Sequences resembling human CoV-229E (HCoV-229E) were found in 40 Hipposideridae bats. Phylogenetic analyses place the human-derived HCoV-229E isolates closest to those from camels in terms of the S and N genes but closest to isolates from bats for the envelope, membrane, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes. The CoV RNA positivity rate in bats varied significantly (P < 0.001) between the wet (8.2 per cent) and dry seasons (4.5 per cent). Most sampled species accordingly had a wet season high and dry season low, while for some the opposite was found. Eight of the suspected CoV species of which we detected RNA appear to be entirely novel CoV species, which suggests that CoV diversity in African wildlife is still rather poorly understood. The detection of multiple different variants of HCoV-229E-like viruses supports the bat reservoir hypothesis for this virus, with the phylogenetic results casting some doubt on camels as an intermediate host. The findings also support the previously proposed influence of ecological factors on CoV circulation, indicating a high level of underlying complexity to the viral ecology. These results indicate the importance of investing in surveillance activities among wild animals to detect all potential threats as well as sentinel surveillance among exposed humans to determine emerging threats.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veab110
  • Intra- and inter-host evolution of H9N2 influenza A virus in Japanese

    • Authors: Ferreri L; Geiger G, Seibert B, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractInfluenza A viruses (IAVs) are constantly evolving. Crucial steps in the infection cycle, such as sialic acid (SA) receptor binding on the host cell surface, can either promote or hamper the emergence of new variants. We previously assessed the relative fitness in Japanese quail of H9N2 variant viruses differing at a single amino acid position, residue 216 in the hemagglutinin (HA) viral surface protein. This site is known to modulate SA recognition. Our prior study generated a valuable set of longitudinal samples from quail transmission groups where the inoculum comprised different mixed populations of HA 216 variant viruses. Here, we leveraged these samples to examine the evolutionary dynamics of viral populations within and between inoculated and naïve contact quails. We found that positive selection dominated HA gene evolution, but fixation of the fittest variant depended on the competition mixture. Analysis of the whole genome revealed further evidence of positive selection acting both within and between hosts. Positive selection drove fixation of variants in non-HA segments within inoculated and contact quails. Importantly, transmission bottlenecks were modulated by the molecular signature at HA 216, revealing viral receptor usage as a determinant of transmitted diversity. Overall, we show that selection strongly shaped the evolutionary dynamics within and between quails. These findings support the notion that selective processes act effectively on IAV populations in poultry hosts, facilitating rapid viral evolution in this ecological niche.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veac001
  • High recombination rate of hepatitis C virus revealed by a green
           fluorescent protein reconstitution cell system

    • Authors: Galli A; Fahnøe U, Bukh J.
      Abstract: AbstractGenetic recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism for RNA viruses and can facilitate escape from immune and drug pressure. Recombinant hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants have rarely been detected in patients, suggesting that HCV has intrinsic low recombination rate. Recombination of HCV has been demonstrated in vitro between non-functional genomes, but its frequency and relevance for viral evolution and life cycle has not been clarified. We developed a cell-based assay to detect and quantify recombination between fully viable HCV genomes, using the reconstitution of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a surrogate marker for recombination. Here, two GFP-expressing HCV genomes carrying different inactivating GFP mutations can produce a virus carrying a functional GFP by recombining within the GFP region. Generated constructs allowed quantification of recombination rates between markers spaced 603 and 553 nucleotides apart by flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Viral constructs showed comparable spread kinetics and reached similar infectivity titers in Huh7.5 cells, allowing their use in co-transfections and co-infections. Single-cycle co-transfection experiments, performed in CD81-deficient S29 cells, showed GFP expression in double-infected cells, demonstrating genome mixing and occurrence of recombination. Quantification of recombinant genomes by NGS revealed an average rate of 6.1 per cent, corresponding to 49 per cent of maximum detectable recombination (MDR). Experiments examining recombination during the full replication cycle of HCV, performed in Huh7.5 cells, demonstrated average recombination rates of 5.0 per cent (40.0 per cent MDR) and 3.6 per cent (28.8 per cent MDR) for markers spaced by 603 and 553 nucleotides, respectively, supporting a linear relationship between marker distance and recombination rates. First passage infections using recombinant virus supernatant resulted in comparable recombination rates of 5.9 per cent (47.2 per cent MDR) and 3.5 per cent (28.0 per cent MDR), respectively, for markers spaced by 603 and 553 nucleotides. We developed a functional cell-based assay that, to the best of our knowledge, allows for the first time detailed quantification of recombination rates using fully viable HCV constructs. Our data indicate that HCV recombines at high frequency between highly similar genomes and that the frequency of recombination increases with the distance between marker sites. These results have implication for our understanding of HCV evolution and emphasize the importance of recombination in the reassortment of mutations in the HCV genome.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ve/veab106
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