Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Cryoletters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Applied Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 228)
Current Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Current Opinion in Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Opinion in Systems Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Protein and Peptide Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Protocols in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Mouse Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Protocols in Protein Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Bacteriology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Research in Chemical Biology     Open Access  
Current Research in Neurobiology     Open Access  
Current Research in Parasitology & Vector-Borne Diseases     Open Access  
Current Research in Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Translational Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Virological Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 116)
Current Stem Cell Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Topics in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Current Topics in Membranes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cytotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Database : The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Dendrochronologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Developing World Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Developmental & Comparative Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Developmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Developmental Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Developmental Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developmental Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Dhaka University Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Differentiation     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Biomarkers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Disease Models and Mechanisms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms     Hybrid Journal  
DNA and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
DNA Repair     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
e-Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan     Open Access  
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecological Solutions and Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Economics & Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ecosystem Health and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 45)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
EFB Bioeconomy Journal     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EJNMMI Research     Open Access  
Ekologia     Open Access  
el-Hayah     Open Access  
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
eLife     Open Access   (Followers: 95)
Embo Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
EMBO reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Endangered Species Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Endocrine Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Endothelium: Journal of Endothelial Cell Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Engineering Economist, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Engineering in Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Engineering Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental DNA     Open Access  
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Environmental Microbiome     Open Access  
Environmental Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology & Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Epigenomes     Open Access  
EPMA Journal     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnobiology Letters     Open Access  
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnoscientia : Brazilian Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethology Ecology & Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EuPA Open Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EUREKA : Life Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology : X     Open Access  
European Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Protistology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Soil Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evolution     Partially Free   (Followers: 129)
Evolution and Human Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Evolution Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Evolutionary Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evolutionary Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Evolutionary Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evolutionary Systematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EXCLI Journal : Experimental and Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
Experimental & Molecular Medicine     Open Access  
Experimental and Applied Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Expert Review of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ExRNA     Open Access  
Extreme Life, Biospeology & Astrobiology - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Extremophiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
F&S Science : Official journal of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Medicine and Biology     Open Access  
Familial Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
FASEB BioAdvances     Open Access  
Fauna Norvegica     Open Access  
Fauna of New Zealand     Open Access  
Febs Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Feddes Repertorium     Hybrid Journal  
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fish & Shellfish Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fish and Shellfish Immunology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fishes     Open Access  
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Florea : Jurnal Biologi dan Pembelajarannya     Open Access  
Fly     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Biologica     Free   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Folia Primatologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Webs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forensic Genomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Foundations of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Free Radical Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Free Radical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Freshwater Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Life Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Network Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Neurogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers of Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers of Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Functional & Integrative Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Fungal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fungal Diversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fungal Genetics Reports     Open Access  

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  • Case Report: Sustained mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes in patients
           with severe propofol infusion syndrome [version 2; peer review: 2

    • Authors: Satoshi Karasawa, Taka-aki Nakada, Naoto Mori, Michiko Daimon, Hideyuki Miyauchi, Tetsuya Kanai, Hiroyuki Takano, Yoshio Kobayashi, Shigeto Oda
      Abstract: Introduction: Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is rare but a potentially lethal adverse event. The pathophysiologic mechanism is still unknown. Patient concerns: A 22-year-old man was admitted for the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome. On day six, he required mechanical ventilation due to progressive muscle weakness; propofol (3.5 mg/kg/hour) was administered for five days for sedation. On day 13, he had hypotension with abnormal electrocardiogram findings, acute kidney injury, hyperkalemia and severe rhabdomyolysis. Diagnosis and interventions: The patient was transferred to our intensive care unit (ICU) on suspicion of PRIS. Administration of noradrenaline and renal replacement therapy and fasciotomy for compartment syndrome of lower legs due to PRIS-rhabdomyolysis were performed. Outcomes: The patient gradually recovered and was discharged from the ICU on day 30. On day 37, he had repeated sinus bradycardia with pericardial effusion in echocardiography. Cardiac 18F-FDG PET on day 67 demonstrated heterogeneous 18F-FDG uptake in the left ventricle. Electron microscopic investigation of endomyocardial biopsy on day 75 revealed mitochondrial myelinization of the cristae, which indicated mitochondrial damage of cardiomyocytes. He was discharged without cardiac abnormality on day 192. Conclusions: Mitochondrial damage in both morphological and functional aspects was observed in the present case. Sustained mitochondrial damage may be a therapeutic target beyond the initial therapy of discontinuing propofol administration.
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T15:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.24567.2
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2022)
  • Effect of whitening toothpaste on surface roughness and microhardness of
           human teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis [version 3; peer
           review: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations]

    • Authors: Navodita Jamwal, Ashwini Rao, Ramya Shenoy, Mithun Pai, Aparna KS, Avinash BR
      Abstract: Background: Whitening toothpastes exert a whitening effect on teeth through higher surface cleaning effectiveness resulting from the abrasive properties of the paste or specific chemical components. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conceptualized to examine the relationship between whitening toothpastes and surface roughness as well as microhardness of human teeth and to clarify the evidence base available around this relationship by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in this topic area, looking at in vitro randomized control trials. Methods: Criteria for including studies in the review were done based on population, intervention, comparison, outcomes and study and studies were identified from electronic databases. Covidence® was used for data screening and data extraction. The CONSORT tool was used for checking relevant content and methodology used in each of the papers reviewed. Systematic review was done followed by meta-analysis, using Review Manager. Results: A total of 125 articles were obtained on key word search. After duplicate removal and title screening, 17 articles were eligible for full text review. Finally, 7 studies were included for systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on 4 studies. The forest plot for surface roughness showed that that the meta-analytic effect was statistically significant with surface roughness value being higher in the intervention group. The forest plot for microhardness showed that the meta-analytic effect was statistically significant with the microhardness value being lesser in the intervention group. Conclusions: Although whitening toothpastes typically can lighten tooth color by about one or two shades, there is some evidence to show that these toothpastes also affect the mineral content of teeth by increasing surface roughness and reducing microhardness. More evidence and further research are needed to identify the type of whitening agent which will whiten the tooth effectively while maintaining the integrity of the tooth structure.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T13:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.76180.3
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Case Report: Medicolegal evaluation in a case of fatal scald where a child
           fell into a cauldron in rural Nepal [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Alok Atreya, Lokaratna Gyawali, Ritesh G Menezes, Navneet Ateriya, Jamuna Shreshtha, Sristi Ghimire
      Abstract: Thermal injuries in young children involving the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs raise suspicion of child abuse. Determining the manner of death and ruling out homicide in a fatal case of scalding remains a challenge for forensic practitioners. One such issue is reported in the present case report, where a medicolegal evaluation of a fatal scald in a two-year-old girl child is discussed. Young children sustaining serious injuries from scalds is a grave social concern. Such young lives need to be protected from scald injuries whether accidental or purposeful. Differences in injury patterns on the basis of their distribution and their characteristics are important to determine manner of death in such cases.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T15:38:09Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.74607.2
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Identification of potential biological targets of oxindole scaffolds via
           in silico repositioning strategies [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Annachiara Tinivella, Luca Pinzi, Guido Gambacorta, Ian Baxendale, Giulio Rastelli
      Abstract: Background: Drug repurposing is an alternative strategy to traditional drug discovery that aims at predicting new uses for already existing drugs or clinical candidates. Drug repurposing has many advantages over traditional drug development, such as reduced attrition rates, time and costs. This is especially the case considering that most drugs investigated for repurposing have already been assessed for their safety in clinical trials. Repurposing campaigns can also be designed for libraries of already synthesized molecules at different levels of biological experimentation, from null to in vitro and in vivo. Such an extension of the “repurposing” concept is expected to provide significant advantages for the identification of novel drugs, as the synthetic accessibility of the desired compounds is often one of the limiting factors in the traditional drug discovery pipeline. Methods: In this work, we performed a computational repurposing campaign on a library of previously synthesized oxindole-based compounds, in order to identify potential new targets for this versatile scaffold. To this aim, ligand-based approaches were firstly applied to evaluate the similarity degree of the investigated compound library, with respect to ligands extracted from the DrugBank, Protein Data Bank (PDB) and ChEMBL databases. In particular, the 2D fingerprint-based and 3D shape-based similarity profiles were evaluated and compared for the oxindole derivates. Results: The analyses predicted a set of potential candidate targets for repurposing, some of them emerging by consensus of different computational analyses. One of the identified targets, i.e., the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) kinase, was further investigated by means of docking calculations, followed by biological testing of one candidate. Conclusions: While the compound did not show potent inhibitory activity towards VEGFR-2, the study highlighted several other possibilities of therapeutically relevant targets that may be worth of consideration for drug repurposing.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T10:48:22Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.109017.1
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Correlation between serum methotrexate-polyglutamate 3 (MTX-PG3) level and
           disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients: A prospective cohort
           study [version 1; peer review: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations]

    • Authors: Eva Musdalita, Rudy Hidayat, Sumariyono Sumariyono, Suryo Anggoro Kusumo Wibowo, Anna Ariane, Hamzah Shatri, Iris Rengganis, Dono Antono
      Abstract: Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases, characterized by systemic inflammation, joint destruction and disability. Methotrexate (MTX) is used as the primary treatment for RA patients. However, the response to MTX therapy is highly varied and difficult to predict. This study sought to determine the role of MTX by measuring the MTX polyglutamate 3 (MTX-PG3) levels and the disease activity score 28 based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) of RA patients. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted at the Rheumatology Polyclinic of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital. Thirty-four patients with RA were included and followed up to 12 weeks. The RA patients were treated with MTX 10 mg per week and an increased dose of 5 mg per week every month. DAS28-CRP and MTX-PG3 level were assessed at week 8 and 12. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between MTX-PG3 and DAS28-CRP. Result: A total of 34 RA patients were followed and the MTX was well tolerated in which no increase of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were observed. The mean scores of DAS28-CRP decreased following the MTX-treatment: 3.93, 3.22 and 2.82 at week 0, 8 and 12, respectively. In contrast, the median concentration of MTX-PG3 increased from week 8 to week 12 followed by increasing the dose of MTX. Our analysis suggested there was a moderate positive correlation between MTX-PG3 levels and DAS28-CRP score at week 8 and week 12 post-MTX treatment. Conclusion: The level of MTX-PG3 is correlated with DAS28-CRP score suggesting that MTX-PG3 could be used as an indicator to assess the disease activity in RA patients. Nevertheless, a prospective study with a higher number of patients is needed to confirm this finding.
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T10:39:19Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.108714.1
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • SRXN1 blood levels negatively correlate with hippocampal atrophy and
           cognitive decline [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Catalina Anca Cucos, Ioana Cracana, Maria Dobre, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu, Catalina Tudose, Luiza Spiru, Gina Manda, Gabriela Niculescu, Elena Milanesi
      Abstract: Introduction: Cognitive decline, correlating with hippocampal atrophy, characterizes several neurodegenerative disorders having a background of low-level chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we examined how cognitive decline and hippocampal subfields volume are associated with the expression of redox and inflammatory genes in peripheral blood. We analyzed 34 individuals with different cognitive scores according to Mini-Mental State Examination, corrected by age and education (adjMMSE). We identified a group presenting cognitive decline (CD) with adjMMSE
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T13:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.76191.1
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • COVID-19 home isolation and food consumption patterns: Investigating the
           correlates of poor dietary diversity in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study
           [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Maha Hoteit, Hussein Mortada, Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh, Carla Ibrahim, Rania Mansour
      Abstract: Background: The unfurling COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered the defenselessness of the Lebanese food system leading to serious implication in maintaining a healthy sustainable lifestyle. Aim: The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food consumption patterns and dietary diversity of the Lebanese people. Methods: The online survey, completed between April and June 2020, consisted of a cross-sectional study on 2282 Lebanese participants (mean age: 29.36±12.221, 80.9% women) that was part of a survey across 38 different countries conducted by De Backer, C. et al. A food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate the consumption patterns along with the calculation of the Food Consumption Score (FCS), a proxy indicator of dietary diversity. Data collected on cooking attitudes, shopping, and food stock identify the community mitigation measures. Results: Home isolation due to COVID-19 induced an increase in the consumption of legumes and pulses (3.2%, p-value=0.001) and whole wheat groups (2.8%, p-value=0.03). In contrast, a decrease of 5.4%, 6.9%, 5.8%, 5.1%, 3.1%, 3.4% and 2.8% was observed in the consumption of fruits (p-value=0), vegetables (p-value=0), processed meats, poultry, and fish (p-value=0), other dairy products (p-value=0), sweet snacks (p-value=0.001), sugared beverages (p-value=0), fats and oils (p-value=0.001), respectively. The FCS decreased by 4.6%. As food-related behaviors, most cooking attitudes, and practices (10 out of 13) showed an amelioration during the lockdown and the proportions of food stocked have been changing since the start of the pandemic seeing higher amounts of pasta, rice or other grains, flour, and legumes/pulses stocked. Conclusion: To conclude, the hostile home isolation strategy followed to prevent the COVID-19 spread in Lebanon, came at a high nutritional cost, driving poor dietary diversity.
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T09:01:56Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.75761.1
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Dataset: Knowledge and attitude retention following an implicit bias
           classroom workshop [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Yuanyuan Zhou, Joel Purkiss, Malvika Juneja, Jocelyn Greely, Anitra Beasley, Anne Gill
      Abstract: Background: Baylor College of Medicine provides a classroom-based implicit bias workshop to all third-year medical students to increase students’ awareness of their unconscious bias and develop strategies for reducing health care disparities. The workshop meets our immediate goals and objectives. However, we are unsure if the benefit would be long-term or diminish over time. Methods: To examine the concept retention from the implicit bias classroom workshop, we administered a self-developed seven-item seven-point Likert-scale survey to our medical students at pre-, post-, and one-year post-workshop attendance. Results: The data set was comprised of survey results from two cohorts of our third and fourth-year medical students from 2018 to 2020 and included 289 completed records at three measurement points. The data included: Student Identifiers, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Student Enrollment Type, Cohort, and three repeated measures results for each of the seven items, which were documented in wide format. The data may be of interest to those who wish to examine how factors including elapsed time, race, and sex may associate with attitudes and understandings of implicit bias following related training, and those interested in analytical methods on longitudinal research in general.
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T12:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.74442.1
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • skater: an R package for SNP-based kinship analysis, testing, and
           evaluation [version 1; peer review: 2 approved, 1 approved with

    • Authors: Stephen D. Turner, V.P. Nagraj, Matthew Scholz, Shakeel Jessa, Carlos Acevedo, Jianye Ge, August E. Woerner, Bruce Budowle
      Abstract: Motivation: SNP-based kinship analysis with genome-wide relationship estimation and IBD segment analysis methods produces results that often require further downstream process- ing and manipulation. A dedicated software package that consistently and intuitively imple- ments this analysis functionality is needed. Results: Here we present the skater R package for SNP-based kinship analysis, testing, and evaluation with R. The skater package contains a suite of well-documented tools for importing, parsing, and analyzing pedigree data, performing relationship degree inference, benchmarking relationship degree classification, and summarizing IBD segment data. Availability: The skater package is implemented as an R package and is released under the MIT license at Documentation is available at
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T14:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.76004.1
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • A visual approach towards forward collision warning for autonomous
           vehicles on Malaysian public roads [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Man Kiat Wong, Tee Connie, Michael Kah Ong Goh, Li Pei Wong, Pin Shen Teh, Ai Ling Choo
      Abstract: Background: Autonomous vehicles are important in smart transportation. Although exciting progress has been made, it remains challenging to design a safety mechanism for autonomous vehicles despite uncertainties and obstacles that occur dynamically on the road. Collision detection and avoidance are indispensable for a reliable decision-making module in autonomous driving. Methods: This study presents a robust approach for forward collision warning using vision data for autonomous vehicles on Malaysian public roads. The proposed architecture combines environment perception and lane localization to define a safe driving region for the ego vehicle. If potential risks are detected in the safe driving region, a warning will be triggered. The early warning is important to help avoid rear-end collision. Besides, an adaptive lane localization method that considers geometrical structure of the road is presented to deal with different road types. Results: Precision scores of mean average precision (mAP) 0.5, mAP 0.95 and recall of 0.14, 0.06979 and 0.6356 were found in this study. Conclusions: Experimental results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed approach under different lighting and environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T15:52:05Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.72897.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Case Report: Accidental firearm injury during trophy hunting and the role
           of paramedics in managing such cases at rural health posts in Nepal
           [version 2; peer review: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations]

    • Authors: Alok Atreya, Samata Nepal, Ashal Timalsina, Geeta Bashyal, Lokaratna Gyawali, Jenash Acharya
      Abstract: Possession of a firearm without a certified valid license is against Nepalese law. Following a decade-long civil war, Nepal government issued stringent laws not allowing public to possess firearms without a valid reason, despite bearing a license. However, there are people who possess and use firearms for hunting purposes. The present case reports an accidental death of a teenage boy who used a musket for hunting. The present case highlights the fact that despite these stringent laws, illegal possession of arms for trophy hunting is still prevalent in rural Nepal. Furthermore, this study aims to highlight the importance of paramedics in early intervention, stabilization and transport of the sick and injured to the hospital in emergency situations. Also, recruitment of paramedics in the ambulance service might have prevented untimely death in this particular case.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T13:55:30Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.55659.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Case Report: The importance of examining colon and rectum in patients
           with appendiceal cancer [version 2; peer review: 1 approved, 2 approved
           with reservations]

    • Authors: Hugin Reistrup, Siv Fonnes, Jacob Rosenberg, Kristoffer Andresen
      Abstract: Appendiceal cancer is rare and is often diagnosed incidentally in patients undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis. However, patients with appendiceal cancer are at increased risk of synchronous malignancy. In this case report, we present a 58-year-old man initially diagnosed with acute appendicitis after presenting to the emergency department with abdominal pain. He had an appendectomy and was discharged the following day. Unexpectedly, the postoperative histopathologic examination showed a primary adenocarcinoma in the appendix. A computed tomography scan showed rectal wall thickening and the patient was referred to colonoscopy where an experienced endoscopist found a rectal tumor during the digital rectal examination prior to the colonoscopy. The tumor was initially missed by the newly qualified doctor who examined the patient during his first admittance to hospital. The patient’s two primary cancers were treated with a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for the appendiceal cancer and a low anterior resection for the rectal cancer. This case supports the importance of a full colorectal workup in patients with appendiceal cancer. It also emphasizes the value of a thorough digital rectal examination and the need for improved focus on teaching and practice of the procedure.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T15:56:44Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.50909.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • A grammatico-pragmatic analysis of the because X construction:
           Private expression within public expression [version 2; peer review: 2

    • Authors: Masaru Kanetani
      Abstract: Background: This article investigates an innovative use of because, called the because X construction (e.g., because homework). Quantitative and qualitative research as well as research about the historical development of the construction have been conducted. The present article aims to determine what motivates the use of the construction.  Methods: Based on the data collected from the literature and online sources, the grammar of the because X construction is described in detail. The construction is then analyzed  within Hirose’s (2015) three-tier model of language use.  Results: A two-layered expressive structure is proposed: The X-element serves as a private expression, which is a speaker’s expression of thought with no intention of communication, whereas the whole construction functions publicly. The private nature of the X-element consistently accounts for the syntactic categories of the X-element and the restrictions on them observed in the literature.  Conclusion: The proposed two-layered expressive structure reflects a metapragmatic function of the construction. A private, subjective expression embedded in a public expression has the function of connecting the hearer to the speaker, and it accordingly brings about a joint attention effect. With such a function, the proposed structure is effective especially (but not exclusively) in online communication because one can strategically indicate closeness or intimacy to others, particularly in an environment where nonverbal means are difficult to apply.
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T12:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.72971.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Cohort study on educational well-being of children of Chinese origin
           adopted into transracial and international families in the Spanish
           education system [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: David Doncel-Abad, Pablo Cabrera-Álvarez
      Abstract: The following dataset focuses on the educational well-being of adopted girls of Chinese origin in Spanish schools. Due to its characteristics, the presence of this group may generate complex interaction dynamics in school; particularly regarding bullying in school linked to factors such as the acceptance of others. These are dynamics, which may indeed condition the educational experience of this social group. Therefore, the aim of creating this dataset is to measure the educational well-being of children of Chinese origin adopted into transracial families in Spain. Although this research was justified by the lack of studies on this social group, we aimed to go one-step further, we also studied the correlation between this social group’s educational experience, and to what extent they show an interest in Chinese culture. As we have written before, we incorporated the concept of Well-Being and we worked with the following indicators: Satisfaction with Life, Social Life, and Bullying in School, Racial Bullying, Personal Identity and Interest in Chinese Culture. To achieve the objective set forth, we conducted a questionnaire. The final sample consisted of 268 individuals. The creation of this dataset provided us with information that can shed light on the relationship between adoption, race/ethnicity and the educational experience of adopted children of Chinese origin.
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T13:27:26Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.52409.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Cross-sectional assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with
           knee osteoarthritis [version 3; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Sagar Goel, Surendra Umesh Kamath, Rajendra Annappa, Sunil Lakshmipura Krishnamurthy, Manesh Jain, Samarth Thakkar, Lulu Damsas, Sayak Banerjee, Prajwal Madapura Divakar
      Abstract: Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are prevalent in India. However, there is dearth of literature among Indians studying the relationship between the two. This study was carried out to assess various cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in patients with knee OA with an objective to investigate their association, screening and management.  Methods: In total, 225 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were diagnosed with knee OA on the basis of the Kellgren and Lawrence (K-L) classification of their radiograph. Participants were also assessed for CV risk factors; age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, smoking. Joint British Society QRisk3 calculator (JBS3) a comprehensive risk score calculator as well as a screening tool, which produces three more variables, namely 10-years risk of developing CVD, physiological heart age and life expectancy, was used. Chi Square, Fishers exact test and one-way ANOVA tests were used to compare the categorical and quantitative variables, respectively.. Multiple regression analysis was done to adjust the multiple con-founders and determine their significance. Results: Patients with severe knee OA had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of CV risk factors (p
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T12:55:44Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.27744.3
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Bayes Lines Tool (BLT): a SQL-script for analyzing diagnostic test
           results with an application to SARS-CoV-2-testing [version 3; peer review:
           2 approved]

    • Authors: Wouter Aukema, Bobby Rajesh Malhotra, Simon Goddek, Ulrike Kämmerer, Peter Borger, Kevin McKernan, Rainer Johannes Klement
      Abstract: The performance of diagnostic tests crucially depends on the disease prevalence, test sensitivity, and test specificity. However, these quantities are often not well known when tests are performed outside defined routine lab procedures which make the rating of the test results somewhat problematic. A current example is the mass testing taking place within the context of the world-wide SARS-CoV-2 crisis. Here, for the first time in history, laboratory test results have a dramatic impact on political decisions. Therefore, transparent, comprehensible, and reliable data is mandatory. It is in the nature of wet lab tests that their quality and outcome are influenced by multiple factors reducing their performance by handling procedures, underlying test protocols, and analytical reagents. These limitations in sensitivity and specificity have to be taken into account when calculating the real test results. As a resolution method, we have developed a Bayesian calculator, the Bayes Lines Tool (BLT), for analyzing disease prevalence, test sensitivity, test specificity, and, therefore, true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative numbers from official test outcome reports. The calculator performs a simple SQL (Structured Query Language) query and can easily be implemented on any system supporting SQL. We provide an example of influenza test results from California, USA, as well as two examples of SARS-CoV-2 test results from official government reports from The Netherlands and Germany-Bavaria, to illustrate the possible parameter space of prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity consistent with the observed data. Finally, we discuss this tool’s multiple applications, including its putative importance for informing policy decisions.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T14:57:20Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.51061.3
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Rice husk and melaleuca biochar additions reduce soil CH4 and N2O
           emissions and increase soil physicochemical properties [version 2; peer
           review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Nam Tran Sy, Thao Huynh Van, Chiem Nguyen Huu, Cong Nguyen Van, Tarao Mitsunori
      Abstract: Background: Biochar is a promising material in mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from paddy fields due to its remarkable structural properties. Rice husk biochar (RhB) and melaleuca biochar (MB) are amendment materials that could be used to potentially reduce emissions in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD). However, their effects on CH4 and N2O emissions and soil under local water management and conventional rice cultivation have not been thoroughly investigated. Methods: We conducted a field experiment using biochar additions to the topsoil layer (0-20 cm). Five treatments comprising 0 t ha-1 (CT0); 5 t ha-1 (RhB5) and 10 t ha-1 (RhB10), and 5 t ha-1 (MB5) and 10 t ha-1 (MB10) were designed plot-by-plot (20 m2) in triplicates. Results: The results showed that biochar application from 5 to 10 t ha-1 significantly decreased cumulative CH4 (24.2-28.0%, RhB; 22.0-14.1%, MB) and N2O (25.6-41.0%, RhB; 38.4–56.4%, MB) fluxes without a reduction in grain yield. Increasing the biochar application rate further did not decrease significantly total CH4 and N2O fluxes but was seen to significantly reduce the global warming potential (GWP) and yield-scale GWP in the RhB treatments. Biochar application improved soil Eh but had no effects on soil pH. Whereas CH4 flux correlated negatively with soil Eh (P
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T11:04:06Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.74041.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Data analytics competency and religiosity influence on external
           auditors’ performance in Malaysia [version 2; peer review: 1 approved, 2
           approved with reservations]

    • Authors: Nahariah Jaffar, Abdul Aziz Bin Ahmad, Noor Adwa Sulaiman
      Abstract: Background - Data analytics can support the external auditors’ judgements. However, little is known about the external auditors’ data analytics competency. Likewise, role of religiosity in enhancing the external auditors’ performance is also inadequately investigated. This study examined: 1) the effects of data analytics competency on the external auditors’ performance, and 2) the moderating effects of religiosity on data analytics competency and external auditors’ performance relationship. Methods – Survey was conducted on 201 external auditors. Data analytics competency dimensions, namely, personal capabilities, professional expertise, technical skills, technologies and tools expertise were examined. Religiosity was measured by level and dimension (faith, virtue and optional). Results – Data analytics competency (personal capabilities) has a significant positive effect on the Muslim external auditors’ performance, whereas data analytics competency (technologies and tools expertise) has a significant positive affect on the non-Muslim external auditors’ performance. Level of religiosity has significant moderating effect on the relationship between data analytics competency (technologies and tools expertise) and Muslim external auditors’ performance. Nonetheless, level of religiosity does not moderate the relationship between data analytics competency and the performance of non-Muslim external auditors. Religiosity (virtue) has significant moderating effect on the relationship between data analytics competency (personal capabilities) and Muslim external auditors’ performance. Meanwhile, religiosity (faith) has a significant moderating effect on the relationship between data analytics competency (technologies and tools expertise) and non-Muslim external auditors’ performance. Conclusion – This study demonstrates that data analytics competency and religiosity can influence the external auditors’ performance.
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T17:42:10Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.73206.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Students’ perception of online learning amidst the Covid-19 pandemic: A
           study of junior, senior high school and college students in a remote area
           [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Senida Harefa, Grace Lamudur Arta Sihombing
      Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about many changes in all sectors of life, especially in the field of education. These changes aim to make the learning process more effective in the pandemic environment. However, it can be challenging, as some students do not give positive responses to these changes, especially those in remote areas. This article aims to identify and report students' perceptions about the effectiveness of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in the remote North Tapanuli region of Indonesia. Methods: In this study, data were obtained using an online survey involving 30 students from three levels of education, namely junior high school, senior high school, and college. They are students who the teacher appoints as class administrators; through them, the teacher communicates about everything—learning activities. So compared to his other friends, they know more about the implementation of online learning during the covid 19 pandemic. In addition, schools in remote areas have fewer students than schools in big cities. So we conclude that this research is considered representative with thirty students as the sample. The data gathered from the survey were analyzed using quantitative descriptive methods. Results: Results show that online learning is considered less effective by students in remote areas; this happens because communication networks and infrastructure do not adequately support them to follow online learning. Conclusion: Teachers need to evaluate how to teach as well as re-design models and approaches to be applied in learning. This can be achieved by adjusting to the student’s current situation to generate interest and willingness to learn online.
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T12:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.52152.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Japanese sound-symbolic words in global contexts: from translation to
           hybridization [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Noriko Hiraishi
      Abstract: This paper explores the global reception and development of the artistic expression of onomatopoeia and mimetic words in modern and contemporary Japanese literary texts adopting the method of comparative literature. By analyzing sound-symbolic words and their translations in modern Japanese poetry and contemporary comics, the intercultural dialogues of these texts are examined and the emergence of hybrid onomatopoeia in global comic works is illuminated. The Japanese language is often noted for its richness of sound-symbolic words. In the literary world, modern poetry adopted and elaborated the use of these words from the late 19th century in its quest for a new style of poetry. In the early 20th century, poets developed the artistic expression of sound-symbolic words and succeeded in giving musicality to the “new-style poem”. However, the translation of Japanese sound-symbolic words has always been problematic. Experimental uses of these words in modern poems were often untranslatable, making the translations incomprehensible or dull. Nevertheless, graphic narratives and their worldwide distribution changed that situation. Japanese comics (manga) has particularly developed the artistic expression of sound-symbolic words. Usually placed outside speech balloons, these words are elaborately depicted and are important elements of the panel/page layout. Notably, the global popularity of the genre developed a new phase of intercultural dialogue. As not every word has an equivalent or is translatable in the target language, translators have left sound-symbolic words untouched in the translated versions, putting translation aside. Thus, the combination of Japanese and the target language seems to influence the visual comprehension of sound effects among the readers. Through the examinations of some cases, this paper brings to light the emergence of some hybrid onomatopoeia and reveals that the “Third Space” formed by the translation and hybridization of manga is a dynamic field that creates a new culture.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T15:46:23Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.55546.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Contribution of BCR-ABL molecular variants and leukemic stem cells in
           response and resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a review [version
           2; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Mohammad Al Hamad
      Abstract: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm generated by reciprocal chromosomal translocation, t (9; 22) (q34; q11) in the transformed hematopoietic stem cell. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) target the mature proliferating BCR-ABL cells, the major CML driver, and increase overall and disease-free survival. However, mutant clones, pre-existing or due to therapy, develop resistance against TKIs. BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein activates various molecular pathways including the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, JAK2/STAT pathway, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Stimulation of these pathways in TKI resistant CML patients, make them a new target. Moreover, a small proportion of CML cells, leukemic stem cells (LSCs), persist during the TKI therapy and sustain the disease in the patient. Engraftment of LSCs in the bone marrow niche and dysregulation of miRNA participate greatly in the TKI resistance. Current efforts are needed for determining the reason behind TKI resistance, identification, and elimination of CML LSC might be of great need for cancer cure.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T18:22:35Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.74570.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Online harassment in Japan: Dissecting the targeting of a female
           journalist [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Aki Tonami, Mitsuo Yoshida, Yukie Sano
      Abstract: Harassment on the Internet, particularly on social media such as Twitter, has reached a level where it can, without exaggeration, be characterised as a real-world societal problem in Japan. However, studies on this phenomenon in the Japanese language environment, especially adopting a victim-centric perspective, are rare. In this paper, we incorporated the concept of online harassment and reviewed existing studies about online harassment from Japan and abroad. We then conducted a detailed case analysis of the “flaming” of a female journalist and those who targeted her on Twitter. Based on our analysis, we observed that there were three layers of users who targeted the journalist: influencers, users who responded to the instigation by influencers, and trolls. Each harassed the journalist, but in a different manner. Given Japan’s particular difficulty of imposing domestic regulations on social media companies that are mostly from abroad, we propose and describe possible measures that individuals and their employers should consider taking.
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.74657.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Accumulation of essential (copper, iron, zinc) and non-essential (lead,
           cadmium) heavy metals in Caulerpa racemosa, sea water, and marine
           sediments of Bintan Island, Indonesia [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Tengku Said Raza’i, . Thamrin, . Nofrizal, Viktor Amrifo, Hilfi Pardi, Imam Pangestiansyah Putra, Try Febrianto, Aidil Fadhli Ilhamdy
      Abstract: Background: Heavy metals are materials naturally occurring in nature and increase with a rise in human activity. Ex-mining areas and domestic waste from human settlements are sources of heavy metal contamination that enter and pollute water, which then accumulates in various organisms including the Caulerpa racemosa community. The accumulation of heavy metals in C. racemosa has a wide impact on the food chain in aquatic ecosystems and humans because this alga is a consumptive commodity.   Methods: Sampling of C. racemosa was carried out at seven sites on Bintan Island, Indonesia covering the eastern (Teluk Bakau, Beralas Pasir, Malang Rapat), northern (Berakit and Pengudang), western (Sakera), and southern parts (Tg. Siambang). Sampling was carried out during different monsoons, and heavy metals in water and sediment samples were measured to determine the heavy metal concentration. Heavy metals were analyzed by a spectrophotometric method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.   Results: The results showed that heavy metal concentrations fluctuate according to changes in the wind season, which carry currents and spread pollutants into the water. The concentration of metal in the water is also from anthropogenic activities. The heavy metal content of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in C. racemosa is high in locations close to settlements. Meanwhile, in seawater samples, Fe and Zn metals have the highest concentrations compared to others.  Conclusions: Ex-bauxite mines are a source of Fe and Zn metal contamination in the environment, especially at Tg. Siambang. The levels of these heavy metals in the sediment are also high, as surface particle deposits accumulate at the bottom of the sediment. In general, the levels of heavy metals Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, and Zn increase in the northern monsoon because the dynamics of the water transport greater heavy metal pollution.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T13:01:15Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.54445.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Frequency of parasitic infections in Arachishypogaea L (groundnuts),
           Citrulluslanatus seeds (watermelon seeds), and Ziziphusspina-christi
           (nabag) sold by street vendors in Khartoum State, Sudan: a cross-sectional
           study [version 4; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Arwa Suleiman Mohammed, Ahmed Abd Alla, Ahmed Galander, Tayseer Elfaki, Ahmed Ibrahim Hashim, Hisham N. Altayb
      Abstract: Background: Plant products, including seeds are an important source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, and energy. This study aimed to assess parasitic contaminations in roasted groundnuts, nabag, and tasali (watermelon seeds) sold by street vendors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Methods: The frequency of parasitic contaminations among all crop products was detected by washing the plants with saline, and then conducting an examination using a formal ether concentration technique (FECT), followed by a saturated sugar floatation technique. Results: The detected parasites belonged to two species: Entamoeba histolytica (33.3%) and Giardia lamblia (15.6%). No helminthic parasites were detected. Mixed contamination of the mentioned parasites was also observed (11.1%). The most contaminated crop was nabag, followed by groundnut, and finally tasali. Conclusion: No relation was established between the positivity of samples for parasites and crop type, Khartoum State city, or  seller sex. FECT was more sensitive than the saturated sugar floatation technique as a detection method.
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T09:38:40Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.53682.4
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Experimental-analytical approach to assessing mechanosensitive cartilage
           blood marker kinetics in healthy adults: dose-response relationship and
           interrelationship of nine candidate markers [version 2; peer review: 2

    • Authors: Simon Herger, Werner Vach, Anna-Maria Liphardt, Corina Nüesch, Christian Egloff, Annegret Mündermann
      Abstract: Purpose: To determine the suitability of selected blood biomarkers of articular cartilage as mechanosensitive markers and to investigate the dose-response relationship between ambulatory load magnitude and marker kinetics in response to load.  Methods: Serum samples were collected from 24 healthy volunteers before and at three time points after a 30-minute walking stress test performed on three test days. In each experimental session, one of three ambulatory loads was applied: 100% body weight (BW); 80%BW; 120%BW. Serum concentrations of COMP, MMP-3, MMP-9, ADAMTS-4, PRG-4, CPII, C2C and IL-6 were assessed using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A two-stage analytical approach was used to determine the suitability of a biomarker by testing the response to the stress test (criterion I) and the dose-response relationship between ambulatory load magnitude and biomarker kinetics (criterion II).  Results. COMP, MMP-3 and IL-6 at all three time points after, MMP-9 at 30 and 60 minutes after, and ADAMTS-4 and CPII at immediately after the stress test showed an average response to load or an inter-individual variation in response to load of up to 25% of pre-test levels. The relation to load magnitude on average or an inter-individual variation in this relationship was up to 8% from load level to load level. There was a positive correlation for the slopes of the change-load relationship between COMP and MMP-3, and a negative correlation for the slopes between COMP, MMP-3 and IL-6 with MMP-9, and COMP with IL6.  Conclusions: COMP, MMP-3, IL-6, MMP-9, and ADAMTS-4 warrant further investigation in the context of articular cartilage mechanosensitivity and its role in joint degeneration and OA. While COMP seems to be able to reflect a rapid response, MMP-3 seems to reflect a slightly longer lasting, but probably also more distinct response. MMP-3 showed also the strongest association with the magnitude of load.
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T14:58:35Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.52159.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • Effects of exercise-based prehabilitation in children undergoing elective
           surgeries: a systematic review [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Jean Noronha, Stephen Samuel, Vijay Pratap Singh, H Shivananda Prabhu
      Abstract: Background: Prehabilitation is a therapeutic strategy involving preoperative physical exercises, nutritional support, and stress and anxiety reduction. This approach has been gaining popularity and has been seeing effective results in adults in terms of improving pre and postoperative outcomes. The purpose of this review was to summarise the evidence about the effects of exercise-based prehabilitation programs on various outcome measures in children post elective surgeries.­­ Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PEDro, CINAHL/EBSCO and EMBASE electronic databases were searched from inception to June 2021. Based on the inclusion criteria, titles and abstracts were independently screened by the authors. After that, a data extraction table of the selected studies which included the participants, type, and details of exercise intervention, outcome measures and results were analysed after which the quality assessment of the studies was done. Results: The search yielded 2219 articles of which three articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria with two studies being randomized controlled trials and one being a quasi-experimental pre-post type of study. One randomized controlled trial was on the effects of exercise-based prehabilitation in reducing pulmonary complications post cardiac surgeries in children and the other two studies were on the effects of prehabilitation on functional capacity & pulmonary function. All the three articles found that exercise-based prehabilitation had a positive effect on children’s post-surgery. Conclusion: Although there is a paucity of evidence-based literature, we conclude based on the existing literature retrieved by our review that exercise-based prehabilitation improves postoperative outcomes and helps in reducing postoperative complications in children undergoing various surgeries.
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T10:35:03Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.74493.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2022)
  • The impact of virtual learning on Multimedia University student

    • Authors: Tai Hen Toong, Lim Liyen, Liew Yee Ping
      Abstract: Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has imposed adaption to virtual learning for students and educators across all levels of education in the world. The effectiveness of virtual learning varies amongst age groups. It has been suggested that the adoption of virtual learning will continue to be implemented even after pandemic, particularly in higher education. Therefore, it is crucial to validate the effectiveness of a virtual learning approach among university students to ensure a smooth transition from a conventional education model to a hybrid education model. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the impact of virtual learning on students’ performance in a virtual classroom. Methods: We analysed survey data collected from undergraduate students at Multimedia University, Malaysia. Convenience sampling and self-administered online surveys were used to understand the impact of virtual learning. Multiple regression analysis was performed using SPSS software Results: A total of 210 first and second year degree and diploma students responded to the online surveys. Factors affecting virtual learning were segregated into three categories: virtual teaching techniques, technology issues, and environment distraction. Respondents stated that the critical factor that affect the effectiveness of virtual learning and impacts on students’ performance was the virtual teaching techniques employed by educators. Conclusions: This study concluded that virtual teaching techniques have significant impact on students’ performance whereas technology issues and environment distraction do not significantly influence students’ performance during virtual learning. Although this study is limited to students from Multimedia University, it lays the groundwork for future research to involve students from other universities or other countries. A future study can address more factors that affect virtual learning and students’ performance, such as students’ attitude and motivation.
      PubDate: 2021-11-08T12:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.72881.1
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2021)
  • Case Report: Asymptomatic COVID-19 patient with a subtle hypercoagulable
           state and fluctuating D-dimer level [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Jefferson Caesario, Decsa M. Hertanto, Kukuh D. Hernugrahanto, Dwikora N. Utomo, Nicolaas C. Budhiparama, Djoko Santoso, Pancras C.W. Hogendoorn
      Abstract: Background: COVID-19 can infect an asymptomatic person silently without any overt symptoms despite diffuse blood clots throughout the body. Clot formation is induced by COVID-19 associated coagulopathy that can cause a high mortality rate. D-dimer, a fairly decisive marker for the coagulopathy event, is physiologically a marker of the fibrinolysis process. The increase of D-dimers in COVID-19 cases must be followed up because it relates to the initiation of a cytokine storm. Case presentation: We report an asymptomatic patient with sudden D-dimer elevation who received anticoagulant therapy. After three days of heparin administration, D-dimer results became normal and anticoagulant therapy was stopped. However, on the 12th day, the D-dimer level rebounded back and was followed by an increase of hs-C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, IL-6, although SARS-CoV-2 PCR result became negative. A hyperglycaemic reaction and a sudden increase of HbA1C was observed in the patient. After three weeks D-dimer had returned to normal levels, and so did the other markers. The patient recovered fully and still no symptoms were obvious. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients without symptoms may be at risk of an asymptomatic coagulopathy process. The decreasing level of D-dimer erroneously cannot ensure that the coagulopathy process stops.
      PubDate: 2021-11-03T15:21:12Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.74009.1
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2021)
  • The impact of vitamin D supplementation on peripheral neuropathy in a
           sample of Egyptian prediabetic individuals [version 2; peer review: 2

    • Authors: Mohamed Reda Halawa, Iman Zaky Ahmed, Nahla Fawzy Abouelezz, Nagwa Roushdy Mohamed, Naira Hany Abdelaziz Khalil, Laila Mahmoud Ali Hendawy
      Abstract: Background: Vitamin D deficiency is seen more frequently in diabetic patients with distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of data concerning prediabetic individuals with peripheral neuropathy (PN). Therefore, we aimed to study the association of vitamin D deficiency with PN severity and to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on PN in prediabetics. Methods: A case-control study was conducted consisting of 89 prediabetic individuals with PN and a control group of prediabetics without PN, recruited from the outpatient department of the National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Cairo, Egypt. All patients were screened for PN using clinical examination and Douleur Neuropathique 4 diagnostic questionnaire (DN4). Group A (with PN) was assessed for neuropathic severity using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). In addition, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post 75g glucose (2h-PPBG) and lipid profile were measured for both groups. Prediabetic patients with PN were given vitamin D3 200.000 IU IM monthly for three months. After three months, clinical assessment, DN4, SF-MPQ and all laboratory measures were repeated. Results: Vitamin D was not associated with the severity of PN patients. However, supplementation of vitamin D resulted in a highly significant improvement in glycemic parameters , p≤0.001. Interestingly, neuropathy score and severity before vitamin D supplementation were (6.4±1.6 and 28.3±7.2) and after became (2.5±0.9 and 17±6.3, p≤0.001). Conclusion: Correction of vitamin D deficiency in prediabetics with PN as well as hypovitaminosis D, improves glycemic parameters, PN score and severity.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T11:33:19Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.55221.2
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2021)
  • Performing post-genome-wide association study analysis: overview,
           challenges and recommendations [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Yagoub Adam, Chaimae Samtal, Jean-tristan Brandenburg, Oluwadamilare Falola, Ezekiel Adebiyi
      Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide  huge information on statistically significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with various human complex traits and diseases. By performing GWAS studies, scientists have successfully identified the association of hundreds of thousands to  millions of SNPs to a single phenotype. Moreover, the association of some SNPs with rare diseases has been intensively tested. However, classic GWAS studies have not yet provided solid, knowledgeable insight into functional and biological mechanisms underlying phenotypes or mechanisms of diseases. Therefore, several post-GWAS (pGWAS) methods have been recommended. Currently, there is no simple scientific document to provide a quick guide for performing pGWAS analysis. pGWAS is a crucial step for a better understanding of the biological machinery beyond the SNPs. Here, we provide an overview to performing pGWAS analysis and demonstrate the challenges behind each method. Furthermore, we direct readers to key articles for each pGWAS method and present the overall issues in pGWAS analysis.  Finally, we include a custom pGWAS pipeline to guide new users when performing their research.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T09:09:37Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.53962.1
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2021)
  • Residues of tetracyclines and β-lactams antibiotics induce carbonylation
           of chicken breast [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Johana Marquez, Albeiro Marrugo Padilla, Darío Méndez Cuadro, Erika Rodríguez Cavallo
      Abstract: Background: Worldwide, chicken meat is widely consumed due to its low cost, high nutritional value and non-interference with religious or cultural beliefs. However, during animal husbandry chickens are exposed to many chemical substances, including tetracyclines and β-lactams, which are used to prevent and cure several infections. Some residues of these compounds may bioaccumulate and be present in chicken meat after slaughtering, promoting oxidative reactions. Methods: In order to evaluate in vitro carbonylation induced by tetracyclines and β-lactams residues, a proteomic approach was used. For this, chicken muscle was individually contaminated with tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline) and β-lactams (ampicillin, benzathine penicillin, dicloxacillin and oxacillin) at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 times their maximum residue level (MRL). Then, sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble proteins were extracted and their content were measured using the Bradford method. Protein carbonylation was measured using the 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine alkaline method. Results: Residues of tetracyclines and β-lactams induced in vitro carbonylation on sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble proteins even at 0.5MRL concentrations (p0.05). Variables such as the partition coefficient (log P) and the concentration of these antibiotics showed a high correlation with the oxidative capacity of tetracyclines and β-lactams on chicken breast proteins. Conclusions: This study shows that the presence of tetracyclines and β-lactams residues at MRLs concentrations promotes in vitro carbonylation on chicken breast proteins. Our results provide important insights about the impact of antibiotics on the integrity of meat proteins intended for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2021-07-15T10:22:30Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.53863.1
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2021)
  • Case Report: Diabetic urinary auto-brewery and review of literature
           [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Abdulrahman A. Alduraywish
      Abstract: Background: Although candiduria is an expected encounter and should not be surprising in uncontrolled diabetes with glucose-enriched urine, urinary auto-brewery is rarely thought of by diabetologists. Moreover, endogenous ethanol production in humans from gut microbiome, urinary tract fungi and bacteria, and intermediary metabolism, has been reported for a long time, particularly in diabetics.  Case description: To alert physicians to the overlooked implication of endogenously produced ethanol both as a biomarker for poor control of diabetes and as a complicating factor, we report this case of an elderly male smoker alcohol-abstinent insulin-dependent Type 2 diabetic patient. Because of circumstantial treatment and incompliance for one week, he developed endogenously produced alcohol intoxication. We proposed candidal urinary auto-brewery evidence sourced from the case history, urinalysis, and culture/identification tests - without excluding other sources. Fortunately, his diet and glycemic control were fairly controlled and, liver and kidney functions were almost normal. Amphotericin B I/V for five days, insulin, and a fluid therapy regimen greatly improved the case and cleared both the candiduria and ethanol from the urine and blood and the patient regained his base-line normal life.   Conclusion: Symptoms of alcohol intoxication should be expected in patients with uncontrolled diabetes that most often correlates with candiduria and/or constipation. These symptoms can be exaggerated in those already suffering a degree of dementia and/or comorbid psychiatric/neurologic affections. Direct wet mount examination of urine under phase contrast microscopy would show the budding yeast cells.  Appropriate antifungal, insulin and fluid therapies regained the base-line norms.
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T08:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.52461.1
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2021)
  • Heterogeneity and other problems in a pooled analysis of snus use and
           mortality [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Brad Rodu, Nantaporn Plurphanswat
      Abstract: A recent analysis of Swedish snus use and mortality combined eight Swedish datasets and found that exclusive Swedish male snus users have statistically significant increased mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases and other causes. These findings, from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use, are in sharp contrast with previous pooled results from the same group. The discrepant results may be indicative of unresolved statistical problems that haven’t been addressed by the collaboration authors in any of their studies. The most important problem is unresolved heterogeneity among the eight cohorts, which we describe in detail, and we show how the use of the random effects method by the authors was not sufficient. We explain why the tables in the article are uninformative, and we demonstrate why the exclusion of smokers in the analysis was not validated and eliminated important information. Finally, we strongly recommend some straightforward and easily implemented corrective measures.
      PubDate: 2021-05-14T14:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.52127.1
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2021)
  • Influence of polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor gene
           on allograft rejection after kidney transplantation: a meta-analysis
           [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

    • Authors: Thanee Eiamsitrakoon, Phuntila Tharabenjasin, Noel Pabalan, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Adis Tasanarong
      Abstract: Background: Reported associations of allograft rejection in kidney transplant patients with VEGF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been inconsistent between studies, which prompted a meta-analysis to obtain more precise estimates. Methods: Using the PICO elements, kidney transplant patients (P) were compared by genotype data between rejectors (I) and non-rejectors (C) in order to determine the risk of allograft rejection (O) attributed to the VEGF SNPs. Literature search of four databases yielded seven articles. To calculate risks for allograft rejection, four SNPs were examined. Using the allele-genotype model we compared the variant (var) with the wild-type (wt) and heterozygous (var-wt) alleles. Meta-analysis treatments included outlier and subgroup analyses, the latter was based on ethnicity (Indians/Caucasians) and rejection type (acute/chronic). Multiple comparisons were corrected with the Bonferroni test. Results: Five highly significant outcomes (Pa < 0.01) survived Bonferroni correction, one of which showed reduced risk for the var allele (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.82). The remaining four indicated increased risk for the wt allele where the chronic rejection (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.36-3.24) and Indian (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.84) subgroups were accorded susceptibility status. Conclusions: Risk associations for renal allograft rejection were increased and reduced on account of the wt and var alleles, respectively. These findings could render the VEGF polymorphisms useful in the clinical genetics of kidney transplantation.
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T14:55:29Z
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.27800.1
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2021)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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