Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Biomarker Sciences and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
All Life     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Phycology     Open Access  
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in the Life Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access  
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioeduscience     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226)
Bioinformatics Advances : Journal of the International Society for Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Antioxidants
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.847
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-3921
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1214: Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Chronic
           Sensory Conditions: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Diana Tang, Yvonne Tran, Giriraj S. Shekhawat, Bamini Gopinath
      First page: 1214
      Abstract: Dietary flavonoids have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vascular health benefits, which align with the proposed pathophysiology of age-related eye conditions and hearing problems (hearing loss and tinnitus). This scoping review is based on Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage framework and aims to summarise current evidence on the association between the dietary flavonoid intake and chronic sensory conditions in adults, and to identify the research gaps in this area. Eligible studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE PsycINFO via the OVID platform, and Google Scholar, as well as manually searching the reference lists of the eligible articles. The inclusion criteria included: articles with full-text access, written in the English language, and focused on chronic sensory conditions and dietary flavonoid intake in an adult population. Studies focused on flavonoid supplements were excluded. Ten studies were included in this review. The evidence suggests that the flavonoid subclass, flavonols, are protective against eye conditions, including age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and glaucoma. There is insufficient evidence to support an association with hearing loss or tinnitus. Overall, dietary flavonol intake appears to be protective against some chronic eye conditions. However, for most eye and hearing-related conditions, only one study was identified. Thus, there is a need for more recent high-quality research to be conducted to confirm any significant associations.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071214
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1215: Effects of Stocking Density on the
           Growth Performance, Physiological Parameters, Redox Status and Lipid
           Metabolism of Micropterus salmoides in Integrated Rice–Fish Farming
           Systems

    • Authors: Rui Jia, Long Wang, Yiran Hou, Wenrong Feng, Bing Li, Jian Zhu
      First page: 1215
      Abstract: Stocking density has been identified as one of the main factors affecting fish growth, welfare and behavior. However, few studies have focused on the effects of stocking density on fish health in integrated rice–fish farming systems. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different stocking densities on the growth performance, physiological parameters, redox status and lipid metabolism of Micropterus salmoides in an integrated rice–fish farming system. The fish were reared at three densities: low density (LD, 40 g/m3), medium density (MD, 80 g/m3) and high density (HD, 120 g/m3) for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, fish reared in the MD and HD groups showed lower growth performance than those from the LD group. The HD treatment significantly altered the physiological parameters, including glucose and lactate. Meanwhile, the HD treatment induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after 90 days of farming. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis revealed that HD treatment led to abnormal lipid metabolism. Interestingly, we found the suppression of three key pathways related to lipid metabolism, including the PPAR, insulin and adipocytokine signaling pathways, in the HD group. Overall, our data indicated that the HD treatment inhibited growth and caused physiological responses, oxidative stress and abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism in M. salmoides in an integrated rice–fish farming system.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071215
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1216: Effect of Selenium on the Iron
           Homeostasis and Oxidative Damage in Brain and Liver of Mice

    • Authors: Inga Staneviciene, Jurgita Sulinskiene, Ilona Sadauskiene, Arunas Liekis, Ausrine Ruzgaite, Rima Naginiene, Dale Baranauskiene, Vaida Simakauskiene, Raulas Krusnauskas, Dale Viezeliene
      First page: 1216
      Abstract: Selenium is an essential trace element that maintains normal brain function, mainly due its antioxidant properties. Although the amount of Se in the body is tightly regulated by the liver, both an excess of and deficiency in Se can modulate the cellular redox status and affect the homeostasis of other essential elements for both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of inorganic selenium excess on oxidative stress and iron homeostasis in brain and liver of laboratory BALB/c mice, which were supplemented with Na2SeO3 solution (0.2 mg and 0.4 mg Se/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity/gene expression were used as markers of oxidative damage and were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Selenium and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Catalase gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR and ΔΔCt methods. Our results showed that doses of 0.2 mg Se and 0.4 mg Se caused a relatively low accumulation of Se in the brain of mice; however, it induced a 10-fold increase in its accumulation in the liver and also increased iron accumulation in both tested organs. Both doses of Se increased the content of malondialdehyde as well as decreased catalase activity in the liver, while the 0.4 mg Se dose has also activated catalase gene expression. Brain of mice exposed to 0.2 mg Se showed reduced lipid peroxidation; however, the exposure to 0.4 mg of Se increased the catalase activity as well as gene expression. One may conclude that exposure to both doses of Se caused the accumulation of this micronutrient in mice brain and liver and have also provided a disrupting effect on the levels of iron. Both doses of Se have triggered oxidative liver damage. In the brain, the effect of Se was dose dependent, where −0.2 mg of Se provided antioxidant activity, which was observed through a decrease in lipid peroxidation. On the contrary, the 0.4 mg dose increased brain catalase activity as well as gene expression, which may have contributed to maintaining brain lipid peroxidation at the control level.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071216
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1217: Protective Effects of Diets Rich in
           Polyphenols in Cigarette Smoke (CS)-Induced Oxidative Damages and
           Associated Health Implications

    • Authors: Mithun Rudrapal, Siddhartha Maji, Shiv Kumar Prajapati, Payal Kesharwani, Prashanta Kumar Deb, Johra Khan, Randa Mohamed Ismail, Rani S. Kankate, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Shubham J. Khairnar, Atul R. Bendale
      First page: 1217
      Abstract: Cigarette smoking has been responsible for causing many life-threatening diseases such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases as well as lung cancer. One of the prominent health implications of cigarette smoking is the oxidative damage of cellular constituents, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. The oxidative damage is caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS, oxidants) present in the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (CS). In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the potential health benefits of dietary polyphenols as natural antioxidant molecules. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that long-term consumption of diets (fruits, vegetables, tea, and coffee) rich in polyphenols offer protective effects against the development of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. For instance, green tea has chemopreventive effects against CI-induced lung cancer. Tea might prevent CS-induced oxidative damages in diseases because tea polyphenols, such as catechin, EGCG, etc., have strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, apple polyphenols, including catechin and quercetin, provide protection against CS-induced acute lung injury such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In CS-induced health problems, the antioxidant action is often accompanied by the anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenols. In this narrative review, the CS-induced oxidative damages and the associated health implications/pathological conditions (or diseases) and the role of diets rich in polyphenols and/or dietary polyphenolic compounds against various serious/chronic conditions of human health have been delineated.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071217
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1218: Dim Blue Light at Night Induces Spatial
           Memory Impairment in Mice by Hippocampal Neuroinflammation and Oxidative
           Stress

    • Authors: Qi Liu, Zixu Wang, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Yaoxing Chen
      First page: 1218
      Abstract: Light pollution is one of the most serious public problems, especially the night light. However, the effect of dim blue light at night (dLAN-BL) on cognitive function is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to dLAN-BL in C57BL/6J mice for 4 consecutive weeks. Our results showed dLAN-BL significantly impaired spatial learning and memory and increased plasma corticosterone level in mice. Consistent with these changes, we observed dLAN-BL significantly increased the numbers and activation of microglia and the levels of oxidative stress product MDA in the hippocampus, decreased the levels of antioxidant enzymes Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Gluathione reductase (Gsr), total antioxidants (T-AOC) and the number of neurons in the hippocampus, up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of IL6, TNF-α and the protein expression levels of iNOS, COX2, TLR4, p-p65, Cleaved-Caspase3 and BAX, and down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of IL4, IL10, Psd95, Snap25, Sirt1, Dcx and the protein expression level of BCL2. In vitro results further showed corticosterone (10uM)-induced BV2 cell activation and up-regulated content of IL6, TNF-α in the cell supernatant and the protein expression levels of iNOS, COX2, p-p65 in BV2 cells. Our findings suggested dLAN-BL up-regulated plasma corticosterone level and hippocampal microglia activation, which in turn caused oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, leading to neuronal loss and synaptic dysfunction, ultimately leading to spatial learning and memory dysfunction in mice.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071218
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1219: Ultrasound-Assisted Aqueous Extraction
           of Chlorogenic Acid and Cynarin with the Impact of Inulin from Burdock
           (Arctium lappa L.) Roots

    • Authors: Yuan Chen, Jing-Yi Su, Chun-Yao Yang
      First page: 1219
      Abstract: The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of chlorogenic acid (CGA) and cynarin with the impact of inulin from burdock (Arctium lappa L.) roots was investigated. Three extraction modes, ultrasound at 40 kHz/300 W (U-40), ultrasound at 120 kHz/300 W (U-120), and shaking at 120 rpm (S-120), were compared. The effects of process parameters on the extraction of polyphenols, CGA, cynarin, inulin, and antioxidant activity using U-40 were evaluated. In 10 min, 50 °C, and 1/30 (g/mL-water) of solid-to-liquid ratio, the order of CGA content in the dried burdock root powder (DBR) was U-40 (484.65 μg/g-DBR) > U-120 (369.93 μg/g-DBR) > S-120 (176.99 μg/g-DBR), while the order of cynarin content in DBR was U-120 (376.47 μg/g-DBR) > U-40 (341.54 μg/g-DBR) > S-120 (330.44 μg/g-DBR), showing the selective extraction of CGA and cynarin between using 40 and 120 kHz of ultrasound. The profiles of increase and then decrease in free CGA and cynarin concentrations against time revealed their degradation, including their interactions with the abundant inulin. The kinetic model, considering extraction followed by degradation, was proposed to describe the variations of free CGA and cynarin against time. This study provides an effective method using water to extract CGA, cynarin, and inulin from burdock roots.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071219
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1220: Effects of Barranca yajiagengensis
           Powder in the Diet of Trachinotus ovatus on the Growth Performance,
           Antioxidant Capacity, Immunity and Morphology of the Liver and Intestine

    • Authors: Wei Zhao, Xin Cui, Zi-Qiao Wang, Rong Yao, Meng-Die Chen, Bao-Yan Gao, Cheng-Wu Zhang, Jin Niu
      First page: 1220
      Abstract: Barranca yajiagengensis, a novel filamentous microalga, can accumulate lutein under high-light and low-nitrogen conditions. It is well known that lutein has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of including lutein-rich B. yajiagengensis powder in the diet of Trachinotus ovatus on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, immunity, liver, and intestinal morphology. For this aim, three experimental diets containing 0% (BY0), 1% (BY1), and 5% (BY5) B. yajiagengensis powder were formulated for six-week feeding trials. The results indicated that growth performance, feed utilization, and intestinal morphology were not affected by different diet treatments. Fish fed with the BY5 diet promoted antioxidant ability by activating the Nrf2-ARE signal pathway and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activities. Furthermore, the BY5 diet improved non-specific immunity and antibacterial ability by activating lysozymes and the complement system and increasing the nitric oxide (NO) content and total nitric oxide synthase activity. Dietary B. yajiagengensis supplementation improved the liver morphology and exerted hepatoprotective effects. Therefore, as a natural source of lutein, B. yajiagengensis has the potential as a safe and non-toxic immunostimulant for T. ovatus. A diet supplemented with 5% B. yajiagengensis is recommended to improve the growth, antioxidant capacity, immune response, and liver health of T. ovatus.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071220
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1221: Apple Pomace as Valuable Food
           Ingredient for Enhancing Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Italian
           Salami

    • Authors: Luca Grispoldi, Federica Ianni, Francesca Blasi, Luna Pollini, Silvia Crotti, Deborah Cruciani, Beniamino Terzo Cenci-Goga, Lina Cossignani
      First page: 1221
      Abstract: Nowadays, food fortification with bioactive compounds deriving from agri-food waste is of great interest all over the world. In this work, apple pomace (AP), the most abundant by-product of apple juice manufacturing, was characterised by chemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses. AP showed valuable antioxidant activity, due to the presence of phenolic compounds (8.56 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), including quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranoside, and phloridzin. Dried AP, at 7% and 14%, was added to pork meat to produce Italian salami, then subjected to 25 days of ripening. Physicochemical, colorimetric and microbiological analyses were carried out at days 0, 5, 11, 19 and 25, while nutritional and sensory evaluations were performed at the end of the ripening. The overall acceptability was slightly higher for 7% AP compared to 14% AP sample, and generally the replacement of a percentage of meat with apple pomace allowed the production of salami with sensory properties comparable to those obtained with classic recipes. The improved fibre and phenol content, together with the lower fat and calories, represent the most interesting characteristics of fortified salami. The results confirm that the addition of AP represents a valid approach to adding healthy compounds to salami.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071221
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1222: The Evolution of Nitric Oxide Function:
           From Reactivity in the Prebiotic Earth to Examples of Biological Roles and
           Therapeutic Applications

    • Authors: Mark Shepherd, Daniela Giordano, Cinzia Verde, Robert K. Poole
      First page: 1222
      Abstract: Nitric oxide was once considered to be of marginal interest to the biological sciences and medicine; however, there is now wide recognition, but not yet a comprehensive understanding, of its functions and effects. NO is a reactive, toxic free radical with numerous biological targets, especially metal ions. However, NO and its reaction products also play key roles as reductant and oxidant in biological redox processes, in signal transduction, immunity and infection, as well as other roles. Consequently, it can be sensed, metabolized and modified in biological systems. Here, we present a brief overview of the chemistry and biology of NO—in particular, its origins in geological time and in contemporary biology, its toxic consequences and its critical biological functions. Given that NO, with its intrinsic reactivity, appeared in the early Earth’s atmosphere before the evolution of complex lifeforms, we speculate that the potential for toxicity preceded biological function. To examine this hypothesis, we consider the nature of non-biological and biological targets of NO, the evolution of biological mechanisms for NO detoxification, and how living organisms generate this multifunctional gas.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071222
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1223: Characterization of Redox Environment
           and Tryptophan Catabolism through Kynurenine Pathway in Military
           Divers’ and Swimmers’ Serum Samples

    • Authors: Laura Sánchez Chapul, Gonzalo Pérez de la Cruz, Lucio Antonio Ramos Chávez, Jesús F. Valencia León, Joel Torres Beltrán, Erika Estrada Camarena, Paul Carillo Mora, Daniela Ramírez Ortega, José U. Baños Vázquez, Gabriela Martínez Nava, Alexandra Luna Angulo, Carlos Martínez Canseco, Tiffany Y. Wences Chirino, Juan Ríos Martínez, Verónica Pérez de la Cruz
      First page: 1223
      Abstract: Endurance and resistance exercises, alone or in combination, induce metabolic changes that affect tryptophan (Trp) catabolism. The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the main route of Trp degradation, and it is modulated by the inflammatory and redox environments. Previous studies have shown that KP metabolites work as myokines that mediate the positive systemic effects related to exercise. However, it is poorly understood how different exercise modalities and intensities impact the KP. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of two different exercise modalities, military diving and swimming, on the KP and the redox environment. A total of 34 healthy men from the Mexican Navy were included in the study, 20 divers and 14 swimmers, who started and stayed in military training consistently during the six months of the study; 12 Mexican men without fitness training were used as the control group. Physical fitness was determined at the beginning and after 6 months of training; criteria included body composition; serum levels of Trp, kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK); the glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG); and malondialdehyde (MDA).. Results showed a significant loss of body fat in both the diver and swimmer groups. Compared with the control group, divers showed a decrease in Trp and 3-HK levels, but no changes were observed in the KYN/Trp, KYNA/Trp or 3-HK/Trp ratios, while swimmers showed a decrease in KYN levels and an increase in the KYNA and 3-HK levels. Additionally, divers showed a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio and an increase in MDA levels, in contrast to the swimmers, who showed a decrease in MDA levels and an increase in GSH/GSSG levels. Our findings suggest a differential shift in the KP and redox environment induced by diving and swimming. Swimming promotes an antioxidant environment and a peripheral overactivation of the KP.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071223
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1224: The Role of Antioxidants in the
           Interplay between Oxidative Stress and Senescence

    • Authors: Angelica Varesi, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Lucrezia Irene Maria Campagnoli, Elisa Pierella, Gaia Bavestrello Piccini, Adelaide Carrara, Giovanni Ricevuti, Catia Scassellati, Cristian Bonvicini, Alessia Pascale
      First page: 1224
      Abstract: Cellular senescence is an irreversible state of cell cycle arrest occurring in response to stressful stimuli, such as telomere attrition, DNA damage, reactive oxygen species, and oncogenic proteins. Although beneficial and protective in several physiological processes, an excessive senescent cell burden has been involved in various pathological conditions including aging, tissue dysfunction and chronic diseases. Oxidative stress (OS) can drive senescence due to a loss of balance between pro-oxidant stimuli and antioxidant defences. Therefore, the identification and characterization of antioxidant compounds capable of preventing or counteracting the senescent phenotype is of major interest. However, despite the considerable number of studies, a comprehensive overview of the main antioxidant molecules capable of counteracting OS-induced senescence is still lacking. Here, besides a brief description of the molecular mechanisms implicated in OS-mediated aging, we review and discuss the role of enzymes, mitochondria-targeting compounds, vitamins, carotenoids, organosulfur compounds, nitrogen non-protein molecules, minerals, flavonoids, and non-flavonoids as antioxidant compounds with an anti-aging potential, therefore offering insights into innovative lifespan-extending approaches.  
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071224
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1225: Potential Neurotoxic Effects of
           Glioblastoma-Derived Exosomes in Primary Cultures of Cerebellar Neurons
           via Oxidant Stress and Glutathione Depletion

    • Authors: Sidika Genc, Manuela Pennisi, Yesim Yeni, Serkan Yildirim, Giuseppe Gattuso, Meric A. Altinoz, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Ismail Bolat, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Ahmet Hacımüftüoğlu, Luca Falzone
      First page: 1225
      Abstract: High-grade gliomas are the most fatal brain tumors. Grade 4 gliomas are called glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which are associated with the poorest survival and a 5-year survival rate of less than 4%. Many patients with GBM developed concomitant cognitive dysfunctions and epilepsy. Although the cognitive decline is well defined in glioblastomas, the neurotoxic factors underlying this pathology are not well understood in GBM patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether GBM-derived exosomes play a role in neuronal toxicity. For this purpose, exosomes obtained from T98G and U373 GBM cells were applied to primary neuron culture at different concentrations. Subsequently, MTT, LDH, GSH, TAS, and TOS tests were performed. Both GBM-derived exosomes induced a dose-dependent and statistically significant increase of LDH release in cerebellar neurons. MTT assay revealed as both T98G and U373 GBM-derived exosomes induced dose-dependent neurotoxic effects in cerebellar neurons. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first study demonstrating the toxic potential of GBM-derived exosomes to primary neurons, which may explain the peritumoral edema and cognitive decline in GBM patients.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071225
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1226: Mitochondrial Peroxiredoxin-IIF
           (PRXIIF) Activity and Function during Seed Aging

    • Authors: Ewelina A. Klupczyńska, Karl-Josef Dietz, Arleta Małecka, Ewelina Ratajczak
      First page: 1226
      Abstract: Mitochondria play a major role in energy metabolism, particularly in cell respiration, cellular metabolism, and signal transduction, and are also involved in other processes, such as cell signaling, cell cycle control, cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Programmed cell death is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a concomitant decrease in antioxidant capacity, which, in turn, determines the aging of living organisms and organs and thus also seeds. During the aging process, cell redox homeostasis is disrupted, and these changes decrease the viability of stored seeds. Mitochondrial peroxiredoxin-IIF (PRXIIF), a thiol peroxidase, has a significant role in protecting the cell and sensing oxidative stress that occurs during the disturbance of redox homeostasis. Thioredoxins (TRXs), which function as redox transmitters and switch protein function in mitochondria, can regulate respiratory metabolism. TRXs serve as electron donors to PRXIIF, as shown in Arabidopsis. In contrast, sulfiredoxin (SRX) can regenerate mitochondrial PRXIIF once hyperoxidized to sulfinic acid. To protect against oxidative stress, another type of thiol peroxidases, glutathione peroxidase-like protein (GPXL), is important and receives electrons from the TRX system. They remove peroxides produced in the mitochondrial matrix. However, the TRX/PRX and TRX/GPXL systems are not well understood in mitochondria. Knowledge of both systems is important because these systems play an important role in stress sensing, response and acclimation, including redox imbalance and generation of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The TRX/PRX and TRX/GPXL systems are important for maintaining cellular ROS homeostasis and maintaining redox homeostasis under stress conditions. This minireview focuses on the functions of PRXIIF discovered in plant cells approximately 20 years ago and addresses the question of how PRXIIF affects seed viability maintenance and aging. Increasing evidence suggests that the mitochondrial PRXIIF plays a major role in metabolic processes in seeds, which was not previously known.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071226
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1227: Terpenoid-Rich Extract of Dillenia
           indica L. Bark Displays Antidiabetic Action in Insulin-Resistant C2C12
           Cells and STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice by Attenuation of Oxidative Stress

    • Authors: Bo-Rim Song, Md Badrul Alam, Sang-Han Lee
      First page: 1227
      Abstract: Insulin resistance (IR) plays a key role in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of patients with multiple diseases and diabetes. In this study, we examined the antidiabetic effects of a terpenoid-rich extract from Dillenia indica L. bark (TRDI) in palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance (PA-IR) in C2C12 myotube and a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice model and explored the possible underlying mechanism. TRDI showed potential DPPH- and ABTS-radical scavenging effects with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 9.76 ± 0.50 µg/mL and 17.47 ± 1.31 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, TRDI strongly mitigated α-glucosidase activity with an IC50 value of 3.03 ± 1.01 µg/mL, which was 92-fold higher than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 = 279.49 ± µg/mL). TRDI stimulated the insulin receptor substrarte-1 (INS-1), downregulated phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and protein kinase B (Akt) in both normal and PA-IR C2C12 cells as well as in STZ-induced diabetic mice, enhanced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane (PM), and increased glucose absorption. Furthermore, TRDI administration significantly reduced PA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in C2C12 cells and increased the protein level of numerous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, TRDI facilitated nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and increased HO-1 expression in PA-IR C2C12 cells and STZ-induced diabetic mice. However, for the inhibition of Nrf2, TRDI failed to resist the effects of IR. Thus, this study provides new evidence to support the use of TRDI for diabetes treatment.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071227
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1228: Bioactive Components from Ampelopsis
           japonica with Antioxidant, Anti-α-Glucosidase, and
           Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities

    • Authors: Jia-Hua Liang, Hsiang-Ru Lin, Chang-Syun Yang, Chia-Ching Liaw, I-Chou Wang, Jih-Jung Chen
      First page: 1228
      Abstract: The dried root of Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb.) Makino (A. japonica.) is a traditional medicine used to treat fever, pain, and wound healing. It exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antityrosinase, and antimelanogenic activities. In this paper, we used different solvent extracts from the root of A. japonica to determine their antioxidant activity. Acetone extract showed relatively strong antioxidant properties by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, these extracts also showed significant α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. Acetone extract significantly inhibited α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 8.30 ± 0.78 μg/mL, and ethanol extract remarkably inhibited AChE with an IC50 value of 37.08 ± 7.67 μg/mL. Using HPLC analysis and comparison with the chemical composition of various solvent extracts, we isolated seven active compounds and assessed their antioxidant, anti-α-glucosidase, and anti-AChE activities. Catechin (1), gallic acid (2), kaempferol (3), quercetin (4), resveratrol (6), and epicatechin (7) were the main antioxidant components in the root of A. japonica. According to the results of DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide radical scavenging assays, these isolates showed stronger antioxidant capacity than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Moreover, 1, 3, 4, euscaphic acid (5), 6, and 7 also expressed stronger anti-α-glucosidase activity than the positive control acarbose, and all the isolated compounds had a good inhibitory effect on AChE. Molecular docking models and hydrophilic interactive modes for AChE assays suggest that 1 and 5 exhibit unique anti-AChE potency. This study indicates that A. japonica and its active extracts and components may be a promising source of natural antioxidants, α-glucosidase, and AChE inhibitors.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071228
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1229: Chemical Characterization of Taif Rose
           (Rosa damascena) Methanolic Extract and Its Physiological Effect on Liver
           Functions, Blood Indices, Antioxidant Capacity, and Heart Vitality against
           Cadmium Chloride Toxicity

    • Authors: Reham Z. Hamza, Njood A. Al-Malki, Sarah Alharthi, Saif A. Alharthy, Bander Albogami, Samy M. El-Megharbel
      First page: 1229
      Abstract: Exposure to cadmium chloride (CdCl2) causes an imbalance in the oxidant status of the body by triggering the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the effect of Rosa damascena (R. damascena) extract on oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, and the injured cardiac tissue of male rats exposed to CdCl2. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: the vehicle control (1 mg/kg normal saline), the CdCl2-treated group (5 mg/kg), the R. damascena extract group (100 mg Kg), and the combination of CdCl2 and R. damascena extract group. Male rats exposed to CdCl2 showed multiple significant histopathological changes in the liver and heart, including inflammatory cell infiltration and degenerative alterations. Successive exposure to CdCl2 elevated the levels of hepatic and cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor-alpha) (TNF-α) and interleukin -6 (IL-6) and decreased antioxidant defences. The extracts significantly increased the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), whereas it dramatically decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the mRNA of TNF-α and IL-6. R. damascena administration prevented liver and heart injury; suppressed excessive ROS generation, LPO, and inflammatory responses; and enhanced antioxidant defences. In addition, R. damascena upregulated the mRNA of TNF-α and IL-6 in CdCl2-administered male rats. In conclusion, R. damascena modulated the oxidative stress and inflammation induced by CdCl2. The hepatic and cardiac tissue damage and histopathological alterations resulting from the CdCl2-induced oxidative stress were counteracted by the administration of R. damascena extracts. R. damascena enhanced antioxidant defence enzymes in male rats.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071229
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1230: Antiulcer Potential of Psidium guajava
           Seed Extract Supported by Metabolic Profiling and Molecular Docking

    • Authors: Nourhan Hisham Shady, Hend Samy Abdullah, Sherif A. Maher, Amgad Albohy, Mahmoud A. Elrehany, Fatma Alzahraa Mokhtar, Hesham Farouk Oraby, Ahmed M. Shawky, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen
      First page: 1230
      Abstract: One of the most severe human health problems is gastric ulceration. The main aim of our study is to explore the gastroprotective effect of the Psidium guajava seeds extract (PGE). Metabolic profiling based on LC-HRMS for the extract led to the dereplication of 23 compounds (1–23). We carried out a gastric ulcer model induced by indomethacin in male albino rats in vivo and the extract of PGE was investigated at a dose of 300 mg/kg in comparison to cimetidine (100 mg/kg). Furthermore, the assessment of gastric mucosal lesions and histopathology investigation of gastric tissue was done. It has been proved that Psidium guajava seeds significantly decreased the ulcer index and protected the mucosa from lesions. The antiulcer effect of Psidium guajava seed extract, which has the power of reducing the ensuing inflammatory reactions, can counteract the inflammation induced by indomethacin by the downregulation of relative genes expression (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α). Moreover, PGE significantly downregulated the increased COX-2, TGF-β, and IGF-1 relative genes expression, confirming its beneficial effect in ulcer healing. Moreover, the possible PGE antioxidant potential was determined by in vitro assays using hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical scavenging and revealed high antioxidant potential. Additionally, on the putatively annotated metabolites, an in silico study was conducted, which emphasized the extract’s antiulcer properties might be attributed to several sterols such as stigmasterol and campesterol. The present study provided evidence of Psidium guajava seeds considered as a potential natural gastroprotective agent.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071230
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1231: Novel Organoselenium Redox Modulators
           with Potential Anticancer, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities

    • Authors: Marwa Sak, Yasair S. Al-Faiyz, Hany Elsawy, Saad Shaaban
      First page: 1231
      Abstract: Novel organic selenides were developed in good yields (up to 91%), and their chemical entities were confirmed by IR, MS, and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Their anticancer and antimicrobial properties were estimated against different human cancer (MCF-7 and HepG2) and healthy (WI-38) cell lines, as well as several microbial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans). Furthermore, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) bioassays were used for the estimation of the antioxidant activities. Generally, cytotoxicity results were more pronounced against the MCF-7 cells than HepG2 cells. Compound 2-((4-((1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)diazenyl)phenyl)selanyl)-N-phenylacetamide (9) was the most cytotoxic, even more than doxorubicin, with IC50 of 3.27 ± 0.2 against 4.17 ± 0.2 µM and twelve-times more selective, respectively. Interestingly, compound 9 exhibited similar antimicrobial potential to reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs and comparable antioxidant activity to vitamin C. These results point to selective cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and interesting antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of some newly synthesized organic selenides, which in turn needs further in vitro studies.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071231
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1232: Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Promotes
           Cardiac Remodeling in Myocardial Infarction through the Activation of
           Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    • Authors: Francisco V. Souza-Neto, Fabian Islas, Sara Jiménez-González, María Luaces, Bunty Ramchandani, Ana Romero-Miranda, Beatriz Delgado-Valero, Elena Roldan-Molina, Melchor Saiz-Pardo, Mª Ángeles Cerón-Nieto, Luis Ortega-Medina, Ernesto Martínez-Martínez, Victoria Cachofeiro
      First page: 1232
      Abstract: We have evaluated cardiac function and fibrosis in infarcted male Wistar rats treated with MitoQ (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 4 weeks. A cohort of patients admitted with a first episode of acute MI were also analyzed with cardiac magnetic resonance and T1 mapping during admission and at a 12-month follow-up. Infarcted animals presented cardiac hypertrophy and a reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and E- and A-waves (E/A) ratio when compared to controls. Myocardial infarction (MI) rats also showed cardiac fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation. Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) levels, a marker of ER stress, were correlated with collagen I levels. MitoQ reduced oxidative stress and prevented all these changes without affecting the infarct size. The LVEF and E/A ratio in patients with MI were 57.6 ± 7.9% and 0.96 ± 0.34, respectively. No major changes in cardiac function, extracellular volume fraction (ECV), or LV mass were observed at follow-up. Interestingly, the myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were associated with the ECV in basal conditions. BiP staining and collagen content were also higher in cardiac samples from autopsies of patients who had suffered an MI than in those who had died from other causes. These results show the interactions between mitochondrial oxidative stress and ER stress, which can result in the development of diffuse fibrosis in the context of MI.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071232
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1233: Singular Olive Oils from a Recently
           Discovered Spanish North-Western Cultivar: An Exhaustive 3-Year Study of
           Their Chemical Composition and In-Vitro Antidiabetic Potential

    • Authors: María Figueiredo-González, Lucía Olmo-García, Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez, Irene Serrano-García, Glenda Leuyacc-del Carpio, Beatriz Cancho-Grande, Alegría Carrasco-Pancorbo, Carmen González-Barreiro
      First page: 1233
      Abstract: In this work, the quality and physicochemical parameters, phenolic composition, and antidiabetic potential of olive oils obtained from olives belonging to centenarian olive trees of the so-called ‘Mansa de Figueiredo’ cultivar were evaluated during three consecutive crop seasons (2017–2019). The oils produced during the three crop years were classified as extra virgin based on the quality-related indices, sensory analysis, and the genuineness-related parameters. In addition, LC-ESI-TOF MS was used to get a comprehensive characterisation of the phenolic fraction while LC-ESI-IT MS was applied for quantitation purposes. The content of phenolic compounds (ranging from 1837 to 2434 mg/kg) was significantly affected by the harvest year due to the environmental conditions and ripening index. Furthermore, although significant differences in the inhibitory effects against the α-glucosidase enzyme for the EVOOs extracted throughout the three successive years were detected, all the studied EVOOs exhibited a stronger inhibitor effect than that found for acarbose.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071233
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1234: Metabolomics-Based Profiling,
           Antioxidant Power, and Uropathogenic Bacterial Anti-Adhesion Activity of
           SP4TM, a Formulation with a High Content of Type-A Proanthocyanidins

    • Authors: Giuseppe Mannino, Massimo E. Maffei
      First page: 1234
      Abstract: Flavonoids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) have been the subject of intense scientific investigations, both for their antioxidant properties and anti-adhesion activity against uropathogenic bacteria. We investigated the metabolomics and antioxidant capacity of SP4TM, a patent-pending formulation based on a mixture of plant extracts with a high content of bioactive PACs and other polyphenols. The total content of polyphenols (885.51 ± 14.19 mg/g), flavonoids (135.52 ± 8.98 mg/g), anthocyanins (54.84 ± 2.97 mg/g), and PACs (379.43 ± 12.44 mg/g) was quantified using UV-Vis assays. Use of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS revealed the presence of 5 flavanols (100.77 ± 3.90 mg g−1 d.wt), 11 flavonols (59.96 ± 1.83 mg g−1 d.wt), and 8 anthocyanins (46.96 ± 1.59 mg g−1 d.wt), whereas MALDI-TOF MS showed that SP4TM contains PACs with one or more type-A interflavan bonds at each degree of polymerization. Regarding antioxidant properties, LUCS technology on HepG2 cells evidenced the ability of SP4TM to neutralize intracellular free radicals, inhibit membrane lipid peroxidation, quench H2O2, and reduce free radicals mainly through chelating mechanism, as demonstrated by a higher FRAP value (2643.28 ± 39.86 mmol/g) compared with ABTS (139.92 ± 6.16 mmol/g) and DPPH (89.51 ± 3.91 mmol/g). Finally, the SP4TM type-A PAC content strongly prevented bacterial adhesion of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli (0.23 mg/mL). In conclusion, SP4TM has a strong antioxidant capacity involving multitarget mechanisms and is a potential supplement to fight urinary tract infections due to its ability to inhibit uropathogenic E. coli adhesion.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071234
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1235: Dramatic Decrease of Vitamin K2 Subtype
           Menaquinone-7 in COVID-19 Patients

    • Authors: Harald Mangge, Florian Prueller, Christine Dawczynski, Pero Curcic, Zdenka Sloup, Magdalena Holter, Markus Herrmann, Andreas Meinitzer
      First page: 1235
      Abstract: (1) Background: Vitamin K (VK) is a fat-soluble compound with a common chemical structure, a 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone ring, and a variable aliphatic side-chain. VK is involved in the synthesis of blood-clotting proteins, bone stability, anti-oxidative, and immune inflammatory-modulatory functions. Vitamin K also activates protein S, which acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The fact that cytokine overproduction, oxidative stress, and disturbed microcirculation by thrombogenicity play a central role in severe COVID-19 prompted us to analyze this vitamin. (2) Methods: We analyzed by a validated liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method serum vitamin K1, MK4, MK7, and VK epoxide levels in 104 healthy controls, 77 patients with non-COVID-19 pneumonia, and 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with potentially fatal outcomes admitted to our University Hospital between April and November 2020. We included the quotient between VK and triglyceride (TG, nmol/mmol/L) values in the analyses with respect to the TG transporter function for all VK subtypes. Additionally, we assessed anthropometric, routine laboratory, and clinical data from the laboratory and hospital information systems. (3) Results: The COVID-19 patients had significantly lower MK7 levels than non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients and healthy controls. COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients had significantly lower vitamin K1 and significantly higher MK4 compared to healthy controls, but did not differ significantly from each other. Between COVID-19 non-survivors (n = 30) and survivors (n = 105) no significant differences were seen in all vitamin K subtypes, despite the fact that non-survivors had higher peak concentrations of IL-6, CRP, d-dimer, and higher oxygen needs, respectively. (4) Conclusions: The present data identified significantly decreased vitamin K1, K2 (MK7), and increased MK4 levels in patients with COVID-19 compared to healthy controls. Vitamin K2 (MK7) was lowest in COVID-19 patients irrespective of potentially fatal courses, indicating consumption of this VK subtype by COVID-19 immanent effects, most probably inflammatory and oxidative stress factors.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071235
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1236: Deciphering the Path of S-nitrosation
           of Human Thioredoxin: Evidence of an Internal NO Transfer and Implication
           for the Cellular Responses to NO

    • Authors: Vitor S. Almeida, Lara L. Miller, João P. G. Delia, Augusto V. Magalhães, Icaro P. Caruso, Anwar Iqbal, Fabio C. L. Almeida
      First page: 1236
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical with a signaling capacity. Its cellular functions are achieved mainly through S-nitrosation where thioredoxin (hTrx) is pivotal in the S-transnitrosation to specific cellular targets. In this study, we use NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to follow the mechanism of S-(trans)nitrosation of hTrx. We describe a site-specific path for S-nitrosation by measuring the reactivity of each of the 5 cysteines of hTrx using cysteine mutants. We showed the interdependence of the three cysteines in the nitrosative site. C73 is the most reactive and is responsible for all S-transnitrosation to other cellular targets. We observed NO internal transfers leading to C62 S-nitrosation, which serves as a storage site for NO. C69-SNO only forms under nitrosative stress, leading to hTrx nuclear translocation.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071236
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1237: Sex-Related Differences in Oxidative,
           Platelet, and Vascular Function in Chronic Users of Heat-not-Burn vs.
           Traditional Combustion Cigarettes

    • Authors: Leonardo Schirone, Lorenzo Loffredo, Roberto Carnevale, Simona Battaglia, Roberta Marti, Stefano Pizzolo, Simona Bartimoccia, Cristina Nocella, Vittoria Cammisotto, Wael Saade, Alessandra Tanzilli, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Isotta Chimenti, Elena De Falco, Elena Cavarretta, Vittorio Picchio, Mariangela Peruzzi, Antonino Marullo, Fabio Miraldi, Francesco Violi, Andrea Morelli, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Giacomo Frati
      First page: 1237
      Abstract: Smoking is still a major cardiovascular risk factor, despite many public awareness campaigns and dedicated interventions. Recently, modified risk products (MRP), e.g., heat-not-burn cigarettes (HNBCs), have been introduced as surrogates of traditional combustion cigarettes (TCCs). Although these products are promoted as healthier than TCCs, few studies have been conducted to assess it. This work is a sex-focused sub-study of a prospective observational study in which apparently healthy chronic TCC smokers were age-matched with regular HNBC users. Blood samples were collected for biochemical assays and blood pressure and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were measured. Out of 60 subjects, 33 (55%) were women, and 27 (45%) men, with 11 (33%) vs. 9 (33%) non-smokers, respectively, 10 (30%) vs. 10 (37%) TCC smokers, and 12 (36%) vs. 8 (30%) HNBC smokers (p = 0.946). Bivariate and multivariable analyses showed no statistically significant between-sex differences in NO, H2O2, sCD40L, sNox2-dp, sP-selectin, platelet aggregation, cotinine or FMD, overall, in non-smokers, in TCC smokers, or in HNBC smokers (all p > 0.05). HNBCs appeared safer than TCCs when focusing on Nox2-dp (p = 0.026) and sP-selectin (p = 0.050) but had similar levels of the other measured markers. In conclusion, HNBCs have similar detrimental effects on women and men’s oxidative stress (H2O2: p = 0.49; sNox2-dp: p = 0.31) and platelet activation (sP-selectin: p = 0.33; platelet aggregation p = 0.87).
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071237
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1238: Lactobacillus plantarum Ameliorates
           High-Carbohydrate Diet-Induced Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative
           Stress by Upregulating Uridine Synthesis

    • Authors: Rong Xu, Tong Wang, Fei-Fei Ding, Nan-Nan Zhou, Fang Qiao, Li-Qiao Chen, Zhen-Yu Du, Mei-Ling Zhang
      First page: 1238
      Abstract: The overconsumption of carbohydrates induces oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver, which can be alleviated by modulation of intestinal microbiota; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that a strain affiliated with Lactobacillus plantarum (designed as MR1) efficiently attenuated lipid deposition, oxidative stress, as well as inflammatory response, which are caused by high-carbohydrate diet (HC) in fish with poor utilization ability of carbohydrates. Serum untargeted metabolome analysis indicated that pyrimidine metabolism was the significantly changed pathway among the groups. In addition, the content of serum uridine was significantly decreased in the HC group compared with the control group, while it increased by supplementation with L. plantarum MR1. Further analysis showed that addition of L. plantarum MR1 reshaped the composition of gut microbiota and increased the content of intestinal acetate. In vitro experiment showed that sodium acetate could induce the synthesis of uridine in hepatocytes. Furthermore, we proved that uridine could directly ameliorate oxidative stress and decrease liver lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes. In conclusion, this study indicated that probiotic L. plantarum MR1 ameliorated high-carbohydrate diet-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress by increasing the circulating uridine, suggesting that intestinal microbiota can regulate the metabolism of nucleotides to maintain host physiological homeostasis.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071238
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1239: Anthocyanins Found in Pinot Noir Waste
           Induce Target Genes Related to the Nrf2 Signalling in Endothelial Cells

    • Authors: Jesús Herrera-Bravo, Jorge F. Beltrán, Nolberto Huard, Kathleen Saavedra, Nicolás Saavedra, Marysol Alvear, Fernando Lanas, Luis A. Salazar
      First page: 1239
      Abstract: Grape pomace is a source of anthocyanins, which can prevent cardiovascular diseases due to their antioxidant properties. Anthocyanin activity is associated with the ability to regulate oxidative stress through the transcription factor Nrf2. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate if the anthocyanins found in Pinot noir pomace extract can affect the target genes related to the Nrf2 signalling pathway in endothelial cells. Our results highlight that the predominant anthocyanin in the Pinot noir pomace extract was malvidin-3-glucoside (3.7 ± 2.7 Eq. Malv-3-glu/kg). Molecular docking indicated that cyanidin-3-glucoside (−6.9 kcal/mol), malvidin-3-glucoside (−6.6 kcal/mol) and peonidin-3-glucoside (−6.6 kcal/mol) showed the highest affinities for the binding sites of the BTB domains in Keap1, suggesting that these components may modify the interaction of this protein with Nrf2. In addition, when HUVEC cells were exposed to different concentrations of Pinot noir pomace extract (100 µg/mL, 200 µg/mL, and 400 µg/mL), no changes in Nrf2 gene expression were observed. However, the gene expression of HO-1 and NQO1, which are in the signalling pathway of this transcription factor, increased according the concentrations of the extract (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.0084, respectively). In summary, our results show that anthocyanins play a very important role in Nrf2 activation and release, while at the same time not promoting its transcription. These preliminary results strongly suggest that the Pinot noir pomace extract can serve as a potent bioactive component source that protects cells against oxidative stress.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071239
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1240: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and
           Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants

    • Authors: Jiajian Cao, Chunhua Wang, Ning Hao, Toru Fujiwara, Tao Wu
      First page: 1240
      Abstract: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a key compartment responsible for protein processing and folding, and it also participates in many signal transduction and metabolic processes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling messengers involved in the redox equilibrium and stress response. A number of abiotic and biotic stresses can trigger the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins and lead to ER stress. In recent years, a number of studies have reported that redox metabolism and ROS are closely related to ER stress. ER stress can benefit ROS generation and even cause oxidative burden in plants, finally leading to oxidative stress depending on the degree of ER stress. Moreover, ER stress activates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-mediated ROS signaling, increases antioxidant defense mechanisms, and alters the glutathione (GSH) redox state. Meanwhile, the accumulation of ROS plays a special role in inducing the ER stress response. Given these factors, plants have evolved a series of complex regulatory mechanisms to interact with ROS in response to ER stress. In this review, we summarize the perceptions and responses of plant ER stress and oxidative protein folding in the ER. In addition, we analyze the production and signaling of ROS under ER stress in detail in order to provide a theoretical basis for reducing ER stress to improve the crop survival rate in agricultural applications.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071240
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1241: Estimation of Redox Status in Military
           Pilots during Hypoxic Flight-Simulation Conditions—A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Konstantina Petraki, Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Fotios Tekos, Zoi Skaperda, Marina Orfanou, Robin Mesnage, Tonia Vassilakou, Demetrios Kouretas
      First page: 1241
      Abstract: At high altitude conditions, the low-pressure atmospheric oxygen reduces the generation of energy, thus inducing a decrease in oxygen availability. As a result, endurance flights evoke imbalance in redox signaling, posing a safety risk for the pilots involved. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in the redox status of military pilots during flight simulation conditions according to their flight hours (experts vs. novice). A total of seven expert pilots and an equal number of novice pilots (trainees) were recruited from the Center for Airforce Medicine of the Greek Military Airforce. Glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase activity (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and protein oxidative damage through the assay of protein carbonyls (PCs) levels were assessed at two time points, once prior to and once immediately post a scheduled flight simulation. In the experienced pilots’ arms, GSH was significantly increased post-flight simulation, with TAC being simultaneously reduced. On the other hand, in the trainees’ arms, CAT and TAC were both increased post-flight. No differences were noted with regard to the TBARS and PCs post-simulation. When the two groups were compared, TAC and PCs were significantly lower in the trainees compared to the experienced pilots. The present study provides useful insight into the physiological redox status adaptations to hypobaric hypoxic flight conditions among pilots. In a further detail, an increase in GSH response post-flight simulation is being evoked in more experienced pilots, indicating an adaptation to the extreme flight conditions, as they battle oxidative stress.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071241
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1242: Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity
           of the Fruit of Macaranga tanarius, the Plant Origin of Taiwanese Green
           Propolis

    • Authors: Yi-Hsuan Chien, Yu-Hsiang Yu, Siou-Ru Ye, Yue-Wen Chen
      First page: 1242
      Abstract: Taiwanese green propolis (TGP) is widely used in traditional medicine and exerts a broad spectrum of biological activities, including those anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer in nature, resulting from an abundant level of functional propolins (prenylated flavanone) in the TGP. However, the plant origin of TGP has not been clarified. In this study, we collected the surface material of Macaranga tanarius fruit and comparatively analyzed the chemical composition, antibacterial activity, and antioxidant activity with TGP. The results revealed that there was no difference between the chemical composition of the glandular trichome extract of M. tanarius and those in propolis. Moreover, M. tanarius fruit extract was enriched in propolins (C, D, F, and G) and effectively inhibited the growth of Gram-positive strains. Propolins, TGP, and M. tanarius fruit extract showed powerful free radical-scavenging and ferrous-reducing activity. Collectively, we have confirmed the plant source of TGP is M. tanarius, and this plant has the enormous potential to be developed as a pharmaceutical plant due to the potent biological activities and the high amount of functional propolins.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071242
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1243: Differences in Antioxidant Potential of
           Allium cepa Husk of Red, Yellow, and White Varieties

    • Authors: Irina Chernukha, Nadezhda Kupaeva, Elena Kotenkova, Daniil Khvostov
      First page: 1243
      Abstract: The effective management of agro-industry organic waste for developing high-commercial-value products is a promising facet of the circular economy. Annually, more than 550,000 tons of waste that is potentially rich in biologically active substances is generated worldwide while processing onions (Allium cepa L.). The antioxidant potential of red, yellow, and white onion husks was studied using FRAP, ORAC, chemiluminescence, and UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS analysis methods. The extraction of phenolic compounds from onion husks was more effective when using an aqueous solution of 70% ethanol as compared with water. Ethanolic extract from red onion husks exhibited the highest TACORAC and TACFRAP values, averaging 2017.34 µmol-equiv. Trolox/g raw material and 2050.23 µmol-equiv. DQ/g raw material, respectively, while the white onion exhibited much lower levels of antioxidants. According to the chemiluminescence results, it was determined that the red and yellow onion husks contained antioxidants of three types of power, while white onion husks only contained medium and weak types. The highest content of flavonoids was found in red onion husks, averaging 1915.90 ± 9.92 µg-eq. DQ/g of raw material and 321.42 ± 2.61 µg-eq. DQ/g of raw material for ethanol and water, respectively, while yellow onion husks exhibited 544.06 ± 2.73 µg-eq. DQ/g of raw material and 89.41 ± 2.08 for ethanol and water, respectively. Quercetin and its glycosides were the most representative flavonoids, and a number of substances with different pharmacological and biological properties were also identified.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071243
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1244: Neuroprotective Profile of Edible
           Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) in Two Different Models:
           Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuro-2a Cells

    • Authors: Cristina Moliner, Guillermo Cásedas, Lillian Barros, Tiane C. Finimundy, Carlota Gómez-Rincón, Víctor López
      First page: 1244
      Abstract: The flowers of Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), commonly known as borage, are widely used as a culinary ingredient. The aim of this study was to assess the potential benefits of fresh borage flower extract related to antioxidant, neuroprotective and anti-aging properties. The extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with ethanol as a solvent, and fatty acids were detected by GC-FID. The antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro through the DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays. Regarding the fatty acid (FA) composition, the extract showed high amounts of polyunsaturated FA. The Neuro-2a cell line was used to determine the cytoprotective capacity of the extract subjected to oxidative stress (H2O2). Moreover, the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was used to assess antioxidant activity, delayed ageing as well as cytoprotection and reduced β-amyloid toxicity. Cells treated with the extract and H2O2 showed a better response to oxidative stress than the control group, particularly in terms of mitochondrial activity (MTT assay), redox state (ROS formation) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase). B. officinalis flower extract showed promising antioxidant activity in the selected models, without causing toxicity. Hence, the results obtained support the antioxidant properties of borage flowers in different bioassays using living organisms.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071244
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1245: Antioxidant Activity Evaluation and
           Assessment of the Binding Affinity to HSA of a New Catechol
           Hydrazinyl-Thiazole Derivative

    • Authors: Mihaela Mic, Adrian Pîrnău, Călin G. Floare, Raluca Borlan, Monica Focsan, Ovidiu Oniga, Mircea Bogdan, Laurian Vlase, Ilioara Oniga, Gabriel Marc
      First page: 1245
      Abstract: Polyphenols have attained pronounced attention due to their ability to provide numerous health benefits and prevent several chronic diseases. In this study, we designed, synthesized and analyzed a water-soluble molecule presenting a good antioxidant activity, namely catechol hydrazinyl-thiazole (CHT). This molecule contains 3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl and 2-hydrazinyl-4-methyl-thiazole moieties linked through a hydrazone group with very good antioxidant activity in the in vitro evaluations performed. A preliminary validation of the CHT developing hypothesis was performed evaluating in silico the bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) of the phenol O-H bonds, compared to our previous findings in the compounds previously reported by our group. In this paper, we report the binding mechanism of CHT to human serum albumin (HSA) using biophysical methods in combination with computational studies. ITC experiments reveal that the dominant forces in the binding mechanism are involved in the hydrogen bond or van der Waals interactions and that the binding was an enthalpy-driven process. NMR relaxation measurements were applied to study the CHT–protein interaction by changing the drug concentration in the solution. A molecular docking study added an additional insight to the experimental ITC and NMR analysis regarding the binding conformation of CHT to HSA.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071245
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1246: Novel Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria
           Were Identified from Healthy Infant Feces and Exhibited Anti-Inflammatory
           Capacities

    • Authors: Binbin Li, Li-Long Pan, Jia Sun
      First page: 1246
      Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant feces, and select candidates to be used as potential antioxidants for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases; To meet the criteria for probiotic attributes, the isolates were subjected to various in vitro tests and 16S rRNA genotypic characterization. Besides, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of selected isolates were separately assessed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot; The selected strains belonged to Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus. Notably, three selected strains (L. gasseri FWJL-4, L. plantarum Fjias-5 and L. rhamnosus FSJ-13) particularly L. gasseri FWJL-4 significantly down-regulated mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β. Most importantly, three strains-treated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages displayed enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced H2O2 production, which were associated with the enhanced expression levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1; Three selected strains, particularly L. gasseri FWJL-4, are good candidates that merit additional in vivo investigation for the validation and application of their health-promoting effects.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071246
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1247: The Variable Nature of Vitamin
           C—Does It Help When Dealing with Coronavirus'

    • Authors: Katarzyna Grudlewska-Buda, Natalia Wiktorczyk-Kapischke, Anna Budzyńska, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Jana Przekwas, Agnieszka Kijewska, Dominika Sabiniarz, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska, Krzysztof Skowron
      First page: 1247
      Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still spreading worldwide. For this reason, new treatment methods are constantly being researched. Consequently, new and already-known preparations are being investigated to potentially reduce the severe course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infection induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute serum biomarkers in the host organism. In addition to antiviral drugs, there are other substances being used in the treatment of COVID-19, e.g., those with antioxidant properties, such as vitamin C (VC). Exciting aspects of the use of VC in antiviral therapy are its antioxidant and pro-oxidative abilities. In this review, we summarized both the positive effects of using VC in treating infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the light of the available research. We have tried to answer the question as to whether the use of high doses of VC brings the expected benefits in the treatment of COVID-19 and whether such treatment is the correct therapeutic choice. Each case requires individual assessment to determine whether the positives outweigh the negatives, especially in the light of populational studies concerning the genetic differentiation of genes encoding the solute carriers responsible forVC adsorption. Few data are available on the influence of VC on the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Deducing from already-published data, high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HDIVC) does not significantly lower the mortality or length of hospitalization. However, some data prove, among other things, its impact on the serum levels of inflammatory markers. Finally, the non-positive effect of VC administration is mainly neutral, but the negative effect is that it can result in urinary stones or nephropathies.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071247
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1248: Methodological Optimization of
           Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Valuable Bioactive Compounds from the
           Acidophilic Microalga Coccomyxa onubensis

    • Authors: Mari Carmen Ruiz-Domínguez, Elena Medina, Francisca Salinas, Waldo Bugueño, Juan-Luis Fuentes, Carlos Vílchez, Inés Garbayo, Pedro Cerezal-Mezquita
      First page: 1248
      Abstract: Microalgae grow in diverse environments and possess a great biotechnological potential as they contain useful bioactive compounds. These bioactive compounds can be obtained by selective and energy-efficient extraction methods. Various industries are using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method to extract these valuable bioactive compounds. Hence, for the first time, we evaluated the effects of SFE on the recovery of bioactive and antioxidant compounds using Coccomyxa onubensis, a eukaryotic acidophilic microalga of potential relevance which can be used in the field of nutraceutical and functional foods. It was isolated from the Tinto River (Pyritic Belt, Huelva, Spain), a mining region in Spain. Variables such as extraction yield, lutein purity (LP) and recovery (LR), total phenols, and antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalents antioxidant capacity method) were studied using a Box–Behnken design based on a response surface methodology along with the overall extraction curve fitted to a spline linear model. The effects of temperature (30, 50, and 70 °C), pressure (25, 40, and 55 MPa), and the percentage of co-solvent (0, 25%, and 50% v/v ethanol) on SFE were analyzed, resulting in the co-solvent and temperature as the most significant factors followed by the pressure. Under 70 °C, 40 MPa, and 50% v/v ethanol, C. onubensis reached a maximum of 66.98% of LR. The extracts were richest in total phenols and showed the maximum antioxidant activity (36.08 mg GAEs/g extracts and 2.237 mmol TE/g extracts, respectively) under similar pressure and co-solvent percentage values and different temperatures (30 and 70 °C, respectively). The extracts obtained in this study may have potential applications in the food, nutraceutical, and cosmetic industries. SFE is a highly efficient method to valorize microorganisms living in extreme environments, which are so far unexplored using green extraction methods.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071248
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1249: Comparative Assessment of the
           Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Plicosepalus acacia and
           Plicosepalus curviflorus: Metabolomic Profiling and In Silico Studies

    • Authors: Enas E. Eltamany, Marwa S. Goda, Mohamed S. Nafie, Abdelghafar M. Abu-Elsaoud, Rawan H. Hareeri, Mohammed M. Aldurdunji, Sameh S. Elhady, Jihan M. Badr, Nermeen A. Eltahawy
      First page: 1249
      Abstract: This study presents a comparison between two mistletoe plants—P. acacia and P. curviflorus—regarding their total phenolic contents and antioxidant and anticancer activities. P. curviflorus exhibited a higher total phenolics content (340.62 ± 19.46 mg GAE/g extract), and demonstrated higher DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 48.28 ± 3.41µg/mL), stronger reducing power (1.43 ± 0.54 mMol Fe+2/g) for ferric ions, and a greater total antioxidant capacity (41.89 ± 3.15 mg GAE/g) compared to P. acacia. The cytotoxic effects of P. acacia and P. curviflorus methanol extracts were examined on lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), ovarian (A2780) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells. The highest anticancer potential for the two extracts was observed on PC-3 prostate cancer cells, where P. curviflorus exhibited more pronounced antiproliferative activity (IC50 = 25.83 μg/mL) than P. acacia (IC50 = 34.12 μg/mL). In addition, both of the tested extracts arrested the cell cycle at the Pre-G1 and G1 phases, and induced apoptosis. However, P. curviflorus extract possessed the highest apoptotic effect, mediated by the upregulation of p53, Bax, and caspase-3, 8 and 9, and the downregulation of Bcl-2 expression. In the pursuit to link the chemical diversity of P. curviflorus with the exhibited bioactivities, its metabolomic profiling was achieved by the LC-ESI-TOF-MS/MS technique. This permitted the tentative identification of several phenolics—chiefly flavonoid derivatives, beside some triterpenes and sterols—in the P. curviflorus extract. Furthermore, all of the metabolites in P. curviflorus and P. acacia were inspected for their binding modes towards both CDK-2 and EGFR proteins using molecular docking studies in an attempt to understand the superiority of P. curviflorus over P. acacia regarding their antiproliferative effect on PC-3 cancer cells. Docking studies supported our experimental results; with all of this taken together, P. curviflorus could be regarded as a potential prospect for the development of chemotherapeutics for prostate cancer.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071249
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1250: The Use of Quercetin to Improve the
           Antioxidant and Regenerative Properties of Frozen or Cryopreserved Human
           Amniotic Membrane

    • Authors: Valeria Purpura, Serena Benedetti, Elena Bondioli, Francesca Scarpellini, Agnese Giacometti, Maria Cristina Albertini, Davide Melandri
      First page: 1250
      Abstract: The biological properties of the human amniotic membrane (HAM) and its characteristic ability to be a reservoir of growth factors promoting wound healing make it an ideal biological dressing for the treatment of different clinical conditions, such as burns and non-healing wounds. However, the application of a preservation method on the HAM is required during banking to maintain biological tissue properties and to ensure the release overtime of protein content for its final clinical effectiveness after application on the wound bed. Although cryopreservation and freezing are methods widely used to maintain tissue properties, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced within tissue cellular components during their switching from frozen to thawed state. Consequently, these methods can lead to oxidative stress-induced cell injury, affecting tissue regenerative properties and its final clinical effectiveness. Taking advantage of the antioxidant activity of the natural compound quercetin, we used it to improve the antioxidant and regenerative properties of frozen or cryopreserved HAM tissues. In particular, we evaluated the oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde) as well as the regenerative/biological properties (bFGF growth factor release, wound healing closure, structure, and viability) of HAM tissue after its application. We identified the effectiveness of quercetin on both preservation methods to reduce oxidative damage, as well as its ability to enhance regenerative properties, while maintaining the unaltered structure and viability of HAM tissue. The use of quercetin described in this study appears able to counteract the side effects of cryopreservation and freezing methods related to oxidative stress, enhancing the regenerative properties of HAM. However, further investigations will need to be performed, starting from these promising results, to identify its beneficial effect when applied on burns or non-healing wounds.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071250
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1251: Sinapicacid Inhibits Group IIA
           Secretory Phospholipase A2 and Its Inflammatory Response in Mice

    • Authors: Aladahalli S. Giresha, Deepadarshan Urs, Sophiya Pundalik, Rajkumar S. Meti, Siddanakoppalu N. Pramod, Ballenahalli H. Supreetha, Madhusudana Somegowda, Kattepura K. Dharmappa, Ahmed M. El-Shehawi, Sarah Albogami, Mona M. Elseehy, Abdullah Alaklabi, Hosam O. Elansary, Alanoud Omur A. Mehder, Eman A. Mahmoud
      First page: 1251
      Abstract: Human Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) enzyme plays a crucial role in several chronic inflammatory diseases such asasthma, atherosclerosis, gout, bronchitis, etc. Several studies showed that the antioxidants exert an anti-inflammatory function by inhibiting the sPLA2-IIA enzyme. Hence, the present study evaluated an antioxidant molecule, sinapic acid, for sPLA2-IIA inhibition as an anti-inflammatory function. Initially, the antioxidant efficacy of sinapic acid was evaluated, and it showed greater antioxidant potency. Further, sinapic acid inhibited 94.4 ± 4.83% of sPLA2-IIA activity with an IC50 value of 4.16 ± 0.13 µM. The mode of sPLA2-IIA inhibition was examined by increasing the substrate concentration from 30 to 120nM and the calcium concentration from 2.5 to 15 mM, which did not change the level of inhibition. Further, sinapic acid altered the intrinsic fluorescence and distorted the far UltraViolet Circular Dichroism (UV-CD) spectra of the sPLA2-IIA, indicating the direct enzyme-inhibitor interaction. Sinapic acid reduced the sPLA2-IIA mediated hemolytic activity from 94 ± 2.19% to 12.35 ± 2.57% and mouse paw edema from 171.75 ± 2.2% to 114.8 ± 1.98%, demonstrating the anti-inflammatory efficiency of sinapic acid by in situ and in vivo methods, respectively. Finally, sinapic acid reduced the hemorrhagic effect of Vipera russelli venom hemorrhagic complex-I (VR-HC-I) as an anti-hemorrhagic function. Thus, the above experimental results revealed the sinapic acid potency to be an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hemorrhagic molecule, and therefore, it appears to be a promising therapeutic agent.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071251
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1252: The Use of Thiocyanate Formulations to
           Create Manganese Porphyrin Antioxidants That Supplement Innate Immunity

    • Authors: Brian J. Day, Elysia Min, Jie Huang, Chris Stanley
      First page: 1252
      Abstract: The innate immune response to infection results in inflammation and oxidative damage, creating a paradox where most anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapies can further suppress an already inadequate immune response. We have previously reported the beneficial effects of the exogenous supplementation of innate immunity with small pseudohalide thiocyanate (-SCN) in a mouse model of a cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infection and inflammation. The object of this study was to evaluate the use of –SCN as a counter anion for cationic manganese porphyrin (MnP) catalytic antioxidants, which could increase the parent compound’s antioxidant spectrum against hypohalous acids while supplementing innate immunity. The antioxidant activities of the parent compound were examined, as its chloride salt was compared with the –SCN-anion exchanged compound, (MnP(SCN) versus MnP(Cl)). We measured the superoxide dismutase activity spectrophotometrically and performed hydrogen peroxide scavenging using oxygen and hydrogen peroxide electrodes. Peroxidase activity was measured using an amplex red assay. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was assessed using a thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay. The effects of the MnP compounds on macrophage phagocytosis were assessed by flow cytometry. The abilities of the MnP(Cl) formulations to protect human bronchiolar epithelial cells against hypochlorite (HOCl) and glycine chloramine versus their MnP(SCN) formulations were assessed using a cell viability assay. We found that anions exchanging out the chloride for -SCN improved the cellular bioavailability but did not adversely affect the cell viability or phagocytosis and that they switched hydrogen-peroxide scavenging from a dismutation reaction to a peroxidase reaction. In addition, the -SCN formulations improved the ability of MnPs to protect human bronchiolar epithelial cells against hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and glycine chloramine toxicity. These novel types of antioxidants may be more beneficial in treating lung disease that is associated with chronic infections or acute infectious exacerbations.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071252
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1253: In Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
           Advanced Glycation End-Products Receptors Isoforms (sRAGE and esRAGE) Are
           Associated with Malnutrition

    • Authors: Lara Caldiroli, Paolo Molinari, Elena Dozio, Roberta Rigolini, Paola Giubbilini, Massimiliano M. Corsi Romanelli, Giuseppe Castellano, Simone Vettoretti
      First page: 1253
      Abstract: Background: in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the inflammatory and pro-oxidant milieu may contribute to malnutrition development. In this study, we investigated the relationship between inflammation, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and their receptors (RAGEs) with malnutrition in CKD patients. Methods: we evaluated 117 patients. AGEs were quantified by fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence spectrophotometer, soluble RAGEs isoforms, and inflammatory interleukins by ELISA. Malnutrition was assessed by a malnutrition inflammation score. Results: mean age was 80 ± +11 years, eGFR was 25 ± +11 mL/min/1.73 m2 and BMI was 28 ± 5 Kg/m2. Malnourished individuals were older, had lower estimated protein intake (nPCR 0.65 ± 0.2 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 vs. 0.8 ± 0.3, p = 0.01), higher C reactive protein (CRP 0.6 ± 1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.7 vs. 0.17 ± 0.13, p = 0.02) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α 14.7 ± 8.7 vs. 15.6 ± 8 vs. 11.8 ± 5.8, p = 0.029). Malnourished patients had higher sRAGE (2813 ± 1477 vs. 2158 ± 1236 vs. 2314 ± 1115, p = 0.035) and esRAGE (648 [408–1049] vs. 476 [355–680] vs. 545 [380–730] p = 0.033). In the multivariate analysis, only sRAGE maintained its association with malnutrition (p = 0.02) independently of aging and inflammation. Conclusions: in CKD patients, RAGEs isoforms, but not AGEs, are associated with malnutrition, irrespective of systemic inflammation, aging, and renal function.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071253
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1254: Ambivalent Roles of Oxidative Stress in
           Triangular Relationships among Arthropod Vectors, Pathogens and Hosts

    • Authors: Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Anisuzzaman, Md Abdul Alim, Hayato Kawada, Kofi Dadzie Kwofie, Danielle Ladzekpo, Yuki Koike, Takahiro Inoue, Sana Sasaki, Fusako Mikami, Makoto Matsubayashi, Tetsuya Tanaka, Naotoshi Tsuji, Takeshi Hatta
      First page: 1254
      Abstract: Blood-feeding arthropods, particularly ticks and mosquitoes are considered the most important vectors of arthropod-borne diseases affecting humans and animals. While feeding on blood meals, arthropods are exposed to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) since heme and other blood components can induce oxidative stress. Different ROS have important roles in interactions among the pathogens, vectors, and hosts. ROS influence various metabolic processes of the arthropods and some have detrimental effects. In this review, we investigate the various roles of ROS in these arthropods, including their innate immunity and the homeostasis of their microbiomes, that is, how ROS are utilized to maintain the balance between the natural microbiota and potential pathogens. We elucidate the mechanism of how ROS are utilized to fight off invading pathogens and how the arthropod-borne pathogens use the arthropods’ antioxidant mechanism to defend against these ROS attacks and their possible impact on their vector potentials or their ability to acquire and transmit pathogens. In addition, we describe the possible roles of ROS in chemical insecticide/acaricide activity and/or in the development of resistance. Overall, this underscores the importance of the antioxidant system as a potential target for the control of arthropod and arthropod-borne pathogens.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11071254
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1155: High-Quality Bioethanol and Vinegar
           Production from Saudi Arabia Dates: Characterization and Evaluation of
           Their Value and Antioxidant Efficiency

    • Authors: Zeineb Hamden, Yassine El-Ghoul, Fahad M. Alminderej, Sayed M. Saleh, Hatem Majdoub
      First page: 1155
      Abstract: Dates are very rich in various nutritious compounds, especially reducing sugars. Sugars ensure both anaerobic and aerobic fermentation, carried out respectively for the production of bioethanol and vinegar. Currently, the world production of dates is constantly increasing owing to the significant improvement in production conditions following the continuous scientific and technological development of this field. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important world producers of dates, occupying the second place by producing 17% of the total world production. This is why it has become a national priority to find new ways to exploit and further valorize dates and palm waste in the development of new and sustainable products. The present study was designed to explore the possible study of a variety of date palm by-products in the production of bioethanol and vinegar via Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Different parameters of bioethanol and vinegar production, including pH, time, fermentation temperature, and yeast concentration, were studied and optimized. Chemical, physicochemical, purity behavior, and antioxidant performance were carried out via NMR, FTIR, and antioxidant activity essays (TPC, DPPH, FRAP, and β-carotene bleaching test) with the aim to evaluate the potential of the bioethanol and vinegar samples extracted from date palm by-products. Khalas date vinegar revealed significantly more phenolic content (5.81 mg GAE/mL) (p < 0.05) than the different kinds of vinegar tested (Deglet Nour and Black dates; 2.3 and 1.67 mg GAE/mL, respectively) and the commercial vinegar (1.12 mg GAE/mL). The Khalas date vinegar generally showed a higher carotenoid value and better antioxidant activity than the other vinegars extracted from other date varieties and commercially available vinegar. The results confirmed the high quality of the bioethanol and vinegar products, and the efficiency of the developed production processes.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061155
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1156: Individual and Joint Effect of
           Alpha-Tocopherol and Hydroxytyrosol Acetate on the Oxidation of Sunflower
           Oil Submitted to Oxidative Conditions: A Study by Proton Nuclear Magnetic
           Resonance

    • Authors: Sofía del Caño-Ochoa, Ainhoa Ruiz-Aracama, María D. Guillén
      First page: 1156
      Abstract: This study tackles the individual and joint effect of alpha-tocopherol and hydroxytyrosol acetate on the oxidation of sunflower oil submitted to accelerated storage conditions at intermediate temperature, in order to deepen the understanding of antioxidant–prooxidant behaviour. This was accomplished by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. For this purpose, the evolution of the degradation of both the main components of the oil and the aforementioned added compounds was monitored by this technique throughout the storage time. Furthermore, the formation of a very large number of oxylipins and the evolution of their concentration up to a very advanced stage of oil oxidation, as well as the occurrence of lipolysis, were also simultaneously studied. The results obtained show very clearly and thoroughly that in the oxidation process of the oil enriched in binary mixtures, interactions occur between alpha-tocopherol and hydroxytyrosol acetate that notably reduce the antioxidant effect of the latter compound with the corresponding negative consequences that this entails. The methodology used here has proved to be very efficient to evaluate the antioxidant power of mixtures of compounds.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061156
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1157: The Antioxidant Cyclic
           3-Hydroxymelatonin Promotes the Growth and Flowering of Arabidopsis
           thaliana

    • Authors: Hyoung Yool Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
      First page: 1157
      Abstract: In plants, melatonin is metabolized into several compounds, including the potent antioxidant cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin (3-OHM). Melatonin 3-hydroxylase (M3H), a member of the 2-oxo-glutarate-dependent enzyme family, is responsible for 3-OHM biosynthesis. Although rice M3H has been cloned, its roles are unclear, and no homologs in other plant species have been characterized. Here, we cloned and characterized Arabidopsis thaliana M3H (AtM3H). The purified recombinant AtM3H exhibited Km and Vmax values of 100 μM and 20.7 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. M3H was localized to the cytoplasm, and its expression peaked at night. Based on a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 3-OHM exhibited 15-fold higher antioxidant activity than melatonin. An Arabidopsis M3H knockout mutant (m3h) produced less 3-OHM than the wildtype (WT), thus reducing antioxidant activity and biomass and delaying flowering. These defects were caused by reduced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and gibberellin-related genes, which are responsible for flowering and growth. Exogenous 3-OHM, but not exogenous melatonin, induced FT expression. The peak of M3H expression at night matched the FT expression pattern. The WT and m3h exhibited similar responses to salt stress and pathogens. Collectively, our findings indicate that 3-OHM promotes growth and flowering in Arabidopsis.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061157
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1158: Phytochemicals, Nutrition, Metabolism,
           Bioavailability, and Health Benefits in Lettuce—A Comprehensive
           Review

    • Authors: Min Shi, Jingyu Gu, Hanjing Wu, Abdur Rauf, Talha Bin Emran, Zidan Khan, Saikat Mitra, Abdullah S. M. Aljohani, Fahad A. Alhumaydhi, Yahya S. Al-Awthan, Omar Bahattab, Muthu Thiruvengadam, Hafiz A. R. Suleria
      First page: 1158
      Abstract: Lettuce is one of the most famous leafy vegetables worldwide with lots of applications from food to other specific uses. There are different types in the lettuce group for consumers to choose from. Additionally, lettuce is an excellent source of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, and chlorophyll with related health benefits. At the same time, nutrient composition and antioxidant compounds are different between lettuce varieties, especially for green and red lettuce types. The benefit of lettuce consumption depends on its composition, particularly antioxidants, which can function as nutrients. The health benefits rely on their biochemical effect when reaching the bloodstream. Some components can be released from the food matrix and altered in the digestive system. Indeed, the bioaccessibility of lettuce is measuring the quantity of these compounds released from the food matrix during digestion, which is important for health-promoting features. Extraction of bioactive compounds is one of the new trends observed in lettuce and is necessarily used for several application fields. Therefore, this review aims to demonstrate the nutritional value of lettuce and its pharmacological properties. Due to their bioaccessibility and bioavailability, the consumer will be able to comprehensively understand choosing a healthier lettuce diet. The common utilization pattern of lettuce extracted nutrients will also be summarized for further direction.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061158
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1159: Natural Antioxidant in Cardiovascular
           and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    • Authors: Yi-Sook Jung
      First page: 1159
      Abstract: Cardiovascular (CVD) and cerebrovascular diseases, with 17 [...]
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061159
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1160: Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant,
           Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Cancer, and Toxicity Assessment of Tribulus
           terrestris—In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    • Authors: Malik Waseem Abbas, Mazhar Hussain, Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Muhammad Qamar, Zahid Shafiq, Tuba Esatbeyoglu
      First page: 1160
      Abstract: Tribulus terrestris L. belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae and integral part of various ancient medicinal systems including Chinese, Indian, and European to combat various health ailments. The aim of the present study was to assess the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH, FRAP, and H2O2 assays, in vitro anticancer activity using MTT assay, and in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of T. terrestris. The acute and sub-acute toxicity of extracts exhibiting most biological potential was examined using murine models. Liquid–liquid partitioning followed by RP–HPLC sub-fraction of crude extract was performed. After that, ESI-MS/MS analysis was done for the timid identification of bioactive metabolites responsible for bioactivities of sub-fractions and HPLC analysis to quantify the compounds using external standards. Among all extracts, T. terrestris methanol extract was noted to hold maximum phenolic (341.3 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (209 mg QE/g) contents, antioxidant activity in DPPH (IC50 71.4 µg/mL), FRAP (35.3 mmol/g), and H2O2 (65.3% inhibition) assays, anti-inflammatory activities in vitro at 400 µg/mL (heat-induced hemolysis, % inhibition 68.5; egg albumin denaturation, % inhibition 75.6%; serum albumin denaturation, % inhibition 80.2), and in vivo at 200 mg/kg (carrageenan-induced paw edema, % inhibition 69.3%; formaldehyde-induced paw edema, % inhibition 71.3%) and anticancer activity against breast cancer cell (MCF-7) proliferation (IC50 74.1 µg/mL). Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies recorded with no change in body weight, behavior, hematological, serum, and histopathological parameters in treated rats with T. terrestris methanol extracts when compared to control group. Fraction B obtained through liquid–liquid partitioning resulted in more bioactive potential as compared to the parent methanol extract. RP–HPLC analysis of fraction B resulted with four sub-fractions (TBTMF1-TBTMF4), wherein TBTMF3 delineated notable bioactive capabilities as compared to other fractions and parent methanol extract. ESI-MS/MS analysis of TBTMF3 resulted with tentative identification of myricetin, rutin, liquitrigenin, physcion, and protodioscin. It can be stated that T. terrestris is a potential bearing herb and findings of current study further verify the claims made in ancient medicinal systems. However, after investigation of each identified compound, it must be considered for drug discovery.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061160
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1161: The Impact of Controlled Ovarian
           Stimulation on Serum Oxidative Stress Markers in Infertile Women with
           Endometriosis Undergoing ICSI

    • Authors: Michele Gomes Da Broi, Elisa Melo Ferreira, Aline Zyman Andrade, Alceu Afonso Jordão, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Paula Andrea Navarro
      First page: 1161
      Abstract: Endometriosis-related infertility is associated with oxidative stress (OS). The present study aims to compare serum OS markers of infertile women with endometriosis and controls during the follicular phase of the natural cycle (D1), after pituitary downregulation using a GnRH agonist (D2), after controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration (D3), and on the day of oocyte retrieval (D4). One hundred and eight serum samples (58 controls and 35 early and 18 advanced endometriosis cases) were collected at these four timepoints. OS markers were compared among the groups and timepoints using a linear regression model with mixed effects and a post-test using orthogonal contrasts. The significance was set at 5%. We observed altered OS markers in the endometriosis patients during the D1, D2, D3, and D4 timepoints compared to the controls. The evidence of systemic OS in infertile patients with endometriosis during COS suggests the mobilization of potent antioxidants in an attempt to protect the oocyte from oxidative damage, especially on the day of oocyte retrieval.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061161
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1162: NADPH Oxidases in Pain Processing

    • Authors: Wiebke Kallenborn-Gerhardt, Katrin Schröder, Achim Schmidtko
      First page: 1162
      Abstract: Inflammation or injury to the somatosensory nervous system may result in chronic pain conditions, which affect millions of people and often cause major health problems. Emerging lines of evidence indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide, are produced in the nociceptive system during chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain and act as specific signaling molecules in pain processing. Among potential ROS sources in the somatosensory system are NADPH oxidases, a group of electron-transporting transmembrane enzymes whose sole function seems to be the generation of ROS. Interestingly, the expression and relevant function of the Nox family members Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 in various cells of the nociceptive system have been demonstrated. Studies using knockout mice or specific knockdown of these isoforms indicate that Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 specifically contribute to distinct signaling pathways in chronic inflammatory and/or neuropathic pain states. As selective Nox inhibitors are currently being developed and investigated in various physiological and pathophysiological settings, targeting Nox1, Nox2, and/or Nox4 could be a novel strategy for the treatment of chronic pain. Here, we summarize the distinct roles of Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 in inflammatory and neuropathic processing and discuss the effectiveness of currently available Nox inhibitors in the treatment of chronic pain conditions.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061162
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1163: Chain-Breaking Antioxidant and Peroxyl
           Radical Trapping Activity of Phenol-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide
           Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Stefano Scurti, Daniele Caretti, Fabio Mollica, Erika Di Antonio, Riccardo Amorati
      First page: 1163
      Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are important materials for biomedical applications, and phenol capping is a common procedure to passivate their surface. As phenol capped SPION have been reported to behave as antioxidants, herein, we investigate the mechanism underlying this activity by studying the reaction with alkyl peroxyl (ROO•) radicals. SPION were prepared by coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III), using phenolic antioxidants (gallic acid, Trolox and nordihydroguaiaretic acid) as post-synthesis capping agents and by different purification procedures. The reactivity of ROO• was investigated by inhibited autoxidation studies, using styrene as an oxidizable substrate (solvent MeCN, 30 °C) and azo-bis(isobutyronitrile) as a radical initiator. While unprotected, bare SPION behaved as prooxidant, accelerating the O2 consumption of styrene autoxidation, phenol capping provided a variable antioxidant effect that was dependent upon the purification degree of the material. Thoroughly washed SPION, containing from 7% to 14% (w/w) of phenols, had a low reactivity toward peroxyl radicals, while SPION with a higher phenol content (46% to 55%) showed a strong radical trapping activity. Our results indicate that the antioxidant activity of phenol-capped SPION can be caused by its release in a solution of weakly bound phenols, and that purification plays a major role in determining the properties of these materials.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061163
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1164: Maclurin Exhibits Antioxidant and
           Anti-Tyrosinase Activities, Suppressing Melanogenesis

    • Authors: Kyoung Mi Moon, Ju-Hye Yang, Min-Kyeong Lee, Eun-Bin Kwon, Jiwon Baek, Taehyeok Hwang, Jae-Il Kim, Bonggi Lee
      First page: 1164
      Abstract: Maclurin is rich in some edible fruits such as Morus alba (white mulberry) and Garcinia mangostana. Although maclurin showed anti-cancer and antioxidant effects, its roles in ultraviolet (UV)-induced melanogenesis have not been studied. Here, we investigated the effects of maclurin in melanogenesis using skin cells and a three-dimensional human skin model. When the cytotoxicity of maclurin was examined in B16F10 cells, no cytotoxicity was found up to 20 μM. Maclurin suppressed UVB-mediated tyrosinase activation and melanin accumulation in B16F10 cells without changes in mRNA levels of melanogenesis-related genes including tyrosinase, TRP1, TRP2, CREB, and MITF. Moreover, maclurin reduced melanin contents in melan-a cells, a cell line for normal melanocytes. When applied to a human skin model consisting of the epidermis and melanocytes, maclurin significantly reduced UVB-induced melanin accumulation (~47%) in a concentration-dependent manner based on microscopic observation and Fontana-Masson staining. Protein–ligand docking simulation followed by binding residue analysis showed that maclurin may bind to inactivate tyrosinase by forming multiple hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic and aromatic interactions with the residues of tyrosinase. Together, our study suggests that maclurin may be applied as an anti-melanogenic agent.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061164
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1165: Direct Derivatization in Dried Blood
           Spots for Oxidized and Reduced Glutathione Quantification in Newborns

    • Authors: Isabel Ten-Doménech, Álvaro Solaz-García, Inmaculada Lara-Cantón, Alejandro Pinilla-Gonzalez, Anna Parra-Llorca, Máximo Vento, Guillermo Quintás, Julia Kuligowski
      First page: 1165
      Abstract: The glutathione (GSH)-to-glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio is an essential node contributing to intracellular redox status. GSH/GSSG determination in whole blood can be accomplished by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) after the derivatization of GSH with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). While this is feasible in a laboratory environment, its application in the clinical scenario is cumbersome and therefore ranges reported in similar populations differ noticeably. In this work, an LC-MS procedure for the determination of GSH and GSSG in dried blood spot (DBS) samples based on direct in situ GSH derivatization with NEM of only 10 µL of blood was developed. This novel method was applied to 73 cord blood samples and 88 residual blood volumes from routine newborn screening performed at discharge from healthy term infants. Two clinical scenarios simulating conditions of sampling and storage relevant for routine clinical analysis and clinical trials were assessed. Levels of GSH-NEM and GSSG measured in DBS samples were comparable to those obtained by liquid blood samples. GSH-NEM and GSSG median values for cord blood samples were significantly lower than those for samples at discharge. However, the GSH-NEM-to-GSSG ratios were not statistically different between both groups. With DBS testing, the immediate manipulation of samples by clinical staff is reduced. We therefore expect that this method will pave the way in providing an accurate and more robust determination of the GSH/GSSG values and trends reported in clinical trials.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061165
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1166: CHK2 Promotes Metabolic Stress-Induced
           Autophagy through ULK1 Phosphorylation

    • Authors: Ran Guo, Shan-Shan Wang, Xiao-You Jiang, Ye Zhang, Yang Guo, Hong-Yan Cui, Qi-Qiang Guo, Liu Cao, Xiao-Chen Xie
      First page: 1166
      Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a signaling intermediate to promote cellular adaptation to maintain homeostasis by regulating autophagy during pathophysiological stress. However, the mechanism by which ROS promotes autophagy is still largely unknown. Here, we show that the ATM/CHK2/ULK1 axis initiates autophagy to maintain cellular homeostasis by sensing ROS signaling under metabolic stress. We report that ULK1 is a physiological substrate of CHK2, and that the binding of CHK2 to ULK1 depends on the ROS signal and the phosphorylation of threonine 68 of CHK2 under metabolic stress. Further, CHK2 phosphorylates ULK1 on serine 556, and this phosphorylation is dependent on the ATM/CHK2 signaling pathway. CHK2-mediated phosphorylation of ULK1 promotes autophagic flux and inhibits apoptosis induced by metabolic stress. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the ATM/CHK2/ULK1 axis initiates an autophagic adaptive response by sensing ROS, and it protects cells from metabolic stress-induced cellular damage.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061166
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1167: Identification and Quantification of
           Urinary Microbial Phenolic Metabolites by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS and
           Their Relationship with Dietary Polyphenols in Adolescents

    • Authors: Emily P. Laveriano-Santos, María Marhuenda-Muñoz, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, Miriam Martínez-Huélamo, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Elefterios Miliarakis, Camila Arancibia-Riveros, Olga Jáuregui, Ana María Ruiz-León, Sara Castro-Baquero, Ramón Estruch, Patricia Bodega, Mercedes de Miguel, Amaya de Cos-Gandoy, Jesús Martínez-Gómez, Gloria Santos-Beneit, Juan M. Fernández-Alvira, Rodrigo Fernández-Jiménez, Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós
      First page: 1167
      Abstract: This study aimed to develop and validate a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS) method to identify and quantify urinary microbial phenolic metabolites (MPM), as well as to explore the relationship between MPM and dietary (poly)phenols in Spanish adolescents. A total of 601 spot urine samples of adolescents aged 12.02 ± 0.41 years were analyzed. The quantitative method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision, as well as postpreparative stability according to the criteria established by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists International. A total of 17 aglycones and 37 phase II MPM were identified and quantified in 601 spot urine samples. Phenolic acids were the most abundant urinary MPM, whereas stilbenes, hydroxytyrosol, and enterodiol were the least abundant. Urinary hydroxycoumarin acids (urolithins) were positively correlated with flavonoid and total (poly)phenol intake. An HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS method was developed and fully validated to quantify MPM. The new method was performed accurately and is suitable for MPM quantification in large epidemiological studies. Urinary lignans and urolithins are proposed as potential biomarkers of grain and nut intake in an adolescent population.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061167
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1168: A New Discovery of Argon Functioning in
           Plants: Regulation of Salinity Tolerance

    • Authors: Jun Wang, Chenxu Cai, Puze Geng, Feng Tan, Qing Yang, Ren Wang, Wenbiao Shen
      First page: 1168
      Abstract: Argon, a non-polar molecule, easily diffuses into deeper tissue and interacts with larger proteins, protein cavities, or even receptors. Some of the biological effects of argon, notably its activity as an antioxidant, have been revealed in animals. However, whether and how argon influences plant physiology remains elusive. Here, we provide the first report that argon can enable plants to cope with salinity toxicity. Considering the convenience of the application, argon gas was dissolved into water (argon-rich water (ARW)) to investigate the argon’s functioning in phenotypes of alfalfa seed germination and seedling growth upon salinity stress. The biochemical evidence showed that NaCl-decreased α/β-amylase activities were abolished by the application of ARW. The qPCR experiments confirmed that ARW increased NHX1 (Na+/H+ antiporter) transcript and decreased SKOR (responsible for root-to-shoot translocation of K+) mRNA abundance, the latter of which could be used to explain the lower net K+ efflux and higher K accumulation. Subsequent results using non-invasive micro-test technology showed that the argon-intensified net Na+ efflux and its reduced Na accumulation resulted in a lower Na+/K+ ratio. NaCl-triggered redox imbalance and oxidative stress were impaired by ARW, as confirmed by histochemical and confocal analyses, and increased antioxidant defense was also detected. Combined with the pot experiments in a greenhouse, the above results clearly demonstrated that argon can enable plants to cope with salinity toxicity via reestablishing ion and redox homeostasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report to address the function of argon in plant physiology, and together these findings might open a new window for the study of argon biology in plant kingdoms.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061168
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1169: Oxidative Stress in Calcific Aortic
           Valve Stenosis: Protective Role of Natural Antioxidants

    • Authors: Radhika Adhikari, Saugat Shiwakoti, Ju-Young Ko, Bikalpa Dhakal, Sin-Hee Park, Ik Jun Choi, Hyun Jung Kim, Min-Ho Oak
      First page: 1169
      Abstract: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is the most prevalent heart valvular disease worldwide and a slowly progressive disorder characterized by thickening of the aortic valve, calcification, and subsequent heart failure. Valvular calcification is an active cell regulation process in which valvular interstitial cells involve phenotypic conversion into osteoblasts/chondrocytes-like cells. The underlying pathophysiology is complicated, and there have been no pharmacological treatments for CAVS to date. Recent studies have suggested that an increase in oxidative stress is the major trigger of CAVS, and natural antioxidants could ameliorate the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of CAVS. It is imperative to review the current findings regarding the role of natural antioxidants in CAVS, as they can be a promising therapeutic approach for managing CAVS, a disorder currently without effective treatment. This review summarizes the current findings on molecular mechanisms associated with oxidative stress in the development of valvular calcification and discusses the protective roles of natural antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of CAVS.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061169
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1170: Screening of the Supercritical
           Impregnation of Olea europaea Leaves Extract into Filaments of
           Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) and Polylactic Acid (PLA) Intended for
           Biomedical Applications

    • Authors: Noelia D. Machado, Cristina Cejudo-Bastante, María L. Goñi, Nicolás A. Gañán, Lourdes Casas-Cardoso, Casimiro Mantell-Serrano
      First page: 1170
      Abstract: The leaves of Olea europaea as agricultural waste represent a convenient source of antioxidants. In combination with supercritical CO2 (scCO2), assisted impregnation is an interesting strategy for the preparation of biomedical devices with specific bioactivity. For this purpose, 3D-printable filaments of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polylactic acid (PLA) were employed for the supercritical impregnation of ethanolic olive leaves extract (OLE) for biomedical application. The extraction of OLE was performed using pressurized liquids. The effect of pressure (100–400 bar), temperature (35–55 °C), and the polymer type on the OLE impregnation and the swelling degree were studied including a morphological analysis and the measurement of the final antioxidant activity. All the studied variables as well as their interactions showed significant effects on the OLE loading. Higher temperatures favored the OLE loading while the pressure presented opposite effects at values higher than 250 bar. Thus, the highest OLE loadings were achieved at 250 bar and 55 °C for both polymers. However, TPU showed c.a. 4 times higher OLE loading and antioxidant activity in comparison with PLA at the optimal conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using TPU for the supercritical impregnation of a natural extract with bioactivity.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061170
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1171: HO-1 Limits the Efficacy of
           Vemurafenib/PLX4032 in BRAFV600E Mutated Melanoma Cells Adapted to
           Physiological Normoxia or Hypoxia

    • Authors: Anna Lisa Furfaro, Giulia Loi, Caterina Ivaldo, Mario Passalacqua, Gabriella Pietra, Giovanni Enrico Mann, Mariapaola Nitti
      First page: 1171
      Abstract: Induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) favors immune-escape in BRAFV600 melanoma cells treated with Vemurafenib/PLX4032 under standard cell culture conditions. However, the oxygen tension under standard culture conditions (~18 kPa O2) is significantly higher than the physiological oxygen levels encountered in vivo. In addition, cancer cells in vivo are often modified by hypoxia. In this study, MeOV-1 primary melanoma cells bearing the BRAFV600E mutation, were adapted to either 5 kPa O2 (physiological normoxia) or 1 kPa O2 (hypoxia) and then exposed to 10 μM PLX4032. PLX4032 abolished ERK phosphorylation, reduced Bach1 expression and increased HO-1 levels independent of pericellular O2 tension. Moreover, cell viability was significantly reduced further in cells exposed to PLX4032 plus Tin mesoporphyrin IX, a HO-1 inhibitor. Notably, our findings provide the first evidence that HO-1 inhibition in combination with PLX4032 under physiological oxygen tension and hypoxia restores and increases the expression of the NK ligands ULBP3 and B7H6 compared to cells exposed to PLX4032 alone. Interestingly, although silencing NRF2 prevented PLX4032 induction of HO-1, other NRF2 targeted genes were unaffected, highlighting a pivotal role of HO-1 in melanoma resistance and immune escape. The present findings may enhance translation and highlight the potential of the HO-1 inhibitors in the therapy of BRAFV600 melanomas.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061171
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1172: Antioxidants and Anti-Inflammatory
           Effects in Neurodegenerative Diseases (NDs)

    • Authors: Michela Campolo, Irene Paterniti
      First page: 1172
      Abstract: Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are the most common chronic neurological diseases associated with age, and they have a strong impact on the patient’s quality of life [...]
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061172
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1173: Production of Collagens and Protein
           Hydrolysates with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity from Sheep
           Slaughter By-Products

    • Authors: Alessandra Roseline Vidal, Rogério Luis Cansian, Renius de Oliveira Mello, Ivo Mottin Demiate, Aniela Pinto Kempka, Rosa Cristina Prestes Dornelles, José Manuel Lorenzo Rodriguez, Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol
      First page: 1173
      Abstract: This work aimed to produce collagens and hydrolysates with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity from sheep slaughter by-products. The by-products (sheep and lamb) were treated and extracted. The collagens were hydrolyzed with the enzyme Alcalase®. The spectra of collagens and hydrolysates were similar (amide bands I, II, III, A, B). The bands presented by the collagens (α1, α2, β) were characteristic of type I collagen. The hydrolysates showed molecular weight peptides equal to/lower than 15 kDa. Collagens had a denaturation temperature of 39.32 (lamb) and 36.38 °C (sheep), whereas the hydrolysates did not undergo thermal transition. Hydrolysates showed lower values of antioxidant activity (AA) than the collagens. The collagens from lamb and from sheep displayed an AA of 13.4% (concentration of 0.0002%) and 13.1% (concentration of 0.0005%), respectively. At the concentration of 0.0020%, the lamb hydrolysates displayed an AA of 10.2%, whereas the sheep hydrolysates had an AA of only 1.98%. Collagen also showed higher antimicrobial activity compared to hydrolysates, requiring a lower concentration to inhibit the microorganisms tested. Sheep slaughter by-products proved to be a viable source for obtaining protein hydrolysates and collagens with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, which can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals beneficial to human health.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061173
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1174: A Mutation in Endogenous saRNA miR-23a
           Influences Granulosa Cells Response to Oxidative Stress

    • Authors: Siqi Wang, Yuqi Li, Qiang Zeng, Liu Yang, Xing Du, Qifa Li
      First page: 1174
      Abstract: Phenotypes are the result of the interaction between the gene and the environment, so the response of individuals with different genotypes to an environment is variable. Here, we reported that a mutation in miR-23a influences granulosa cells (GCs) response to oxidative stress, a common mechanism of environmental factors affecting female reproduction. We showed that nuclear miR-23a is a pro-apoptotic miRNA in porcine GCs through the activation of the transcription and function of NORHA, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) induces GC apoptosis and responses to oxidative stress. Mechanistically, miR-23a acts as an endogenous small activating RNA (saRNA) to alter histone modifications of the NORHA promoter through the direct binding to its core promoter. A C > T mutation was identified at −398 nt of the miR-23a core promoter, which created a novel binding site for the transcription factor SMAD4 and recruited the transcription repressor SMAD4 to inhibit miR-23a transcription and function in GCs. Notably, g.−398C > T mutation in the miR-23a promoter reduced GCs response to oxidative stress. In addition, g.−398C > T mutation was significantly associated with sow fertility traits. In short, our findings preliminarily revealed the genetic basis of individual differences in the response to oxidative stress from the perspective of a single mutation and identified miR-23a as a candidate gene for the environmental adaptation to oxidative stress.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061174
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1175: Oxidative Stress Parameters as
           Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease towards the Development and
           Progression

    • Authors: Amanda Shen-Yee Kong, Kok Song Lai, Cheng-Wan Hee, Jiun Yan Loh, Swee Hua Erin Lim, Maran Sathiya
      First page: 1175
      Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally, with unhealthy lifestyles today greatly increasing the risk. Over the decades, scientific investigation has been carried out on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their resultant oxidative stress based on their changes made on biological targets such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Since the existing clinical studies with antioxidants failed to provide relevant findings on CVD prediction, the focus has shifted towards recognition of oxidised targets as biomarkers to predict prognosis and response to accurate treatment. The identification of redox markers could help clinicians in providing risk stratification for CVD events beyond the traditional prognostic and diagnostic targets. This review will focus on how oxidant-related parameters can be applied as biomarkers for CVD based on recent clinical evidence.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061175
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1176: Oxidant and Antioxidant
           Parameters’ Assessment Together with Homocysteine and Muscle Enzymes
           in Racehorses: Evaluation of Positive Effects of Exercise

    • Authors: Francesca Arfuso, Maria Rizzo, Claudia Giannetto, Elisabetta Giudice, Roberta Cirincione, Giovanni Cassata, Luca Cicero, Giuseppe Piccione
      First page: 1176
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the changes in serum oxidant and antioxidant parameters together with the serum values of homocysteine (Hcy) and muscle enzymes including creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in regularly trained athletic horses during official races of 1200, 1600 and 2000 m. Thirty Thoroughbred horses were divided into three groups of 10 subjects each according to the race distance: Group 1, 1200 m race; Group 2, 1600 m race; Group 3, 2000 m race. Blood samples were collected from horses 1 week prior to the race (1WB), on the day of the race at rest (TREST), immediately after the race (TPOST), and after 30 (TPOST30) and 120 (TPOST120) minutes. Serum total proteins, reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs), thiol antioxidant barrier (SHp), antioxidant barrier (Oxy-ads), Hcy, CK, AST and LDH values were assessed. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA did not show differences referable to the race distance (Group effect) on all investigated parameters (p > 0.05). An exercise effect on oxidative stress markers, Hcy and muscle enzymes herein investigated was found in all groups (p < 0.001). A Pearson’s test showed dROMs positively correlated with SHp, Oxy-ads and Hcy after exercise (p < 0.05). This study suggests that, though well-trained racing horses are subjected to oxidative stress during a race, a proper antioxidant capacity may improve their ability to cope with exercise-induced oxidative stress.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061176
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1177: Exogenous Melatonin in the Culture
           Medium Does Not Affect the Development of In Vivo-Derived Pig Embryos but
           Substantially Improves the Quality of In Vitro-Produced Embryos

    • Authors: Cristina A. Martinez, Cristina Cuello, Inmaculada Parrilla, Carolina Maside, Guillermo Ramis, Josep M. Cambra, Juan M. Vazquez, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez, Maria A. Gil, Emilio A. Martinez
      First page: 1177
      Abstract: Cloned and transgenic pigs are relevant human disease models and serve as potential donors for regenerative medicine and xenotransplantation. These technologies demand oocytes and embryos of good quality. However, the current protocols for in vitro production (IVP) of pig embryos give reduced blastocyst efficiency and embryo quality compared to in vivo controls. This is likely due to culture conditions jeopardizing embryonic homeostasis including the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence. In this study, the antioxidant melatonin (1 nM) in the maturation medium, fertilization medium, or both media was ineffective in enhancing fertilization or embryonic development parameters of in vitro fertilized oocytes. Supplementation of melatonin in the fertilization medium also had no effect on sperm function. In contrast, the addition of melatonin to the embryo culture medium accelerated the timing of embryonic development and increased the percentages of cleaved embryos and presumed zygotes that developed to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, it increased the number of inner mass cells and the inner mass cell/total cell number ratio per blastocyst while increasing intracellular glutathione and reducing ROS and DNA damage levels in embryos. Contrarily, the addition of melatonin to the embryo culture medium had no evident effect on in vivo-derived embryos, including the developmental capacity and the quality of in vivo-derived 4-cell embryos or the percentage of genome-edited in vivo-derived zygotes achieving the blastocyst stage. In conclusion, exogenous melatonin in the embryo culture medium enhances the development and quality of in vitro-derived embryos but not in in vivo-derived embryos. Exogenous melatonin is thus recommended during embryo culture of oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro for improving porcine IVP efficiency.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061177
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1178: Gender-Specific Metabolic Responses of
           Crassostrea hongkongensis to Infection with Vibrio harveyi and
           Lipopolysaccharide

    • Authors: Lijuan Ma, Jie Lu, Tuo Yao, Lingtong Ye, Jiangyong Wang
      First page: 1178
      Abstract: Gender differences in the hemocyte immune response of Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis to Vibrio harveyi and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infection exist. To determine if a gender difference also exists, we use a 1H NMR-based metabolomics method to investigate responses in C. hongkongensis hepatopancreas tissues to V. harveyi and LPS infection. Both infections induced pronounced gender- and immune-specific metabolic responses in hepatopancreas tissues. Responses are mainly presented in changes in substances involved in energy metabolism (decreased glucose, ATP, and AMP in males and increased ATP and AMP in LPS-infected females), oxidative stress (decreased glutathione in males and decreased tryptophan and phenylalanine and increased choline and proline in LPS-infected females), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (decreased α-ketoglutarate acid and increased fumarate in LPS-infected males, and decreased fumarate in LPS-infected females), and osmotic regulation (decreased trigonelline and increased taurine in V. harveyi-infected males and decreased betaine in V. harveyi-infected females). Results suggest that post-spawning-phase male oysters have a more significant energy metabolic response and greater ability to cope with oxidative stress than female oysters. We propose that the impact of oyster gender should be taken into consideration in the aftermath of oyster farming or oyster disease in natural seas.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061178
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1179: Protective Effects of Emodin on
           Oxidized Fish Oil-Induced Metabolic Disorder and Oxidative Stress through
           Notch-Nrf2 Crosstalk in the Liver of Teleost Megalobrama amblycephala

    • Authors: Changyou Song, Bo Liu, Hongxia Li, Yongkai Tang, Xianping Ge, Bo Liu, Pao Xu
      First page: 1179
      Abstract: Dietary oxidized lipids are key perpetrator to accumulate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce oxidative stress for animals. Immoderate oxidative stress dysregulates cell fate, perturbs cellular homeostasis, thereby interrupts metabolism and normal growth. Therefore, a 12-week feeding trial with fish oil (FO, control group), oxidized fish oil (OF), and emodin-supplemented (OF+E) diets was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic mechanism of emodin on metabolic and oxidative resistance in Megalobrama amblycephala liver. Morphologically, emodin remits oxidized fish oil-induced cellular constituents damage, evidenced by lipid droplets enlargement and accumulation, mitochondria rupture, and nucleus aggregation, which were functionally related to oxidative stress, metabolism, and cell fate determination. Consecutively, glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism were retained under emodin stimulation. Specifically, fatty acid metabolic genes optimized fatty acid utilization and metabolism, featured as total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alternation. Physiologically, inflammation, autophagy, apoptosis, as well as antioxidant capacity were alleviated by emodin. Interactively, fatty acid metabolism was correlated with antioxidant capacity; while the crosstalk and dynamic equilibrium between apoptosis and autophagy determine the cell fate under oxidative stress amelioration. Synergistically, Nrf2 and Notch signaling were active to antioxidant defense. In particular, oxidative stress blocked the crosstalk between Notch and Nrf2 signaling, while emodin rescued Notch-Nrf2 interaction to ameliorate oxidative stress. In conclusion, these results suggest that elevated ROS levels by oxidative stress activates Notch and Nrf2 signaling but intercepts Notch-Nrf2 crosstalk to stimulate cell fate and antioxidant program; dietary emodin alleviates oxidative stress and returns overall ROS levels to a moderate state to maintain homeostatic balance. The crosstalk between Notch and Nrf2 signaling might be the potential therapeutic target for emodin to ameliorate oxidative stress and metabolic disorder in M. amblycephala liver.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061179
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1180: Molecular Properties of β-Carotene
           Oxygenases and Their Potential in Industrial Production of Vitamin A and
           Its Derivatives

    • Authors: Kyung-Chul Shin, Min-Ju Seo, Yeong-Su Kim, Soo-Jin Yeom
      First page: 1180
      Abstract: β-Carotene 15,15′-oxygenase (BCO1) and β-carotene 9′,10′-oxygenase (BCO2) are potential producers of vitamin A derivatives, since they can catalyze the oxidative cleavage of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to retinoids and derivative such as apocarotenal. Retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers of vitamin A or are chemically related to it, and are essential nutrients for humans and highly valuable in the food and cosmetics industries. β-carotene oxygenases (BCOs) from various organisms have been overexpressed in heterogeneous bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, and their biochemical properties have been studied. For the industrial production of retinal, there is a need for increased production of a retinal producer and biosynthesis of retinal using biocatalyst systems improved by enzyme engineering. The current review aims to discuss BCOs from animal, plants, and bacteria, and to elaborate on the recent progress in our understanding of their functions, biochemical properties, substrate specificity, and enzyme activities with respect to the production of retinoids in whole-cell conditions. Moreover, we specifically propose ways to integrate BCOs into retinal biosynthetic bacterial systems to improve the performance of retinal production.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061180
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1181: Changing Perspectives from Oxidative
           Stress to Redox Signaling—Extracellular Redox Control in
           Translational Medicine

    • Authors: Paola Loreto Palacio, José R. Godoy, Orhan Aktas, Eva-Maria Hanschmann
      First page: 1181
      Abstract: Extensive research has changed the understanding of oxidative stress that has been linked to every major disease. Today we distinguish oxidative eu- and distress, acknowledging that redox modifications are crucial for signal transduction in the form of specific thiol switches. Long underestimated, reactive species and redox proteins of the Thioredoxin (Trx) family are indeed essential for physiological processes. Moreover, extracellular redox proteins, low molecular weight thiols and thiol switches affect signal transduction and cell–cell communication. Here, we highlight the impact of extracellular redox regulation for health, intermediate pathophenotypes and disease. Of note, recent advances allow the analysis of redox changes in body fluids without using invasive and expensive techniques. With this new knowledge in redox biochemistry, translational strategies can lead to innovative new preventive and diagnostic tools and treatments in life sciences and medicine.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061181
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1182: Measurement of Tetrahydrobiopterin in
           Animal Tissue Samples by HPLC with Electrochemical
           Detection—Protocol Optimization and Pitfalls

    • Authors: Ksenija Vujacic-Mirski, Matthias Oelze, Ivana Kuntic, Marin Kuntic, Sanela Kalinovic, Huige Li, Jacek Zielonka, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
      First page: 1182
      Abstract: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of all nitric oxide synthase isoforms, thus determination of BH4 levels can provide important mechanistic insight into diseases. We established a protocol for high-performance liquid chromatography/electrochemical detection (HPLC/ECD)-based determination of BH4 in tissue samples. We first determined the optimal storage and work-up conditions for authentic BH4 and its oxidation product dihydrobiopterin (BH2) under various conditions (pH, temperature, presence of antioxidants, metal chelators, and storage time). We then applied optimized protocols for detection of BH4 in tissues of septic (induced by lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) rats. BH4 standards in HCl are stabilized by addition of 1,4-dithioerythritol (DTE) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), while HCl was sufficient for BH2 standard stabilization. Overnight storage of BH4 standard solutions at room temperature in HCl without antioxidants caused complete loss of BH4 and the formation of BH2. We further optimized the protocol to separate ascorbate and the BH4 tissue sample and found a significant increase in BH4 in the heart and kidney as well as higher BH4 levels by trend in the brain of septic rats compared to control rats. These findings correspond to reports on augmented nitric oxide and BH4 levels in both animals and patients with septic shock.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061182
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1183: Liposomes Encapsulating Morin:
           Investigation of Physicochemical Properties, Dermal Absorption Improvement
           and Anti-Aging Activity in PM-Induced Keratinocytes

    • Authors: Hong-My Tran, Chun-Yin Yang, Tzu-Hui Wu, Feng-Lin Yen
      First page: 1183
      Abstract: Recently, a global market for anti-aging skin care using botanicals has been noticeably developing. Morin, 3,5,7,2′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone, is a polyphenol with many pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammation and photoprotection. However, poor aqueous solubility of morin restricts its application in pharmaceuticals. The present study aimed to encapsulate morin into liposomal vesicles to improve its water solubility and skin penetration, and further investigated its ROS inhibition and anti-aging activity in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by particulate matters (PMs). Our data presented that morin was a strong DPPH• radical scavenger. Morin displayed a remarkable ROS inhibitory ability and protected keratinocytes against PMs by downregulating matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression via suppressing p-ERK and p-p38 in the MAPK pathway. Moreover, water solubility of liposomal morin (LM) prepared by the thin film hydration method was significantly better than free form of morin due to particle size reduction of LM. Our results also demonstrated that deformable liposomal vesicles were achieved for increasing dermal absorption. Additionally, LM (morin:lecinolws-50:tween-80:PF-68, 1:2.5:2.5:5) was able to effectively reduce generation of ROS, inactivate p-ERK, p-p38 and MMP-1 in HaCaT cells exposed to PM. In conclusion, our findings suggested that LM would be a bright candidate for various topical anti-aging and anti-pollution products.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061183
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1184: Effect of Low-Dose Radiotherapy on the
           Circulating Levels of Paraoxonase-1-Related Variables and Markers of
           Inflammation in Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia

    • Authors: Elisabet Rodríguez-Tomàs, Johana C. Acosta, Laura Torres-Royo, Gabriel De Febrer, Gerard Baiges-Gaya, Helena Castañé, Andrea Jiménez, Carlos Vasco, Pablo Araguas, Junior Gómez, Bárbara Malave, Miguel Árquez, David Calderón, Berta Piqué, Manel Algara, Ángel Montero, Josep M. Simó, Xavier Gabaldó-Barrios, Sebastià Sabater, Jordi Camps, Jorge Joven, Meritxell Arenas
      First page: 1184
      Abstract: The aim of our study was to investigate the changes produced by low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) in the circulating levels of the antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and inflammatory markers in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia treated with LDRT and their interactions with clinical and radiological changes. Data were collected from the IPACOVID prospective clinical trial (NCT04380818). The study included 30 patients treated with a whole-lung dose of 0.5 Gy. Clinical follow-up, as well as PON1-related variables, cytokines, and radiological parameters were analyzed before LDRT, at 24 h, and 1 week after treatment. Twenty-five patients (83.3%) survived 1 week after LDRT. Respiratory function and radiological images improved in survivors. Twenty-four hours after LDRT, PON1 concentration significantly decreased, while transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) increased with respect to baseline. One week after LDRT, patients had increased PON1 activities and lower PON1 and TGF-β1 concentrations compared with 24 h after LDRT, PON1 specific activity increased, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased, and CD4+ and CD8+ cells increased after one week. Our results highlight the benefit of LDRT in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and it might be mediated, at least in part, by an increase in serum PON1 activity at one week and an increase in TGF-β1 concentrations at 24 h.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061184
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1185: Dietary Parsley Seed Mitigates
           Methomyl-Induced Impaired Growth Performance, Hemato-Immune Suppression,
           Oxidative Stress, Hepato-Renal Damage, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
           Susceptibility in Oreochromis niloticus

    • Authors: Walaa El-Houseiny, Samah Attia Algharib, Eman A. A. Mohamed, Mohamed M. M. Metwally, Yasmina K. Mahmoud, Youssef S. Alghamdi, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Yasmina M. Abd-Elhakim, Abd Elhakeem El-Murr
      First page: 1185
      Abstract: The present experiment investigated the potential protective role of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) seed meal (PSM) in alleviating methomyl (MET)-adverse impacts on growth, whole-body composition, hematological indicators, hepatorenal function, immune response, oxidative status, and disease resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For this purpose, 225 healthy Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were allotted into five groups (45 fish/group in triplicate). One group was reared in clean water and fed a non-supplemented basal diet, while the other groups were exposed to 20.39 μg L−1 MET and fed a non-fortified basal diet or basal diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% of PSM for 60 days. The obtained data revealed significantly lower weight gain, feed intake, and specific growth rate, but higher feed conversion ratio and decreases in crude protein, lipid, and ash contents in the MET-exposed fish. Anemia, leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and esonipenia were also obvious. Furthermore, MET-exposed fish had significantly higher serum levels of hepatic enzymes and renal damage products. Nevertheless, there was a significant depletion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in MET-exposed fish. The MET exposure significantly depressed lysozyme activity, nitric oxide, complement3, acetylcholinesterase activity, total proteins, globulin, and albumin levels in O. niloticus serum. Furthermore, pathological alterations in the liver and kidney were noted. The relative percentage of survival rate in MET-exposed fish was dramatically reduced on day 14 post-challenge with P. aeruginosa. The inclusion of PSM, on the other hand, greatly alleviated most of the MET-related negative effects. Taken together, the dietary intervention with PSM has a promising role in alleviating MET-deleterious impacts, rendering parsley seeds a viable aqua feed additive for O. niloticus.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061185
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1186: Preclinical Characterization of
           Antioxidant Quinolyl Nitrone QN23 as a New Candidate for the Treatment of
           Ischemic Stroke

    • Authors: Emma Martínez-Alonso, Alejandro Escobar-Peso, Alicia Aliena-Valero, Germán Torregrosa, Mourad Chioua, Rocío Fernández-Serra, Daniel González-Nieto, Youness Ouahid, Juan B. Salom, Jaime Masjuan, José Marco-Contelles, Alberto Alcázar
      First page: 1186
      Abstract: Nitrones are encouraging drug candidates for the treatment of oxidative stress-driven diseases such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In a previous study, we found a promising quinolylnitrone, QN23, which exerted a neuroprotective effect in neuronal cell cultures subjected to oxygen–glucose deprivation and in experimental models of cerebral ischemia. In this paper, we update the biological and pharmacological characterization of QN23. We describe the suitability of intravenous administration of QN23 to induce neuroprotection in transitory four-vessel occlusion (4VO) and middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) experimental models of brain ischemia by assessing neuronal death, apoptosis induction, and infarct area, as well as neurofunctional outcomes. QN23 significantly decreased the neuronal death and apoptosis induced by the ischemic episode in a dose-dependent manner and showed a therapeutic effect when administered up to 3 h after post-ischemic reperfusion onset, effects that remained 11 weeks after the ischemic episode. In addition, QN23 significantly reduced infarct volume, thus recovering the motor function in a tMCAO model. Remarkably, we assessed the antioxidant activity of QN23 in vivo using dihydroethidium as a molecular probe for radical species. Finally, we describe QN23 pharmacokinetic parameters. All these results pointing to QN23 as an interesting and promising preclinical candidate for the treatment of AIS.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061186
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1187: Liquid
           Chromatography–High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Profiling
           of Commercial Enocianina and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant and
           Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    • Authors: Larissa Della Vedova, Giulio Ferrario, Francesca Gado, Alessandra Altomare, Marina Carini, Paolo Morazzoni, Giancarlo Aldini, Giovanna Baron
      First page: 1187
      Abstract: Enocianina is an anthocyanin-rich extract obtained from grape pomace. It is widely used as a colorant in the food industry and, in addition to anthocyanins, it also contains a variety of polyphenols. To understand whether enocianina, besides its coloring effect, may offer potential health benefit applications, we aimed to fully characterize the profile of four commercial enocianinas and assess their radical scavenging, enzymatic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified 90 phytochemicals. The relative content of each anthocyanin was assessed by a semi-quantitative analysis, with malvidin derivatives being the most abundant. UV-VIS spectroscopy detected total amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins of 23% and 3.24%, respectively, indicating that anthocyanins represent a minor fraction of total polyphenols. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the radical scavenging activity is related to the total polyphenol content and not to anthocyanins. All four enocianinas dose-dependently activate Nrf2, and such activity was correlated with catechol-containing polyphenol content. Finally, all enocianinas showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity, which at the highest concentrations tested was closely related to the total polyphenol content and was explained by radical scavenging, Nrf2 activation, and other mechanisms related to the polyphenolic components.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061187
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1188: Selenium and Selenoproteins at the
           Intersection of Type 2 Diabetes and Thyroid Pathophysiology

    • Authors: Francesca Gorini, Cristina Vassalle
      First page: 1188
      Abstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is considered one of the largest global public-health concerns, affecting approximately more than 400 million individuals worldwide. The pathogenesis of T2D is very complex and, among the modifiable risk factors, selenium (Se) has recently emerged as a determinant of T2D pathogenesis and progression. Selenium is considered an essential element with antioxidant properties, and is incorporated into the selenoproteins involved in the antioxidant response. Furthermore, deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for homeostasis and for controlling the activity of thyroid hormones (THs), contain Se. Given the crucial action of oxidative stress in the onset of insulin resistance (IR) and T2D, and the close connection between THs and glucose metabolism, Se may be involved in these fundamental relationships; it may cover a dual role, both as a protective factor and as a risk factor of T2D, depending on its basal plasma concentration and the individual’s diet intake. In this review we discuss the current evidence (from experimental, observational and randomized clinical studies) on how Se is associated with the occurrence of T2D and its influence on the relationship between thyroid pathophysiology, IR and T2D.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061188
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1189: Flavonoids from Selaginella
           doederleinii Hieron and Their Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities
           

    • Authors: Felix Wambua Muema, Ye Liu, Yongli Zhang, Guilin Chen, Mingquan Guo
      First page: 1189
      Abstract: Selaginella doederleinii Hieron. (S. doederleinii) is a traditional herb that is widely used in China to treat several ailments, but mainly cancer. Studies have been carried out to determine the phytochemicals ascribed to its pharmacological activity. However, both phytochemical and pharmacological profiles have not been fully explored as few compounds have been reported. This study evaluated the flavonoid content of the ethanol extract and its four fractions (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) together with their antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP assays). Further, the antiproliferative activity was evaluated. Two new secondary metabolites (1 and 3) were isolated from S. doederleinii, which comprised of an apigenin skeleton with a phenyl attached at C-8 of ring A and an acetyl group. Additionally, other known metabolites 2 and 4–16 were isolated, whereby compounds 2, 4, 5, 8, 12, 15, and 16 were reported for the first time in this species. These compounds were evaluated for their antioxidative potentials by both DPPH and FRAP assays, and for their antiproliferative activities by the MTT assay on three human cancer cell lines: colon cancer (HT-29), cervical cancer (HeLa), and lung cancer (A549). Compound 7 exhibited the best activity on the three cancer cell lines (HT-29, HeLa, A549) by inhibiting the rate of growth of the cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 27.97, 35.47, and 20.71 µM, respectively. The structure–activity relationship of the pure compounds was highlighted in this study. Hence, the study enriched both the phytochemical and pharmacological profiles of S. doederleinii.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061189
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1190: Oxidative Stress as a Main Contributor
           of Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    • Authors: Isabel Pinilla, Victoria Maneu
      First page: 1190
      Abstract: Retinal degenerative diseases, including inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) and acquired multifactorial diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR) or ganglion cell damage secondary to glaucoma or other pathologies, are the main causes of blindness in developed countries [...]
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061190
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1191: Impact of a Carboxymethyl Cellulose
           Coating Incorporated with an Ethanolic Propolis Extract on the Quality
           Criteria of Chicken Breast Meat

    • Authors: Aly Farag El Sheikha, Ayman Younes Allam, Tahra ElObeid, Elham Abdelrahman Basiouny, Ahmad Abdelkaway Abdelaal, Ryszard Amarowicz, Emel Oz, Charalampos Proestos, Emad Karrar, Fatih Oz
      First page: 1191
      Abstract: Recently, the demand for composite edible coatings has increased significantly as a new trend to confront the serious processing and storage problems that always arise regarding chicken meat. We aim to develop a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating containing various concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%) of an ethanolic propolis extract (EPE) to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of chicken breast meat stored at 2 °C for 16 days. The influence of the CMC and EPE coating on the physicochemical and microbiological quality parameters of chicken breast meat, e.g., pH, color, metmyoglobin (MetMb), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, TBARS), and microbiological and sensory analyses, was studied. Significantly lower weight loss and pH (p ≤ 0.05) were noted in the coated samples compared with the uncoated samples (control) over the storage period. MetMb content was significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) in the coated samples compared to the control. Additionally, the addition of EPE to CMC was more effective in inhibiting microbial growth, preventing lipid oxidation, and keeping the overall acceptability of coated chicken breast meat compared to the control. This work presents CMC and EPE as alternative preservatives to produce active packaging coatings.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061191
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1192: Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and
           Cytotoxic Activity of Phenolic Compound Family Extracted from Raspberries
           (Rubus idaeus): A General Review

    • Authors: Alejandra Vanessa Lopez-Corona, Illeen Valencia-Espinosa, Fabio Antonio González-Sánchez, Angélica Lizeth Sánchez-López, Luis Eduardo Garcia-Amezquita, Rebeca Garcia-Varela
      First page: 1192
      Abstract: Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) possess a wide phenolic family profile; this serves the role of self-protection for the plant. Interest in these compounds have significantly increased, since they have been classified as nutraceuticals due to the positive health effects provided to consumers. Extensive chemical, in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed to prove and validate these benefits and their possible applications as an aid when treating several chronic degenerative diseases, characterized by oxidative stress and an inflammatory response. While many diseases could be co-adjuvanted by the intake of these phenolic compounds, this review will mainly discuss their effects on cancer. Anthocyanins and ellagitannins are known to provide a major antioxidant capacity in raspberries. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the phenolic compound family of raspberries, and topics discussed include their characterization, biosynthesis, bioavailability, cytotoxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061192
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1193: Impact of Magnetite Nanoparticles
           Coated with Aspartic Acid on the Growth, Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and
           Chlorophyll Content of Maize

    • Authors: Mihaela Răcuciu, Andreea Tecucianu, Simona Oancea
      First page: 1193
      Abstract: In recent decades, magnetite nanoparticles received greater attention in nanobiotechnology due to wide applications. This study presents the influence of the oxidative stress caused by magnetite nanoparticles coated with aspartic acid (A-MNP) of 9.17 nm mean diameter size, on maize (Zea mays) seedlings, in terms of growth, enzymatic activity and chlorophyll content as evaluated in exposed plant tissues. Diluted suspensions of colloidal magnetite nanoparticles stabilized in water were added to the culture medium of maize seeds, such as to equate nanoparticle concentrations varying from 0.55 mg/L to 11 mg/L. The obtained results showed that the growth of maize was stimulated by increasing the level of A-MNPs. Plant samples treated with different concentrations of A-MNP proved increased activities of catalase and peroxidase, and chlorophyll content, as well. The exposure of plants to magnetite nanoparticles may induce oxidative stress, which activates the plant defense/antioxidant mechanisms.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061193
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1194: Extracellular Vesicles and Cancer
           Therapy: Insights into the Role of Oxidative Stress

    • Authors: Jenni Ho, Luksana Chaiswing, Daret K. St. Clair
      First page: 1194
      Abstract: Oxidative stress plays a significant role in cancer development and cancer therapy, and is a major contributor to normal tissue injury. The unique characteristics of extracellular vesicles (EVs) have made them potentially useful as a diagnostic tool in that their molecular content indicates their cell of origin and their lipid membrane protects the content from enzymatic degradation. In addition to their possible use as a diagnostic tool, their role in how normal and diseased cells communicate is of high research interest. The most exciting area is the association of EVs, oxidative stress, and pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, the relationship between oxidative stress and oxidative modifications of EVs is still unclear, which limits full understanding of the clinical potential of EVs. Here, we discuss how EVs, oxidative stress, and cancer therapy relate to one another; how oxidative stress can contribute to the generation of EVs; and how EVs’ contents reveal the presence of oxidative stress. We also point out the potential promise and limitations of using oxidatively modified EVs as biomarkers of cancer and tissue injury with a focus on pediatric oncology patients.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061194
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1195: The Breast Cancer Protooncogenes HER2,
           BRCA1 and BRCA2 and Their Regulation by the iNOS/NOS2 Axis

    • Authors: Katie Lin, Stavroula Baritaki, Silvia Vivarelli, Luca Falzone, Aurora Scalisi, Massimo Libra, Benjamin Bonavida
      First page: 1195
      Abstract: The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; NOS2) and derived NO in various cancers was reported to exert pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects depending on the levels of expression and the tumor types. In humans, the breast cancer level of iNOS was reported to be overexpressed, to exhibit pro-tumorigenic activities, and to be of prognostic significance. Likewise, the expression of the oncogenes HER2, BRCA1, and BRCA2 has been associated with malignancy. The interrelationship between the expression of these protooncogenes and oncogenes and the expression of iNOS is not clear. We have hypothesized that there exist cross-talk signaling pathways between the breast cancer protooncogenes, the iNOS axis, and iNOS-mediated NO mutations of these protooncogenes into oncogenes. We review the molecular regulation of the expression of the protooncogenes in breast cancer and their interrelationships with iNOS expression and activities. In addition, we discuss the roles of iNOS, HER2, BRCA1/2, and NO metabolism in the pathophysiology of cancer stem cells. Bioinformatic analyses have been performed and have found suggested molecular alterations responsible for breast cancer aggressiveness. These include the association of BRCA1/2 mutations and HER2 amplifications with the dysregulation of the NOS pathway. We propose that future studies should be undertaken to investigate the regulatory mechanisms underlying the expression of iNOS and various breast cancer oncogenes, with the aim of identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancers that are refractory to current treatments.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061195
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1196: Early Prediction for Prediabetes and
           Type 2 Diabetes Using the Genetic Risk Score and Oxidative Stress Score

    • Authors: Huang, Han, Jang, Kim
      First page: 1196
      Abstract: We aimed to use a genetic risk score (GRS) constructed with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and an oxidative stress score (OSS) to construct an early-prediction model for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence in a Korean population. The study population included 549 prediabetes and T2DM patients and 1036 normal subjects. The GRS was constructed using six prediabetes and T2DM-related SNPs, and the OSS was composed of three recognized oxidative stress biomarkers. Among the nine SNPs, six showed significant associations with the incidence of prediabetes and T2DM. The GRS was profoundly associated with increased prediabetes and T2DM (OR = 1.946) compared with individual SNPs after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. Each of the three oxidative stress biomarkers was markedly higher in the prediabetes and T2DM group than in the normal group, and the OSS was significantly associated with increased prediabetes and T2DM (OR = 2.270). When BMI was introduced to the model with the OSS and GRS, the area under the ROC curve improved (from 69.3% to 70.5%). We found that the prediction model composed of the OSS, GRS, and BMI showed a significant prediction ability for the incidence of prediabetes and T2DM.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061196
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1197: Genotoxic Assessment of Nutraceuticals
           Obtained from Agricultural Biowaste: Where Do We “AMES”'

    • Authors: Giorgia Musto, Valentina Laurenzi, Giuseppe Annunziata, Ettore Novellino, Mariano Stornaiuolo
      First page: 1197
      Abstract: Several pharmaceutical companies are nowadays considering the use of agri-food waste as alternative raw material for the extraction of bioactive compounds to include in nutraceuticals and food supplements. This recycling activity is encountering the support of authorities, which are alarmed by air, soil and water pollution generated by agricultural waste disposal. Waste reuse has several economic advantages: (i) its low cost; (ii) its abundance; (iii) the high content of bioactive molecule (antioxidants, minerals, fibers, fatty acids); as well as (iv) the financial support received by governments eager to promote eco-compatible and pollution-reducing practices. While nutraceuticals produced from biowaste are becoming popular, products that have been risk-assessed in terms of safety are quite rare. This despite waste biomass, in virtue of its chemical complexity, could, in many cases, mine the overall safety of the final nutraceutical product. In this review, we summarize the scientific results published on genotoxicity risk-assessment of bioactive compounds extracted from agricultural waste. The review depicts a scenario where the risk-assessment of biowaste derived products is still scarcely diffuse, but when available, it confirms the safety of these products, and lets us envisage their future inclusion in the list of botanicals allowed for formulation intended for human consumption.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061197
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1198: SOD3 and IL-18 Predict the First Kidney
           Disease-Related Hospitalization or Death during the One-Year Follow-Up
           Period in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    • Authors: Yu-Hsien Liu, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Chi-Hua Ko, Chia-Wen Kuo, Chih-Ching Yen, Wei Chen, Kowit-Yu Chong, Chuan-Mu Chen
      First page: 1198
      Abstract: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients experience oxidative stress due to excess exogenous or endogenous oxidants and insufficient antioxidants. Hence, oxidative stress and inflammation cause endothelial damage, contributing to vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Therefore, ESRD patients suffer more cardiovascular and hospitalization events than healthy people. This study aims to test the correlations between ROS, SOD3, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-18 and the first kidney disease-related hospitalization or death events in ESRD patients undergoing regular hemodialysis. A total of 212 participants was enrolled, including 45 normal healthy adults and 167 ESRD patients on regular dialysis. Blood samples from all participants were collected for ROS, SOD3, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-18 measurement at the beginning of the study, and every kidney disease-related admission or death was recorded for the next year. Multivariate analysis was conducted by fitting a linear regression model, logistic regression model, and Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the adjusted effects of risk factors, prognostic factors, or predictors on continuous, binary, and survival outcome data. The results showed that plasma SOD3 and serum IL-18 were two strong predictors of the first kidney disease-related hospitalization or death. In the Cox proportional hazards models (run in R), higher IL-18 concentration (>69.054 pg/mL) was associated with a hazard ratio of 3.376 for the first kidney disease-related hospitalization or death (95% CI: 1.2644 to 9.012), while log(SOD3) < 4.723 and dialysis clearance (Kt/V; 1.11 < value < 1.869) had a hazard ratio = 0.2730 (95% CI: 0.1133 to 0.6576) for reducing future kidney disease-related hospitalization or death. Other markers, including body mass index (BMI), transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, and sodium and alkaline phosphate, were also found to be significant in our study. These results reveal the new predictors SOD3 and IL-18 for the medical care of end-stage renal disease patients.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061198
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1199: Multi-Target Effects of
           ß-Caryophyllene and Carnosic Acid at the Crossroads of Mitochondrial
           Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration: From Oxidative Stress to
           Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation

    • Authors: Roberto Iorio, Giuseppe Celenza, Sabrina Petricca
      First page: 1199
      Abstract: Inflammation and oxidative stress are interlinked and interdependent processes involved in many chronic diseases, including neurodegeneration, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Therefore, targeting inflammatory pathways may represent a potential therapeutic strategy. Emerging evidence indicates that many phytochemicals extracted from edible plants have the potential to ameliorate the disease phenotypes. In this scenario, ß-caryophyllene (BCP), a bicyclic sesquiterpene, and carnosic acid (CA), an ortho-diphenolic diterpene, were demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, as well as neuroprotective and mitoprotective effects in different in vitro and in vivo models. BCP essentially promotes its effects by acting as a selective agonist and allosteric modulator of cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R). CA is a pro-electrophilic compound that, in response to oxidation, is converted to its electrophilic form. This can interact and activate the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE transcription pathway, triggering the synthesis of endogenous antioxidant “phase 2” enzymes. However, given the nature of its chemical structure, CA also exhibits direct antioxidant effects. BCP and CA can readily cross the BBB and accumulate in brain regions, giving rise to neuroprotective effects by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting activated microglia, substantially through the activation of pro-survival signalling pathways, including regulation of apoptosis and autophagy, and molecular mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control. Findings from different in vitro/in vivo experimental models of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease reported the beneficial effects of both compounds, suggesting that their use in treatments may be a promising strategy in the management of neurodegenerative diseases aimed at maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and ameliorating glia-mediated neuroinflammation.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061199
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1200: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Biofoil
           Based on Chitosan and Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica, Houtt.)
           Rhizome Bark Extract

    • Authors: Katerina Naumoska, Urška Jug, Kristi Kõrge, Ana Oberlintner, Majda Golob, Uroš Novak, Irena Vovk, Blaž Likozar
      First page: 1200
      Abstract: A 70% ethanol(aq) extract of the rhizome bark of the invasive alien plant species Japanese knotweed (JKRB) with potent (in the range of vitamin C) and stable antioxidant activity was incorporated in 1% w/v into a chitosan biofoil, which was then characterized on a lab-scale. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay confirmed the antioxidant activity of the JKRB biofoil upon contact with the food simulants A, B, C, and D1 (measured half-maximal inhibitory concentrations—IC50) and supported the Folin–Ciocalteu assay result. The migration of the antioxidant marker, (−)-epicatechin, into all food simulants (A, B, C, D1, D2, and E) was quantified using liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Calculations showed that 1 cm2 of JKRB biofoil provided antioxidant activity to ~0.5 L of liquid food upon 1 h of contact. The JKRB biofoil demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The incorporation of JKRB into the chitosan biofoil resulted in improved tensile strength from 0.75 MPa to 1.81 MPa, while elongation decreased to 28%. JKRB biofoil’s lower moisture content compared to chitosan biofoil was attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonds between chitosan biofoil and JKRB compounds, further confirmed with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The JKRB biofoil completely degraded in compost in 11 days. The future upscaled production of JKRB biofoil from biowastes for active packaging may support the fights against plastic waste, food waste, and the invasiveness of Japanese knotweed, while greatly contributing to the so-called ‘zero-waste’ strategy and the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061200
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1201: Behavioral and Synaptic Phenotypes of
           Female Prdx6−/− Mice

    • Authors: Tanita Pairojana, Sarayut Phasuk, Pavithra Suresh, Ingrid Y. Liu
      First page: 1201
      Abstract: Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is expressed throughout the brain, including the hippocampus, where it plays a potential role in synaptic regulation and forming emotional and spatial memories. PRDX6 is predominantly detected in the female mouse’s hippocampus; thus, we investigate the effect of the Prdx6 gene on behavioral phenotypes and synaptic functions using female Prdx6 knockout (Prdx6−/−) mice. Our results demonstrate that female Prdx6−/− mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior, enhanced contextual fear memory, and impaired spatial memory. We also found increased, paired–pulse facilitation ratios, and decreased long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal region of these female Prdx6−/− mice. The present study helps to understand better the PRDX6’s role in emotional response and spatial memory formation in female mice.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061201
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1202: Activation of the MAC1-ERK1/2-NOX2
           Pathway Is Required for LPS-Induced Sustaining Reactive Microgliosis,
           Chronic Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration

    • Authors: Shih-Heng Chen, Shuangyu Han, Chih-Fen Hu, Ran Zhou, Yun Gao, Dezhen Tu, Huiming Gao, Jing Feng, Yubao Wang, Ru-Band Lu, Jau-Shyong Hong
      First page: 1202
      Abstract: Recent studies suggest that improper resolution of acute neuroinflammation may lead to long-lasting low-grade chronic neuroinflammation and drive progressive neurodegeneration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the transition from acute to chronic neuroinflammation remains unclear. The main purpose of this study was to search for potential pathways mediating LPS-elicited chronic neuroinflammation and resultant neurodegeneration. Using microglia cultures prepared from C57BL/6J, MAC1-deficient, and MyD88-deficient mice, the initial study showed that activation of TLR-4 is not sufficient for maintaining chronic neuroinflammation despite its essential role in LPS-initiated acute neuroinflammation. Opposite to TLR-4, our studies showed significantly reduced intensity of chronic neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in MAC1-deficient neuron/glial cultures or mice stimulated with LPS. Mechanistic studies revealed the essential role ERK1/2 activation in chronic neuroinflammation-elicited neurodegeneration, which was demonstrated by using an ERK1/2 inhibitor in neuron-glial cultures. Taken together, we propose a key role of the MAC1-NOX2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in the initiation and maintenance of low-grade chronic neuroinflammation. Continuing ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NOX2 activation form a vicious feedforward cycle in microglia to maintain the low-grade neuroinflammation and drive neurodegeneration.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061202
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1203: Comparative Study of the Results of
           Operations in Patients with Tumor and Non-Tumor Obstructive Jaundice Who
           Received and Did Not Receive Antioxidant Therapy for the Correction of
           Endotoxemia, Glycolysis, and Oxidative Stress

    • Authors: Victor Stupin, Igor Abramov, Teymur Gahramanov, Alexey Kovalenko, Natalia Manturova, Petr Litvitskiy, Zalim Balkizov, Ekaterina Silina
      First page: 1203
      Abstract: Purpose: To compare the results of surgical treatment and changes in biomarkers of cholestasis, endotoxicosis, cytolysis, lipid peroxidation, glycolysis disorders, and inflammation in patients with benign and malignant obstructive jaundice (OJ) in patients receiving and not receiving antioxidant pharmacotherapy (AOT). Patients and methods: The study included 113 patients (aged 21–90 years; 47 males and 66 females) who received surgical intervention for OJ due to non-malignant (71%) or malignant tumor (29%) etiologies. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (n = 61) who did not receive AOT and Group II (n = 51) who received AOT (succinate-containing drug Reamberin) as part of detoxification infusion therapy. The surgical approach and scope of interventions in both groups were identical. Dynamic indicators of endotoxicosis, cholestasis, and cytolysis (total, direct, and indirect bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [AP] and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT]), kidney function (urea), lipid peroxidation (malonic dialdehyde, MDA), inflammation (leukocytosis), and glycolysis disorders (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose) were evaluated. Results: Tumor jaundice, unlike non-tumor jaundice, persisted and was characterized by a more severe course, a higher level of hyperbilirubinemia, and lipid peroxidation. The prognostic value of the direct (and total) bilirubin, MDA, glycemia, and leukocytosis levels on the day of hospitalization, which increased significantly in severe jaundice and, especially, in deceased patients, was established. Decompression interventions significantly reduced levels of markers of liver failure, cytolysis, cholestasis, and lipid peroxidation on day 3 after decompression by 1.5–3 times from initial levels; this is better achieved in non-tumor OJ. However, 8 days after decompression, most patients did not normalize the parameters studied in both groups. AOT favorably influenced the dynamics (on day 8 after decompression) of total and direct bilirubin, ALT, AST, MDA, and leukocytosis in non-tumor jaundice, as well as the dynamics of direct bilirubin, AST, MDA, glucose, and LDH in tumor jaundice. Clinically, in the AOT group, a two-fold reduction in the operative and non-operative complications was recorded (from 23% to 11.5%), a reduction in the duration of biliary drainage by 30%, the length of stay in intensive care units was reduced by 5 days, and even hospital mortality decreased, especially in malignancy-induced OJ. Conclusion: A mechanism for the development of liver failure in OJ is oxidative stress with the appearance of enhanced lipid peroxidation and accompanied by hepatocyte necrosis. Inclusion of AOT in perioperative treatment in these patients improves treatment outcomes.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061203
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1204: Differential Induction of Reactive
           Oxygen Species and Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Melanocytes
           Correlate with Melanin Content: Implications on the Response to Solar UV
           and Melanoma Susceptibility

    • Authors: Parth R. Upadhyay, Renny J. Starner, Viki B. Swope, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Shosuke Ito, Zalfa A. Abdel-Malek
      First page: 1204
      Abstract: Constitutive pigmentation determines the response to sun exposure and the risk for melanoma, an oxidative stress–driven tumor. Using primary cultures of human melanocytes, we compared the effects of constitutive pigmentation on their antioxidant response to solar UV. The quantitation of eumelanin and pheomelanin showed that the eumelanin content and eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio correlated inversely with the basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Irradiation with 7 J/cm2 solar UV increased ROS generation without compromising melanocyte viability. Among the antioxidant enzymes tested, the basal levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and modifier subunit (GCLC and GCLM) correlated directly with the eumelanin and total melanin contents. The levels of HO-1 and GCLM decreased at 6 h but increased at 24 h post–solar UV. Consistent with the GCLC and GCLM levels, the basal glutathione (GSH) content was significantly lower in light than in dark melanocytes. The expression of HMOX1, GCLC, GCLM, and CAT did not correlate with the melanin content and was reduced 3 h after solar UV irradiation, particularly in lightly pigmented melanocytes. Solar UV increased p53 and lipid peroxidation, which correlated inversely with the eumelanin and total melanin contents. These intrinsic differences between light and dark melanocytes should determine their antioxidant response and melanoma risk.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061204
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1205: Electrochemical Methodologies for
           Investigating the Antioxidant Potential of Plant and Fruit Extracts: A
           Review

    • Authors: Mir Waqas Alam, Jawayria Najeeb, Sumaira Naeem, Sheikh Muhammad Usman, Insha Nahvi, Fai Alismail, Alaaedeen Abuzir, Mohd Farhan, Allah Nawaz
      First page: 1205
      Abstract: In recent years, the growing research interests in the applications of plant and fruit extracts (synthetic/stabilization materials for the nanomaterials, medicinal applications, functional foods, and nutraceuticals) have led to the development of new analytical techniques to be utilized for identifying numerous properties of these extracts. One of the main properties essential for the applicability of these plant extracts is the antioxidant capacity (AOC) that is conventionally determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Nowadays, electrochemical methodologies are emerging as alternative tools for quantifying this particular property of the extract. These methodologies address numerous drawbacks of the conventional spectroscopic approach, such as the utilization of expensive and hazardous solvents, extensive sample pre-treatment requirements, long reaction times, low sensitivity, etc. The electrochemical methodologies discussed in this review include cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and chronoamperometry (CAP). This review presents a critical comparison between both the conventional and electrochemical approaches for the quantification of the parameter of AOC and discusses the numerous applications of the obtained bioextracts based on the AOC parameter.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061205
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1206: Colorant Pigments, Nutrients, Bioactive
           Components, and Antiradical Potential of Danta Leaves (Amaranthus lividus)
           

    • Authors: Umakanta Sarker, Md. Asif Iqbal, Md. Nazmul Hossain, Shinya Oba, Sezai Ercisli, Crina Carmen Muresan, Romina Alina Marc
      First page: 1206
      Abstract: In the Indian subcontinent, danta (stems) of underutilized amaranth are used as vegetables in different culinary dishes. At the edible stage of the danta, leaves are discarded as waste in the dustbin because they are overaged. For the first time, we assessed the colorant pigments, bioactive components, nutrients, and antiradical potential (AP) of the leaves of danta to valorize the by-product (leaf) for antioxidant, nutritional, and pharmacological uses. Leaves of danta were analyzed for proximate and element compositions, colorant pigments, bioactive constituents, AP (DPPH), and AP (ABTS+). Danta leaves had satisfactory moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber. The chosen danta leaves contained satisfactory magnesium, iron, calcium, potassium, manganese, copper, and zinc; adequate bioactive pigments, such as betacyanins, carotenoids, betalains, β-carotene, chlorophylls, and betaxanthins; and copious bioactive ascorbic acid, polyphenols, flavonoids, and AP. The correlation coefficient indicated that bioactive phytochemicals and colorant pigments of the selected danta leaves had good AP as assessed via ABTS+ and DPPH assays. The selected danta leaves had good ROS-scavenging potential that could indicate massive possibilities for promoting the health of the nutraceutical- and antioxidant-deficit public. The findings showed that danta leaves are a beautiful by-product for contributing as an alternate origin of antioxidants, nutrients, and bioactive compounds with pharmacological use.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061206
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1207: PPARδ Inhibits
           Hyperglycemia-Triggered Senescence of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by
           Upregulating SIRT1

    • Authors: Eun Ji Lee, Jun Pil Won, Hyuk Gyoon Lee, Eunsu Kim, Jinwoo Hur, Won Jin Lee, Jung Seok Hwang, Han Geuk Seo
      First page: 1207
      Abstract: Emerging evidence shows that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) plays a pivotal role in cellular aging. However, its function in retinal disease processes such as hyperglycemia-associated diabetic retinopathy is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PPARδ inhibits premature senescence of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells induced by high glucose (HG) through SIRT1 upregulation. A specific ligand GW501516-activation of PPARδ suppressed premature senescence and production of reactive oxygen species induced by HG in ARPE-19 cells, a spontaneously arising human RPE cell line. These effects were accompanied by the regulation of the premature senescence-associated genes p53, p21, and SMP-30. Furthermore, GW501516-activated PPARδ almost completely abolished the effects of HG treatment on the formation of phosphorylated H2A histone family member X (γ-H2A.X) foci, a molecular marker of aging. These inhibitory effects of GW501516 were significantly reversed in ARPE-19 cells stably expressing small hairpin RNA targeting PPARδ. Notably, GW501516 significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1, indicating that GW501516-activated PPARδ exerted its beneficial effects through SIRT1. In addition, GW501516 restored HG-suppressed SIRT1 expression, corroborating the role of SIRT1 in the anti-senescence function of PPARδ. The effects of PPARδ on HG-induced premature senescence and the expression of the senescence-associated genes p53, p21, and SMP-30 were mimicked by the SIRT1 activator resveratrol, but blocked by the SIRT1 inhibitor sirtinol. Collectively, these results indicate that GW501516-activated PPARδ inhibits HG-triggered premature senescence of RPE cells by modulating SIRT1 signaling.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061207
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1208: Biochemical Discrimination of the Down
           Syndrome-Related Metabolic and Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress Alterations
           from the Physiologic Age-Related Changes through the Targeted Metabolomic
           Analysis of Serum

    • Authors: Giacomo Lazzarino, Angela M. Amorini, Renata Mangione, Miriam Wissam Saab, Enrico Di Stasio, Michelino Di Rosa, Barbara Tavazzi, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Graziano Onder, Angelo Carfì
      First page: 1208
      Abstract: Down Syndrome (DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by an accelerated aging process, frequently associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies evidenced that DS patients have various metabolic anomalies, easily measurable in their serum samples, although values that were found in DS patients were compared with those of age-matched non-DS patients, thus hampering to discriminate the physiologic age-related changes of serum metabolites from those that are truly caused by the pathologic processes associated with DS. In the present study we performed a targeted metabolomic evaluation of serum samples from DS patients without dementia of two age classes (Younger DS Patients, YDSP, aging 20–40 years; Aged DS Patients, ADSP, aging 41–60 years), comparing the results with those that were obtained in two age classes of non-DS patients (Younger non-DS Patients, YnonDSP, aging 30–60 years; Aged-nonDS Patients, AnonDSP, aging 75–90 years). Of the 36 compounds assayed, 30 had significantly different concentrations in Pooled non-DS Patients (PnonDSP), compared to Pooled DS Patients (PDSP). Age categorization revealed that 11/30 compounds were significantly different in AnonDSP, compared to YnonDSP, indicating physiologic, age-related changes of their circulating concentrations. A comparison between YDSP and ADSP showed that 19/30 metabolites had significantly different values from those found in the corresponding classes of non-DS patients, strongly suggesting pathologic, DS-associated alterations of their serum levels. Twelve compounds selectively and specifically discriminated PnonDSP from PDSP, whilst only three discriminated YDSP from ADSP. The results allowed to determine, for the first time and to the best of our knowledge, the true, age-independent alterations of metabolism that are measurable in serum and attributable only to DS. These findings may be of high relevance for better strategies (pharmacological, nutritional) aiming to specifically target the dysmetabolism and decreased antioxidant defenses that are associated with DS.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061208
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1209: Carnosine Alleviates Knee
           Osteoarthritis and Promotes Synoviocyte Protection via Activating the
           Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway: An In-Vivo and In-Vitro Study

    • Authors: Prabhakar Busa, Sing-Ong Lee, Niancih Huang, Yaswanth Kuthati, Chih-Shung Wong
      First page: 1209
      Abstract: The most common joint disease in the elderly is knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is distinguished by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone loss, and a decrease in joint space. We studied the effects of carnosine (CA) on knee OA in male Wistar rats. OA is induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection combined with medial meniscectomy (ACLT+MMx) method and in vitro studies are conducted in fibroblast-like synoviocyte cells (FLS). The pain was assessed using weight-bearing and paw-withdrawal tests. CA supplementation significantly reduced pain. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to detect inflammatory proteins in the blood and intra-articular synovial fluid (IASF), and CA reduced the levels of inflammatory proteins. Histopathological studies were performed on knee-tissue samples using toluidine blue and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) assays. CA treatment improved synovial protection and decreased cartilage degradation while decreasing zonal depth lesions. Furthermore, Western blotting studies revealed that the CA-treated group activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) and reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). FLS cells were isolated from the knee joints and treated with IL-1β to stimulate the inflammatory response and increase reactive oxygen species (ROS). The matrix metalloproteinase protein (MMP’s) levels (MMP-3, and MMP-13) were determined using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and CA treatment reduced the MMP’s expression levels. When tested using the 2′,7′-dicholorodihydrofluroscene diacetate (DCFDA) assay and the 5,5′,6,6′-tetracholoro-1,1′,3,3′-tertraethylbenzimidazolcarboc janine iodide (JC-1) assay in augmented ROS FLS cells, CA reduced the ROS levels and improved the mitochondrial membrane permeability. This study’s investigation suggests that CA significantly alleviates knee OA both in vitro and in vivo.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061209
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1210: Thermo-Responsive Gel Containing
           Hydroxytyrosol-Chitosan Nanoparticles (Hyt@tgel) Counteracts the Increase
           of Osteoarthritis Biomarkers in Human Chondrocytes

    • Authors: Anna Valentino, Raffaele Conte, Ilenia De Luca, Francesca Di Cristo, Gianfranco Peluso, Michela Bosetti, Anna Calarco
      First page: 1210
      Abstract: Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory degenerative disease affecting millions of people worldwide, the current therapies are limited to palliative care and do not eliminate the necessity of surgical intervention in the most severe cases. Several dietary and nutraceutical factors, such as hydroxytyrosol (Hyt), have demonstrated beneficial effects in the prevention or treatment of OA both in vitro and in animal models. However, the therapeutic application of Hyt is limited due to its poor bioavailability following oral administration. In the present study, a localized drug delivery platform containing a combination of Hyt-loading chitosan nanoparticles (Hyt-NPs) and in situ forming hydrogel have been developed to obtain the benefits of both hydrogels and nanoparticles. This thermosensitive formulation, based on Pluronic F-127 (F-127), hyaluronic acid (HA) and Hyt-NPs (called Hyt@tgel) presents the unique ability to be injected in a minimally invasive way into a target region as a freely flowing solution at room temperature forming a gel at body temperature. The Hyt@tgel system showed reduced oxidative and inflammatory effects in the chondrocyte cellular model as well as a reduction in senescent cells after induction with H2O2. In addition, Hyt@tgel influenced chondrocytes gene expression under pathological state maintaining their metabolic activity and limiting the expression of critical OA-related genes in human chondrocytes treated with stressors promoting OA-like features. Hence, it can be concluded that the formulated hydrogel injection could be proposed for the efficient and sustained Hyt delivery for OA treatment. The next step would be the extraction of “added-value” bioactive polyphenols from by-products of the olive industry, in order to develop a green delivery system able not only to enhance the human wellbeing but also to promote a sustainable environment.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061210
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1211: The Beneficial Effects of Natural
           Extracts and Bioactive Compounds on the Gut-Liver Axis: A Promising
           Intervention for Alcoholic Liver Disease

    • Authors: Liang Zhao, Shaoxuan Wang, Nanhai Zhang, Jingxuan Zhou, Arshad Mehmood, Rifat Nowshin Raka, Feng Zhou, Lei Zhao
      First page: 1211
      Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It can cause fatty liver (steatosis), steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Alcohol consumption can also disturb the composition of gut microbiota, increasing the composition of harmful microbes and decreasing beneficial ones. Restoring eubiosis or preventing dysbiosis after alcohol consumption is an important strategy in treating ALD. Plant natural products and polyphenolic compounds exert beneficial effects on several metabolic disorders associated with ALD. Natural products and related phytochemicals act through multiple pathways, such as modulating gut microbiota, improving redox stress, and anti-inflammation. In the present review article, we gather information on natural extract and bioactive compounds on the gut-liver axis for the possible treatment of ALD. Supplementation with natural extracts and bioactive compounds promoted the intestinal tight junction, protected against the alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammation, and reduced endotoxemia in alcohol-exposed animals. Taken together, natural extracts and bioactive compounds have strong potential against ALD; however, further clinical studies are still needed.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061211
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1212: Dietary Polyphenol, Gut Microbiota, and
           Health Benefits

    • Authors: Xiaofei Wang, Yue Qi, Hao Zheng
      First page: 1212
      Abstract: Polyphenols, which are probably the most important secondary metabolites produced by plants, have attracted tremendous attention due to their health-promoting effects, including their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-adipogenic, and neuro-protective activities, as well as health properties. However, due to their complicated structures and high molecular weights, a large proportion of dietary polyphenols remain unabsorbed along the gastrointestinal tract, while in the large intestine they are biotransformed into bioactive, low-molecular-weight phenolic metabolites through the residing gut microbiota. Dietary polyphenols can modulate the composition of intestinal microbes, and in turn, gut microbes catabolize polyphenols to release bioactive metabolites. To better investigate the health benefits of dietary polyphenols, this review provides a summary of their modulation through in vitro and in vivo evidence (animal models and humans), as well as their possible actions through intestinal barrier function and gut microbes. This review aims to provide a basis for better understanding the relationship between dietary polyphenols, gut microbiota, and host health.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061212
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 11, Pages 1213: Resolution of Inflammation after
           Skeletal Muscle Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury: A Focus on the Lipid
           Mediators Lipoxins, Resolvins, Protectins and Maresins

    • Authors: Cindy Barnig, Gaetan Lutzweiler, Margherita Giannini, Anne Lejay, Anne-Laure Charles, Alain Meyer, Bernard Geny
      First page: 1213
      Abstract: Skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion is very frequent in humans and results not only in muscle destruction but also in multi-organ failure and death via systemic effects related to inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition to overabundance of pro-inflammatory stimuli, excessive and uncontrolled inflammation can also result from defects in resolution signaling. Importantly, the resolution of inflammation is an active process also based on specific lipid mediators including lipoxins, resolvins and maresins that orchestrate the potential return to tissue homeostasis. Thus, lipid mediators have received growing attention since they dampen deleterious effects related to ischemia–reperfusion. For instance, the treatment of skeletal muscles with resolvins prior to ischemia decreases polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration. Additionally, remote alterations in lungs or kidneys are reduced when enhancing lipid mediators’ functions. Accordingly, lipoxins prevented oxidative-stress-mediated tissue injuries, macrophage polarization was modified and in mice lacking DRV2 receptors, ischemia/reperfusion resulted in excessive leukocyte accumulation. In this review, we first aimed to describe the inflammatory response during ischemia and reperfusion in skeletal muscle and then discuss recent discoveries in resolution pathways. We focused on the role of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their potential therapeutic applications.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox11061213
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
 
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