Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3134 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Marisiensis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Biomarker Sciences and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Alfarama Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
All Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Phycology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access  
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Observations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioeduca : Journal of Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioeduscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292)
Bioinformatics Advances : Journal of the International Society for Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Antioxidants
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.847
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-3921
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 254: Diabetic Retinopathy and Regulation of
           Mitochondrial Glutathione–Glutathione Peroxidase Axis in
           Hyperhomocysteinemia

    • Authors: Pooja Malaviya, Renu A. Kowluru
      First page: 254
      Abstract: Diabetic patients have elevated homocysteine levels, and hyperhomocysteinemia is shown to exacerbate mitochondrial damage, which plays a central role in diabetic retinopathy. Glutathione peroxidases (GPx) catalyze hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction using glutathione (GSH) as a cofactor. GSH and GPx are mainly cytosolic but are also present in the mitochondria to neutralize H2O2 produced by superoxide dismutase, and in diabetes, they are downregulated. Hyperhomocysteinemia also disrupts the balance between S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM); SAM is also a methyl donor for DNA methylation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of homocysteine in mitochondrial GSH–GPx1 regulation in diabetic retinopathy. Human retinal endothelial cells in 20 mM D-glucose + high homocysteine were analyzed for ROS, GSH and GPx in the mitochondria, and SAM levels and GPx1 promoter DNA methylation were also studied (5-methylcytosine and MS-PCR). The results were confirmed in the retina from streptozotocin-induced hyperhomocysteinemic (cystathionine-β-synthase-deficient) diabetic mice. High homocysteine exacerbated the glucose-induced decrease in GSH levels and GPx activity in the mitochondria and the downregulation of GPx1 transcripts and further increased SAM levels and GPx1 promoter DNA methylation. Similar results were obtained in a hyperglycemic–hyperhomocysteinemic mouse model. Thus, elevated homocysteine in diabetes hypermethylates GPx1 promoter, thus decreasing the mitochondrial GPx/GSH pool and exacerbating mitochondrial damage. Modulating hyperhomocysteinemia could be a potential therapeutic avenue to target mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic retinopathy.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030254
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 255: The Skeletal Muscle, the Heart, and the
           Liver Are the Major Organs of the Accumulation of Nitric Oxide Metabolites
           after Oral Nitrite Treatment

    • Authors: Ana K. Lima-Silva, Macario A. Rebelo, Alessandra C. Barros, Sandra O. Conde-Tella, Jose E. Tanus-Santos
      First page: 255
      Abstract: Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO) metabolite, which may be bioactivated to generate NO in vivo and supplement endogenous NO formation, especially in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, it is not known whether treatment with oral nitrite results in the accumulation of NO metabolites in different organs. Moreover, treatment with omeprazole, an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion, severely affects the gastric formation of S-nitrosothiols induced with oral nitrite treatment. However, no previous study has examined whether omeprazole affects the nitrite-induced accumulation of NO metabolites in different organs. This study examined in rats the effects of oral sodium nitrite treatment (15 mg/kg via gavage for 1 or 7 days) associated with omeprazole (10 mg/kg or vehicle) on nitrite and nitrate and nitrosylated species (RXNO) concentrations (measured using ozone-based chemiluminescence methods) assessed in the plasma, aorta, heart, liver, brain, and muscle. While our results showed that NO metabolite accumulation in different organs is not uniform, we found that the skeletal muscle, the heart, and the liver accumulate NO metabolites, particularly RXNO. This response was significantly attenuated by omeprazole in the heart and in the skeletal muscle. Together, these findings may indicate that the skeletal muscle, the heart, and the liver are major reservoir sites for NO metabolites after oral nitrite treatment, with major increases in nitrosylated species.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030255
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 256: Transcriptotype-Driven Discovery of
           Apigenin as a Therapy against Cholestatic Liver Fibrosis: Through
           Inhibition of PANoptosis and Following Type-I Interferon Responses

    • Authors: Shuni Duan, Xin Li, Junsong Han, Yang Yang, Ranyi Luo, Yajie Cai, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Qi Zheng, Jincheng Guo, Runping Liu
      First page: 256
      Abstract: Cholangiopathies lack effective medicines and can progress into end-stage liver diseases. Mining natural product transcriptome databases for bioactive ingredients, which can reverse disease-associated transcriptomic phenotypes, holds promise as an effective approach for drug discovery. To identify disease-associated transcriptomic changes, we performed RNA-sequencing on bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced cholestatic liver fibrosis mice, as well as PBC and PSC patients, and found that PANoptosis and activation of type-I interferon (IFN) signaling were observed in BDL mice and patients with PBC and PSC. We then established a transcriptotype-driven screening system based on HERB and ITCM databases. Among 283 natural ingredients screened, apigenin (Api), which is widely distributed in varieties of food and medicinal plants, was screened out by our screen system since it reversed the expression pattern of key genes associated with PANoptosis and type-I IFN responses. In BDL, Abcb4−/−, and DDC-fed mice, Api effectively ameliorated liver injuries, inflammation, and fibrosis. It also protected cholangiocytes from bile acid-stimulated PANoptosis, thus alleviating damage-associated molecular pattern-mediated activation of TBK1-NF-κB in macrophages. Additionally, Api directly inhibited type-I IFN-induced downstream inflammatory responses. Our study demonstrated the pathogenic roles of PANoptosis and type-I IFN signaling in cholestatic liver fibrosis and verified the feasibility of transcriptotype-based drug screening. Furthermore, this study revealed a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of Api and identified it as a promising candidate for the treatment of cholestatic liver fibrosis.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030256
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 257: Nucleoredoxin Redox Interactions Are
           Sensitized by Aging and Potentiated by Chronic Alcohol Consumption in the
           Mouse Liver

    • Authors: Osiris Germán Idelfonso-García, Brisa Rodope Alarcón-Sánchez, Dafne Guerrero-Escalera, Norma Arely López-Hernández, José Luis Pérez-Hernández, Ruth Pacheco-Rivera, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio, Erick Andrés Muciño-Olmos, Diana Ivette Aparicio-Bautista, Gustavo Basurto-Islas, Rafael Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Verónica Rocío Vásquez-Garzón, Saúl Villa-Treviño, Pablo Muriel, Héctor Serrano, Julio Isael Pérez-Carreón, Jaime Arellanes-Robledo
      First page: 257
      Abstract: Aging is characterized by increased reactive species, leading to redox imbalance, oxidative damage, and senescence. The adverse effects of alcohol consumption potentiate aging-associated alterations, promoting several diseases, including liver diseases. Nucleoredoxin (NXN) is a redox-sensitive enzyme that targets reactive oxygen species and regulates key cellular processes through redox protein–protein interactions. Here, we determine the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on NXN-dependent redox interactions in the liver of aged mice. We found that chronic alcohol consumption preferentially promotes the localization of NXN either into or alongside senescent cells, declines its interacting capability, and worsens the altered interaction ratio of NXN with FLII, MYD88, CAMK2A, and PFK1 proteins induced by aging. In addition, carbonylated protein and cell proliferation increased, and the ratios of collagen I and collagen III were inverted. Thus, we demonstrate an emerging phenomenon associated with altered redox homeostasis during aging, as shown by the declining capability of NXN to interact with partner proteins, which is enhanced by chronic alcohol consumption in the mouse liver. This evidence opens an attractive window to elucidate the consequences of both aging and chronic alcohol consumption on the downstream signaling pathways regulated by NXN-dependent redox-sensitive interactions.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030257
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 258: Advancements in Genetic Biomarkers and
           Exogenous Antioxidant Supplementation for Safeguarding Mammalian Cells
           against Heat-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis

    • Authors: Muhammad Zahoor Khan, Adnan Khan, Wenting Chen, Wenqiong Chai, Changfa Wang
      First page: 258
      Abstract: Heat stress represents a pervasive global concern with far-reaching implications for the reproductive efficiency of both animal and human populations. An extensive body of published research on heat stress effects utilizes controlled experimental environments to expose cells and tissues to heat stress and its disruptive influence on the physiological aspects of reproductive phenotypic traits, encompassing parameters such as sperm quality, sperm motility, viability, and overall competence. Beyond these immediate effects, heat stress has been linked to embryo losses, compromised oocyte development, and even infertility across diverse species. One of the primary mechanisms underlying these adverse reproductive outcomes is the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels precipitating oxidative stress and apoptosis within mammalian reproductive cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are recognized as pivotal biological factors through which heat stress exerts its disruptive impact on both male and female reproductive cells. In a concerted effort to mitigate the detrimental consequences of heat stress, supplementation with antioxidants, both in natural and synthetic forms, has been explored as a potential intervention strategy. Furthermore, reproductive cells possess inherent self-protective mechanisms that come into play during episodes of heat stress, aiding in their survival. This comprehensive review delves into the multifaceted effects of heat stress on reproductive phenotypic traits and elucidates the intricate molecular mechanisms underpinning oxidative stress and apoptosis in reproductive cells, which compromise their normal function. Additionally, we provide a succinct overview of potential antioxidant interventions and highlight the genetic biomarkers within reproductive cells that possess self-protective capabilities, collectively offering promising avenues for ameliorating the negative impact of heat stress by restraining apoptosis and oxidative stress.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030258
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 259: Deciphering the Crucial Roles of the
           Quorum-Sensing Transcription Factor SdiA in NADPH Metabolism and (S)-Equol
           Production in Escherichia coli Nissle 1917

    • Authors: Zhe Wang, Yiqiang Dai, Fidelis Azi, Mingsheng Dong, Xiudong Xia
      First page: 259
      Abstract: The active metabolite (S)-equol, derived from daidzein by gut microbiota, exhibits superior antioxidative activity compared with its precursor and plays a vital role in human health. As only 25% to 50% of individuals can naturally produce equol when supplied with isoflavone, we engineered probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) to convert dietary isoflavones into (S)-equol, thus offering a strategy to mimic the gut phenotype of natural (S)-equol producers. However, co-fermentation of EcN-eq with fecal bacteria revealed that gut microbial metabolites decreased NADPH levels, hindering (S)-equol production. Transcriptome analysis showed that the quorum-sensing (QS) transcription factor SdiA negatively regulates NADPH levels and (S)-equol biosynthesis in EcN-eq. Screening AHLs showed that SdiA binding to C10-HSL negatively regulates the pentose phosphate pathway, reducing intracellular NADPH levels in EcN-eq. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations investigated the structural disparities in complexes formed by C10-HSL with SdiA from EcN or E. coli K12. Substituting sdiA_EcN in EcN-eq with sdiA_K12 increased the intracellular NADPH/NADP+ ratio, enhancing (S)-equol production by 47%. These findings elucidate the impact of AHL-QS in the gut microbiota on EcN NADPH metabolism, offering insights for developing (S)-equol-producing EcN probiotics tailored to the gut environment.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030259
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 260: Novel Roles of the Greatwall Kinase
           Rim15 in Yeast Oxidative Stress Tolerance through Mediating Antioxidant
           Systems and Transcriptional Regulation

    • Authors: Xue-Qing Wang, Bing Yuan, Feng-Li Zhang, Chen-Guang Liu, Choowong Auesukaree, Xin-Qing Zhao
      First page: 260
      Abstract: The Greatwall-family protein kinase Rim15 is associated with the nutrient starvation response, whereas its role in oxidative stress responses remains unclear. Here, acetic acid and peroxide were used as two oxidative stress elicitors. The antioxidant indicator assay under acetic acid stress revealed the impaired growth in rim15Δ related to the regulation of antioxidant systems. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are predicted to be mostly regulated by oxidative stress-responsive transcriptional factor Yap1. Among the DEGs, acetic acid stress-induced genes were found, and YAP1 disruption also inhibited their induction. The deletion of Rim15 or the Rim15 kinase domain in yap1Δ did not further decrease the gene expression, suggesting that Rim15 functions together with Yap1 in regulating acetic acid stress-induced genes, which requires Rim15 kinase activity. Additionally, Rim15 regulated H2O2 stress tolerance through partially similar but special mechanisms in that Rim15 kinase activity impacted acetic acid and H2O2 stress tolerance in different degrees, indicating the different mechanisms underlying Rim15-mediated redox regulation against different stressors. These results benefit the better understanding of stress signaling pathways related to Rim15. Given that Rim15 and some of its target genes are conserved across eukaryotes, these results also provide a basis for studies of oxidative stress-related processes in other organisms.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030260
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 261: Beneficial Effects of Sideritis
           clandestina Extracts and Sideridiol against Amyloid β Toxicity

    • Authors: Anna Gioran, Yiorgos Paikopoulos, Eleni Panagiotidou, Aikaterini E. I. Rizou, Georgia I. Nasi, Virginia D. Dimaki, Konstantina D. Vraila, Dimitra S. Bezantakou, Panagiotis M. Spatharas, Nikos C. Papandreou, Vassiliki Magafa, Fotini N. Lamari, Vassiliki A. Iconomidou, Niki Chondrogianni
      First page: 261
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Given the link between oxidative stress and AD, many studies focus on the identification of natural antioxidants against AD. Although their antioxidant capacity is important, increasing data suggest that additional activities are related to their beneficial effects, including properties against amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation. Sideritis spp. (mountain tea) extracts possess not only antioxidant activity but also other bioactivities that confer neuroprotection. Although various Sideritis spp. extracts have been extensively studied, there are scarce data on S. clandestina subsp. peloponnesiaca (SCP) phytochemical composition and neuroprotective potential, while nothing is known of the responsible compounds. Given that SCP is a weaker antioxidant compared to other Sideritis spp., here, we investigated its potential beneficial properties against Aβ aggregation. We characterized different SCP extracts and revealed their anti-aggregation activity by taking advantage of established C. elegans AD models. Importantly, we identified two pure compounds, namely, sideridiol and verbascoside, being responsible for the beneficial effects. Furthermore, we have revealed a potential anti-Aβ aggregation mechanism for sideridiol. Our results support the use of mountain tea in the elderly against dementia and demonstrate the activity of sideridiol against Aβ aggregation that could be exploited for drug development.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030261
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 262: Molecular Targets of Oxidative Stress:
           Focus on the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Health and Disease

    • Authors: Marcel Bonay
      First page: 262
      Abstract: Oxidative stress, known to increase the risk of multiple metabolic and chronic disorders or cancer development, is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the capacity of antioxidants to counteract the deleterious effects of oxidants [...]
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030262
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 263: In Vivo Analysis of Tissue
           S-Nitrosothiols in Pediatric Sepsis

    • Authors: Daniel T. Cater, Charles Clem, Nadzeya Marozkina, Benjamin Gaston
      First page: 263
      Abstract: S-nitrosothiols are endogenous, bioactive molecules. S-nitrosothiols are implicated in many diseases, including sepsis. It is currently cumbersome to measure S-nitrosothiols clinically. We have previously developed an instrument to measure tissue S-nitrosothiols non-invasively using ultraviolet light. We have performed a prospective case control study of controls and children with sepsis admitted to the PICU. We hypothesized that tissue S-nitrosothiols would be higher in septic patients than controls. Controls were patients with no cardiopulmonary instability. Cases were patients with septic shock. We measured S-nitrosothiols, both at diagnosis and after resolution of shock. A total of 44 patients were enrolled: 21 controls and 23 with sepsis. At baseline, the controls were younger [median age 5 years (IQR 0, 9) versus 11 years (IQR: 6, 16), p-value = 0.012], had fewer comorbidities [7 (33.3%) vs. 20 (87.0%), p-value < 0.001], and had lower PELOD scores [0 (IQR: 0, 0) vs. 12 (IQR: 11, 21), p-value < 0.001]. S-nitrosothiol levels were higher in sepsis cohort (1.1 ppb vs. 0.8 ppb, p = 0.004). Five patients with sepsis had longitudinal measures and had a downtrend after resolution of shock (1.3 ppb vs. 0.9 ppb, p = 0.04). We dichotomized patients based on S-nitrosothiol levels and found an association with worse clinical outcomes, but further work will be needed to validate these findings.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030263
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 164: Antioxidant Agriculture for
           Stress-Resilient Crop Production: Field Practice

    • Authors: Yao Sun, Xianzhi Xie, Chang-Jie Jiang
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Oxidative stress, resulting from the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, is a common and major cause of cellular damage in plants exposed to various abiotic stresses. To address this challenge, we introduce the concept of antioxidant agriculture as a comprehensive strategy to improve stress tolerance and thus crop productivity by minimizing oxidative stress levels in the field environment. This strategy encompasses a diverse range of approaches, including genetic engineering, the exogenous application of antioxidant agents, microbial inoculation, and agronomic practices, to reinforce the plant’s intrinsic antioxidant defense system and mitigate oxidative stress. We present recent successful studies of antioxidant measures that have been validated in field conditions, along with our perspective on achieving antioxidant agriculture.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020164
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 165: Enhancing the Antioxidant Potential of
           Weissella confusa PP29 Probiotic Media through Incorporation of Hibiscus
           sabdariffa L. Anthocyanin Extract

    • Authors: Natalia Simionescu, Anca-Roxana Petrovici
      First page: 165
      Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce important metabolites during fermentation processes, such as exopolysaccharides (EPS), which represent powerful natural antioxidants. On the other hand, H. sabdariffa L. anthocyanin extracts protect LAB and support their development. This study uncovers for the first time, the antioxidant profile of Weissella confusa PP29 probiotic media and focuses on elevating its impressive antioxidant attributes by synergistically integrating H. sabdariffa L. anthocyanin extract. The multifaceted potential of this innovative approach is explored and the results are remarkable, allowing us to understand the protective capacity of the fermented product on the intestinal mucosa. The total phenolic content was much lower at the end of the fermentation process compared to the initial amount, confirming their LAB processing. The DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP of the fermented products were higher compared to ascorbic acid and antioxidant extracts, while superoxide anion radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity were comparable to that of ascorbic acid. The antioxidant properties of the fermented products were correlated with the initial inoculum and anthocyanin concentrations. All these properties were preserved for 6 months, demonstrating the promising efficacy of this enriched medium, underlining its potential as a complex functional food with enhanced health benefits.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020165
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 166: The Antioxidant Mechanism of Peptides
           

    • Authors: Xiaojun Guo, Jiaxin Liu, Cheng Wang, Zhengshun Wen, Bin Zheng
      First page: 166
      Abstract: Tuna protein serves as a significant source of bioactive peptides, and its functional properties can be elucidated through predictive modeling, followed by experimental validation. In this study, the active polypeptides were obtained from tuna protein via enzymatic hydrolysis (TPP), and their peptide sequences were determined. Furthermore, the potential activity of these peptides was predicted, focusing on antioxidant peptides, and compared to the sequence library of known antioxidant peptides to identify common structural motifs. The accuracy of the prediction results was confirmed through in vitro antioxidant assays and molecular docking studies. We identified seven specific peptide segments derived from tuna protein that exhibit antioxidant potential, accounting for approximately 15% of all active peptides. Molecular docking and cell experiments were employed to provide compelling evidence for the presence of antioxidant peptides within tuna protein. This study not only lays a solid foundation for studying the structure of active peptides but also opens up a novel avenue for an expedited assessment of their properties.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020166
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 167: A High-Performance Food Package Material
           Prepared by the Synergistic Crosslinking of Gelatin with
           Polyphenol–Titanium Complexes

    • Authors: Wanqin Zhang, Jiaman Liu, Tao Zhang, Bo Teng
      First page: 167
      Abstract: This study aims to enhance gelatin film performance in the food industry by incorporating polyphenol–titanium complexes (PTCs) as crosslinkers. PTCs introduce multiple linkages with gelatin, including coordination and hydrogen bonds, resulting in synergistic crosslinking effects. This leads to an increased hydrodynamic volume, particle size, and thermal stability of the gelatin films. Compared to films crosslinked solely by polyphenols or titanium, PTC-crosslinked gelatin films exhibit significant improvements. They show enhanced mechanical properties with a tensile strength that is 1.7 to 2.6 times higher than neat gelatin films. Moreover, these films effectively shield UV light (from 82% to 99%), providing better protection for light-sensitive food ingredients and preserving lutein content (from 74.2% to 78.1%) under light exposure. The incorporation of PTCs also improves film hydrophobicity, as indicated by water contact angles ranging from 115.3° to 131.9° and a water solubility ranging from 31.5% to 33.6%. Additionally, PTC-enhanced films demonstrate a superior antioxidant ability, with a prolonged polyphenol release (up to 18 days in immersed water) and a higher free radical scavenging ability (from 22% to 25.2%). Overall, the improved characteristics of gelatin films enabled by PTCs enhance their performance, making them suitable for various food packaging applications.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020167
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 168: Revitalizing Photoaging Skin through
           Eugenol in UVB-Exposed Hairless Mice: Mechanistic Insights from Integrated
           Multi-Omics

    • Authors: Tao Tong, Ruixuan Geng, Seong-Gook Kang, Xiaomin Li, Kunlun Huang
      First page: 168
      Abstract: Chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure causes photoaging, which is primarily responsible for skin damage. Nutritional intervention is a viable strategy for preventing and treating skin photoaging. Eugenol (EU) presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, promotes wound healing, and provides contact dermatitis relief. This study explored the ability of EU to mitigate skin photoaging caused by UVB exposure in vitro and in vivo. EU alleviated UVB-induced skin photodamage in skin cells, including oxidative stress damage and extracellular matrix (ECM) decline. Dietary EU alleviated skin photoaging by promoting skin barrier repair, facilitating skin tissue regeneration, and modulating the skin microenvironment in photoaged mice. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that EU changed the skin gene expression profiles. Subsequent pathway enrichment analyses indicated that EU might reverse the pivotal ECM–receptor interaction and cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathways. Furthermore, EU alleviated the intestinal dysbiosis induced by chronic UVB exposure. Spearman analysis results further revealed the close connection between gut microbiota and skin photoaging. Considering the near-inevitable UVB exposure in modern living, the findings showed that the EU effectively reverted skin photoaging, offering a potential strategy for addressing extrinsic skin aging.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020168
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 169: Taurine Chloramine-Mediated Nrf2
           Activation and HO-1 Induction Confer Protective Effects in Astrocytes

    • Authors: Song-I Seol, In Soon Kang, Ji Seok Lee, Ja-Kyeong Lee, Chaekyun Kim
      First page: 169
      Abstract: Taurine is ubiquitously distributed in mammalian tissues, with the highest levels in the brain, heart, and leukocytes. Taurine reacts with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to produce taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl) via the myeloperoxidase (MPO) system. In this study, we elucidated the antioxidative and protective effects of Tau-Cl in astrocytes. Tau-Cl increased the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) and the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Nrf2 activity is negatively regulated by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). Tau-Cl decreased the level of the reduced thiol groups of Keap1, resulting in the disruption of the Keap1-Nrf2 complex. Consequently, Tau-Cl rescued the H2O2-induced cell death by enhancing HO-1 expression and suppressing reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, Tau-Cl confers protective effects in astrocytes by disrupting the Keap1-Nrf2 complex, thereby promoting Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus, wherein it binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) and accelerates the transcription of antioxidant genes. Therefore, in astrocytes, the activation of the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway by Tau-Cl may increase antioxidants and anti-inflammatory mediators as well as other cytoprotective proteins, conferring protection against brain infection and injury.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020169
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 170: Investigating the Impact of Disrupting
           the Glutamine Metabolism Pathway on Ammonia Excretion in Crucian Carp
           (Carassius auratus) under Carbonate Alkaline Stress Using Metabolomics
           Techniques

    • Authors: Yanchun Sun, Chuanye Geng, Wenzhi Liu, Yingjie Liu, Lu Ding, Peng Wang
      First page: 170
      Abstract: With the gradual decline in freshwater resources, the space available for freshwater aquaculture is diminishing and the need to maximize saline water for aquaculture is increasing. This study aimed to elucidate the impact mechanisms of the disruption of the glutamate pathway on serum metabolism and ammonia excretion in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under carbonate alkaline stress. A freshwater control group (C group), a 20 mmol/L NaHCO3 stress group (L group), and a 40 mmol/L NaHCO3 stress group (H group) were established. After 30 days of exposure, methionine sulfoximine (MSO) was injected to block the glutamate pathway metabolism, and the groups post-blocking were labeled as MC, ML, and MH. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) metabolomics technique was employed to detect changes in the composition and content of crucian carp serum metabolites. Significant differential metabolites were identified, and related metabolic pathways were analyzed. The results revealed that, following the glutamate pathway blockade, a total of 228 differential metabolites (DMs) were identified in the three treatment groups. An enrichment analysis indicated significant involvement in glycerophospholipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, purine metabolism, arginine and proline biosynthesis, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and fatty acid degradation, among other metabolic pathways. The results showed that ROS imbalances and L-arginine accumulation in crucian carp after the glutamate pathway blockade led to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in vivo, which may cause damage to the structure and function of cell membranes. Crucian carp improves the body’s antioxidant capacity and regulates cellular homeostasis by activating glutathione metabolism and increasing the concentration of phosphatidylcholine (PC) analogs. Additionally, challenges such as aggravated ammonia excretion obstruction and disrupted energy metabolism were observed in crucian carp, with the upregulation of purine metabolism alleviating ammonia toxicity and maintaining energy homeostasis through pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis as well as fatty acid degradation. This study elucidated the metabolic changes in crucian carp under carbonate alkaline stress after a glutamate pathway blockade at the cellular metabolism level and screened out the key metabolic pathways, which provide a scientific basis for further in-depth studies on the ammonia excretion of freshwater scleractinian fishes under saline and alkaline habitats at a later stage.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020170
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 171: Antioxidative Sirt1 and the Keap1-Nrf2
           Signaling Pathway Impair Inflammation and Positively Regulate Autophagy in
           Murine Mammary Epithelial Cells or Mammary Glands Infected with
           Streptococcus uberis

    • Authors: Sohrab Khan, Tian Wang, Eduardo R. Cobo, Bingchun Liang, Muhammad Asfandyar Khan, Maolin Xu, Weijie Qu, Jian Gao, Herman W. Barkema, John P. Kastelic, Gang Liu, Bo Han
      First page: 171
      Abstract: Streptococcus uberis mastitis in cattle infects mammary epithelial cells. Although oxidative responses often remove intracellular microbes, S. uberis survives, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Herein, we aimed to elucidate antioxidative mechanisms during pathogenesis of S. uberis after isolation from clinical bovine mastitis milk samples. S. uberis’s in vitro pathomorphology, oxidative stress biological activities, transcription of antioxidative factors, inflammatory response cytokines, autophagosome and autophagy functions were evaluated, and in vivo S. uberis was injected into the fourth mammary gland nipple of each mouse to assess the infectiousness of S. uberis potential molecular mechanisms. The results showed that infection with S. uberis induced early oxidative stress and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, over time, ROS concentrations decreased due to increased antioxidative activity, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) enzymes, plus transcription of antioxidative factors (Sirt1, Keap1, Nrf2, HO-1). Treatment with a ROS scavenger (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) before infection with S. uberis reduced antioxidative responses and the inflammatory response, including the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and the formation of the Atg5-LC3II/LC3I autophagosome. Synthesis of antioxidants determined autophagy functions, with Sirt1/Nrf2 activating autophagy in the presence of S. uberis. This study demonstrated the evasive mechanisms of S. uberis in mastitis, including suppressing inflammatory and ROS defenses by stimulating antioxidative pathways.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020171
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 172: Effects of Contagious Respiratory
           Pathogens on Breath Biomarkers

    • Authors: Nele Kemnitz, Patricia Fuchs, Rasmus Remy, Leo Ruehrmund, Julia Bartels, Ann-Christin Klemenz, Phillip Trefz, Wolfram Miekisch, Jochen K. Schubert, Pritam Sukul
      First page: 172
      Abstract: Due to their immediate exhalation after generation at the cellular/microbiome levels, exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may provide real-time information on pathophysiological mechanisms and the host response to infection. In recent years, the metabolic profiling of the most frequent respiratory infections has gained interest as it holds potential for the early, non-invasive detection of pathogens and the monitoring of disease progression and the response to therapy. Using previously unpublished data, randomly selected individuals from a COVID-19 test center were included in the study. Based on multiplex PCR results (non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory pathogens), the breath profiles of 479 subjects with the presence or absence of flu-like symptoms were obtained using proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Among 223 individuals, one respiratory pathogen was detected in 171 cases, and more than one pathogen in 52 cases. A total of 256 subjects had negative PCR test results and had no symptoms. The exhaled VOC profiles were affected by the presence of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Rhinovirus. The endogenous ketone, short-chain fatty acid, organosulfur, aldehyde, and terpene concentrations changed, but only a few compounds exhibited concentration changes above inter-individual physiological variations. Based on the VOC origins, the observed concentration changes may be attributed to oxidative stress and antioxidative defense, energy metabolism, systemic microbial immune homeostasis, and inflammation. In contrast to previous studies with pre-selected patient groups, the results of this study demonstrate the broad inter-individual variations in VOC profiles in real-life screening conditions. As no unique infection markers exist, only concentration changes clearly above the mentioned variations can be regarded as indicative of infection or colonization.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020172
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 173: Male Reproductive Toxicity of
           Antifouling Chemicals: Insights into Oxidative Stress-Induced Infertility
           and Molecular Mechanisms of Zinc Pyrithione (ZPT)

    • Authors: Mogellah John Panga, Ye Zhao
      First page: 173
      Abstract: Zinc pyrithione (ZPT), a widely utilized industrial chemical, is recognized for its versatile properties, including antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, and antifouling activities. Despite its widespread use, recent research has shed light on its toxicity, particularly towards the male reproductive system. While investigations into ZPT’s impact on male reproduction have been conducted, most of the attention has been directed towards marine organisms. Notably, ZPT has been identified as a catalyst for oxidative stress, contributing to various indicators of male infertility, such as a reduced sperm count, impaired sperm motility, diminished testosterone levels, apoptosis, and degenerative changes in the testicular tissue. Furthermore, discussions surrounding ZPT’s effects on DNA and cellular structures have emerged. Despite the abundance of information regarding reproductive toxicity, the molecular mechanisms underlying ZPT’s detrimental effects on the male reproductive system remain poorly understood. This review focuses specifically on ZPT, delving into its reported toxicity on male reproduction, while also addressing the broader context by discussing other antifouling chemicals, and emphasizing the need for further exploration into its molecular mechanisms.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020173
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 174: Ascorbic Acid Treatments as Effective
           and Safe Anti-Aging Therapies for Sensitive Skin

    • Authors: Anna Jaros-Sajda, Elzbieta Budzisz, Anna Erkiert-Polguj
      First page: 174
      Abstract: The most common signs of aging skin include a decrease in firmness and density, uneven skin tone, and a tendency to erythema. There is an ever-increasing interest in aesthetic treatments that maintain the skin’s favorable appearance. However, such therapies are difficult in the case of sensitive skin, defined as a set of stimuli-triggered symptoms (stinging, erythema, burning, and itching) that would not appear in healthy skin. Sensitive skin is common and affects, to varying degrees, about half of the European population. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of ascorbic acid—a known antioxidant—applied with sonophoresis and microneedling on the signs of photoaging in reactive and erythematous skin. A significant improvement in skin elasticity was observed after a series of tests. A significant reduction in erythema was observed after both therapies. The greatest reduction was observed on the cheeks after applying vitamin C combined with microneedling. At the same time, the results showed an excellent tolerance of both treatments, which proved them to be safe and effective.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020174
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 175: SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Stimulates
           Macropinocytosis in Murine and Human Macrophages via PKC-NADPH Oxidase
           Signaling

    • Authors: WonMo Ahn, Faith N. Burnett, Ajay Pandey, Pushpankur Ghoshal, Bhupesh Singla, Abigayle B. Simon, Cassandra C. Derella, Stephen A. Addo, Ryan A. Harris, Rudolf Lucas, Gábor Csányi
      First page: 175
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While recent studies have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 may enter kidney and colon epithelial cells by inducing receptor-independent macropinocytosis, it remains unknown whether this process also occurs in cell types directly relevant to SARS-CoV-2-associated lung pneumonia, such as alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages. The goal of our study was to investigate the ability of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein subunits to stimulate macropinocytosis in human alveolar epithelial cells and primary human and murine macrophages. Flow cytometry analysis of fluid-phase marker internalization demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein subunits S1, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of S1, and S2 stimulate macropinocytosis in both human and murine macrophages in an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-independent manner. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of macropinocytosis substantially decreased spike-protein-induced fluid-phase marker internalization in macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging confirmed that spike protein subunits promote the formation of membrane ruffles on the dorsal surface of macrophages. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein stimulated macropinocytosis via NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In addition, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in macrophages blocked SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-induced macropinocytosis. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate for the first time that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein subunits stimulate macropinocytosis in macrophages. These results may contribute to a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 pathogenesis.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020175
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 176: Metformin Attenuates Neutrophil
           Recruitment through the H3K18 Lactylation/Reactive Oxygen Species Pathway
           in Zebrafish

    • Authors: Ren Zhou, Rui-Chen Ding, Qian Yu, Cheng-Zeng Qiu, Hao-Yi Zhang, Zong-Jun Yin, Da-Long Ren
      First page: 176
      Abstract: Beyond its well-established role in diabetes management, metformin has gained attention as a promising therapeutic for inflammation-related diseases, largely due to its antioxidant capabilities. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this effect remain elusive. Using in vivo zebrafish models of inflammation, we explored the impact of metformin on neutrophil recruitment and the underlying mechanisms involved. Our data indicate that metformin reduces histone (H3K18) lactylation, leading to the decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a muted neutrophil response to both caudal fin injury and otic vesicle inflammation. To investigate the precise mechanisms through which metformin modulates neutrophil migration via ROS and H3K18 lactylation, we meticulously established the correlation between metformin-induced suppression of H3K18 lactylation and ROS levels. Through supplementary experiments involving the restoration of lactate and ROS, our findings demonstrated that elevated levels of both lactate and ROS significantly promoted the inflammatory response in zebrafish. Collectively, our study illuminates previously unexplored avenues of metformin’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions through the downregulation of H3K18 lactylation and ROS production, highlighting the crucial role of epigenetic regulation in inflammation and pointing to metformin’s potential in treating inflammation-associated conditions.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020176
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 177: Resveratrol Activates Antioxidant
           Protective Mechanisms in Cellular Models of Alzheimer’s Disease
           Inflammation

    • Authors: Clara Bartra, Yi Yuan, Kristijan Vuraić, Haydeé Valdés-Quiroz, Pau Garcia-Baucells, Mark Slevin, Ylenia Pastorello, Cristina Suñol, Coral Sanfeliu
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Resveratrol is a natural phenolic compound with known benefits against neurodegeneration. We analyzed in vitro the protective mechanisms of resveratrol against the proinflammatory monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP). mCRP increases the risk of AD after stroke and we previously demonstrated that intracerebral mCRP induces AD-like dementia in mice. Here, we used BV2 microglia treated with mCRP for 24 h in the presence or absence of resveratrol. Cells and conditioned media were collected for analysis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has also been implicated in AD progression and so LPS was used as a resveratrol-sensitive reference agent. mCRP at the concentration of 50 µg/mL activated the nitric oxide pathway and the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Furthermore, mCRP induced cyclooxygenase-2 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Resveratrol effectively inhibited these changes and increased the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Cat and Sod2. As central mechanisms of defense, resveratrol activated the hub genes Sirt1 and Nfe2l2 and inhibited the nuclear translocation of the signal transducer NF-ĸB. Proinflammatory changes induced by mCRP in primary mixed glial cultures were also protected by resveratrol. This work provides a mechanistic insight into the protective benefits of resveratrol in preventing the risk of AD induced by proinflammatory agents.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020177
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 178: Management of the Brain: Essential Oils
           as Promising Neuroinflammation Modulator in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    • Authors: Rosanna Avola, Alessandro Giuseppe Furnari, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Alessandra Russo, Venera Cardile
      First page: 178
      Abstract: Neuroinflammation, a pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of various brain disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, has become a focal point for therapeutic exploration. This review highlights neuroinflammatory mechanisms that hallmark neurodegenerative diseases and the potential benefits of essential oils in counteracting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, thereby offering a novel strategy for managing and mitigating the impact of various brain disorders. Essential oils, derived from aromatic plants, have emerged as versatile compounds with a myriad of health benefits. Essential oils exhibit robust antioxidant activity, serving as scavengers of free radicals and contributing to cellular defense against oxidative stress. Furthermore, essential oils showcase anti-inflammatory properties, modulating immune responses and mitigating inflammatory processes implicated in various chronic diseases. The intricate mechanisms by which essential oils and phytomolecules exert their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects were explored, shedding light on their multifaceted properties. Notably, we discussed their ability to modulate diverse pathways crucial in maintaining oxidative homeostasis and suppressing inflammatory responses, and their capacity to rescue cognitive deficits observed in preclinical models of neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020178
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 179: Determination of Nitric Oxide and Its
           Metabolites in Biological Tissues Using Ozone-Based Chemiluminescence
           Detection: A State-of-the-Art Review

    • Authors: Junjie Li, Anthea LoBue, Sophia K. Heuser, Miriam M. Cortese-Krott
      First page: 179
      Abstract: Ozone-based chemiluminescence detection (CLD) has been widely applied for determining nitric oxide (•NO) and its derived species in many different fields, such as environmental monitoring and biomedical research. In humans and animals, CLD has been applied to determine exhaled •NO and •NO metabolites in plasma and tissues. The main advantages of CLD are high sensitivity and selectivity for quantitative analysis in a wide dynamic range. Combining CLD with analytical separation techniques like chromatography allows for the analytes to be quantified with less disturbance from matrix components or impurities. Sampling techniques like microdialysis and flow injection analysis may be coupled to CLD with the possibility of real-time monitoring of •NO. However, details and precautions in experimental practice need to be addressed and clarified to avoid wrong estimations. Therefore, using CLD as a detection tool requires a deep understanding of the sample preparation procedure and chemical reactions used for liberating •NO from its derived species. In this review, we discuss the advantages and pitfalls of CLD for determining •NO species, list the different applications and combinations with other analytical techniques, and provide general practical notes for sample preparation. These guidelines are designed to assist researchers in comprehending CLD data and in selecting the most appropriate method for measuring •NO species.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020179
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 180: Hepatoprotective Effects of Flavonoids
           against Benzo[a]Pyrene-Induced Oxidative Liver Damage along Its Metabolic
           Pathways

    • Authors: Min Kim, Seung-Cheol Jee, Jung-Suk Sung
      First page: 180
      Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon primarily formed during incomplete organic matter combustion, undergoes a series of hepatic metabolic reactions once absorbed into the body. B[a]P contributes to liver damage, ranging from molecular DNA damage to the onset and progression of various diseases, including cancer. Specifically, B[a]P induces oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species generation within cells. Consequently, more research has focused on exploring the underlying mechanisms of B[a]P-induced oxidative stress and potential strategies to counter its hepatic toxicity. Flavonoids, natural compounds abundant in plants and renowned for their antioxidant properties, possess the ability to neutralize the adverse effects of free radicals effectively. Although extensive research has investigated the antioxidant effects of flavonoids, limited research has delved into their potential in regulating B[a]P metabolism to alleviate oxidative stress. This review aims to consolidate current knowledge on B[a]P-induced liver oxidative stress and examines the role of flavonoids in mitigating its toxicity.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020180
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 181: A Sustainable Extraction Approach of
           Phytochemicals from Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Fruit Cultivars Using
           Ultrasound-Assisted Deep Eutectic Solvent: A Comprehensive Study on
           Bioactivity and Phenolic Variability

    • Authors: Ouarda Djaoudene, Mostapha Bachir-Bey, Connie Schisano, Sabrina Djebari, Gian Carlo Tenore, Anabela Romano
      First page: 181
      Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) on the extraction of phytochemicals from eight Algerian date fruit cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.). In this study, lactic acid/sucrose-based NADESs were used as an alternative to conventional chemical solvents using the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method. The obtained extracts were assessed for the determination of bioactive compound contents, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and enzyme inhibitory potential. The results showed a considerable variation in phytochemical compositions and related activities between cultivars, where the greatest contents of total phenolics (1288.7 mg GAE/100 g), total flavonoids (53.8 mg QE/100 g), proanthocyanidins (179.5 mg CE/g), and total triterpenoids (12.88 mg OAE/100 g) were detected in the fruits of the Ourous cultivar. The same cultivar displayed the highest antioxidant capacity against DPPH• free radical (595 mg AAE/100 g), ABTS•+ cation radical (839 mg TE/100 g), and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (704 mg AAE/100 g). All extracts manifested moderate antioxidant activities tested by phosphomolybdenum, NO•, and linoleic acid lipid peroxidation assays. These extracts also exhibited interesting levels of in vitro enzyme inhibition; the Ourous cultivar gave the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and acetylcholinesterase with 45 and 37%, respectively. HPLC-DAD-MS detected a total of five compounds, with phenolic acids and flavonoids being the main phenolics identified in the extract. The phenolic composition exhibited significant variability among cultivars. Notably, the highest amounts were revealed in the Tazizaout cultivar, with the predominance of gallic acid. The results confirmed that the combination of UAE and NADESs provides a novel and important alternative to chemical solvents for sustainable and environmentally friendly extraction and can represent a good alternative in food and pharmaceutical industry applications.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020181
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 182: Liproxstatin-1 Alleviated
           Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury via Inhibiting
           Ferroptosis

    • Authors: Zhiyuan Shi, Yifan Du, Jianzhong Zheng, Wenbin Tang, Qing Liang, Zeyuan Zheng, Bin Liu, Huimin Sun, Kejia Wang, Chen Shao
      First page: 182
      Abstract: Ferroptosis, as a novel regulable cell death, is characterized by iron overload, glutathione depletion, and an accumulation of lipid peroxides. Recently, it has been discovered that ferroptosis is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and plays a crucial role in renal tubular cell death. In this study, we tried to investigate the effect and mechanism of liproxstatin-1 (Lip-1) in I/R-induced AKI and seek the key regulator of ferroptosis in I/R-induced AKI. Mice were administrated with clamping bilateral renal pedicles for 30 min. We found that early growth response 1 (EGR1) might be a key regulator of ferroptosis, and Lip-1 could suppress ferroptosis via EGR1. Meanwhile, Lip-1 could reduce macrophage recruitment and the release of inflammatory cytokines. These findings indicated that Lip-1 alleviated I/R-induced AKI via regulating EGR1, and it might pave the theoretical basis of a new therapeutic strategy for I/R-induced AKI.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020182
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 183: Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem
           Cell-Derived Exosomes Ameliorate Aging-Induced BTB Impairment in Porcine
           Testes by Activating Autophagy and Inhibiting ROS/NLRP3 Inflammasomes via
           the AMPK/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    • Authors: Yi Zhou, Jiale Yan, Limin Qiao, Jiaqin Zeng, Fuyu Cao, Xihui Sheng, Xiaolong Qi, Cheng Long, Bingying Liu, Xiangguo Wang, Hua Yao, Longfei Xiao
      First page: 183
      Abstract: As a pivotal player in spermatogenesis, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) made from junction apparatus coexisting in Sertoli cells (SCs) is impaired with an increase in age and ultimately induces spermatogenic dysfunction or even infertility. It has been corroborated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation can efficiently repair and regenerate the testicular function. As vital mediators of cell-to-cell communication, MSC-derived exosomes (Exos) can directly serve as therapeutic agents for tissue repair and regeneration. However, the therapeutic value of BMSC-Exos in aging-induced BTB damage remains to be confirmed. In this study, we explored that the old porcine testes had defective autophagy, which aggravated BTB disruption in SCs. BMSC-Exos could decrease ROS production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation but enhanced autophagy and tight junction (TJ) function in D-gal-triggered aging porcine SCs and mouse model testes, according to in vitro and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, rapamycin, NAC, MCC950, and IL-1Ra restored the TJ function in D-gal-stimulated aging porcine SCs, while BMSC-Exos’ stimulatory effect on TJ function was inhibited by chloroquine. Moreover, the treatment with BMSC-Exos enhanced autophagy in D-gal-induced aging porcine SCs by means of the AMPK/mTOR signal transduction pathway. These findings uncovered through the present study that BMSC-Exos can enhance the BTB function in aging testes by improving autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway, thereby suppressing ROS production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020183
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 184: The Role of Glutathione and Its
           Precursors in Type 2 Diabetes

    • Authors: Dawn Tuell, George Ford, Evan Los, William Stone
      First page: 184
      Abstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major worldwide health crisis affecting about 6.2% of the world’s population. Alarmingly, about one in five children in the USA have prediabetes. Glutathione (GSH) and its precursors play a promising role in the prevention and management of type T2D. Oxidative stress (OxS) is a probable factor in both T2D initiation and progression. GSH is the major cytosolic water-soluble chemical antioxidant and emerging evidence supports its role in improving T2D outcomes. Dietary supplementation with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and/or glycine (GLY), which are GSH precursors, has also been studied for possible beneficial effects on T2D. This review will focus on the underlying pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms linking GSH and its precursors with T2D and OxS. In addition to their traditional antioxidant roles, the in vivo effects of GSH/NAC/GLY supplements will be evaluated for their potential abilities to modulate the complex pro-oxidant pathophysiological factors (e.g., hyperglycemia) driving T2D progression. Positive feedback loops that amplify OxS over long time intervals are likely to result in irreversible T2D micro- and macro-vascular damage. Most clinical studies with GSH/NAC/GLY have focused on adults or the elderly. Future research with pediatric populations should be a high priority since early intervention is critical.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020184
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 185: Evaluation of the Shelf life of
           Ready-to-Eat Fresh Bamboo Sprouts (Phyllostachys edulis) Packaged in a
           Modified Atmosphere or Vacuum: A Comparative Study

    • Authors: Vincenzo Sicari, Rosa Tundis, Rosa Romeo, Antonella Reitano, Emilia Lucia Belsito, Antonella Leggio, Monica Rosa Loizzo
      First page: 185
      Abstract: During the last decades, the consumption of bamboo sprouts (Phyllostacys edulis) has increased because they are considered a “superfood”. However, this product is characterized by a short shelf life due to the deterioration in quality parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the application of two modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems (MAP1: 2% O2, 5% CO2, 93% N2 and MAP2: 3% O2, 7% CO2, 90% N2) to fresh-shelled ready-to-eat bamboo sprouts and compare these packaging systems with vacuum packaging during storage for 28 days at 4 °C using heat-sealable polyamide and polyethylene (PA/PE) trays. Several chemical-physical parameters (moisture content, water activity, pH, headspace composition, and firmness) were monitored, as well as CIELab colorimetric parameters and microbial growth. The quantification of selected organic acids was performed via UHPLC. Mathematical kinetic models were applied to study the evolution of total phenol (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), and carotenoid content (TCC) during storage. The evolution of antioxidant potential investigated by ABTS, DPPH, and β-carotene bleaching tests was also assessed. Results showed that at the end of the storage period, significant variations in the colorimetric parameters are detectable between the sprouts apical portion and the basal one, regardless of both applied MAPs. A linear reduction in both DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity was evidenced during storage, regardless of the type of packaging applied. In DPPH test samples packaged in MAP after 28 days of storage, they retain good antioxidant activity, whereas in vacuum, this activity is reduced by 50% compared to the initial value (IC50 values from 24.77 to 32.74 μg/mL and from 24.77 to 71.12 μg/mL for MAP2 and vacuum, respectively).
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020185
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 186: The Role of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide
           Supplementation in Psoriasis Treatment

    • Authors: Zhengyi Zhang, Baochen Cheng, Wenqian Du, Mengqi Zeng, Ke He, Tingyi Yin, Sen Shang, Tian Su, Dan Han, Xinyi Gan, Ziyang Wang, Meng Liu, Min Wang, Jiankang Liu, Yan Zheng
      First page: 186
      Abstract: Psoriasis is one of several chronic inflammatory skin diseases with a high rate of recurrence, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), as an important precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), has been reported to be a promising agent in treating various diseases, its positive effects including those induced via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. For this reason, we have aimed to explore the possible role of NMN in the treatment of psoriasis. Psoriasis models were constructed with imiquimod (IMQ) stimulation for 5 days in vivo and with M5 treatment in keratinocyte cell lines in vitro. NMN treatment during the IMQ application period markedly attenuated excess epidermal proliferation, splenomegaly, and inflammatory responses. According to GEO databases, Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) levels significantly decreased in psoriasis patients’ lesion tissues; this was also the case in the IMQ-treated mice, while NMN treatment reversed the SIRT1 decline in the mouse model. Moreover, NMN supplementation also improved the prognoses of the mice after IMQ stimulation, compared to the untreated group with elevated SIRT1 levels. In HEKa and HaCaT cells, the co-culturing of NMN and M5 significantly decreased the expression levels of proinflammation factors, the phosphorylation of NF-κB, stimulator of interferon genes (STING) levels, and reactive oxygen species levels. NMN treatment also recovered the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and respiration ability and reduced mtDNA in the cytoplasm, leading to the inhibition of autoimmune inflammation. The knockdown of SIRT1 in vitro eliminated the protective and therapeutic effects of NMN against M5. To conclude, our results indicate that NMN protects against IMQ-induced psoriatic inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction by activating the SIRT1 pathway.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020186
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 187: Increased Diabetes Complications in a
           Mouse Model of Oxidative Stress Due to ‘Mismatched’
           Mitochondrial DNA

    • Authors: Andrzej S. Januszewski, Rachel Blake, Michael Zhang, Ben Ma, Sushma Anand, Carl A. Pinkert, Darren J. Kelly, Alicia J. Jenkins, Ian A. Trounce
      First page: 187
      Abstract: Associations between chronic diabetes complications and mitochondrial dysfunction represent a subject of major importance, given the diabetes pandemic and high personal and socioeconomic costs of diabetes and its complications. Modelling diabetes complications in inbred laboratory animals is challenging due to incomplete recapitulation of human features, but offer mechanistic insights and preclinical testing. As mitochondrial-based oxidative stress is implicated in human diabetic complications, herein we evaluate diabetes in a unique mouse model that harbors a mitochondrial DNA from a divergent mouse species (the ‘xenomitochondrial mouse’), which has mild mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress. We use the streptozotocin-induced diabetes model with insulin supplementation, with 20-weeks diabetes. We compare C57BL/6 mice and the ‘xenomitochondrial’ mouse, with measures of heart and kidney function, histology, and skin oxidative stress markers. Compared to C57BL/6 mice, the xenomitochondrial mouse has increased diabetic heart and kidney damage, with cardiac dysfunction, and increased cardiac and renal fibrosis. Our results show that mitochondrial oxidative stress consequent to divergent mtDNA can worsen diabetes complications. This has implications for novel therapeutics to counter diabetes complications, and for genetic studies of risk, as mtDNA genotypes may contribute to clinical outcomes.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020187
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 188: Protective Effect of Knee Postoperative
           Fluid on Oxidative-Induced Damage in Human Knee Articular Chondrocytes

    • Authors: Roberta Giordo, Smitha Tulasigeri Totiger, Gianfilippo Caggiari, Annalisa Cossu, Andrea Fabio Manunta, Anna Maria Posadino, Gianfranco Pintus
      First page: 188
      Abstract: The oxidative-stress-elicited deterioration of chondrocyte function is the initial stage of changes leading to the disruption of cartilage homeostasis. These changes entail a series of catabolic damages mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, MMPs, and aggrecanases, which increase ROS generation. Such uncontrolled ROS production, inadequately balanced by the cellular antioxidant capacity, eventually contributes to the development and progression of chondropathies. Several pieces of evidence show that different growth factors, single or combined, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, can stimulate chondrogenesis and improve cartilage repair and regeneration. In this view, hypothesizing a potential growth-factor-associated action, we investigate the possible protective effect of post-operation knee fluid from patients undergoing prosthesis replacement surgery against ROS-induced damage on normal human knee articular chondrocytes (HKACs). To this end, HKACs were pre-treated with post-operation knee fluid and then exposed to H2O2 to mimic oxidative stress. Intracellular ROS levels were measured by using the molecular probe H2DCFDA; cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative status were assessed by using HKACs infected with lentiviral particles harboring the redox-sensing green fluorescent protein (roGFP); and cell proliferation was determined by measuring the rate of DNA synthesis with BrdU incorporation. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione levels from the cell lysates of treated cells were also measured. Postoperative peripheral blood sera from the same patients were used as controls. Our study shows that post-operation knee fluid can counteract H2O2-elicited oxidative stress by decreasing the intracellular ROS levels, preserving the cytosolic and mitochondrial redox status, maintaining the proliferation of oxidatively stressed HKACs, and upregulating chondrocyte antioxidant defense. Overall, our results support and propose an important effect of post-operation knee fluid substances in maintaining HKAC function by mediating cell antioxidative system upregulation and protecting cells from oxidative stress.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020188
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 189: SiONx Coating Regulates Mesenchymal Stem
           Cell Antioxidant Capacity via Nuclear Erythroid Factor 2 Activity under
           Toxic Oxidative Stress Conditions

    • Authors: Neelam Ahuja, Kamal Awad, Su Yang, He Dong, Antonios Mikos, Pranesh Aswath, Simon Young, Marco Brotto, Venu Varanasi
      First page: 189
      Abstract: Healing in compromised and complicated bone defects is often prolonged and delayed due to the lack of bioactivity of the fixation device, secondary infections, and associated oxidative stress. Here, we propose amorphous silicon oxynitride (SiONx) as a coating for the fixation devices to improve both bioactivity and bacteriostatic activity and reduce oxidative stress. We aimed to study the effect of increasing the N/O ratio in the SiONx to fine-tune the cellular activity and the antioxidant effect via the NRF2 pathway under oxidative stress conditions. The in vitro studies involved using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to examine the effect of SiONx coatings on osteogenesis with and without toxic oxidative stress. Additionally, bacterial growth on SiONx surfaces was studied using methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonies. NRF2 siRNA transfection was performed on the hMSCs (NRF2-KD) to study the antioxidant response to silicon ions. The SiONx implant surfaces showed a >4-fold decrease in bacterial growth vs. bare titanium as a control. Increasing the N/O ratio in the SiONx implants increased the alkaline phosphatase activity >1.5 times, and the other osteogenic markers (osteocalcin, RUNX2, and Osterix) were increased >2-fold under normal conditions. Increasing the N/O ratio in SiONx enhanced the protective effects and improved cell viability against toxic oxidative stress conditions. There was a significant increase in osteocalcin activity compared to the uncoated group, along with increased antioxidant activity under oxidative stress conditions. In NRF2-KD cells, there was a stunted effect on the upregulation of antioxidant markers by silicon ions, indicating a role for NRF2. In conclusion, the SiONx coatings studied here displayed bacteriostatic properties. These materials promoted osteogenic markers under toxic oxidative stress conditions while also enhancing antioxidant NRF2 activity. These results indicate the potential of SiONx coatings to induce in vivo bone regeneration in a challenging oxidative stress environment.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020189
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 190: Redox Imbalance in Nasal Epithelial
           Cells of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Patients

    • Authors: Ana Reula, Silvia Castillo-Corullón, Miguel Armengot, Guadalupe Herrera, Amparo Escribano, Francisco Dasí
      First page: 190
      Abstract: Background: Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) represents a rare condition marked by an abnormal mobility pattern of cilia and flagella, resulting in impaired mucociliary clearance. This deficiency leads to recurrent infections and persistent inflammation of the airways. While previous studies have indicated heightened oxidative stress levels in the exhaled breath condensate of pediatric PCD patients, the assessment of oxidative stress within the affected respiratory tissue remains unexplored. Aims: To assess the oxidative status of human nasal epithelial cells (NECs) in PCD patients. Methods: Thirty-five PCD patients and thirty-five healthy control subjects were prospectively included in the study. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), glutathione (GSH), intracellular Ca2+, plasma membrane potential, and oxidative damage in lipids and proteins were measured. In addition, apoptosis and mitochondrial function were analyzed by flow cytometry in NECs. Results: NECs from PCD patients showed reduced levels of apoptosis (p = 0.004), superoxide anion (O2−, p = 0.018), peroxynitrite (ONOO−, p = 0.007), nitric oxide (NO, p = 0.007), mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (mtH2O2, p < 0.0001), and mitochondrial superoxide anion (mtO2−, p = 0.0004) and increased mitochondrial mass (p = 0.009) compared to those from healthy individuals. No significant differences were observed in oxidized proteins (p = 0.137) and the oxidized/reduced lipid ratio (p = 0.7973). The oxidative profile of NEC cells in PCD patients, according to their ciliary motility, recurrent otitis, recurrent pneumonia, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, and situs inversus, showed no statistically significant differences in the parameters studied. Conversely, patients with chronic rhinosinusitis exhibited lower levels of ONOO− than PCD patients without this condition, with no significant differences related to other symptoms. Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest the presence of a redox imbalance, specifically leaning toward a reductive state, in PCD patients.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020190
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 191: CoQ10 and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in
           Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Authors: Zdeněk Fišar, Jana Hroudová
      First page: 191
      Abstract: The progress in understanding the pathogenesis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is based on the recognition of the primary causes of the disease, which can be deduced from the knowledge of risk factors and biomarkers measurable in the early stages of the disease. Insights into the risk factors and the time course of biomarker abnormalities point to a role for the connection of amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology, tau pathology, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the onset and development of AD. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid antioxidant and electron transporter in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The availability and activity of CoQ10 is crucial for proper mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics. Based on the mitochondrial hypothesis of AD and the hypothesis of oxidative stress, the regulation of the efficiency of the oxidative phosphorylation system by means of CoQ10 can be considered promising in restoring the mitochondrial function impaired in AD, or in preventing the onset of mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of amyloid and tau pathology in AD. This review summarizes the knowledge on the pathophysiology of AD, in which CoQ10 may play a significant role, with the aim of evaluating the perspective of the pharmacotherapy of AD with CoQ10 and its analogues.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020191
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 192: Exploration of Polyphenols Extracted
           from Cytisus Plants and Their Potential Applications: A Review

    • Authors: Diana Ferreira-Sousa, Zlatina Genisheva, María Jesús Rodríguez-Yoldi, Beatriz Gullón, Carlos E. Costa, José A. Teixeira, Cláudia M. Botelho, Pedro Ferreira-Santos
      First page: 192
      Abstract: The increasing world population means an increased demand for sustainable processes and products related to foods, particularly those with added health benefits. Plants can be an alternative source of nutritional and biofunctional ingredients. Cytisus plants are an underexploited bioresource, currently prevalent in the Mediterranean Basin and western Asia. This manuscript addresses the processing potential of Cytisus plants for the development of added-value products, including food formulations, food packaging, cosmetics, and therapeutic applications. Most research has reported that Cytisus spp. are a promising source of inexpensive bioactive polyphenol compounds. Cytisus flowers should be considered and exploited as raw materials for the development of new food ingredients (antioxidants, preservatives, additives, etc.), nutraceuticals, or even direct therapeutic agents (anticancer, antibacterial, etc.). In order to evaluate the socioeconomic effect of these underutilized plants, more research is needed to assess their valorization for therapeutic and dietary possibilities, as well as the economic impact.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020192
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 193: Redox Homeostasis and Nrf2-Regulated
           Mechanisms Are Relevant to Male Infertility

    • Authors: Cinzia Signorini, Luciano Saso, Somayyeh Ghareghomi, Pelin Telkoparan-Akillilar, Giulia Collodel, Elena Moretti
      First page: 193
      Abstract: Infertility represents a significant global health challenge, affecting more than 12% of couples worldwide, and most cases of infertility are caused by male factors. Several pathological pathways are implicated in male infertility. The main mechanisms involved are driven by the loss of reduction–oxidation (redox) homeostasis and the resulting oxidative damage as well as the chronic inflammatory process. Increased or severe oxidative stress leads to sperm plasma membrane and DNA oxidative damage, dysregulated RNA processing, and telomere destruction. The signaling pathways of these molecular events are also regulated by Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The causes of male infertility, the role of oxidative stress in male infertility and the Keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant pathway are reviewed. This review highlights the regulatory role of Nrf2 in the balance between oxidants and antioxidants as relevant mechanisms to male fertility. Nrf2 is involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Establishing a link between Nrf2 signaling pathways and the regulation of male fertility provides the basis for molecular modulation of inflammatory processes, reactive oxygen species generation, and the antioxidant molecular network, including the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response, to improve male reproductive outcomes.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020193
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 194: The Activation of GABAAR Alleviated
           Cerebral Ischemic Injury via the Suppression of Oxidative Stress,
           Autophagy, and Apoptosis Pathways

    • Authors: Jing Lan, Jiaqi Wang, Shujing Wang, Jia Wang, Sijuan Huang, Yazhou Wang, Yunfei Ma
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease leading to neurologic impairment. Compounding the issue is the very limited array of available interventions. The activation of a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABAAR) has been reported to produce neuroprotective properties during cerebral ischemia, but its mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. Here, in a rat model of photochemically induced cerebral ischemia, we found that muscimol, a GABAAR agonist, modulated GABAergic signaling, ameliorated anxiety-like behaviors, and attenuated neuronal damage in rats suffering cerebral ischemia. Moreover, GABAAR activation improved brain antioxidant levels, reducing the accumulation of oxidative products, which was closely associated with the NO/NOS pathway. Notably, the inhibition of autophagy markedly relieved the neuronal insult caused by cerebral ischemia. We further established an oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced PC12 cell injury model. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that GABAAR activation obviously suppressed autophagy by regulating the AMPK-mTOR pathway. Additionally, GABAAR activation inhibited apoptosis through inhibiting the Bax/Bcl-2 pathway. These data suggest that GABAAR activation exerts neuroprotective effects during cerebral ischemia through improving oxidative stress and inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis. Our findings indicate that GABAAR serves as a target for treating cerebral ischemia and highlight the GABAAR-mediated autophagy signaling pathway.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020194
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 195: Elaeagnus umbellata Fruit Extract
           Protects Skin from Ultraviolet-Mediated Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    • Authors: Seok-Man Park, Cheol-Jong Jung, Dae-Geon Lee, Yeong-Eun Yu, Tae-Hun Ku, Mu-Seok Hong, Tae-Kyung Lim, Kwong-Il Paeng, Hyun-Ki Cho, Il-Je Cho, Sae-Kwang Ku
      First page: 195
      Abstract: Photoaging refers to the accumulation of skin damage which includes wrinkle formation, loss of elasticity, and epidermal thickening due to repeated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The present study investigated the protective effects of Elaeagnus umbellata fruit extract (Elaea) on UV-mediated photoaged skin of SKH1 hairless mice and compared the effects of Elaea with ascorbic acid. Although there was no difference in body weight between groups during experimental period, oral administration of 50–200 mg/kg Elaea once daily for 15 weeks significantly prevented an increase in skin weight, epithelial thickening of epidermis, and apoptosis caused by UV irradiation. Skin replica and histopathological analyses revealed that Elaea dose-dependently decreased wrinkle and microfold formation. In addition, Elaea administration restored UV-mediated reduction in type I collagen and hyaluronan through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase expression. Moreover, Elaea suppressed UV-dependent increases in superoxide anion production, fatty acid oxidation, and protein nitration by up-regulating antioxidant system. Furthermore, Elaea alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells in UV-irradiated skin. The preventive effects of 100 mg/kg Elaea administration against UV-induced photoaging were similar to those by 100 mg/kg ascorbic acid. Collectively, the present study suggests that the E. umbellata fruit is a promising edible candidate to prevent skin photoaging.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020195
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 196: IP3R-Mediated Calcium Release Promotes
           Ferroptotic Death in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    • Authors: Joaquín Campos, Silvia Gleitze, Cecilia Hidalgo, Marco T. Núñez
      First page: 196
      Abstract: Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent cell death pathway that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and iron-mediated lipid peroxidation. Ferroptosis is experimentally caused by the inhibition of the cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT, which depletes cells of GSH, or by inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), a key regulator of lipid peroxidation. The events that occur between GPx4 inhibition and the execution of ferroptotic cell death are currently a matter of active research. Previous work has shown that calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels contributes to ferroptosis-induced cell death in primary hippocampal neurons. Here, we used SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which do not express RyR channels, to test if calcium release mediated by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel plays a role in this process. We show that treatment with RAS Selective Lethal Compound 3 (RSL3), a GPx4 inhibitor, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased cytoplasmic and mitochondrial calcium levels, increased lipid peroxidation, and caused cell death. The RSL3-induced calcium signals were inhibited by Xestospongin B, a specific inhibitor of the ER-resident IP3R calcium channel, by decreasing IP3R levels with carbachol and by IP3R1 knockdown, which also prevented the changes in cell morphology toward roundness induced by RSL3. Intracellular calcium chelation by incubation with BAPTA-AM inhibited RSL3-induced calcium signals, which were not affected by extracellular calcium depletion. We propose that GPx4 inhibition activates IP3R-mediated calcium release in SH-SY5Y cells, leading to increased cytoplasmic and mitochondrial calcium levels, which, in turn, stimulate ROS production and induce lipid peroxidation and cell death in a noxious positive feedback cycle.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020196
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 197: Comparative Analysis of Polyphenol
           Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Parts of Five Onion
           Cultivars Harvested in Korea

    • Authors: Yena Kim, Young-Jun Kim, Youngjae Shin
      First page: 197
      Abstract: Onions are typically consumed as the bulb, but the peel and root are discarded as by-products during processing. This study investigated the potential functional use of these by-products by analyzing the polyphenols, antioxidant compounds, and antioxidant activity contained in onions. In this study, the bulb, peel, and root of five onion cultivars (‘Tank’, ‘Bomul’, ‘Gujji’ ‘Cobra’, and ‘Hongbanjang’) harvested in Korea were investigated. Caffeic acid and quercetin were most abundant in the peel, whereas methyl gallate was the predominant polyphenol in the bulb. Both DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity were higher in onion peel and root than in the bulb. These findings suggest that onion peel and roots, which are often discarded, have abundant antioxidant substances and excellent antioxidant activity. This study provides basic data for the future use of onion peel and roots as functional ingredients with high added value.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020197
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 198: Oxidative Damage and Antioxidants as
           Markers for the Selection of Emersion Hardening Treatments in GreenshellTM
           Mussel Juveniles (Perna canaliculus)

    • Authors: Natalí J. Delorme, David J. Burritt, Leonardo N. Zamora, Mena R. V. Welford, Paul M. South
      First page: 198
      Abstract: Transport out of the water is one of the most challenging events for juvenile Perna canaliculus and can be a highly inefficient process, with many juveniles subsequently being lost following extended periods of emersion. Hardening techniques offer a possible method for reducing transport-related stress. In this study, different hardening treatments (short, long and intermittent sub-lethal emersion) were used to prepare ~1.2 mm P.canaliculus for transport (20 h) and subsequent reoxygenation stress during re-immersion (i.e., recovery). The oxidative stress responses, resettlement behaviour, respiration rates and survival of the mussels after transport and during recovery were all assessed. Short emersion (1 h) as a hardening treatment prior to transport did not cause major stress to the mussels, which maintained respiration at control levels, showed significantly stimulated antioxidant defences during recovery, showed greater resettlement behaviour and remained viable after 24 h of recovery. In comparison, the long and intermittent emersion treatments negatively impacted oxidative stress responses and affected the viability of the mussels after 24 h of recovery. This study showed that exposing juvenile P.canaliculus to a mild stress prior to transport may stimulate protective mechanisms, therefore eliciting a hardening response, but care must be taken to avoid overstressing the mussels. Improving the management of stress during the transport of juvenile mussels may be key to minimising mussel losses and increasing harvest production, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress/antioxidant metabolism could be valuable tools to ensure emersion hardening does not overstress the mussels and reduce survival.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020198
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 199: Redox Regulation of PTEN by Reactive
           Oxygen Species: Its Role in Physiological Processes

    • Authors: Vu Hoang Trinh, Thang Nguyen Huu, Dhiraj Kumar Sah, Jin Myung Choi, Hyun Joong Yoon, Sang Chul Park, Yu Seok Jung, Seung-Rock Lee
      First page: 199
      Abstract: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor due to its ability to regulate cell survival, growth, and proliferation by downregulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In addition, PTEN plays an essential role in other physiological events associated with cell growth demands, such as ischemia-reperfusion, nerve injury, and immune responsiveness. Therefore, recently, PTEN inhibition has emerged as a potential therapeutic intervention in these situations. Increasing evidence demonstrates that reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are produced and required for the signaling in many important cellular processes under such physiological conditions ROS have been shown to oxidize PTEN at the cysteine residue of its active site, consequently inhibiting its function. Herein, we provide an overview of studies that highlight the role of the oxidative inhibition of PTEN in physiological processes.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020199
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 200: Redox Biomarkers and Matrix Remodeling
           Molecules in Ovarian Cancer

    • Authors: Elżbieta Supruniuk, Marta Baczewska, Ewa Żebrowska, Mateusz Maciejczyk, Kamil Klaudiusz Lauko, Patrycja Dajnowicz-Brzezik, Patrycja Milewska, Paweł Knapp, Anna Zalewska, Adrian Chabowski
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Ovarian cancer (OC) has emerged as the leading cause of death due to gynecological malignancies among women. Oxidative stress and metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to influence signaling pathways and afflict the progression of carcinogenesis. Therefore, the assessment of matrix-remodeling and oxidative stress intensity can determine the degree of cellular injury and often the severity of redox-mediated chemoresistance. The study group comprised 27 patients with serous OC of which 18% were classified as Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages I/II, while the rest were diagnosed grades III/IV. The control group comprised of 15 ovarian tissue samples. The results were compared with genetic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Nitro-oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis biomarkers were measured colorimetrically/fluorometrically or via real-time PCR in the primary ovarian tumor and healthy tissue. Stratification of patients according to FIGO stages revealed that high-grade carcinoma exhibited substantial alterations in redox balance, including the accumulation of protein glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products. TCGA data demonstrated only limited prognostic usefulness of the studied genes. In conclusion, high-grade serous OC is associated with enhanced tissue oxidative/nitrosative stress and macromolecule damage that could not be overridden by the simultaneously augmented measures of antioxidant defense. Therefore, it can be assumed that tumor cells acquire adaptive mechanisms that enable them to withstand the potential toxic effects of elevated reactive oxygen species.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020200
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 201: Piceid Octanoate Protects Retinal Cells
           against Oxidative Damage by Regulating the Sirtuin 1/Poly-ADP-Ribose
           Polymerase 1 Axis In Vitro and in rd10 Mice

    • Authors: Seyed Mohamadmehdi Moshtaghion, Estefanía Caballano-Infantes, Álvaro Plaza Reyes, Lourdes Valdés-Sánchez, Patricia Gallego Fernández, Berta de la Cerda, Maurizio S. Riga, Manuel Álvarez-Dolado, Pablo Peñalver, Juan C. Morales, Francisco J. Díaz-Corrales
      First page: 201
      Abstract: Retinitis pigmentosa is a common cause of inherited blindness in adults, which in many cases is associated with an increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induces DNA damage, triggering Poly-ADP-Ribose Polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation and leading to parthanatos-mediated cell death. Previous studies have shown that resveratrol (RSV) is a promising molecule that can mitigate PARP1 overactivity, but its low bioavailability is a limitation for medical use. This study examined the impact of a synthesized new acylated RSV prodrug, piceid octanoate (PIC-OCT), in the 661W cell line against H2O2 oxidative stress and in rd10 mice. PIC-OCT possesses a better ADME profile than RSV. In response to H2O2, 661W cells pretreated with PIC-OCT preserved cell viability in more than 38% of cells by significantly promoting SIRT1 nuclear translocation, preserving NAD+/NADH ratio, and suppressing intracellular ROS formation. These effects result from expressing antioxidant genes, maintaining mitochondrial function, reducing PARP1 nuclear expression, and preventing AIF nuclear translocation. In rd10 mice, PIC-OCT inhibited PAR-polymer formation, increased SIRT1 expression, significantly reduced TUNEL-positive cells in the retinal outer nuclear layer, preserved ERGs, and enhanced light chamber activity (all p values < 0.05). Our findings corroborate that PIC-OCT protects photoreceptors by modulating the SIRT1/PARP1 axis in models of retinal degeneration.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020201
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 202: A Combinational Therapy for Preventing
           and Delaying the Onset of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Focus on Probiotic
           and Vitamin Co-Supplementation

    • Authors: Omme Fatema Sultana, Raksa Andalib Hia, P. Hemachandra Reddy
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a complex etiology, and effective interventions to prevent or delay its onset remain a global health challenge. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential role of probiotic and vitamin supplementation as complementary strategies for Alzheimer’s disease prevention. This review paper explores the current scientific literature on the use of probiotics and vitamins, particularly vitamin A, D, E, K, and B-complex vitamins, in the context of Alzheimer’s disease prevention and management. We delve into the mechanisms through which probiotics may modulate gut–brain interactions and neuroinflammation while vitamins play crucial roles in neuronal health and cognitive function. The paper also examines the collective impact of this combinational therapy on reducing the risk factors associated with Alzheimer’s disease, such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and gut dysbiosis. By providing a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence and potential mechanisms, this review aims to shed light on the promise of probiotic and vitamin co-supplementation as a multifaceted approach to combat Alzheimer’s disease, offering insights into possible avenues for future research and clinical application.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020202
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 203: New Insights into Antioxidant Peptides:
           An Overview of Efficient Screening, Evaluation Models, Molecular
           Mechanisms, and Applications

    • Authors: Yuhao Zhang, Yun Li, Zhengze Quan, Ping Xiao, Jin-Ao Duan
      First page: 203
      Abstract: Antioxidant peptides are currently a hotspot in food science, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. In different fields, the screening, activity evaluation, mechanisms, and applications of antioxidant peptides are the pivotal areas of research. Among these topics, the efficient screening of antioxidant peptides stands at the forefront of cutting-edge research. To this end, efficient screening with novel technologies has significantly accelerated the research process, gradually replacing the traditional approach. After the novel antioxidant peptides are screened and identified, a time-consuming activity evaluation is another indispensable procedure, especially in in vivo models. Cellular and rodent models have been widely used for activity evaluation, whilst non-rodent models provide an efficient solution, even with the potential for high-throughput screening. Meanwhile, further research of molecular mechanisms can elucidate the essence underlying the activity, which is related to several signaling pathways, including Keap1-Nrf2/ARE, mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, TGF-β/SMAD, AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and NF-κB. Last but not least, antioxidant peptides have broad applications in food manufacture, therapy, and the cosmetics industry, which requires a systematic review. This review introduces novel technologies for the efficient screening of antioxidant peptides, categorized with a new vision. A wide range of activity evaluation assays, encompassing cellular models, as well as rodent and non-rodent models, are provided in a comprehensive manner. In addition, recent advances in molecular mechanisms are analyzed with specific cases. Finally, the applications of antioxidant peptides in food production, therapy, and cosmetics are systematically reviewed.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020203
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 204: Gadolinium-Based Magnetic Resonance
           Theranostic Agent with Gallic Acid as an Anti-Neuroinflammatory and
           Antioxidant Agent

    • Authors: Bokyung Sung, Dongwook Hwang, Ahrum Baek, Byeongwoo Yang, Sangyun Lee, Jangwoo Park, Eunji Kim, Minsup Kim, Eunshil Lee, Yongmin Chang
      First page: 204
      Abstract: Studies in the field have actively pursued the incorporation of diverse biological functionalities into gadolinium-based contrast agents, aiming at the amalgamation of MRI imaging and therapeutic capabilities. In this research, we present the development of Gd-Ga, an anti-neuroinflammatory MR contrast agent strategically designed to target inflammatory mediators for comprehensive imaging diagnosis and targeted lesion treatment. Gd-Ga is a gadolinium complex composed of 1,4,7-tris(carboxymethylaza)cyclododecane-10-azaacetylamide (DO3A) conjugated with gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid). Upon intravenous administration in LPS-induced mouse models, Gd-Ga demonstrated a remarkable three-fold increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) variation compared to Gd-DOTA, particularly evident in both the cortex and hippocampus 30 min post-MR monitoring. In-depth investigations, both in vitro and in vivo, into the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of Gd-Ga revealed significantly reduced protein expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators compared to the LPS group. The alignment between in silico predictions and phantom studies indicates that Gd-Ga acts as an anti-neuroinflammatory agent by directly binding to MD2. Additionally, the robust antioxidant activity of Gd-Ga was confirmed by its effective scavenging of NO and ROS. Our collective findings emphasize the immense potential of this theranostic complex, where a polyphenol serves as an anti-inflammatory drug, presenting an exceptionally efficient platform for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroinflammation.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020204
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 205: Onion (Allium cepa L.) Skin Waste
           Valorization: Unveiling the Phenolic Profile and Biological Potential for
           the Creation of Bioactive Agents through Subcritical Water Extraction

    • Authors: Esther Trigueros, Óscar Benito-Román, Andreia P. Oliveira, Romeu A. Videira, Paula B. Andrade, María Teresa Sanz, Sagrario Beltrán
      First page: 205
      Abstract: Onion skin waste (OSW), the primary non-edible byproduct from onion processing, offers a renewable source of bioactive compounds. This study aims to valorize OSW through subcritical water extraction (SWE), aligning with a circular economy and biorefinery principles. SWE was carried out at 145 °C and 50 bar for 50 min in a discontinuous reactor, producing a phenolic-rich extract (32.3 ± 2.6 mg/g) dominated by protocatechuic acid (20.3 ± 2.5 mg/g), quercetin-4′-O-glucoside (7.5 ± 0.2 mg/g), and quercetin (3.2 ± 0.6 mg/g). Additionally, the extract contains sugars (207.1 ± 20.3 mg sucrose-Eq/g), proteins (22.8 ± 1.6 mg BSA-Eq/g), and free amino acids (20.4 ± 1.2 mg arginine-Eq/g). Its phenolic richness determines its scavenging activity against ●NO and O2●− radicals and its α-glucosidase and aldose-reductase inhibition without affecting α-amylase. Notably, the extract demonstrates significant α-glucosidase inhibition (IC50 = 75.6 ± 43.5 µg/mL), surpassing acarbose (IC50 = 129.5 ± 1.0 µg/mL) in both pure enzyme and cell culture tests without showing cytotoxicity to AGS, HepG2, and Caco-2 human cell lines. The extract’s bioactivity and nutritional content make it suitable for developing antioxidant and antidiabetic nutraceutical/food components, highlighting SWE’s potential for OSW valorization without using organic solvents.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020205
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 206: Age-Dependent Changes in Nrf2/Keap1 and
           Target Antioxidant Protein Expression Correlate to Lipoxidative Adducts,
           and Are Modulated by Dietary N-3 LCPUFA in the Hippocampus of Mice

    • Authors: Mario Díaz, Catalina Valdés-Baizabal, Daniel Pereda de Pablo, Raquel Marin
      First page: 206
      Abstract: The brain has a high metabolism rate that may generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Consequently, nerve cells require highly efficient antioxidant defenses in order to prevent a condition of deleterious oxidative stress. This is particularly relevant in the hippocampus, a highly complex cerebral area involved in processing superior cognitive functions. Most current evidence points to hippocampal oxidative damage as a causal effect for neurodegenerative disorders, especially Alzheimer’s disease. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Nrf2/Keap1) is a master key for the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and detoxifying systems. It is ubiquitously expressed in brain areas, mainly supporting glial cells. In the present study, we have analyzed the relationships between Nrf2 and Keap1 isoforms in hippocampal tissue in response to aging and dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation. The possible involvement of lipoxidative and nitrosative by-products in the dynamics of the Nrf2/Keap1 complex was examined though determination of protein adducts, namely malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and 3-nitro-tyrosine (NTyr) under basal conditions. The results were correlated to the expression of target proteins heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), whose expressions are known to be regulated by Nrf2/Keap1 signaling activation. All variables in this study were obtained simultaneously from the same preparations, allowing multivariate approaches. The results demonstrate a complex modification of the protein expression patterns together with the formation of adducts in response to aging and diet supplementation. Both parameters exhibited a strong interaction. Noticeably, LCPUFA supplementation to aged animals restored the Nrf2/Keap1/target protein patterns to the status observed in young animals, therefore driving a “rejuvenation” of hippocampal antioxidant defense.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020206
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 207: Molecular Mechanism of Natural Food
           Antioxidants to Regulate ROS in Treating Cancer: A Review

    • Authors: Muchtaridi Muchtaridi, Farhah Az-Zahra, Hendris Wongso, Luthfi Utami Setyawati, Dhania Novitasari, Emmy Hainida Khairul Ikram
      First page: 207
      Abstract: Cancer is the second-highest mortality rate disease worldwide, and it has been estimated that cancer will increase by up to 20 million cases yearly by 2030. There are various options of treatment for cancer, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. All of these options have damaging adverse effects that can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Cancer itself arises from a series of mutations in normal cells that generate the ability to divide uncontrollably. This cell mutation can happen as a result of DNA damage induced by the high concentration of ROS in normal cells. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause oxidative stress, which can initiate cancer cell proliferation. On the other hand, the cytotoxic effect from elevated ROS levels can be utilized as anticancer therapy. Some bioactive compounds from natural foods such as fruit, vegetables, herbs, honey, and many more have been identified as a promising source of natural antioxidants that can prevent oxidative stress by regulating the level of ROS in the body. In this review, we have highlighted and discussed the benefits of various natural antioxidant compounds from natural foods that can regulate reactive oxygen species through various pathways.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020207
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 208: Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic
           Dysfunction—Associated Steatotic Liver Disease

    • Authors: Sophie Gensluckner, Bernhard Wernly, Christian Datz, Elmar Aigner
      First page: 208
      Abstract: Excess free iron is a substrate for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby augmenting oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a well-established cause of organ damage in the liver, the main site of iron storage. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent mechanism of regulated cell death, has recently been gaining attention in the development of organ damage and the progression of liver disease. We therefore summarize the main mechanisms of iron metabolism, its close connection to oxidative stress and ferroptosis, and its particular relevance to disease mechanisms in metabolic-dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease and potential targets for therapy from a clinical perspective.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020208
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 209: Role of Perilipins in Oxidative
           Stress—Implications for Cardiovascular Disease

    • Authors: Mathieu Cinato, Linda Andersson, Azra Miljanovic, Marion Laudette, Oksana Kunduzova, Jan Borén, Malin C. Levin
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Oxidative stress is the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in a cell. In the heart, oxidative stress may deteriorate calcium handling, cause arrhythmia, and enhance maladaptive cardiac remodeling by the induction of hypertrophic and apoptotic signaling pathways. Consequently, dysregulated ROS production and oxidative stress have been implicated in numerous cardiac diseases, including heart failure, cardiac ischemia–reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Lipid droplets (LDs) are conserved intracellular organelles that enable the safe and stable storage of neutral lipids within the cytosol. LDs are coated with proteins, perilipins (Plins) being one of the most abundant. In this review, we will discuss the interplay between oxidative stress and Plins. Indeed, LDs and Plins are increasingly being recognized for playing a critical role beyond energy metabolism and lipid handling. Numerous reports suggest that an essential purpose of LD biogenesis is to alleviate cellular stress, such as oxidative stress. Given the yet unmet suitability of ROS as targets for the intervention of cardiovascular disease, the endogenous antioxidant capacity of Plins may be beneficial.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020209
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 210: Effects of Nesting Material Provision
           and High-Dose Vitamin C Supplementation during the Peripartum Period on
           Prepartum Nest-Building Behavior, Farrowing Process, Oxidative Stress
           Status, Cortisol Levels, and Preovulatory Follicle Development in
           Hyperprolific Sows

    • Authors: Hyeonwook Shin, Juho Lee, Junsik Kim, Geonil Lee, Jinhyeon Yun
      First page: 210
      Abstract: Hyperprolific sows often experience increased oxidative stress during late gestation and lactation periods, which can adversely affect the farrowing process and overall lactation performance. This study examines the influence of providing a coconut coir mat (CCM; 1 × 1 m) as nesting material, supplementing high-dose vit-C (HVC; 20% vit-C, 10 g/kg feed) as an antioxidant, or both on maternal behavior, the farrowing process, oxidative status, cortisol levels, and preovulatory follicle developments in sows with large litters. In total, 35 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire; litter size 15.43 ± 0.27) were allocated to the following four treatment groups: control (n = 9, basal diet), vit-C (n = 8, basal diet + HVC), mat (n = 10, basal diet + CCM), and mat + vit-C (n = 8, basal diet + HVC + CCM). A post-hoc analysis showed that compared with sows that were not provided CCM, mat and mat + vit-C groups demonstrated increased durations of nest-building behavior during the period from 24 h to 12 h before parturition (p < 0.05 for both), reduced farrowing durations, and decreased intervals from birth to first udder contact (p < 0.01 for both). The mat group exhibited lower advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels during late gestation and lactation periods than the control group (p < 0.05). Sows with HVC supplementation showed longer farrowing durations than those without HVC supplementation (p < 0.0001). The vit-C group had higher salivary cortisol levels on day 1 after farrowing than the other treatment groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the follicle diameters on day 3 after weaning in the vit-C group tended to be smaller than those in the control group (p = 0.077). HVC supplementation prolonged farrowing and increased the physiological stress on postpartum, and no advantageous effects on maternal behavior and developmental progression of preovulatory follicles were observed. Hence, alternative solutions beyond nutritional approaches are required to address increased oxidative stress in hyperprolific sows and secure their welfare and reproductive performance. The present results substantiated the positive impact of providing CCM as nesting material for sows with large litters on nest-building behavior and the farrowing process, which could mitigate the deleterious consequences induced by peripartum physiological and oxidative stress.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020210
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 211: Gender Influence on XOR Activities and
           Related Pathologies: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Andrea Bolognesi, Massimo Bortolotti, Maria Giulia Battelli, Letizia Polito
      First page: 211
      Abstract: Taking into account the patient’s gender is the first step towards more precise and egalitarian medicine. The gender-related divergences observed in purine catabolism and their pathological consequences are good examples of gender medicine differences. Uric acid is produced by the activity of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). The serum levels of both XOR activity and uric acid differ physiologically between the genders, being higher in men than in women. Their higher levels have been associated with gout and hypertension, as well as with vascular, cardiac, renal, and metabolic diseases. The present review analyzes the gender-related differences in these pathological conditions in relation to increases in the serum levels of XOR and/or uric acid and the opportunity for gender-driven pharmacological treatment.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020211
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 212: Ozone Exposure Controls Oxidative Stress
           and the Inflammatory Process of Hepatocytes in Murine Models

    • Authors: Silvania Mol Pelinsari, Mariáurea Matias Sarandy, Emerson Ferreira Vilela, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Jade Schlamb, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves
      First page: 212
      Abstract: (1) Background: Ozone exposure is a promising tool for treating liver damage since it is known to control the release of free radicals and increase the expression of antioxidant enzymes. The objective is to investigate the main intracellular pathways activated after exposure to ozone, considering the dosage of antioxidant enzymes and markers of oxidative stress. (2) Methods: This systematic review was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines and using a structured search in MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Web of Science. Bias analysis and methodological quality assessments were examined using the SYRCLE Risk of Bias tool. (3) Results: Nineteen studies were selected. The results showed that the exposure to ozone has a protective effect on liver tissue, promoting a decrease in inflammatory markers and a reduction in oxidative stress in liver tissue. In addition, ozone exposure also promoted an increase in antioxidant enzymes. The morphological consequences of controlling these intracellular pathways were reducing the tissue inflammatory process and reducing areas of degeneration and necrosis. (4) Conclusions: Ozone exposure has a beneficial effect on models of liver injury through the decrease in oxidative stress in tissue and inflammatory markers. In addition, it regulates the Nrf2/ARE antioxidant pathway and blocks the NF-κB inflammatory pathway.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020212
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 213: Lanthanide-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles:
           Unraveling Their Role in Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant Capacity, and
           Nanotoxicology

    • Authors: Jorge L. Mejía-Méndez, Diego E. Navarro-López, Araceli Sanchez-Martinez, Oscar Ceballos-Sanchez, Luis Eduardo Garcia-Amezquita, Naveen Tiwari, Karla Juarez-Moreno, Gildardo Sanchez-Ante, Edgar R. López-Mena
      First page: 213
      Abstract: This study used a sonochemical synthesis method to prepare (La, Sm)-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The effect of incorporating these lanthanide elements on the structural, optical, and morphological properties of ZnO-NPs was analyzed. The cytotoxicity and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation capacity of ZnO-NPs were evaluated against breast (MCF7) and colon (HT29) cancer cell lines. Their antioxidant activity was analyzed using a DPPH assay, and their toxicity towards Artemia salina nauplii was also evaluated. The results revealed that treatment with NPs resulted in the death of 10.559–42.546% and 18.230–38.643% of MCF7 and HT29 cells, respectively. This effect was attributed to the ability of NPs to downregulate ROS formation within the two cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In the DPPH assay, treatment with (La, Sm)-doped ZnO-NPs inhibited the generation of free radicals at IC50 values ranging from 3.898 to 126.948 μg/mL. Against A. salina nauplii, the synthesized NPs did not cause death nor induce morphological changes at the tested concentrations. A series of machine learning (ML) models were used to predict the biological performance of (La, Sm)-doped ZnO-NPs. Among the designed ML models, the gradient boosting model resulted in the greatest mean absolute error (MAE) (MAE 9.027, R2 = 0.86). The data generated in this work provide innovative insights into the influence of La and Sm on the structural arrangement and chemical features of ZnO-NPs, together with their cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, and in vivo toxicity.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020213
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 214: Integrative Multiomics Profiling Unveils
           the Protective Function of Ulinastatin against Dextran Sulfate
           Sodium-Induced Colitis

    • Authors: Tianyu Yu, Jun Yan, Ruochen Wang, Lei Zhang, Xiake Hu, Jiaxi Xu, Fanni Li, Qi Sun
      First page: 214
      Abstract: Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease with multiple pathogeneses. Here, we aimed to study the therapeutic role of ulinastatin (UTI), an anti-inflammatory bioagent, and its associated mechanisms in treating colitis. Dextran sulfate sodium was administrated to induce colitis in mice, and a subgroup of colitis mice was treated with UTI. The gut barrier defect and inflammatory manifestations of colitis were determined via histological and molecular experiments. In addition, transcriptomics, metagenomics, and metabolomics were employed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of UTI. We found that UTI significantly alleviated the inflammatory manifestations and intestinal barrier damage in the mice with colitis. Transcriptome sequencing revealed a correlation between the UTI treatment and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. UTI up-regulated the expression of SOCS1, which subsequently inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, thus limiting the action of inflammatory mediators. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing illustrated that UTI maintained a more stable intestinal flora, protecting the gut from dysbiosis in colitis. Moreover, metabolomics analysis demonstrated that UTI indeed facilitated the production of some bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, which supported intestinal homeostasis. Our data provide evidence that UTI is effective in treating colitis and support the potential use of UTI treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020214
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 215: Regulation of P-Glycoprotein during
           Oxidative Stress

    • Authors: Aleksey V. Shchulkin, Yulia V. Abalenikhina, Olga V. Kosmachevskaya, Alexey F. Topunov, Elena N. Yakusheva
      First page: 215
      Abstract: P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1, MDR1) is an efflux transporter protein that removes molecules from the cells (outflow) into the extracellular space. Pgp plays an important role in pharmacokinetics, ensuring the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs and its substrates, as well as in the transport of endogenous molecules (steroid and thyroid hormones). It also contributes to tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of Pgp regulation during oxidative stress. The currently available data suggest that Pgp has a complex variety of regulatory mechanisms under oxidative stress, involving many transcription factors, the main ones being Nrf2 and Nf-kB. These factors often overlap, and some can be activated under certain conditions, such as the deposition of oxidation products, depending on the severity of oxidative stress. In most cases, the expression of Pgp increases due to increased transcription and translation, but under severe oxidative stress, it can also decrease due to the oxidation of amino acids in its molecule. At the same time, Pgp acts as a protector against oxidative stress, eliminating the causative factors and removing its by-products, as well as participating in signaling pathways.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020215
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 216: TNF-α Levels Are Increased in
           Patients with Subjective Cognitive Impairment and Are Negatively
           Correlated with β Amyloid-42

    • Authors: Sara Serafini, Gabriella Ferretti, Paola Monterosso, Antonella Angiolillo, Alfonso Di Costanzo, Carmela Matrone
      First page: 216
      Abstract: The role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has recently become a topic of debate. TNF-α levels increase in the blood of patients with AD, and amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques contain TNF-α deposits. The therapeutic efficacy of blocking TNF-α in patients with AD remains controversial as it is mostly based on preclinical studies. Thus, whether and how TNF-α contributes to amyloidogenic processes in AD is still an open question to be addressed. We analyzed plasma TNF-α and Aβ42 levels in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, and in healthy volunteers (HLT). In addition, we performed correlation analysis to evaluate whether changes in plasma TNF-α levels correlate with cognitive decline, Aβ42 levels, age, and BMI, which are all factors considered to contribute to or predispose individuals to AD. We found that TNF-α and Aβ42 plasma levels were higher in patients with AD than in HLT individuals. High TNF-α levels were also observed in patients with SCI, in whom TNF-α and Aβ42 levels were negatively correlated. Notably, TNF-α did not affect the amyloidogenic pathway in human microglial cultures exposed to 48 h of incubation, although it did trigger neuroinflammatory processes. These results imply that high TNF-α levels are more likely to be a clinical condition linked to AD than are direct contributors. Nonetheless, elevated levels of TNF-α in early-stage patients, like those with SCI and MCI, may provide a distinguishing feature for identifying clinical profiles that are at risk of having a poorer outcome in AD and could benefit from tailored therapies.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020216
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 217: Evaluation of Bioactive Effects of Five
           Plant Extracts with Different Phenolic Compositions against Different
           Therapeutic Targets

    • Authors: María del Carmen Villegas-Aguilar, Noelia Sánchez-Marzo, Álvaro Fernández-Ochoa, Carmen Del Río, Joan Montaner, Vicente Micol, María Herranz-López, Enrique Barrajón-Catalán, David Arráez-Román, María de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Antonio Segura-Carretero
      First page: 217
      Abstract: Plant extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been reported to exert different bioactive properties. Despite the fact that there are plant extracts with completely different phenolic compositions, many of them have been reported to have similar beneficial properties. Thus, the structure–bioactivity relationship mechanisms are not yet known in detail for specific classes of phenolic compounds. In this context, this work aims to demonstrate the relationship of extracts with different phenolic compositions versus different bioactive targets. For this purpose, five plant matrices (Theobroma cacao, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Silybum marianum, Lippia citriodora, and Olea europaea) were selected to cover different phenolic compositions, which were confirmed by the phytochemical characterization analysis performed by HPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS. The bioactive targets evaluated were the antioxidant potential, the free radical scavenging potential, and the inhibitory capacity of different enzymes involved in inflammatory processes, skin aging, and neuroprotection. The results showed that despite the different phenolic compositions of the five matrices, they all showed a bioactive positive effect in most of the evaluated assays. In particular, matrices with very different phenolic contents, such as T. cacao and S. marianum, exerted a similar inhibitory power in enzymes involved in inflammatory processes and skin aging. It should also be noted that H. sabdariffa and T. cacao extracts had a low phenolic content but nevertheless stood out for their bioactive antioxidant and anti-radical capacity. Hence, this research highlights the shared bioactive properties among phenolic compounds found in diverse matrices. The abundance of different phenolic compound families highlights their elevated bioactivity against diverse biological targets.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020217
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 218: Sustained Systemic Antioxidative Effects
           of Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation beyond Neurodegeneration:
           Implications in Therapy in 6-Hydroxydopamine Model of Parkinson’s
           Disease

    • Authors: Milica Zeljkovic Jovanovic, Jelena Stanojevic, Ivana Stevanovic, Milica Ninkovic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic, Milorad Dragic
      First page: 218
      Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is manifested by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and caudoputamen (Cp), leading to the development of motor and non-motor symptoms. The contribution of oxidative stress to the development and progression of PD is increasingly recognized. Experimental models show that strengthening antioxidant defenses and reducing pro-oxidant status may have beneficial effects on disease progression. In this study, the neuroprotective potential of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is investigated in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD model in rats seven days after intoxication which corresponds to the occurrence of first motor symptoms. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 6-OHDA to mimic PD pathology and were subsequently divided into two groups to receive either iTBS or sham stimulation for 21 days. The main oxidative parameters were analyzed in the caudoputamen, substantia nigra pars compacta, and serum. iTBS treatment notably mitigated oxidative stress indicators, simultaneously increasing antioxidative parameters in the caudoputamen and substantia nigra pars compacta well after 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration process was over. Serum analysis confirmed the systemic effect of iTBS with a decrease in oxidative markers and an increase in antioxidants. Prolonged iTBS exerts a modulatory effect on oxidative/antioxidant parameters in the 6-OHDA-induced PD model, suggesting a potential neuroprotective benefit, even though at this specific time point 6-OHDA-induced oxidative status was unaltered. These results emphasize the need to further explore the mechanisms of iTBS and argue in favor of considering it as a therapeutic intervention in PD and related neurodegenerative diseases.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020218
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 219: NADPH Oxidase 3: Beyond the Inner Ear

    • Authors: Marc Herb
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were formerly known as mere byproducts of metabolism with damaging effects on cellular structures. The discovery and description of NADPH oxidases (Nox) as a whole enzyme family that only produce this harmful group of molecules was surprising. After intensive research, seven Nox isoforms were discovered, described and extensively studied. Among them, the NADPH oxidase 3 is the perhaps most underrated Nox isoform, since it was firstly discovered in the inner ear. This stigma of Nox3 as “being only expressed in the inner ear” was also used by me several times. Therefore, the question arose whether this sentence is still valid or even usable. To this end, this review solely focuses on Nox3 and summarizes its discovery, the structural components, the activating and regulating factors, the expression in cells, tissues and organs, as well as the beneficial and detrimental effects of Nox3-mediated ROS production on body functions. Furthermore, the involvement of Nox3-derived ROS in diseases progression and, accordingly, as a potential target for disease treatment, will be discussed.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020219
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 220: Formyl Peptide Receptor 2-Dependent
           cPLA2 and 5-LOX Activation Requires a Functional NADPH Oxidase

    • Authors: Pecchillo Cimmino, Panico, Scarano, Stornaiuolo, Esposito, Ammendola, Cattaneo
      First page: 220
      Abstract: Phospholipases (PL) A2 catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids and mostly generates arachidonic acid (AA). The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) can metabolize AA to obtain inflammatory leukotrienes, whose biosynthesis highly depends on cPLA2 and 5-LOX activities. Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2) belongs to a subfamily of class A GPCRs and is considered the most versatile FPRs isoform. Signaling triggered by FPR2 includes the activation of several downstream kinases and NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent ROS generation. In a metabolomic analysis we observed a significant increase in AA concentration in FPR2-stimulated lung cancer cell line CaLu-6. We analyzed cPLA2 phosphorylation and observed a time-dependent increase in cPLA2 Ser505 phosphorylation in FPR2-stimulated cells, which was prevented by the MEK inhibitor (PD098059) and the p38MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) and by blocking NOX function. Similarly, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of 5-LOX at Ser271 and Ser663 residues requires FPR2-dependent p38MAPK and ERKs activation. Moreover, we showed that 5-LOX Ser271 phosphorylation depends on a functional NOX expression. Our overall data demonstrate for the first time that FPR2-induced ERK- and p38MAPK-dependent phosphorylation/activation of cPLA2 and 5-LOX requires a functional NADPH oxidase. These findings represent an important step towards future novel therapeutic possibilities aimed at resolving the inflammatory processes underlying many human diseases.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020220
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 221: Types of Membrane Transporters and the
           Mechanisms of Interaction between Them and Reactive Oxygen Species in
           Plants

    • Authors: Ding Yuan, Xiaolei Wu, Xiangqun Jiang, Binbin Gong, Hongbo Gao
      First page: 221
      Abstract: Membrane transporters are proteins that mediate the entry and exit of substances through the plasma membrane and organellar membranes and are capable of recognizing and binding to specific substances, thereby facilitating substance transport. Membrane transporters are divided into different types, e.g., ion transporters, sugar transporters, amino acid transporters, and aquaporins, based on the substances they transport. These membrane transporters inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through ion regulation, sugar and amino acid transport, hormone induction, and other mechanisms. They can also promote enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions in plants, activate antioxidant enzyme activity, and promote ROS scavenging. Moreover, membrane transporters can transport plant growth regulators, solute proteins, redox potential regulators, and other substances involved in ROS metabolism through corresponding metabolic pathways, ultimately achieving ROS homeostasis in plants. In turn, ROS, as signaling molecules, can affect the activity of membrane transporters under abiotic stress through collaboration with ions and involvement in hormone metabolic pathways. The research described in this review provides a theoretical basis for improving plant stress resistance, promoting plant growth and development, and breeding high-quality plant varieties.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020221
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 222: A Kinetic Approach to Oxygen Radical
           Absorbance Capacity (ORAC): Restoring Order to the Antioxidant Activity of
           Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Fruit Juices

    • Authors: Umme Asma, Maria Letizia Bertotti, Simone Zamai, Marcellus Arnold, Riccardo Amorati, Matteo Scampicchio
      First page: 222
      Abstract: This study introduces a kinetic model that significantly improves the interpretation of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Our model accurately simulates and fits the bleaching kinetics of fluorescein in the presence of various antioxidants, achieving high correlation values (R2 > 0.99) with the experimental data. The fit to the experimental data is achieved by optimizing two rate constants, k5 and k6. The k5 value reflects the reactivity of antioxidants toward scavenging peroxyl radicals, whereas k6 measures the ability of antioxidants to regenerate oxidized fluorescein. These parameters (1) allow the detailed classification of cinnamic acids based on their structure–activity relationships, (2) provide insights into the interaction of alkoxyl radicals with fluorescein, and (3) account for the regeneration of fluorescein radicals by antioxidants. The application of the model to different antioxidants and fruit extracts reveals significant deviations from the results of traditional ORAC tests based on the area under the curve (AUC) approach. For example, lemon juice, rich in ‘fast’ antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, shows a high k5 value, in contrast to its low AUC values. This finding underscores the limitations of the AUC approach and highlights the advantages of our kinetic model in understanding antioxidative dynamics in food systems. This study presents a comprehensive, quantitative, mechanism-oriented approach to assessing antioxidant reactivity, demonstrating a significant improvement in ORAC assay applications.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020222
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 223: Halofantrine Hydrochloride Acts as an
           Antioxidant Ability Inhibitor That Enhances Oxidative Stress Damage to
           Candida albicans

    • Authors: Juan Xiong, Li Wang, Zhe Feng, Sijin Hang, Jinhua Yu, Yanru Feng, Hui Lu, Yuanying Jiang
      First page: 223
      Abstract: Candida albicans, a prominent opportunistic pathogenic fungus in the human population, possesses the capacity to induce life-threatening invasive candidiasis in individuals with compromised immune systems despite the existence of antifungal medications. When faced with macrophages or neutrophils, C. albicans demonstrates its capability to endure oxidative stress through the utilization of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the enhancement of oxidative stress in innate immune cells against C. albicans presents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of a library of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We discovered that halofantrine hydrochloride (HAL) can augment the antifungal properties of oxidative damage agents (plumbagin, menadione, and H2O2) by suppressing the response of C. albicans to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, our investigation revealed that the inhibitory mechanism of HAL on the oxidative response is dependent on Cap1. In addition, the antifungal activity of HAL has been observed in the Galleria mellonella infection model. These findings provide evidence that targeting the oxidative stress response of C. albicans and augmenting the fungicidal capacity of oxidative damage agents hold promise as effective antifungal strategies.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020223
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 224: Carbon Nanodots Inhibit Tumor Necrosis
           Factor-α-Induced Endothelial Inflammation through Scavenging
           Hydrogen Peroxide and Upregulating Antioxidant Gene Expression in EA.hy926
           Endothelial Cells

    • Authors: Jessica Chavez, Ajmal Khan, Kenna R. Watson, Safeera Khan, Yaru Si, Alexandra Y. Deng, Grant Koher, Mmesoma S. Anike, Xianwen Yi, Zhenquan Jia
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Carbon nanodots (CNDs) are a new type of nanomaterial with a size of less than 10 nanometers and excellent biocompatibility, widely used in fields such as biological imaging, transmission, diagnosis, and drug delivery. However, its potential and mechanism to mediate endothelial inflammation have yet to be explored. Here, we report that the uptake of CNDs by EA.hy926 endothelial cells is both time and dose dependent. The concentration of CNDs used in this experiment was found to not affect cell viability. TNF-α is a known biomarker of vascular inflammation. Cells treated with CNDs for 24 h significantly inhibited TNF-α (0.5 ng/mL)-induced expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). ICAM-1 and IL-8 are two key molecules responsible for the activation and the firm adhesion of monocytes to activated endothelial cells for the initiation of atherosclerosis. ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide, play an important role in TNF-α-induced inflammation. Interestingly, we found that CNDs effectively scavenged H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. CNDs treatment also increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme NQO1 in EA.hy926 endothelial cells indicating the antioxidant properties of CNDs. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CNDs may be due to the direct H2O2 scavenging properties of CNDs and the indirect upregulation of antioxidant enzyme NQO1 activity in endothelial cells. In conclusion, CND can inhibit TNF-α-induced endothelial inflammation, possibly due to its direct scavenging of H2O2 and the indirect upregulation of antioxidant enzyme NQO1 activity in endothelial cells.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020224
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 225: Enrichment of Whole-Grain Breads with
           Food-Grade Extracted Apple Pomace Bioactives Enhanced Their
           Anti-Inflammatory, Antithrombotic and Anti-Oxidant Functional Properties

    • Authors: Alexandros Tsoupras, Donal Moran, Katie Shiels, Sushanta Kumar Saha, Ibrahim M. Abu-Reidah, Raymond H. Thomas, Shane Redfern
      First page: 225
      Abstract: Apple pomace (AP) is a bio-waste product of apples that is co-produced as a by-product during apples’ processing for making apple-based products, mainly apple juice, cider and vinegar. AP is a rich source of several bioactives that can be valorized as ingredients for developing novel functional foods, supplements and nutraceuticals. Within the present study, food-grade extracts from AP with different tannin contents were found to contain bioactive polar lipids (PLs), phenolics and carotenoids with strong anti-oxidant, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties. The extract from the low-in-tannins AP showed stronger anti-inflammatory potency in human platelets against the potent thrombo-inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF), while it also exhibited considerable anti-platelet effects against the standard platelet agonist, adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The infusion of 0.5–1.0 g of this bioactive AP extract as functional ingredients for whole-grain bread-making resulted in the production of novel bio-functional bread products with stronger anti-oxidant, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory potency against both PAF and ADP in human platelets, compared to the standard non-infused control breads. Structural analysis by LCMS showed that the PL-bioactives from all these sources (AP and the bio-functional breads) are rich in bioactive unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), especially in the omega-9 oleic acid (OA; 18:1n9), the omega-3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA; 18:n3) and the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6), which further supports their strong anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties. All food-grade extracted AP including that infused with AP-bioactives novel functional breads showed higher hydrophilic, lipophilic and total phenolic content, as well as total carotenoid content, and subsequently stronger antioxidant capacity. These results showed the potential of appropriately valorizing AP-extracts in developing novel bio-functional bakery products, as well as in other health-promoting applications. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to fully elucidate and/or validate the anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and antioxidant potential of novel bio-functional products across the food and cosmetic sectors when infused with these AP bioactives.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020225
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 226: Melatonin Use during Pregnancy and
           Lactation Complicated by Oxidative Stress: Focus on Offspring’s
           Cardiovascular–Kidney–Metabolic Health in Animal Models

    • Authors: You-Lin Tain, Chien-Ning Hsu
      First page: 226
      Abstract: Cardiovascular–kidney–metabolic (CKM) syndrome has emerged as a major global public health concern, posing a substantial threat to human health. Early-life exposure to oxidative stress may heighten vulnerability to the developmental programming of adult diseases, encompassing various aspects of CKM syndrome. Conversely, the initiation of adverse programming processes can potentially be thwarted through early-life antioxidant interventions. Melatonin, originally recognized for its antioxidant properties, is an endogenous hormone with diverse biological functions. While melatonin has demonstrated benefits in addressing disorders linked to oxidative stress, there has been comparatively less focus on investigating its reprogramming effects on CKM syndrome. This review consolidates the current knowledge on the role of oxidative stress during pregnancy and lactation in inducing CKM traits in offspring, emphasizing the underlying mechanisms. The multifaceted role of melatonin in regulating oxidative stress, mediating fetal programming, and preventing adverse outcomes in offspring positions it as a promising reprogramming strategy. Currently, there is a lack of sufficient information in humans, and the available evidence primarily originates from animal studies. This opens up new avenues for novel preventive intervention in CKM syndrome.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020226
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 227: Variations in Proline Content, Polyamine
           Profiles, and Antioxidant Capacities among Different Provenances of
           European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    • Authors: Marko Kebert, Srđan Stojnić, Milena Rašeta, Saša Kostić, Vanja Vuksanović, Mladen Ivanković, Miran Lanšćak, Anđelina Gavranović Markić
      First page: 227
      Abstract: International provenance trials are a hot topic in forestry, and in light of climate change, the search for more resilient beech provenances and their assisted migration is one of the challenges of climate-smart forestry. The main aim of the study was to determine intraspecific variability in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) among 11 beech provenances according to total antioxidant capacities estimated by various assays, such as DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assay, and radical scavenging capacity against nitric oxide (RSC-NO assays), as well as osmolyte content, primarily individual polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine), and free proline content. Polyamine amounts were quantified by using HPLC coupled with fluorescent detection after dansylation pretreatment. The highest values for radical scavenger capacity assays (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP) were measured in the German provenances DE47 and DE49. Also, the highest NO inhibition capacity was found in the provenance DE49, while the highest content of proline (PRO), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) was recorded in DE47. The Austrian AT56 and German provenance DE49 were most abundant in total polyamines. This research underlines the importance of the application of common antioxidant assays as well as osmolyte quantification as a criterion for the selection of climate-ready beech provenances for sustainable forest management.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020227
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 228: Dietary and Cosmetic Antioxidants

    • Authors: Irene Dini
      First page: 228
      Abstract: Spices, herbs, fruits, whole grains, vegetables, and sea organisms contain antioxidant molecules that can scavenge free radicals and reduce their development, quenching the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species [...]
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020228
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 229: The Health-Promoting Quality Attributes,
           Polyphenols, Iridoids and Antioxidant Activity during the Development and
           Ripening of Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L.)

    • Authors: Dominika Przybylska, Alicja Z. Kucharska, Narcyz Piórecki, Tomasz Sozański
      First page: 229
      Abstract: This study defined the physicochemical attributes, composition, and antioxidant capacity of four Polish cultivars of cornelian cherry (CC) at six stages of development and ripening. A total of 52 metabolites were identified by UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS and quantified by HPLC-PDA. In general, phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, flavonols, iridoids, antioxidant activity, organic acids, and vitamin C decreased, while anthocyanins, malic acid, sugars, and titratable acidity increased. For the first time, we determined the evolution of the CC chemical properties and the metabolic behavior and quantified the individual compounds, and groups of compounds during ripening, in particular gallotannins, ellagitannins, iridoids, and organic acids. The main novelty of our study is that CC is a valuable resource for utilization at different degrees of maturity. We showed that unripe fruits in particular deserve valorization, as they contained the highest content of total bioactive phytocompounds (5589.1–6779.6 mg/100 g dw)—primarily phenolic acids > iridoids > tannins—and the highest antioxidant capacity. The intermediate stages were the most abundant in vitamin C (341.1–495.6 mg/100 g dw), ellagic acid (5.9–31.6 mg/100 g dw), gallotannins (47.8–331.1 mg/100 g dw), and loganic acid (1393.0–2839.4 mg/100 g dw). The ripe fruits contained less bioactive phytocompounds (1403.7–1974.6 mg/100 g dw)—primarily iridoids > phenolic acids > tannins > anthocyanins—and the lowest antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, ripe fruits showed the highest content of anthocyanins (30.8–143.2 mg/100 g dw), sugars (36.4–78.9 g/100 g dw), malic acid (5.5–12.2 g/100 g dw), and, favorably for the nutritional applications, the highest sugar-to-acids ratio (3.0–6.4). Our work illustrates in detail that quality attributes and the content of health-promoting phytocompounds in CC depend on the ripening stage and on the cultivar. These results advance the scientific knowledge about CC. Our findings can be helpful to select the optimal properties of CC for the development of diverse functional foods and phytopharmaceuticals applied in the prevention of civilization diseases.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020229
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 230: Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component
           1 Regulates Cellular Stress Responses and Inflammatory Pathways in Chronic
           Neuroinflammatory Conditions

    • Authors: Seong-Lae Jo, Eui-Ju Hong
      First page: 230
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and is one of the neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by neuronal death due to various triggers. Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of AD. The neuroinflammatory response is manifested by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α; various chemokines; nitrous oxide; and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we evaluated the relevance of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), which is expressed in the brain cells during the induction of neuroinflammation. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic neuroinflammation model and Pgrmc1 knockdown cells were used to assess the inflammatory cytokine levels, AD-related factors, inflammation-related signaling, and cell death. Pgrmc1 knockout (KO) mice had higher IL-1β levels after treatment with LPS compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, Pgrmc1 KO mice had higher levels of inflammatory factors, endoplasmic reticulum stress indicators, and AD-associated markers compared with those of WT mice who underwent LPS treatment or not. Finally, these indicators were observed in vitro using U373-MG astrocytes. In conclusion, the loss of PGRMC1 may promote neuroinflammation and lead to AD.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020230
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 231: Comparable Toxicity of Surface-Modified
           TiO2 Nanoparticles: An In Vivo Experimental Study on Reproductive Toxicity
           in Rats

    • Authors: Ana Todorović, Katarina Bobić, Filip Veljković, Snežana Pejić, Sofija Glumac, Sanja Stanković, Tijana Milovanović, Ivana Vukoje, Jovan M. Nedeljković, Sanja Radojević Škodrić, Snežana B. Pajović, Dunja Drakulić
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs), a distinct class of particles ranging in size from 1 to 100 nm, are one of the most promising technologies of the 21st century, and titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2 NPs) are among the most widely produced and used NPs globally. The increased application of TiO2 NPs raises concerns regarding their global safety and risks of exposure. Many animal studies have reported the accumulation of TiO2 NPs in female reproductive organs; however, evidence of the resultant toxicity remains ambiguous. Since the surface area and chemical modifications of NPs can significantly change their cytotoxicity, we aimed to compare the toxic effects of pristine TiO2 powder with surface-modified TiO2 powders with salicylic acid (TiO2/SA) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (TiO2/5-ASA) on the ovaries, oviducts, and uterus on the 14th day following acute oral treatment. The results, based on alterations in food and water intake, body mass, organ-to-body mass ratio, hormonal status, histological features of tissues of interest, and antioxidant parameters, suggest that the modification with 5-ASA can mitigate some of the observed toxic effects of TiO2 powder and encourage future investigations to create NPs that can potentially reduce the harmful effects of TiO2 NPs while preserving their positive impacts.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020231
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 232: Reactive Carbonyl Species and Protein
           Lipoxidation in Atherogenesis

    • Authors: Anne Nègre-Salvayre, Robert Salvayre
      First page: 232
      Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease of medium and large arteries, characterized by the presence of lipid-rich plaques lining the intima over time. It is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases and death worldwide. Redox imbalance and lipid peroxidation could play key roles in atherosclerosis by promoting a bundle of responses, including endothelial activation, inflammation, and foam cell formation. The oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids generates various lipid oxidation products such as reactive carbonyl species (RCS), including 4-hydroxy alkenals, malondialdehyde, and acrolein. RCS covalently bind to nucleophilic groups of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and proteins, modifying their structure and activity and leading to their progressive dysfunction. Protein lipoxidation is the non-enzymatic post-translational modification of proteins by RCS. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and apolipoprotein B (apoB) modification by RCS play a major role in foam cell formation. Moreover, oxidized LDLs are a source of RCS, which form adducts on a huge number of proteins, depending on oxidative stress intensity, the nature of targets, and the availability of detoxifying systems. Many systems are affected by lipoxidation, including extracellular matrix components, membranes, cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal proteins, transcription factors, and other components. The mechanisms involved in lipoxidation-induced vascular dysfunction are not fully elucidated. In this review, we focus on protein lipoxidation during atherogenesis.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020232
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 233: Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Oxidative
           Stress Caused by Salt Stress in Peanut Seedling Roots by Regulating the
           Antioxidant Enzyme System and Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    • Authors: Yan Gao, Xuan Dong, Rongjin Wang, Fei Hao, Hui Zhang, Yongyong Zhang, Guolin Lin
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Soil salinity is one of the adversity stresses plants face, and antioxidant defense mechanisms play an essential role in plant resistance. We investigated the effects of exogenous calcium on the antioxidant defense system in peanut seedling roots that are under salt stress by using indices including the transcriptome and absolute quantitative metabolome of flavonoids. Under salt stress conditions, the antioxidant defense capacity of enzymatic systems was weakened and the antioxidant capacity of the linked AsA-GSH cycle was effectively inhibited. In contrast, the ascorbate biosynthesis pathway and its upstream glycolysis metabolism pathway became active, which stimulated shikimate biosynthesis and the downstream phenylpropanoid metabolism pathway, resulting in an increased accumulation of flavonoids, which, as one of the antioxidants in the non-enzymatic system, provide hydroxyl radicals to scavenge the excess reactive oxygen species and maintain the plant’s vital activities. However, the addition of exogenous calcium caused changes in the antioxidant defense system in the peanut root system. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and the antioxidant capacity of the AsA-GSH cycle were enhanced. Therefore, glycolysis and phenylpropanoid metabolism do not exert antioxidant function, and flavonoids were no longer synthesized. In addition, antioxidant enzymes and the AsA-GSH cycle showed a trade-off relationship with sugars and flavonoids.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020233
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 234: Harnessing γ-TMT Genetic
           Variations and Haplotypes for Vitamin E Diversity in the Korean Rice
           Collection

    • Authors: Aueangporn Somsri, Sang-Ho Chu, Bhagwat Nawade, Chang-Yong Lee, Yong-Jin Park
      First page: 234
      Abstract: Gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), a key gene in the vitamin E biosynthesis pathway, significantly influences the accumulation of tocochromanols, thereby determining rice nutritional quality. In our study, we analyzed the γ-TMT gene in 475 Korean rice accessions, uncovering 177 genetic variants, including 138 SNPs and 39 InDels. Notably, two functional SNPs, tmt-E2-28,895,665-G/A and tmt-E4-28,896,689-A/G, were identified, causing substitutions from valine to isoleucine and arginine to glycine, respectively, across 93 accessions. A positive Tajima’s D value in the indica group suggests a signature of balancing selection. Haplotype analysis revealed 27 haplotypes, with two shared between cultivated and wild accessions, seven specific to cultivated accessions, and 18 unique to wild types. Further, profiling of vitamin E isomers in 240 accessions and their association with haplotypes revealed that Hap_2, distinguished by an SNP in the 3′ UTR (tmt-3UTR-28,897,360-T/A) exhibited significantly lower α-tocopherol (AT), α-tocotrienol (AT3), total tocopherol, and total tocotrienol, but higher γ-tocopherol (GT) in the japonica group. Additionally, in the indica group, Hap_2 showed significantly higher AT, AT3, and total tocopherol, along with lower GT and γ-tocotrienol, compared to Hap_19, Hap_20, and Hap_21. Overall, this study highlights the genetic landscape of γ-TMT and provides a valuable genetic resource for haplotype-based breeding programs aimed at enhancing nutritional profiles.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020234
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 235: Amelioration of Functional, Metabolic,
           and Morphological Deterioration in the Retina Following Retinal Detachment
           by Green Tea Extract

    • Authors: Kai On Chu, Yolanda Wong Ying Yip, Kwok Ping Chan, Chi Chiu Wang, Danny Siu Chun Ng, Chi Pui Pang
      First page: 235
      Abstract: Retinal detachment (RD) can result in the loss of photoreceptors that cause vision impairment and potential blindness. This study explores the protective effects of the oral administration of green tea extract (GTE) in a rat model of RD. Various doses of GTE or epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most active ingredient in green tea catechins, were administered to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with experimentally induced retinal detachment. The rats received sub-retinal injections of hyaluronic acid (0.1%) to induce RD and were given different doses of GTE and EGCG twice daily for three days. Notably, a low dose of GTE (142.9 mg/kg) caused significantly higher signal amplitudes in electroretinograms (ERGs) compared to higher GTE doses and any doses of EGCG. After administration of a low dose of GTE, the outer nuclear layer thickness, following normalization, of the detached retina reduced to 82.4 ± 8.2% (Mean ± SEM, p < 0.05) of the thickness by RD treatment. This thickness was similar to non-RD conditions, at 83.5 ± 4.7% (Mean ± SEM) of the thickness following RD treatment. In addition, the number of TUNEL-positive cells decreased from 76.7 ± 7.4 to 4.7 ± 1.02 (Mean ± SEM, p < 0.0001). This reduction was associated with the inhibition of apoptosis through decreased sphingomyelin levels and mitigation of oxidative stress shown by a lowered protein carbonyl level, which may involve suppression of HIF-1α pathways. Furthermore, GTE showed anti-inflammatory effects by reducing inflammatory cytokines and increasing resolving cytokines. In conclusion, low-dose GTE, but not EGCG, significantly alleviated RD-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and energy insufficiency within a short period and without affecting energy metabolism. These findings suggest the potential of low-dose GTE as a protective agent for the retina in RD.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020235
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 236: Dietary Supplementation of Tannins:
           Effect on Growth Performance, Serum Antioxidant Capacity, and
           Immunoglobins of Weaned Piglets—A Systematic Review with
           Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Emmanuel Nuamah, Junior Isaac Celestin Poaty Poaty Ditengou, Fabrice Hirwa, Inhyeok Cheon, Byungho Chae, Nag-Jin Choi
      First page: 236
      Abstract: In recent years, the swine industry has witnessed the withdrawal of antibiotics and continuous regulation of zinc and copper oxides in the early-life nutrition of piglets. Due to this development, alternative additives from plant sources have been extensively explored. Therefore, this study’s objective was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with tannins on weaned piglets’ growth performance, serum antioxidant capacity, and serum immune status using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. A total of 16 studies with parameters of interest were deemed eligible after a two-step screening process following a comprehensive literature search in the scientific databases of Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria were mainly (1) studies involving basal diet supplemented with tannins and (2) studies with the quantification of tannin doses, while the exclusion criteria were (1) studies with pre- and post-weaning pigs and (2) challenged studies. Applying the random-effects models, Hedges’ g effect size of supplementation with tannins was calculated using R software to determine the standardized mean difference (SMD) at a 95% confidence interval. Sub-group analysis and meta-regression further explored heterogeneity (PSMD < 0.05, I2 > 50%, n ≥ 10). Supplementation with tannins reduced the feed conversion ratio (p < 0.01) but increased the final body weight (p < 0.01) of weaned piglets. Chestnut and grape seed proanthocyanidin tannin sources yielded higher effects on growth performance. In addition, meta-regression models indicated that tannin dosage and supplementation duration were directly associated with tannins’ effectiveness on productive performance. In the serum, the concentration of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were elevated (p < 0.01) in response to tannin supplementation, whereas malondialdehydes was reduced (p < 0.01). Likewise, increased immunoglobin M and G levels (p < 0.01) were detected. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with tannins, particularly with chestnut and grape seed proanthocyanidins, increases the productivity of weaned piglets. At the same time, it is a possible nutritional strategy to mitigate oxidative stress and stimulate gut health. Thus, supplementing chestnut and grape seed proanthocyanidin tannins in the early phase of swine production could be used to alleviate the incidence of diarrhea.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020236
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 237: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of
           Chestnut and Quebracho Tannin Supplementation on Neonatal Diarrhoea in
           Preweaning Calves

    • Authors: Matteo Dell’Anno, Sara Frazzini, Irene Ferri, Susanna Tuberti, Elisa Bonaldo, Benedetta Botti, Silvia Grossi, Carlo Angelo Sgoifo Rossi, Luciana Rossi
      First page: 237
      Abstract: Neonatal calf diarrhoea (NCD) poses a significant health challenge in cattle herds, resulting in considerable economic losses and antimicrobial use. In response to the escalating threat of antimicrobial resistance, viable alternatives are imperative, aligning with European policies. This study evaluated the in-milk supplementation of the chestnut and quebracho tannin extract in preweaning calves on performance, diarrhoea occurrence, Cryptosporidium spp. shedding, protein digestibility, and intestinal health. Twenty newborn calves were divided, after colostrum administration, into two experimental groups for 30 days as follows: the control (CTRL) was fed with whole milk and solid feed, and tannins (TAN) were fed whole milk supplemented with 6/g day of tannin extract and solid feed. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 30 for the evaluation of Cryptosporidium oocyst shedding and protein digestibility. Faecal consistency was evaluated during the sampling using the faecal score scale (0–3 scale, considering diarrhoea > 1). The results showed a significant reduction in diarrhoea frequency in the TAN compared to the CTRL group (p < 0.05) over 30 days of the trial. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was generally low (12%), considering all analysed samples. Protein digestibility revealed comparable values for the TAN and CTRL groups, suggesting that tannins did not negatively affect milk protein availability. In conclusion, the in-milk supplementation of 6/g day of the chestnut and quebracho tannin extract could be considered a valuable functional feed additive to decrease NCD occurrence, thus supporting animal health and decreasing antibiotic use in livestock.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020237
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 238: Optimization, Metabolomic Analysis,
           Antioxidant Potential and Depigmenting Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds
           from Unmature Ajwa Date Seeds (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Using
           Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    • Authors: Fanar Alshammari, Md Badrul Alam, Marufa Naznin, Sunghwan Kim, Sang-Han Lee
      First page: 238
      Abstract: This study sought to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds from unmature Ajwa date seeds (UMS), conduct untargeted metabolite identification and assess antioxidant and depigmenting activities. Response surface methodology (RSM) utilizing the Box–Behnken design (BBD) and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was applied to optimize extraction conditions, including the ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and time. The determined optimal conditions comprised the ethanol concentration (62.00%), extraction time (29.00 min), and extraction temperature (50 °C). Under these conditions, UMS exhibited total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) values of 77.52 ± 1.55 mgGAE/g and 58.85 ± 1.12 mgCE/g, respectively, with low relative standard deviation (RSD%) and relative standard error (RSE%). High-resolution mass spectrometry analysis unveiled the presence of 104 secondary metabolites in UMS, encompassing phenols, flavonoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans and fatty acids. Furthermore, UMS demonstrated robust antioxidant activities in various cell-free antioxidant assays, implicating engagement in both hydrogen atom transfer and single electron transfer mechanisms. Additionally, UMS effectively mitigated tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Crucially, UMS showcased the ability to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and suppress key proteins including tyrosinase (Tyr), tyrosinase-related protein-1 and -2 (Trp-1 and -2) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which associated melanin production in MNT-1 cell. In summary, this study not only optimized the extraction process for polyphenolic compounds from UMS but also elucidated its diverse secondary metabolite profile. The observed antioxidant and depigmenting activities underscore the promising applications of UMS in skincare formulations and pharmaceutical developments.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020238
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 239: Sustainable Green Extraction of
           Carotenoid Pigments: Innovative Technologies and Bio-Based Solvents

    • Authors: Ángeles Morón-Ortiz, Paula Mapelli-Brahm, Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Carotenoids are ubiquitous and versatile isoprenoid compounds. The intake of foods rich in these pigments is often associated with health benefits, attributable to the provitamin A activity of some of them and different mechanisms. The importance of carotenoids and their derivatives for the production of foods and health-promotion through the diet is beyond doubt. In the new circular economy paradigm, the recovery of carotenoids in the biorefinery process is highly desirable, for which greener processes and solvents are being advocated for, considering the many studies being conducted at the laboratory scale. This review summarizes information on different extraction technologies (ultrasound, microwaves, pulsed electric fields, pressurized liquid extraction, sub- and supercritical fluid extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction) and green solvents (ethyl lactate, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, natural deep eutectic solvents, and ionic liquids), which are potential substitutes for more toxic and less environmentally friendly solvents. Additionally, it discusses the results of the latest studies on the sustainable green extraction of carotenoids. The conclusions drawn from the review indicate that while laboratory results are often promising, the scalability to real industrial scenarios poses a significant challenge. Furthermore, incorporating life cycle assessment analyses is crucial for a comprehensive evaluation of the sustainability of innovative extraction processes compared to industry-standard methods.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020239
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 240: Mitochondria Dysfunction and
           Neuroinflammation in Neurodegeneration: Who Comes First'

    • Authors: Caterina Peggion, Tito Calì, Marisa Brini
      First page: 240
      Abstract: Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) encompass an assorted array of disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, each characterised by distinct clinical manifestations and underlying pathological mechanisms. While some cases have a genetic basis, many NDs occur sporadically. Despite their differences, these diseases commonly feature chronic neuroinflammation as a hallmark. Consensus has recently been reached on the possibility that mitochondria dysfunction and protein aggregation can mutually contribute to the activation of neuroinflammatory response and thus to the onset and progression of these disorders. In the present review, we discuss the contribution of mitochondria dysfunction and neuroinflammation to the aetiology and progression of NDs, highlighting the possibility that new potential therapeutic targets can be identified to tackle neurodegenerative processes and alleviate the progression of these pathologies.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020240
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 241: Evaluation of Antioxidant Effects of
           Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Extract on Aging- and Menopause-Related
           Diseases Using Saos-2 Cells and Ovariectomized Rats

    • Authors: Joohee Oh, Sookyeong Hong, Seong-Hee Ko, Hyun-Sook Kim
      First page: 241
      Abstract: Aging and menopause are associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed extract and assessed its ameliorative effects on aging- and menopause-related diseases using Saos-2 cells and ovariectomized rats. The seed extract had bioactive components that exhibited antioxidant activity. The extract increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of Saos-2 cells. The oral administration of the extract to ovariectomized rats for 12 weeks decreased their body weight, fat weight, and cardiac risk indices. It also contributed to reductions in the levels of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and inflammation, as assessed by measuring the serum levels of malondialdehyde and analyzing gene expression in rats. Furthermore, the administration of the extract also promoted an enhancement of the transcription of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), and catalase (Cat), involved in antioxidant activity; endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNos), involved in vasculoprotective activity; and PR/SET domain 16 (Prdm16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (Pgc1α), involved in brown adipogenesis and thermogenesis. Our results using ovariectomized rats show that pumpkin seed extract may have ameliorative effects on menopause-related diseases by increasing ALP activity, evaluating the antioxidant system, ameliorating oxidative stress and thermogenesis, and enhancing lipid profiles.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020241
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 242: Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) Protects
           SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells from Ferroptotic Cell Death: Insights from In
           Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    • Authors: Parisa Faraji, Astrid Borchert, Shahin Ahmadian, Hartmut Kuhn
      First page: 242
      Abstract: Ferroptosis is a special kind of programmed cell death that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a large number of human diseases. It involves dysregulated intracellular iron metabolism and uncontrolled lipid peroxidation, which together initiate intracellular ferroptotic signalling pathways leading to cellular suicide. Pharmacological interference with ferroptotic signal transduction may prevent cell death, and thus patients suffering from ferroptosis-related diseases may benefit from such treatment. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is an effective anti-oxidant that is frequently used in oil chemistry and in cosmetics to prevent free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. Since it functions as a radical scavenger, it has previously been reported to interfere with ferroptotic signalling. Here, we show that BHT prevents RSL3- and ML162-induced ferroptotic cell death in cultured human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) in a dose-dependent manner. It prevents the RSL3-induced oxidation of membrane lipids and normalises the RSL3-induced inhibition of the intracellular catalytic activity of glutathione peroxidase 4. The systemic application of BHT in a rat Alzheimer’s disease model prevented the upregulation of the expression of ferroptosis-related genes. Taken together, these data indicate that BHT interferes with ferroptotic signalling in cultured neuroblastoma cells and may prevent ferroptotic cell death in an animal Alzheimer’s disease model.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020242
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 243: Metabolome and Transcriptome Analysis
           Revealed the Basis of the Difference in Antioxidant Capacity in Different
           Tissues of Citrus reticulata ‘Ponkan’

    • Authors: Xiao Liang, Huixin Wang, Wanhua Xu, Xiaojuan Liu, Chenning Zhao, Jiebiao Chen, Dengliang Wang, Shuting Xu, Jinping Cao, Chongde Sun, Yue Wang
      First page: 243
      Abstract: Citrus is an important type of fruit, with antioxidant bioactivity. However, the variations in the antioxidant ability of different tissues in citrus and its metabolic and molecular basis remain unclear. Here, we assessed the antioxidant capacities of 12 tissues from Citrus reticulata ‘Ponkan’, finding that young leaves and root exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity. Secondary metabolites accumulated differentially in parts of the citrus plant, of which flavonoids were enriched in stem, leaf, and flavedo; phenolic acids were enriched in the albedo, while coumarins were enriched in the root, potentially explaining the higher antioxidant capacities of these tissues. The spatially specific accumulation of metabolites was related to the expression levels of biosynthesis-related genes such as chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavone synthase (FNS), O-methyltransferase (OMT), flavonoid-3′-hydroxylase (F3′H), flavonoid-6/8-hydroxylase (F6/8H), p-coumaroyl CoA 2′-hydroxylase (C2′H), and prenyltransferase (PT), among others, in the phenylpropane pathway. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified modules associated with flavonoids and coumarin content, among which we identified an OMT involved in coumarin O-methylation, and related transcription factors were predicted. Our study identifies key genes and metabolites influencing the antioxidant capacity of citrus, which could contribute to the enhanced understanding and utilization of bioactive citrus components.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020243
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 244: NMDA Receptors Regulate Oxidative Damage
           in Keratinocytes during Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in HaCaT Cells and
           Male Rats

    • Authors: Bei Wen, He Zhu, Jijun Xu, Li Xu, Yuguang Huang
      First page: 244
      Abstract: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a type of primary chronic pain, occurs following trauma or systemic disease and typically affects the limbs. CRPS-induced pain responses result in vascular, cutaneous, and autonomic nerve alterations, seriously impacting the quality of life of affected individuals. We previously identified the involvement of keratinocyte N-methyl-d-asparagic acid (NMDA) receptor subunit 2 B (NR2B) in both peripheral and central sensitizations in CRPS, although the mechanisms whereby NR2B functions following activation remain unclear. Using an in vivo male rat model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) and an in vitro oxygen–glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) cell model, we discovered that oxidative injury occurs in rat keratinocytes and HaCaT cells, resulting in reduced cell viability, mitochondrial damage, oxidative damage of nucleotides, and increased apoptosis. In HaCaT cells, OGD/R induced increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and disrupted the balance between oxidation and antioxidation by regulating a series of antioxidant genes. The activation of NMDA receptors via NMDA exacerbated these changes, whereas the inhibition of the NR2B subunit alleviated them. Co-administration of ifenprodil (an NR2B antagonist) and NMDA (an NMDA receptor agonist) during the reoxygenation stage did not result in any significant alterations. Furthermore, intraplantar injection of ifenprodil effectively reversed the altered gene expression that was observed in male CPIP rats, thereby revealing the potential mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of peripheral ifenprodil administration in CRPS. Collectively, our findings indicate that keratinocytes undergo oxidative injury in CRPS, with NMDA receptors playing regulatory roles.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020244
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 245: Impact of Reactive Sulfur Species on
           Entamoeba histolytica: Modulating Viability, Motility, and Biofilm
           Degradation Capacity

    • Authors: Jun Ye, Talal Salti, Eva Zanditenas, Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Moran Benhar, Serge Ankri
      First page: 245
      Abstract: Reactive sulfur species (RSS) like hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and cysteine persulfide (Cys-SSH) emerged as key signaling molecules with diverse physiological roles in the body, depending on their concentration and the cellular environment. While it is known that H2S and Cys-SSH are produced by both colonocytes and by the gut microbiota through sulfur metabolism, it remains unknown how these RSS affect amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica, a parasitic protozoan that can be present in the human gastrointestinal tract. This study investigates H2S and Cys-SSH’s impact on E. histolytica physiology and explores potential therapeutic implications. Exposing trophozoites to the H2S donor, sodium sulfide (Na2S), or to Cys-SSH led to rapid cytotoxicity. A proteomic analysis of Cys-SSH-challenged trophozoites resulted in the identification of >500 S-sulfurated proteins, which are involved in diverse cellular processes. Functional assessments revealed inhibited protein synthesis, altered cytoskeletal dynamics, and reduced motility in trophozoites treated with Cys-SSH. Notably, cysteine proteases (CPs) were significantly inhibited by S-sulfuration, affecting their bacterial biofilm degradation capacity. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed alterations in actin dynamics, corroborating the proteomic findings. Thus, our study reveals how RSS perturbs critical cellular functions in E. histolytica, potentially influencing its pathogenicity and interactions within the gut microbiota. Understanding these molecular mechanisms offers novel insights into amebiasis pathogenesis and unveils potential therapeutic avenues targeting RSS-mediated modifications in parasitic infections.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020245
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 246: A Mixture of Formic Acid, Benzoic Acid,
           and Essential Oils Enhanced Growth Performance via Modulating Nutrient
           Uptake, Mitochondrion Metabolism, and Immunomodulation in Weaned Piglets

    • Authors: Xinyu Wang, Tanyi Deng, Xuemei Zhou, Licui Chu, Xiangfang Zeng, Shihai Zhang, Wutai Guan, Fang Chen
      First page: 246
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a complex comprising formic acid, benzoic acid, and essential oils (AO3) on the growth performance of weaned piglets and explore the underlying mechanism. Dietary AO3 supplementation significantly enhanced the average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI), while decreasing the feed conversion rate (FCR) and diarrhea rate (p < 0.05). Additionally, AO3 addition altered the fecal microflora composition with increased abundance of f_Prevotellaceae. LPS challenges were further conducted to investigate the detailed mechanism underlying the benefits of AO3 supplementation. The piglets fed with AO3 exhibited a significant increase in villus height and decrease in crypt depth within the jejunum, along with upregulation of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 (p < 0.05) compared with those piglets subjected to LPS. Furthermore, AO3 supplementation significantly ameliorated redox disturbances (T-AOC, SOD, and GSH) and inflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12) in both the serum and jejunum of piglets induced by LPS, accompanied by suppressed activation of the MAPK signaling pathway (ERK, JNK, P38) and NF-κB. The LPS challenge downregulated the activation of the AMPK signaling pathway, mRNA levels of electron transport chain complexes, and key enzymes involved in ATP synthesis, which were significantly restored by the AO3 supplementation. Additionally, AO3 supplementation restored the reduced transport of amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids induced by LPS back to the levels observed in the control group. In conclusion, dietary AO3 supplementation positively affected growth performance and gut microbiota composition, also enhancing intestinal barrier integrity, nutrient uptake, and energy metabolism, as well as alleviating oxidative stress and inflammation under LPS stimulation.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020246
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 247: Addition of Vitamin C Mitigates the Loss
           of Antioxidant Capacity, Vitality and DNA Integrity in Cryopreserved Human
           Semen Samples

    • Authors: Alena J. Hungerford, Hassan W. Bakos, Robert J. Aitken
      First page: 247
      Abstract: Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa is a necessity for males suffering from infertility who cannot produce fresh semen for insemination. However, current ART cryopreservation protocols are associated with losses of sperm motility, vitality and DNA integrity, which are thought to be linked to the induction of oxidative damage and the toxic properties of commercial cryoprotectants (CPAs). Preventing or mitigating these losses would be hugely beneficial to sperm survival during ART. Therefore, in this in vitro investigation, lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species, movement characteristics, antioxidant capacity, vitality, and DNA integrity were examined in semen samples both pre- and post-cryopreservation with CPA supplementation. The findings revealed a 50% reduction in antioxidant capacity with CPA addition, which was accompanied by significant increases in generation of reactive oxygen species and formation of lipid aldehydes. These changes were, in turn, correlated with reductions in sperm viability, motility and DNA integrity. Antioxidant supplementation generated bell-shaped dose-response curves with both resveratrol and vitamin C, emphasising the vulnerability of these cells to both oxidative and reductive stress. At the optimal dose, vitamin C was able to significantly enhance vitality and reduce DNA damage recorded in cryopreserved human spermatozoa. An improvement in sperm motility did not reach statistical significance, possibly because additional pathophysiological mechanisms limit the potential effectiveness of antioxidants in rescuing this aspect of sperm function. The vulnerability of human spermatozoa to reductive stress and the complex nature of sperm cryoinjury will present major challenges in creating the next generation of cryoprotective media.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020247
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 248: The Antioxidant Salidroside Ameliorates
           the Quality of Postovulatory Aged Oocyte and Embryo Development in Mice

    • Authors: Kexiong Liu, Luyao Zhang, Xiaoling Xu, Linli Xiao, Junhui Wen, Hanbing Zhang, Shuxin Zhao, Dongliang Qiao, Jiahua Bai, Yan Liu
      First page: 248
      Abstract: Postovulatory aging is known to impair the oocyte quality and embryo development due to oxidative stress in many different animal models, which reduces the success rate or pregnancy rate in human assisted reproductive technology (ART) and livestock timed artificial insemination (TAI), respectively. Salidroside (SAL), a phenylpropanoid glycoside, has been shown to exert antioxidant and antitumor effects. This study aimed to investigate whether SAL supplementation could delay the postovulatory oocyte aging process by alleviating oxidative stress. Here, we show that SAL supplementation decreases the malformation rate and recovers mitochondrial dysfunction including mitochondrial distribution, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and ATP content in aged oocytes. In addition, SAL treatment alleviates postovulatory aging-caused oxidative stress such as higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, lower glutathione (GSH) content and a reduced expression of antioxidant-related genes. Moreover, the cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]c) and mitochondrial calcium ([Ca2+]mt) of SAL-treated oocytes return to normal levels. Notably, SAL suppresses the aging-induced DNA damage, early apoptosis and improves spindle assembly in aged oocytes, ultimately elevating the embryo developmental rates and embryo quality. Finally, the RNA-seq and confirmatory experience showed that SAL promotes protective autophagy in aged oocytes by activating the MAPK pathway. Taken together, our research suggests that supplementing SAL is an effective and feasible method for preventing postovulatory aging and preserving the oocyte quality, which potentially contributes to improving the successful rate of ART or TAI.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020248
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 249: 5′-Cytimidine Monophosphate
           Ameliorates H2O2-Induced Muscular Atrophy in C2C12 Myotubes by Activating
           IRS-1/Akt/S6K Pathway

    • Authors: Xin Wu, Na Zhu, Lixia He, Meihong Xu, Yong Li
      First page: 249
      Abstract: Age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia), characterized by reduced skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength, is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, which is especially true for older people, and can seriously damage health and quality of life in older adults. This study aims to investigate the beneficial effects of 5′-cytimidine monophosphate (CMP) on H2O2-induced muscular atrophy in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 myotubes were treated with H2O2 in the presence and absence of CMP and the changes in the anti-oxidation, mitochondrial functions, and expression of sarcopenia-related proteins were observed. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that CMP significantly increased the diameter of myotubes. We found that CMP could increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and improve mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as reduce inflammatory cytokine levels associated with sarcopenia. RNA-seq analysis showed that CMP could relieve insulin resistance and promote protein digestion and absorption. Western blot analysis further confirmed that CMP could promote the activation of the IRS-1/Akt/S6K signaling pathway and decrease the expression of MuRF1 and Atrogin-1, which are important markers of muscle atrophy. The above results suggest that CMP protects myotubes from H2O2-induced atrophy and that its potential mechanism is associated with activating the IRS-1/Akt/S6K pathway to promote protein synthesis by improving mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. These results indicate that CMP can improve aging-related sarcopenia.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020249
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 250: The Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory
           Properties of Wild Bilberry Fruit Extracts Embedded in Mesoporous
           Silica-Type Supports: A Stability Study

    • Authors: Ana-Maria Brezoiu, Mihaela Deaconu, Raul-Augustin Mitran, Nada K. Sedky, Frédéric Schiets, Pedro Marote, Iulia-Stefania Voicu, Cristian Matei, Laila Ziko, Daniela Berger
      First page: 250
      Abstract: Polyphenolic extracts from wild bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, but they are prone to degradation when exposed to environmental factors, limiting their use in biomedical applications. To overcome this issue, this study proposed the embedding of wild bilberry fruit ethanolic extracts in pristine mesoporous silica functionalized with organic groups (mercaptopropyl and propionic acid), as well as coated with fucoidan, a biopolymer. Herein, we report a stability study of free and incorporated extracts in mesoporous silica-type supports in high-humidity atmospheres at 40 °C up to 28 days, using HPLC analysis, thermal analysis, and radical scavenging activity determination. Better chemical and thermal stability over time was observed when the extracts were incorporated in mesoporous silica-type supports. After 12 months of storage, higher values of antioxidant activity were determined for the extract embedded in the supports, silica modified with mercaptopropyl groups (MCM-SH), and fucoidan-coated silica (MCM-SH-Fuc) than that of the free extract due to a synergistic activity between the support and extract. All encapsulated extracts demonstrated remarkable effects in reducing NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The treatment with extract embedded in MCM-SH-Fuc in a dose of 10 μg/mL surpassed the effect of free extract in the same concentration. For the extract encapsulated in an MCM-SH support, a lower IC50 value (0.69 μg/mL) towards COX-2 was obtained, comparable with that of Indomethacin (0.6 μg/mL). Also, this sample showed a higher selectivity index (2.71) for COX-2 than the reference anti-inflammatory drug (0.98). The developed formulations with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties could be further used in nutraceuticals.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020250
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 251: Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Steatosis
           in Laying Hens Exposed to Various Quantities of Lupin (Lupinus
           angustifolius) Seeds in the Diet

    • Authors: Marta Wójcik, Sebastian Grabowski, Łukasz S. Jarosz, Bartłomiej Szymczak, Vincenzo Longo, Clara Maria della Croce, Marcin Hejdysz, Adam Cieślak, Kamil Gruszczyński, Agnieszka Marek
      First page: 251
      Abstract: Despite the many beneficial properties of legume plants, their use in diets for poultry is limited by the presence of antinutritional factors. The aim of the study was to determine the activity of DT-diaphorase, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, and catalase, and the concentration of malondialdehyde in liver tissue, as well as the activity of SOD and CAT in the serum of Hy-line Brown hens fed a diet supplemented with various doses of Lupinus angustifolius seeds. The results indicate that the use of large amounts of lupin in the diet resulted in an increase in MDA concentration in the liver and the lipid vacuolization of hepatocytes. A significant increase in DTD activity was observed in chickens receiving 15% lupin. Regardless of lupin dose, no increase in SOD activity was observed in chicken serum after 33 days of the experiment. From the 66th day of the experiment, an increase in catalase activity in the serum of laying hens was observed, while low activity of this enzyme was found in the liver. It can be concluded that the short-term use of lupin in the diet of laying hens does not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes and, therefore, does not affect the oxidative–antioxidant balance of their body.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020251
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 252: PGC-1α-Coordinated Hypothalamic
           Antioxidant Defense Is Linked to SP1-LanCL1 Axis during
           High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obesity in Male Mice

    • Authors: Shuai Shi, Jichen Wang, Huan Gong, Xiaohua Huang, Bin Mu, Xiangyu Cheng, Bin Feng, Lanlan Jia, Qihui Luo, Wentao Liu, Zhengli Chen, Chao Huang
      First page: 252
      Abstract: High-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity parallels hypothalamic inflammation and oxidative stress, but the correlations between them are not well-defined. Here, with mouse models targeting the antioxidant gene LanCL1 in the hypothalamus, we demonstrate that impaired hypothalamic antioxidant defense aggravates HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation and obesity progress, and these could be improved in mice with elevated hypothalamic antioxidant defense. We also show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a critical transcriptional coactivator, is implicated in regulating hypothalamic LanCL1 transcription, in collaboration with SP1 through a direct interaction, in response to HFD-induced palmitic acid (PA) accumulation. According to our results, when exposed to HFD, mice undergo a process of overwhelming hypothalamic antioxidant defense; short-time HFD exposure induces ROS production to activate PGC-1α and elevate LanCL1-mediated antioxidant defense, while long-time exposure promotes ubiquitin-mediated PGC-1α degradation and suppresses LanCL1 expression. Our findings show the critical importance of the hypothalamic PGC-1α-SP1-LanCL1 axis in regulating HFD-induced obesity, and provide new insights describing the correlations of hypothalamic inflammation and oxidative stress during this process.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020252
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Antioxidants, Vol. 13, Pages 253: Maternal Malic Acid May Ameliorate
           Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Sows through Modulating Gut
           Microbiota and Host Metabolic Profiles during Late Pregnancy

    • Authors: Meixia Chen, Ying Zhao, Shuang Li, Zhuo Chang, Hui Liu, Dongyan Zhang, Sixin Wang, Xin Zhang, Jing Wang
      First page: 253
      Abstract: Sows suffer oxidative stress and inflammation induced by metabolic burden during late pregnancy, which negatively regulates reproductive and lactating performances. We previously found that L-malic acid (MA) alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation and improved reproductive performances in sows. However, the mechanism underlying the MA’s positive effects remains unexplored. Here, twenty Large White × Landrace sows with similar parity were randomly divided into two groups and fed with a basal diet or a diet supplemented with 2% L-malic acid complex from day 85 of gestation to delivery. The gut microbiome, fecal short-chain fatty acids, and untargeted serum metabolome were determined. Results showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Spirochaetota were the top abundant phyla identified in late pregnancy for sows. Maternal MA supplementation modulated the composition but not the richness and diversity of gut microbiota during late pregnancy. Correlation analysis between gut microbiota and antioxidant capacity (or inflammation indicators) revealed that unclassified_f_Ruminococcaceae, unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae, UCG-002, norank_f_norank_o_RF3, and Lactobacillus might play a role in anti-oxidation, and Lachnospiraceae_XPB1014_group, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, UCG-002, unclassified_f_Ruminococcaceae, Candidatus_Soleaferrea, norank_f_UCG-010, norank_f_norank_o_RF39, and unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae might be involved in the anti-inflammatory effect. The improved antioxidant and inflammation status induced by MA might be independent of short chain fatty acid changes. In addition, untargeted metabolomics analysis exhibited different metabolic landscapes of sows in the MA group from in the control group and revealed the contribution of modified amino acid and lipid metabolism to the improved antioxidant capacity and inflammation status. Notably, correlation results of gut microbiota and serum metabolites, as well as serum metabolites and antioxidant capacity (or inflammation indicators), demonstrated that differential metabolism was highly related to the fecal microorganisms and antioxidant or inflammation indicators. Collectively, these data demonstrated that a maternal dietary supply of MA can ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in sows through modulating gut microbiota and host metabolic profiles during late pregnancy.
      Citation: Antioxidants
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020253
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3134 journals)
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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Marisiensis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Biomarker Sciences and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Alfarama Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
All Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Phycology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access  
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Observations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioeduca : Journal of Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioeduscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292)
Bioinformatics Advances : Journal of the International Society for Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

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