Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (239 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (143 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1491 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (53 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (243 journals)
    - BOTANY (233 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (67 journals)
    - GENETICS (165 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (279 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (13 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (117 journals)

BIOLOGY (1491 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biology Open     Open Access  
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioma : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomarkers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biomass and Bioenergy     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomaterials Advances     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomath     Open Access  
Biomatter     Open Access  
Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BioMetals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biometrical Letters     Open Access  
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biomimetic Intelligence and Robotics     Open Access  
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Bionature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biopreservation and Biobanking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bioresource Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access  
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biosemiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biosensors and Bioelectronics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioseparation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biosfer : Jurnal Biologi dan Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
Biosfer : Jurnal Tadris Biologi     Open Access  
BioSocieties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biospecies     Open Access  
BIOspektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosystematics and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biosystems Diversity     Open Access  
Biota Amazônia     Open Access  
Biota Neotropica     Open Access  
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotropia : The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology     Open Access  
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Birth Defects Research     Hybrid Journal  
BJHM Open Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 110)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
BMC Molecular and Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Boletín Científico : Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural     Open Access  
Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas     Open Access  
Boletín Micológico     Open Access  
Bone Reports     Open Access  
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Breastfeeding Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Brittonia     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access  
Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries     Open Access  
Cancer Biology & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cancer Cell International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Carbon Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caryologia : International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics     Partially Free  
Caucasiana     Open Access  
Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1137)
Cell Adhesion & Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cell and Tissue Banking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cell and Tissue Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell and Tissue Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cell Biology Education     Free   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology International Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Calcium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Communication & Adhesion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Cycle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cell Death and Differentiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cell Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Genomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cell Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Cell Proliferation     Open Access  
Cell Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Cell Reports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Reports Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cell Stress and Chaperones     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cell Surface     Open Access  
Cell Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cells & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cells Tissues Organs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cellular Logistics     Full-text available via subscription  
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cellular Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Reprogramming     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular Signalling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ceylon Journal of Science     Open Access  
Channels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Check List : The Journal of Biodiversity Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chemosensory Perception     Hybrid Journal  
Chirality     Hybrid Journal  
Chromosoma     Hybrid Journal  
Chromosome Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia     Open Access  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cladistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Clinical Dysmorphology     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Phytoscience     Open Access  
Clinical Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Spectroscopy     Open Access  
Coevolution     Open Access  
Cogent Biology     Open Access  
Cognitive Neurodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communication in Biomathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Biology     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Communications Materials     Open Access  
Communicative & Integrative Biology     Open Access  
Community Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comptes Rendus : Chimie     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Biologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering : Imaging & Visualization     Hybrid Journal  
Computers in Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Connective Tissue Research     Hybrid Journal  
Contact (CTC)     Open Access  
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CRISPR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Crustaceana     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cryobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biology Bulletin Reviews
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2079-0864 - ISSN (Online) 2079-0872
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • In Vitro Culture of Autonomous Embryos as a Model System for the Study of
           Plant Stress Tolerance to Abiotic Factors (on the Example of Cereals)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: — One approach to the experimental evaluation of plant tolerance to abiotic stress-factors that can be performed under in vitro culture conditions is based on zygotic embryos used at a particular developmental stage embryo culture in vitro) as explants. The cultivation of immature embryos at-the critical stage of their relative autonomy is especially promising in this respect. Such embryos can themselves, independently of physiological factors of the maternal organism, give rise to full-fledged plants under adequate conditions in vitro and then ex vitro. This makes possible to bypass another stage of morphogenic callus formation and directly derive regenerants. This paper reviews the literature and the authors’ data dealing with the identification of the stage of relative autonomy of cereal embryogenesis in vivo. The use of the relatively autonomous embryos in the assessment of drought tolerance under selective conditions in vitro is also discussed. It is emphasized that the embryo culture in vitro, as a model system for evaluation of plant stress tolerance, is promising, because the embryo has all of the morphogenetic potentials of an adult organism. Furthermore, the morphogenetic reactions of plants in vivo and explants/regenerants in vitro are similar according to the principle of universality of plant morphogenesis in natural and experimental conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Variability of the Brown Bear and the Problem of Decreased Individual Size

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: A review of published materials on the body weight of brown bears in the Northern Hemisphere is presented. The territories of Europe, Russia, Japan (Hokkaido island), Canada, and the United States are covered. The data reflecting the main forms of intraspecific variability of this trait are grouped: age, seasonal, geographic, and individual forms. The sex differences and differences in the weight of bears kept in captivity are taken into account. The life span of one generation of brown bears is on average close to 10 years. The share of bears aged 20 years or more in the population is small and decreases rapidly over the years, but signs of bear aging are progressing, and their contribution to the reproduction of the population is decreasing. Bears over 30 years old are very rare in natural populations; long-livers, whose age exceeded 40 years, were recorded singly in captivity. The reproductive contribution to the demography of the population for male and female brown bears that have reached the age limit is close to zero. The age trend in the dynamics of body weight corresponds to the rule of biological growth by L. von Bertalanffy and includes four age phases, which are distinguished by the predominant function (growth, maturation, reproduction, aging). There is also fifth phase: negative growth (degeneration). Negative growth is inherent in rare extremely old individuals and shatun bears. The age-related dynamics of body weight are complemented by an annual increase in weight (accumulation of fat reserves) and their consumption during hibernation. The controversial topic of body reduction in brown bear populations is considered, and different points of view are given. A more convincing explanation is that significant hunting pressure leads to a rejuvenation of the age composition of the population and, as an additional consequence of selective hunting, to a decrease of individual body-weight in the population. The dynamics of the weight characteristics of the population due to hunting selectivity by size and sex are reversible. The elimination of bears in the age phase of degeneration (extremely old bears and shatuns), whose contribution to the reproduction of the population is extremely small (or equal to zero), can hardly significantly worsen the gene pool of the population.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Rodenticides and Wildlife Extermination

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Contamination with the chemical products used in agricultural activities is the largest human food safety problem, but their use cannot be completely ruled out. Rodenticides are of particular importance. They affect mammals, birds, and humans, both directly and indirectly. This is largely due to the use of second-generation anticoagulants, the superwarfarins, since the end of the 20th century. Their advantage is their apparent simplicity of storage and use, which led to the erroneous idea that this group of drugs is conditionally harmless. A brief history of the use of rodenticides and their effects on animals, birds, and humans is presented. It is only in recent decades that the sublethal effects and accumulation of superwarfarins have begun to be intensively studied. It has been established that these drugs cause a wide range of negative effects on mammals and birds, including damaging effects on the respiratory, vascular, and nervous systems, although different species of animals differ in sensitivity to them. Moreover, it has been proven that these drugs are transmitted along the food chains, leading to the erasure of not only representatives of the fauna but also humans. For the first time, data was collected on the consequences of the use of superwarfarins in some natural systems of the southern regions of the Russian Federation. Information is given on the mass death of consumers of the first and second orders (birds and mammals, the so-called nontarget species) directly related to their use. Analysis of the literature shows that the use of rodenticides leads to the massive poisoning of wild animals and birds based on transmission along the food chain and the presence on the free market of toxicants that are extremely unlikely to be defined. In the Russian Federation, there is no supervision over the composition, production, storage, sale, or use of toxicants; toxicants enter human food products, which leads to the mass poisoning of people in different countries. However, in our country, these problems remain outside the field of view of biologists; there is no study of the effect of modern rodenticides on natural systems and biological diversity. Practical aspects that complicate the work are mentioned. The high danger of superwarfarins is combined with an extremely low probability of their early detection. It is concluded that the death of predatory animals, consumers of the second order, is an indicator of the presence of a threat to biological safety in an area that combines the impact of chemical and biological factors.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Role of Selenium in Plants, Animals, and Humans

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: We present a literature review of the significance of selenium in plants, animals, and humans. The selenium concentrations in soils with different compositions and from different regions in Russia are reported. The issue of the selenium content of plants, the main source of this element for humans, is considered. The beneficial effects of small amounts of selenium on the productivity and quality of a number of agricultural crops are noted. The possible causes of selenium deficiency in plants are indicated. A separate section examines the role of selenium in animals. Its involvement in the function of a spectrum of enzymes and proteins is demonstrated, and some animal diseases associated with deficiency of this micronutrient element are described. The impact of selenium on human health is highlighted. We address key functions of selenium in the human body, including its oncopreventive effects. The data on selenium-containing proteins are summarized, and their roles in particular biological processes are specified. The diseases caused by selenium deficiency are described in detail. Possible ideas to eliminate a deficiency of this element in humans are indicated. Lastly, we identify problems related to research on the influence of selenium on living organisms, which must be addressed in the nearest future.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Neurophysiological Correlates of Impaired Development in Autism Spectrum
           Disorder (ASD)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a large group of developmental disorders caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is described as a separate diagnosis in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Forms of the disorder are distinguished based on the existing intellectual and language deficits. The problem is relevant due to ASD wide distribution (about 1% of the general population) and difficulties in the social rehabilitation of such people. Neurophysiological studies of this heterogeneous group revealed various impairments of ontogenetic formation of electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns. Some of the main autistic features, such as social isolation and inability to empathize, can be attributed to dysfunctional mirror neurons. The article reviews studies of the age-related formation of EEG in a normal group, as well as the EEGs of undifferentiated ASD. It also discusses in detail mechanisms of dysfunction of mirror neuron system in these disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • COVID-19: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Brain Damage

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The most common clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is bilateral pneumonia, a diffuse, alveolar injury with severe microangiopathy. Systemic infection is accompanied by an increase in circulating chemokines and interleukins in the blood, which penetrate the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and enter the brain. Clinical materials indicate lesions of the brain and peripheral nervous system, as well as neurodegenerative and mental disorders. Due to violations of the cerebral endothelium system and changes in the balance of ACE2-coupled cytochemical processes, coagulopathy develops, leading to microthrombosis and vascular occlusion. The concept of SARS-CoV-2 “neurotropism” is discussed as a rationale for the penetration by the virus into the brain. Infection can occur as axonal transport through the bulbar zone and the olfactory area of the cerebral cortex. Even more common is the “hematogenous pathway” of viral transfection, which includes damage to the vascular endothelium and a violation of the protective role of the BBB. Another concept that explains the mechanism of brain damage relates to the phenomenon of neuroinflammation. Astrocytes and microglia are considered potential targets of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The dissonance of the biochemical processes of the axis ACE2/ACE and changes in the functions of angiotensin peptides leads to the activation of astroglia with the development of neurodestructive processes in COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • System Integrators of Life

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: A general analysis of the main mechanisms of the evolutionary development of living matter is given, which can be summarized in seven major principles: (1) transformation of the simple into the complex, (2) self-organization, (3) metabolism, (4) mutagenesis, (5) committing, (6) aging, (7) pressure of intelligence. The systemic, general biological significance of these principles is shown, and their integral interdependence is noted, which, in general, ensures the evolutionary development of living matter. The positive role of mutagenesis and the aging of living tissues in the evolutionary process is emphasized. It is noted that the prospect of intellectual intervention in the further development of life is unclear.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Development of New Live Tularemia Vaccines: Problems and Prospects

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Francisella tularensis is an etiological agent of tularemia, a natural focal infection in humans and animals. This pathogenic microorganism is highly infectious and can cause a lethal infection. The attenuated tularemia strain 15 of Gaiskii, developed by Soviet scientists more than 70 years ago, is still the only one for the production of a live vaccine that made it possible to dramatically reduce the incidence of tularemia in the USSR. The subject of this review is the history of creation of the currently used two live vaccines based on the attenuated vaccine strain 15 of Gaiskii, their advantages, and their disadvantages. The article presents ways to design new attenuated mutants that are defective in the genes responsible for virulence as candidates for novel vaccine strains of the tularemia microbe.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • The Current State of Identification Ptilology in Russia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: This review covers topical applied and fundamental issues of ptilology—a branch of the science of bird feathers that deals with the identification of birds based on whole feathers and their microscopic remains. Identification ptilology is developing in close cooperation with aviation ornithology. The article contains an analysis of data from foreign and domestic literature on the impact of identification ptilology on aviation ornithology, as well as the development of applied, organizational, and strategic issues of the latter. Specific examples of the taxonomic identification of feathers by the micro- and macrostructure are given; the role of some features of the feather microstructure for examination and phylogenetic constructions is determined. A system of diagnostic features of a single feather has been developed, several new feather elements have been described, and the information on the known feather structures has been supplemented. Mathematical methods (clustering of the feather microstructural compartments based on morphometric data) were used to determine the phylogenetic relationships between higher and middle rank taxa. The role of bird collections and bird identification systems based on the macro- and microstructure of feathers for identification studies of feather material has been determined. The applied and scientific means of solving the problems of airfield ecology, namely, the protection of aircraft from biological damage caused by birds, are considered. The need to identify species involved in collisions with aircraft is noted. A project on physical, geographical, and climatic zoning has been started. The goal of the project is to identify the most dangerous bird species for aviation flights in the areas and territories of airports in different seasons of the year. Complex systems of bird-species identification based on feather remains have been developed for aviation ornithology, which includes analysis of the feather-structure material, ecological-geographical and molecular genetic analyses; and a set of methods that allows the processing of large data sets exclusively on the structure of feather groups, a single feather, or its fragments.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • The Role of Retroelements in the Evolution of Animal Genomes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Retroelements (retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses) are a class of mobile genetic elements that is widely represented in various groups of eukaryotes. It is believed that most of the retroelements present in the genome do not significantly affect the host organism, which, in the process of coevolution with retroelements, produces various mechanisms to control their transposition. However, even retrotroelements deprived of transpositional activity can play a significant role in evolution, contributing to the formation of new adaptive mechanisms, which, in turn, are caused by the formation of new genetic networks. The process in which the body adapts individual sequences of retroelements is called “molecular domestication.” Exaptation implies the formation of new genetic structures and functions, which, as a rule, appear as a result of the long evolution of domesticated sequences of mobile elements. Cases of domestication are known for three key genes of retrotransposons/endogenous retroviruses (gag, pol, and env). The phenomenon of domestication/exaptation is evidence of the fundamental role that retroelements play in the evolution of the genome and the significant evolutionary benefit of the presence of retroelements in the genome, even though their transposition activity can be accompanied by negative effects at the level of an individual organism.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086422010042
       
  • Evolution of Pheromones in Mammals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Chemical communication is the most ancient way of information exchange between organisms. For majority of mammals, the analysis of olfactory stimuli is crucial for organization of complex behaviors. The review is devoted to the analysis of the role of pheromones in the organization of mammalian behavior in the evolutionary aspect. The discussion about the existence of human pheromones has drawn attention of scientific community in recent decades: a separate section covers this topic. Special attention is paid to the patterns of changes in the neuroanatomical sub-strate and the pool of functional genes encoding the olfactory and vomeronasal receptors in mammals, including humans. The future perspectives of research in this area are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086422010091
       
  • Menstrual Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as a Resource for
           Regenerative Medicine

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The development of regenerative medicine creates the need for an accessible source of cells to stimulate the recovery processes in pathologically altered tissues and organs. Menstrual blood with fragments of desquamated endometrium containing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can be such a source. Endometrial MSCs are involved in the regeneration of the endometrial functional layer during the menstrual cycle. These cells are phenotypically similar to MSCs from other clinically relevant sources (bone marrow, adipose tissue, dental pulp, placenta) that are capable of active growth in vitro, and they have a wide differentiation potential. They secrete various biologically active substances in a paracrine manner and thereby stimulate cell survival and proliferation in affected tissues, regulate immune responses and angiogenesis, and prevent fibrosis. The potential use of menstrual blood-derived MSCs in various fields of medicine is being actively researched. Experiments on animals demonstrated the prospects of cell therapy with these cells for the treatment of pathologies of the cardiovascular, nervous, reproductive systems, skin wounds, myodystrophy, diabetes mellitus, and diseases of the liver, lungs, intestines and other organs. However, in order to successfully implement menstrual blood-derived MSCs in medical practice, further research is required to optimize protocols for cellular isolation, to assess possible risks of their transplantation, to overcome the problem of their low survival in the lesion focus, and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms of their regenerative effect.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086422010054
       
  • Evolution of and Concepts of Behavioral Stereotypes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The development of cognitive ethology and new experimental methods for the study of animal intelligence has led to an underestimation of the role of innate stereotypes in the behavioral repertoire. Researchers tend to see cognitive phenomena in animal activity. On the example of ants and rodents, using an experimental model of interaction with prey, we identified relatively flexible fragments of innate stereotypes prone to recombination or loss. We propose that variability of individual fragments of stereotypes underlies the formation of species-specific hunting behavior. The combination of innate fragmentation of behavioral stereotypes and simple forms of social learning may lead to certain behavioral traditions within communities and populations. This review presents the results of research team’s studies and considers the prospects of the proposed direction of studies based on a detailed analysis of behavioral stereotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086422010066
       
  • Polyphasic Approach to Fungal Taxonomy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The taxonomy of micromycetes always experienced a number of specific problems. The development of molecular phylogeny in the last two decades became an important achievement for fungal taxonomy. The use of multilocus sequencing combined with phylogenetic analysis seems to be the most convenient and reasonable in the methodological aspect for species delimitation within the frames of the evolutionary species concept, which is the most popular among mycologists now and, obviously, will remain popular in the nearest future. The most proper tool for species delimitation is phylogenetic species recognition. However this well-developed approach sometimes allows neither a clear recovery of the structure of biodiversity nor the easy identification of taxa. The so-called polyphasic taxonomy concept arose in the 1970s among bacteriologists; it also became quite popular in mycology in the 2000s. Nowadays, it is considered as consensus taxonomy, i.e., a definition of taxa based on a comparative analysis of all available traits. This review describes the process of the formation of the polyphasic approach and the modern practice of its application in mycology. A special part of the review examines the diversity of traits available for a mycologist and the expediency of their use in taxonomy, in particular, within the limits of the polyphasic approach. It is concluded that this approach is reasonable when phylogenetic recognition provides no satisfactory results (e.g., in the case of a small number of sequenced genes or the analysis of recently diverged species). In additional, the polyphasic approach is suitable for the formation of taxonomic hypotheses that will be examined with phylogenetic methods and that can be further used as a basis to form the appropriate strain samplings.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086422010029
       
  • Coordination of Morphogenetic Activity in Modern and Fossil Communities of
           Cyanobacteria

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: — The phenomenon of morphogenesis was previously studied primarily in eukaryotes, in which it acquired developed and stable forms. For this reason, the emergence and formation of morphogenesis in eukaryotes is an area of reconstruction. Communities of filamentous cyanobacteria allow us to directly observe the initial stages of morphogenesis. At a high rate of morphogenetic processes, modern cyanobacterial communities form a specialized system to manage morphogenesis, a polygonal network. The coordinated behavior of cyanobacterial filaments is provided by complex electrical communication. The microrelief of the surface described earlier in stromatolites may be a manifestation of a similar system.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S207908642201008X
       
  • Models of Joint Distribution of Species on the Example of Benthic
           Communities from Small Rivers of the Volga Basin

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: — The theoretical and practical aspects of building of joint species-distribution models, a modern tool for the analysis of ecological communities, are considered. It is shown that it is inappropriate to use the MaxEnt method or other methods based on the concept of “pseudo-absence” points when the observational data are quantitative indicators of the population density (in particular, the abundance of species in hydrobiological studies). Contemporary multidimensional models of the joint distribution of communities should include a set of parameters that assess the impact of the following groups of fixed and random factors on the species occurrence: (a) the covariates and categorical variables describing the environmental conditions and characteristics of biotopes, (b) the main indicators characterizing each species and the phylogenetic structure of communities, (c) the functions of spatial autocorrelation of the data at observation points, (d) the residual (i.e., not caused by external factors) associativity of species. Analysis of the published data and practical examples of implementation showed that the mentioned requirements, in general, are satisfied by the methodological platform and the R package Hierarchical Modeling of Species Communities (HMSC). They form the basis for the construction of multidimensional hierarchical generalized linear models with mixed parameters estimated by Bayesian procedure. The main concepts and blocks of the HMSC platform are described, and the results of models based on the authors’ data and long-term hydrobiological studies of benthic communities in 132 small and medium-sized rivers in the middle and lower Volga basin are discussed. The parameters of a set of one-dimensional candidate models for the abundance distribution of the subfamily Prodiamesinae (Diptera, Chironomidae) are analyzed, and a map of its forecast range within the region is constructed. To illustrate the multidimensional case, a model of the joint spatial distribution of 31 species of chironomids is constructed and its coefficients are analyzed. A residual correlation graph of statistically significant interspecies interactions has been built. It is concluded that the HMSC method and software package can be effectively used to solve fundamental problems of communities’ ecology: the ways in which the areas of individual populations, the structure of their communities, and the nature of interspecific interactions depend the on environmental conditions and methods to predict future trends of these processes in response to global changes.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086422010078
       
  • Urban Ecology: Retrospective and Research Prospects

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: In the first decade of the 21st century, the world’s population has become predominantly urban, and it is assumed that it will account for 68% of the total world population by 2050. In Russia, 74% of the country’s population already lives in cities. However, a high population concentration is only an outward manifestation of urbanization. Many global environmental problems accompany it: disruption of biogeochemical cycles, climate change, loss of biodiversity, biological invasions, etc. This indicates, therefore, the special importance of cities in the formation of living conditions, not only for most of humanity but also for all creatures on the planet. One day, urban ecosystems might be the dominant form of nature on our urbanized planet. Thus, as the urban environment expands its reach, it will become more and more an ecosystem in its own right, with its own evolutionary rules and running at its own evolutionary pace. Although the urban environment was long considered unworthy of scientific research due to its “artificiality,” scientists now believe cities to be natural laboratories, where applied purely urban planning and fundamental environmental problems not only can, but must, be solved. In the early 1990s, urban ecology acquired an independent status. In Russia, scientists have drawn attention to the urgency of urban ecology problems since the 1960–1970s, but few researchers are currently engaged in it. The review covers the history of the formation of urban ecology as a science and the adaptations of animals of different taxa to urban conditions: (a) pollution by heavy metals, noise, light, etc.; (b) habitat defragmentation; and (c) food of anthropogenic origin. Fundamental problems that need to be addressed in the study of urban communities are formulated. These include the assessment of the rate of evolution of animals and plants in urban conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086422010030
       
  • Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a set of hematological diseases characterized by clonal expansion of immature myeloid precursors. Chemotherapy is one of the main methods of AML treatment. However, the emergence of drug resistance in leukemic cells, which is a serious obstacle to the treatment of the disease, worsens the clinical outcome. To develop competent treatment strategies for AML treatment, it is necessary to understand the essence of the mechanisms of resistance to certain cytostatics and cytotoxic drugs. This review examines various currently known mechanisms underlying drug resistance in leukemic cells at the levels of intracellular molecular pathways and intercellular communication.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086421070021
       
  • Functional Role of Methionine Oxidation in Proteins: Arguments for and
           against

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: — The conversion of methionine to methionine sulfoxide (MetO) is one of the most common oxidative modifications in proteins due to the special susceptibility of methionine to oxidative conditions. Methionine oxidation can affect the protein structure and function, while the level of MetO increases with the development of oxidative stress. Most cells contain methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs), which catalyze a thioredoxin-dependent reduction of methionine sulfoxide to the original methionine. It was demonstrated that mutations leading to a decrease in MSR activity are associated with a decrease in the resistance of some cells to oxidative stress, while mutations leading to an overproduction of MSR activity result in an increase in resistance to oxidative stress. The redox reactions of methionines in the functional regulation of some intracellular proteins, actin, and calmodulin, are analyzed in the work, and the presence of antioxidant methionines in intracellular proteins, such as glutamine synthetase, 15-lipoxygenase, recombinant proteins, interferon α-2b, tissue plasminogen activator, and human stem cell factor, is discussed. The absence of MSR in the blood plasma makes the oxidation of methionines in the proteins irreversible; therefore, the ability of methionines to serve as interceptors of oxidant molecules without impairment of the function of plasma proteins is quite controversial. Antioxidant methionines were found in a number of proteins, such as macroglobulin, antithrombin III, and blood coagulation factor XIII. However, no antioxidant methionines were detected for most blood plasma proteins. There is a correlation between the oxidation of methionines and the development of pathological conditions in the organism.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086421070070
       
  • Experimental Modeling of Sepsis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Four variants of experimental models of sepsis are discussed: injection, surgical, burn, and models of pneumonia with transition to sepsis. The positive and negative aspects of each of them are analyzed. It is noted that the optimal choice of animals is the most important condition for successful sepsis modeling. Some aspects of anatomy, physiology, and immunology characteristic of a particular mammalian species are considered. If the existing differences in reactions are taken into account, it is possible to note complexes of signs that are similar or identical in different representatives of animals in sepsis. Although limitations that apply to each sepsis model, it is advisable to use different models on different animal species. Comparison and contrast of the results of experiments is extremely important to clarify the pathogenetic criteria of sepsis.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S2079086421070033
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.192.25.113
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-