Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Cryoletters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Applied Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
Current Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Current Opinion in Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Opinion in Systems Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Protein and Peptide Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Protocols in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Mouse Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Protocols in Protein Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Bacteriology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Research in Chemical Biology     Open Access  
Current Research in Neurobiology     Open Access  
Current Research in Parasitology & Vector-Borne Diseases     Open Access  
Current Research in Structural Biology     Open Access  
Current Research in Translational Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Virological Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 115)
Current Stem Cell Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Topics in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Current Topics in Membranes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cytotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Database : The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Dendrochronologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Developing World Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Developmental & Comparative Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Developmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Developmental Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Developmental Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developmental Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Dhaka University Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Differentiation     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Biomarkers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Disease Models and Mechanisms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms     Hybrid Journal  
DNA and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
DNA Repair     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
e-Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan     Open Access  
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecological Solutions and Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Economics & Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ecosystem Health and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 45)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
EFB Bioeconomy Journal     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EJNMMI Research     Open Access  
Ekologia     Open Access  
el-Hayah     Open Access  
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
eLife     Open Access   (Followers: 95)
Embo Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
EMBO reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Endangered Species Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Endocrine Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Endothelium: Journal of Endothelial Cell Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Engineering Economist, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Engineering in Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Engineering Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental DNA     Open Access  
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Environmental Microbiome     Open Access  
Environmental Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology & Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Epigenomes     Open Access  
EPMA Journal     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnobiology Letters     Open Access  
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnoscientia : Brazilian Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethology Ecology & Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EuPA Open Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EUREKA : Life Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology : X     Open Access  
European Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Protistology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Soil Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evolution     Partially Free   (Followers: 129)
Evolution and Human Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Evolution Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Evolutionary Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evolutionary Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Evolutionary Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evolutionary Systematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EXCLI Journal : Experimental and Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
Experimental & Molecular Medicine     Open Access  
Experimental and Applied Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Expert Review of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ExRNA     Open Access  
Extreme Life, Biospeology & Astrobiology - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Extremophiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
F&S Science : Official journal of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Medicine and Biology     Open Access  
Familial Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
FASEB BioAdvances     Open Access  
Fauna Norvegica     Open Access  
Fauna of New Zealand     Open Access  
Febs Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Feddes Repertorium     Hybrid Journal  
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fish & Shellfish Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fish and Shellfish Immunology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fishes     Open Access  
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Florea : Jurnal Biologi dan Pembelajarannya     Open Access  
Fly     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Biologica     Free   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Folia Primatologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Webs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forensic Genomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Foundations of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Free Radical Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Free Radical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Freshwater Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Life Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Network Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Neurogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers of Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers of Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Functional & Integrative Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Fungal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fungal Diversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fungal Genetics Reports     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.224
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1547-3465 - ISSN (Online) 1547-3465
Published by Botanical Research Institute of Texas Homepage  [1 journal]
  • One more way to support Ukraine: Celebrating its endangered biocultural
           diversity

    • Authors: Nataliya Stryamets, Igor Khomyn, Giulia Mattalia, Julia Prakofjewa, Andrea Pieroni, Renata Sõukand
      Pages: 1 - 28
      Abstract: Background: Ukraine holds a rich reservoir of cultural and biological diversity due to its complex history and variegated landscapes. However, the current aggression poses threats to it, attacking its identity expressed through local ecological practices. Therefore, in this photo essay, we aim to celebrate the great reservoir of biocultural diversity that we observed during several field investigations in different areas of Ukraine. Methods: We selected photos taken during fieldworks conducted by the authors between 2015 and 2021 in ten oblasts (counties) of Ukraine. The pictures were selected based on their efficacy in conveying a story about a local (food) practice or landscape. Results: Two main aspects of food culture are relevant in Ukraine. First the foraging of wild plants and mushrooms for food and medicinal purposes in forestlands. Second, “babushka markets” where elderly sellers bring a few things they want to sell on the fringes of the official market. They often included preserved as pickles and jams, but also fresh products. In addition, the several traditional Ukrainian landscapes serve as reservoir of biocultural diversity expressed by small-scale farmers and livestock keepers. Conclusions: We illustrated several examples of the richness of the biological and cultural diversity of Ukraine. Nevertheless, freedom is essential for expressing identity through food practices and landscape management. We hope that such a reservoir can serve as a foundation stone for rebuilding destroyed areas and devastated communities. Keywords: Cultural diversity; Ethnobiology; Landscape; Political context; Resistance.
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Review of phytochemical, pharmacological and socio-economic properties of
           Albertisia delagoensis (N.E.Br.) Forman (Menispermaceae)

    • Authors: Alfred Maroyi
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Background: Albertisia delagoensis is a small shrub or liana which naturally occurs in open wooded grasslands in southern Africa. A critical appraisal of the phytochemical, pharmacological and socio-economic properties of A. delagoensis are provided. Methods: Research articles focusing on the phytochemical, pharmacological and socio-economic properties of A. delagoensis were mined from online databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciELO and SpringerLink. No time limit was set for the search and all research outputs that aligned with the scope of the review were included. Results: Albertisia delagoensis has diverse uses as a food plant and also medicinal uses such as anthelmintic, improve sexual performance in men, and traditional medicine for back pain, body pains, chest pains, diarrhoea, hypertension, influenza, menstrual pain, sores and vomiting. Albertisia delagoensis exert biological activities such as antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity, and several phytochemical compounds such as cocsoline, cocsuline, cycleanine, dicentrine, O-methylcocsoline, roemrefidine, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, allantoic acid, nicotinic acid, phthalic acid and proto-quercitol have been isolated from the species. Conclusion: Many applications of A. delagoensis as source of food and herbal medicines as well as its phytochemistry and pharmarcological properties need further investigations. Keywords: Albertisia delagoensis, ethnomedicinal uses, indigenous knowledge, Menispermaceae, moonseed family
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Socio-economic appraisal about the importance and impacts of Anardana
           (Punica granatum L.) in District Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Nasrullah Khan, Siraj, Muhammad Irshad
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Background: Present survey was conducted to explore the status, socio-economic importance and impact of Anardana (Punica granatum L.) by the inhabitants of Dir lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Method: Different techniques like semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires and interviews, a field survey, and group discussions were undertaken in Dir lower better to understand socio-economic relevance and influence on local peoples. Indicators such as the relative frequency citation (RFC), usage value (UV percent) and fidelity level (FL) were used to statistically assess the data, which was gathered from 200 participants. Results: Quantitative indices revealed that the plant is mostly used to remedy urinary problems, stomach disease and dry cough. Furthermore, the RFC results show that the plant is frequently used for fuel (1.00), fruit (0.97), medicine (0.93), spices (0.89) and fencing (0.88) purposes. Moreover, the results declared that P. granatum is mostly used (UV %) as a remedy for dry cough (90.5%), stomach disorders (81 %), urinary troubles (79.5%), diuretic (72%), renal calculus (66.5%), and for fever tonic (62.5%). Out of 52 ailments, 16 ailments were identified with greater FL than 50 %. However, the highest FL values were recorded for the disease category of dry cough (100 %). The study naked that most of the informants agreed to P. granatum against as a tonic for fever that unveiled the highest fidelity level (100 %) in the study area. Conclusions: Documentation of such ethnobotanical data will help conserve P. granatum, create awareness among the local community, and preserve the indigenous knowledge associated with medicinal plant species.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • A Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants consumed during holy month of
           Ramadan in Chlef region, Algeria

    • Authors: Abdelaziz Merouane, Sara Fellag, Moufida Touaibia, Abdelmalek Beldi
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Background: The fasting month of Ramadan is the fourth pillar of Islam. This religious practice is characterized by a specific style of life, culinary and phytotherapeutic habits in Muslim societies. The aim of this research is to document information about the traditional medicinal knowledge of herbal species used during the holy month of Ramadan in the region of Chlef, north-west Algeria. Methods: This ethnobotanical survey was conducted during the holy month of Ramadan in 1442 Hijrah, corresponding to 13 April–12 Mai 2021. The information was gathered through semi-structured interviews with 100 fasting Muslim informants ranging in age from 18 to 71 years. The obtained data were analyzed using the following indices: Use Value (UV), Family Use Value (FUV) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). Results: In the current and first Ramadanian ethnobotanical survey, 38 herbal species distributed into 22 families were recorded in the Chlef region, north-west Algeria. Lamiaceae was the dominant botanical family explored in phyto-folk medicine, with 8 species. Leaves and aerial parts (22.22% each) represent the main plant parts valorized. Decoction (32.35%) and infusion (27.94%) were the principal preparation methods adopted for making remedies from medicinal herbs. Species supported by Quran verses and prophetic orientation are widely consumed during the month of Ramadan and record UVs indexes superior to 0.5. The highest UV values were assigned to Phoenix dactylifera L. (0.98), Hordeum vulgare L. (0.92) and Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck (0.89). The analyses revealed a high and common ICF among the local population during the month of Ramadan for 14 disease categories due to the religious guidance of informants. Conclusions: The month of Ramadan is characterized by a rich patrimony of herbal medicine and harmonious knowledge among informants based essentially on religious orientation. Further investigations into possible interactions between the health benefits of fasting and the therapeutic virtues of medicinal herbs are suggested in the future. Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Iftar, Suhur, Ramadan, Prophetic medicine.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • A Cross-cultural ethnobotanical knowledge comparison about local plants
           among Pashto, Punjabi and Saraiki communities living in Southwest Pakistan
           

    • Authors: Shiekh Zain Ul Abdin, Raees Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad, Hammad Ahmad Jan, Muhammad Zafar, Abdul Haleem Shah
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Background: The current work was conducted with the aim for the documentation of the indigenous uses of medicinal plants for food purposes across the three main indigenous communities in South-west Pakistan. Field work was conducted in 21 villages belonging to the three regions of the district D.I. Khan (Saraiki Community), district Zhob (Pashto Community) and district Mianwali (Punjabi Community), located in the Southwest Pakistan. Methods: Snowball sampling method was used to interview 93 informants (43 Pashto, 28 Punjabi and 22 Saraiki) using semi-structured questionnaire to document the uses of indigenous taxa as food, herbal tea and herbal juice/drinks purposes. Documented data was quantified by indices UV (use value) and CI (Cultural importance values). Results: Overall, 68 Plants species belonging to the 40 families were documented to be used in food, herbal tea and herbal juice/drinks. The most important species was Limonium cabulicum on the basis of use reports. Major ailments include stomach problems, hair loss, wounds, fever, weight loss and others treated with traditional food /drinks. The Phyllanthus emblica (0.31) has the highest UV. The highest cultural value was obtained for Zingiber officinale (0.28). Conclusion: The traditional communities still use medicinal plants. Cross-cultural ethnobotanical studies are fundamental among three ethnic communities in Southwest Pakistan not only for suggesting customs of using plant-based products, which could be exploited in sustainable local development projects (e.g. trade of wild medicinal herbs on small-scale, herbal products, food niche and also focusing on eco-tourism), but also for development relationship and reconciliation among diverse ethnic communities. Keywords: Cross-Cultural Ethnobotany, food plants, herbal tea, herbal juice/drinks, Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • The Potential for Sustainable Harvest of Common Persimmon (Diospyros
           virginiana L.) fruits at Pea Ridge National Military Park

    • Authors: Jennifer Moody, Kelly Kindscher
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Background: The large, sweet fruits of the Common Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana L.) have a long history as a wild-harvested food in the eastern United States, by both Indigenous people and European settlers. However, little is known about the sustainability of persimmon fruit harvest. Persimmon fruits are a culturally important food for the Osage Nation. Pea Ridge National Military Park (hereafter PERI) is within the Osage ancestral territory Methods: We examine the sustainability of persimmon fruit harvest through field surveys of fruit production and the application of the United Plant Savers “At-Risk Assessment Tool”, which assesses the risk of overharvesting wild plants. Our field work to determine persimmon fruit yield was conducted at PERI in response to a National Park Service’s (NPS) 2016 rule which provides a pathway for Native American tribes, the Osage Nation in our case, to collect culturally important plants from NPS land if harvest is sustainable. Results: Combining our field surveys of fruit production with NPS data on persimmon tree density and potential persimmon habitat at PERI, we estimate annual fruit production of about 143,000 persimmon fruits, or about 1,990 kg (4100 lbs.) at PERI. Persimmon fruit harvest has a low risk of overharvest, with an At-Risk score of 19 on a scale with a max score of 96 (highest risk). Conclusions: An annual harvest of 9-15 kgs (~20-30 lbs.) of persimmon fruit by the Osage at PERI (< 1% of total estimated yield), would be sustainable and help promote traditional Osage practices of collecting, preserving, and eating persimmons. Keywords: persimmon, sustainable harvest, At-Risk assessment, Pea Ridge, ethnobotany
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Ancestral Traditions of the Future: Where is traditional knowledge and
           practice preservation directed'

    • Authors: Andrew J Semotiuk, Exequiel Ezcurra, Patricia Colunga-GarcíaMarín, Latif Ahmad, Alain Cuerrier
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: Background: Traditional knowledge and practice prevalence is on an overall decline. In this study, we examine preservation strategies reported in the literature, follow-up measures, and categories of traditional knowledge and conservation practices that are being attempted by non-profit organizations. Methods: To answer these questions, we reviewed the literature for keywords related to TKP preservation and also searched databases of organizations with missions to preserve such knowledge. We found a range of traditional knowledge and practice preservation strategies that we categorized, and we provide a state of the current literature. The literature revealed anecdotal and qualitative follow-up measures with much emphasis on intellectual property rights. Results: The strongest argument we found came from anecdotal evidence showing the fundamental importance of experiential learning with elders on ancestral land for the purpose of passing traditions, ideas, and knowledge from one generation to the next. Further, non-profit organizations focused on policy and community education as predominant objectives in their mission statements. These results show the importance of follow-up measures (both quantitative and qualitative) on initiatives done in the field. Conclusions: TKP programs perform well when communities and local elders are consulted as they can foster culturally appropriate programs and provide a way to attract appreciation from the greater population. Overall, we recommend that both researchers and non-profit organizations assess these trends and caveats to help them form and direct their objectives to best conserve traditional knowledge and practices. Follow-up measurements, possibly based on museum-like surveys, would allow researchers to gain data for future initiatives. Keywords: Traditional knowledge and practices, ethnobiology, TKP, Indigenous Peoples’ Issues, Intellectual Property Rights, Preservation Strategies, ethno-education, protection of TKP, oral tradition, botanic gardens
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Traditional Knowledge of Wild Edible Plants Used by the People of Lawat,
           District Neelum, Azad Jammu & Kshmir, Pakistan

    • Authors: Shabir Ijaz, Anjum Perveen, Saima Ashraf, Roohi Abid, Shazia Kousar, Zaheer Abbas, Muhammad Arslan
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Background: Wild Food Plants (WFPs) are a natural source of food in many rural communities and potential source of local food security. However, over-harvesting and excessive utilization endanger their survival. This study was conducted to document the diversity of wild edible plants along with their customary food uses from Lawat area Neelum Valley, Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Methods: Data on food uses was collected during 5 years observation (2015-2020) by conducting various surveys using semi-structured and freelisting interviews with 70 local participants and self-observations as well. Novelty was checked by comparing the gathered data with the published literature using Jaccard Index (JI). Use-value (UV) was used to check the relative importance of useful plants. Results: A total of 61 wild food plants belonging to thirty families were collected and identified. The edible parts of all reported species were consumed as fruits, cooked as vegetable and used in herbal tea or eaten raw. Thirty-two species were used as vegetables, followed by 13 species as fruits, 10 species in herbal tea, and 6 as condiments. Herbs were recorded with a major contribution of 72%; trees and shrubs contributed 11% each while 4.91% fern. A number of young parts (aerial part and leaves) of most species are used as vegetable. All reported parts of plants were frequently utilized by residents as food and maximum plants are available in the months of June-August. Most of the recorded WFPs belonged to Rosaceae (9 species), followed by Polygonaceae (8 species), Lamiaceae (5 species), Brassicaceae, and Amaryllidaceae (4 species each). Conclusion: WFPs still play an imperative role in the local food culture and are primary source of food for food insecure families in study area and traditional knowledge attached to them is astonishing in the region. In this study, many wild food plants along with their customary food uses were recorded for the first time in Lawat area with almost 72% of the species followed by 31% at district level and 23% species from Azad Kashmir. Keywords: Wild food plants, Ethnobotany, Indigenous knowledge, Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Quantitative study of the food flavoring spice mixtures used in the
           traditional markets of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Adnan Shah, Lal Badshah, Rainer W. Bussmann, Murad Muhammad, Abdullah Abdullah, Farman Ullah, Sumbal Khan, Naushad Khan
      Pages: 1 - 33
      Abstract: Background: The use of spices is as old as humanity itself, with spice production and trade often having influenced global politics and altering and modeling the very basics of our culture. Methods: This study offers the first documentation of the market value of spice taxa and associated spice recipes, based on interviews and group discussions with 120 participants (12.50% women and 87.50% men), using both semi-structured and open-ended questionnaires. Results: A total of 15 spice mixtures were reported in which 26 spice taxa were used in various proportion, and the prices of each spice taxon were found different in different markets. The highest price per kg was asked for Syzygium aromaticum in Masala Mandi market (PKR 2200, US$ 14.1), while the lowest price per kg was for Allium cepa in Chuk market (PKR 75, US$ 0.4). The prices of each one spice mixtures at each market vary from each other. There was a clear-cut difference between the composition and in prices. Laki gate market was the most expensive market where 10 spice mixtures out of 15 had the highest market value. Chuk market was most inexpensive because 11 spice mixtures out of 15 had their lowest market price. The Biryani masala recipe is known to be the heaviest recipe with the highest number of spice taxa (14) followed by Qeema and Machli masala recipes with 11 spice taxa each. Rosh masala was the simplest spices mixture comprising only 5 species out of 26 spice taxa. The market-to-market comparison showed strong correlation between Tanchi and Masala Mandi markets (r = 0.97) and Laki Gate and Masala Mandi markets (r = 0.95). Spice mixtures to spice mixtures correlations showed strong correlation between Kabuli Pulao and Qeema masala recipes (r = 0.99) and Haleem and Garam masala recipes and Achar gosht and Haleem masala recipes (r = 0.98) each. Conclusion: The study highlighted the consistent strong correlation between various markets i.e., Tanchi and Masala Mandi markets and spice mixture to spice mixture e.g., Kabuli Pulao and Qeema masala recipes. The study provides a base line for the sustainable use of recipes, and young researchers. Keywords: Spice taxa, spice mixtures composition, market value, correlation of markets, correlation of spice recipes, Bannu, Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • An ethnobotanical study on the wild edible plants used by forest dwellers
           in Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur, India

    • Authors: Laishram Ricky Meitei, Aparajita De, Ashiho Asoshii Mao
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: Background: The study documented the wild edible plants (WEPs) used by forest dwellers in the Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary (YLWLS), Manipur, India. The inhabitants of YLWLS belong to the Thadou, Meitei, and Maring communities. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from March 2018 to February 2020. The elderly local people, local healers, forest staff, and vendors in local markets participated in the survey. The respondents were selected through snowball sampling method. The ethnobotanical information was gathered from the respondents, especially the elderly people, local healers, forest staff, and vendors through interviews. The questionnaire used was a semi-structured type. The data was collected on parameters such as vernacular name, botanical name, family, the life form or habit of the species, information on flowering and fruiting, the plant part used, mode of consumption, medicinal use, marketability, and price. The voucher specimens of the wild edible plants were collected and identified with the help of literature. Results: One hundred and eight taxa belonging to 86 genera and 50 families of WEPs were documented. Zingiberaceae was the most dominant family with seven species used as WEPs. Herbs were most dominant with 42 species. Nine species bore flowers and fruits all year round. Maximum species (49 species) were consumed after cooking. Forty-nine species out of the 108 WEP species were consumed for their medicinal values. Sixty six species (61%) of WEPs were marketed. The highest-priced species were Asparagus racemosus (INR 180-220/kg; USD 2.41-2.95) and Cinnamomum verum (INR 150-200/kg; USD 2.01-2.68). The use of the pseudostem of Ensete glaucum as food is a new report for Manipur. Conclusions: The forest dwellers depend on the WEPs for their food, medicine, traditional ceremonies, and source of livelihood. Some species of WEPs could be propagated for conservation, management, and sustainable utilization, which would help in generating additional income for the locals. Keywords: Wild edible plants, forest dwellers, Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • The palm trees choose the places - Popular knowledge associated with the
           use and conservation of butiá (Butia spp.)

    • Authors: Tatieli Silveira, Periclés da Silva Godinho, Marcia Kaster Portelinha, Julia Maria Goliva Dias, Jessica Gonsalez Cruz, Julia Goetten Wagner, Rosa Lia Barbieri
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Background: Butia is a genus palm species from South America. Currently, the species of this genus are threatened with extinction in Brazil. This work aimed to understand the ethnobotanical relationships with Butia palm groves, how this process has been built, and how it contributes to the in situ conservation of its native genetic resources. Methods: The methodology consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with an ethnobotanical emphasis. Statistical methods and informant indexes were applied, mixing theoretical discussions with data analysis to assist in understanding the results. Results: 16 uses for butiá (the fruit of Butia palm) were cited by the interviewed. The most cited was the consumption of fresh fruit. The contact with the Butia palm groves varied between daily and seasonal. The activities associated with the Butia palm groves ecosystems were tourism and livestock. Proposals for their conservation refer to partnerships between private initiatives and public institutions associated with public policies and legal reserves. Discussion: The Butia palm groves are integral to local communities' identities. Choices related to Butia palm groves impact communities, just as the Butia palm groves also impact local populations. Conclusions: The Butia palm groves have great sociocultural and biological importance. The bond shared between people and the Butia palm groves goes beyond borders, and its conservation can be related to good practices of extraction,sustainable management and also through public policies and specific legislation aimed at protecting this environment. Keywords: ethnobotany, genetic resources, sociobiodiversity, Butia palm groves network, bioeconomy
      PubDate: 2022-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Ethnobotany of the Himalayas: A book Review

    • Authors: Zubair A. Malik
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Ethnobotany of the Himalayas. Ripu M. Kunwar, Hassan Sher and Rainer W. Bussmann (Eds). Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021. xliv + 2185 pp. Price: € 899.99, Print ISBN 978-3-030-57407-9; Online ISBN 978-3-030-57408-6; doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-57408-6
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Traditional medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in
           northern part of Kashmir Himalayas

    • Authors: Aadil Abdullah Khoja, Syed Aasif Hussain Andrabi, Rayees Afzal Mir
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Background: Treatment of gastrointestinal diseases with medicinal plants from the northern portion of the Kashmir Himalayas is widespread, because of effectiveness, ease of availability, lack of modern healthcare alternatives, cultural preferences, and century-old affinity with the plants. Thus this vast supply of traditional knowledge must be documented as soon as feasible if sustainable healthcare systems are to be developed. Methods: This survey was conducted from June 2020 to September 2021 to document the indigenous knowledge on plant resources of the tribal communities of the administrative district Kupwara, Kashmir Himalayas. The data was gathered through open-ended semi-structured interviews and group discussions. Various statistical indices (UV & ICF) were used to further examine quantitative data. Results: A total of 67 plant species representing 31 families are reported to treat different gastrointestinal diseases, with herbs being the most dominant used plants (93%). Leaves (36%) are most frequently used in the study area followed by roots (33%) with preparation being dominated by infusion. Present study revealed that abdominal pain (23.88%) is the dominant disease which is treated using quoted medicinal herbs followed by constipation (17.91%), stomachache (16.42%). The reported ICF is very high I.e. (0.91- 0.96) indicating that the traditional knowledge about medicinal plants used to cure gastrointestinal diseases in district Kupwara is very extensive. Highest UV has been reported for Aconitum heterophyllum (0.96) and the lowest UV is recorded for Verbena officinales (0.17). Conclusion: The goal of this study was to highlight the potential for medicinal plants to be used to treat a variety of gastrointestinal ailments. Ten medicinal plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal issues were discovered for the first time in this part of Himalaya. The phytochemical content and pharmacological effects of these should be explored and there is a need for more research for conservation strategies. Keywords: Gastrointestinal, Traditional Knowledge, Ethnomedicine, Kupwara, Medicinal plants.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Millennial traditions - Exploration of ethno-medicinal knowledge among
           different ethnic groups of Northern part Kashmir Himalaya, India

    • Authors: Siyadat Farooq, Aadil Gulzar, Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Musheerul Hassan, Rainer W. Bussmann
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Background: Traditional use of medicinal plants is an important aspect of Himalayan culture, and these approaches have evolved to include the primary health-care purpose and treatment of a wide range of ailments. Methods: Snowball sampling method was used to interview 300 informants using semi-structured questionnaire to document the uses of indigenous species. Principal component analysis was used to analyze the data using PAST software ver.3.14. Results: The present study reported a total of 67 medicinal plants belonging to 44 families with Asteraceae as dominant family. The majority of the species were herbaceous (81%) followed by trees (10%) and shrubs (9%). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part accounting for (16%), followed by roots (10%). The medicinal plants were used to cure various ailments, especially intestinal problems, skin diseases, stomach problems, respiratory problems, diabetes, bone and joint problems. The majority of people preferred to prepare herbal medicines on their own rather than obtaining these from traditional health practitioners. 63.11%, 55.15%, 45.61% respondents believed that the medicinal plants were highly effective from the site I, II, III respectively. Conclusions: According to the findings of the current study, local people have a profound cultural link to the flora, as the use of medicinal plants to treat various illnesses plays an important role in meeting the primary health care needs. Due to urbanization and exploitation, it has become imperative to preserve the traditional medicinal knowledge before it becomes extinct. Keywords: Health care, Knowledge, Medicinal plants, Traditional therapeutic use
      PubDate: 2022-03-12
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • „Ad aspera ad astra – 40 Jahre (Ethno-)Botanik“: Ein Interview mit
           Rainer W. Bussmann, ERA Co-Editor in Chief

    • Authors: Maroof Ali
      Pages: 1 - 55
      Abstract: Ein Interview mit Rainer W. Bussmann, Professor der Ethnobotanik und Direktor des Ethnobotanik Lehrstuhls am Botanischen Institut, Ilia-State-University, Tiflis, Georgien und Co-Direktor von Saving Knowledge. Schwerpunkte seiner Arbeit sind die ethnobotanische Forschung und die Bewahrung traditionellen Wissens in den Anden, im Kaukasus und im Himalaya.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Alleviation of Poverty through Sustainable Management and Market Promotion
           of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Swat, Pakistan

    • Authors: Hazrat Sher, Ahmad Ali, Zahid Ullah, Hassan Sher
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Background: District Swat, Pakistan is a potential hub of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) which can substantially contribute to social, economic and cultural uplift of local communities. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the market potential for MAPs in the study area. Methods: Interviews were conducted with medicinal plant collectors, dealers and hakims to gather information about medicinal properties, pattern of collection and market status of MAPs in the study area. For this purpose, extensive field surveys were carried out in the study area and questionnaires were developed as a tool for interviews and data collection. Results: The study reported 58, 38 and 64 plant species at collectors’, dealers’ and hakims’ level. These plants are being used as medicines by local inhabitants to overcome their health problems and traded to subsidize low income for their basic needs. However, it was revealed that collectors had very little marketing skills and were unaware of high market value of their products, therefore, received minimum financial reward in the trade chain of medicinal plants. Increasing pressure on natural resources and decreasing trend in availability of important MAPs was also observed. Conclusion: An urgent need to investigate links between overexploitation of species and quality of herbal medicines in the global market and to develop conservation strategies for MAPs is suggested. It is also recommended to develop training programs for collectors of medicinal plants in order to improve sustainability, trade monitoring and community participation in natural resource management. Keywords: Medicinal plants, herbal market, quality trade monitoring, resource management
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plant Resources in Puranchaur Village, Kaski, Nepal

    • Authors: Subash Gautam, Sachin Timilsina
      Pages: 1 - 32
      Abstract: Background: Plants are being utilized worldwide as a primary health care need. The reliance is also prevalent in Nepal, aided by its high biological diversity. The rich floral composition in Puranchaur offers a remarkable opportunity for ethnomedicinal research. This study aimed to index the ethnomedicinal knowledge of plant species of Puranchaur of Kaski district. Methods: Open-ended semi-structured questionnaires were conducted to collect data during October 2021 to November 2021 using Key Informant Interview (KII) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). The reported traditional uses were asked with traditional healers and cross-validated with previously published literature. Data were analyzed and represented in a tables, graphs, radar, and pie charts. Results: A total of 131 medicinal plants, belonging to 67 families and 119 genera were recorded to treat 156 different ailments. Poaceae and Asteraceae families represent the maximum number of plants used (N=11). Herbs were most frequently used (N=67) among the different habits of plants. The most preferred form of medication was paste (N=56), followed by juice (N=54), raw (N=47), powder (N=34), decoction (N=19), and cooked (N=10). Leaf cured a large number of diseases (N=112). Commonly used plant parts were seed (N=67) followed by leaf (N=58), flower (N=32), root (N=31), stem (N=29), fruit (N=25), bark (N=22), whole plant (N=13), latex (N=7), tuber (N=6), rhizome (N=5), bulb (N=1), and cornsilk (N=1). Conclusion: This study concluded that documentation and preservation of biodiversity and its associated knowledge is necessary which could generate further research activities. Ocimum sanctum is the most frequently cited medicinal plant with Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) 0.44 followed by Acorus calamus L. (0.41), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (0.40), Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (0.38), and Mentha spicata L. (0.37) and the Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) was found to be highest for digestive alignment category (0.8) and lowest for ear (0.00). The pharmacological and phytochemical studies of these medicinal plants should be carried out for their scientific validation. Keywords: Diseases and ailments, Ethnomedicine, Indigenous knowledge, Medicinal plants, Puranchaur
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • "Ad aspera ad astra - 40 years of (Ethno)botany": an interview with Rainer
           W. Bussmann, Co-Editor in Chief of ERA

    • Authors: Maroof Ali
      Pages: 1 - 52
      Abstract: An interview with Rainer W. Bussmann, Full Professor of Ethnobotany and Head of the Department of Ethnobotany at the Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Georgia and co-director of Saving Knowledge. His work focuses on ethnobotanical research and the preservation of traditional knowledge, in the Andes, the Caucasus, and the Himalayas.
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Ethnobiology of Mountain Communities in Asia -A Book Review

    • Authors: Zubair A. Malik
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Ethnobiology of Mountain Communities in Asia, Abbasi, A. M., & Bussmann, R. W. (Eds.). (2021) Springer Nature Switzerland. xiv + 439 pp. (Hardcover). EUR 149.99. ISBN: 978-3-030-55493-4;
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55494-1 The book under review (Ethnobiology of Mountain Communities in Asia) is a part of the book series, Ethnobiology. So far, twelve volumes of this series have been published since 2015 (https://www.springer.com/series/11551). Ethnobiology is the study of the dynamic relationship between plants, animals, people, and the environment. Contemporary ethnobiological research is grounded in respect for all cultures, embracing the principles of prior informed consent, benefit sharing, and general mindfulness.
      PubDate: 2022-02-20
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Medicinal plants species used in male circumcision among the Bagishu of
           Eastern Uganda

    • Authors: Godwin Upoki Anywar, Gloria Nakitende
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Background: Plants have long been used in traditional medicine and in cultural practices such as circumcision. Circumcision is one of the oldest and most widely performed procedures globally. Although male circumcision among the Bagishu in Eastern Uganda has been widely studied, these studies have focused on social and cultural aspects of the ritual. No study has ever investigated the medicinal plant species used during the process despite their widespread use and importance. Methods: An ethnobotanical study was conducted in Sironko district, in Eastern Uganda, to document the medicinal plants used by the Bagishu during the male circumcision ritual. Semi-structured questionnaires were used for data collection. Fifteen traditional practitioners were identified using the snowball technique and interviewed. Results: Four medicinal plant were used in male circumcision, namely: Cissampelos mucronata A.Rich, Conyza sumatrensis (S.F.Blake) Pruski & G.Sancho, Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl, and Urtica massaica Mildbr. These herbs are either administered orally or applied topically on wounds. C. mucronata was the most frequently used plant for wound healing. It is also believed to give courage and embolden young men before circumcision. Conclusion: The Bagishu use medicinal plants during circumcision rituals mainly for treating wounds and stopping bleeding. This knowledge is on the verge of being lost despite its potential economic and health benefits in terms of wound healing. Key words: Traditional practitioners, male circumcision, medicinal plants, Uganda
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in Sidi Bennour region
           (Central Morocco)

    • Authors: Abdelghani Aboukhalaf, Manal Tbatou, Adil Kalili, Kaoutar Naciri, Sara Moujabbir, Khadija Sahel, João Miguel Rocha, Rekia Belahsen
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Background: This study aimed to protect the knowledge related to the traditional uses of wild plant resources which constituted untapped potential as dietary supplements and therapeutic products Methods: An ethnobotanical survey based on the Semi-Structured Interview method was carried out among the Sidi Bennour region from February 2019 to February 2020. Results: The results showed that a total of 56 plant species representing 56 genera and 27 families were used to make different food dishes and in the treatment of various diseases. The most cited wild edible plants (WEPs) families were Asteraceae (16%). The leaves (38%) and stems (32%) were the most parts commonly used in food. Four utilization categories were cited, vegetables, for seasoning, as a drink, and Other (plants used to decorate or flavor traditional dishes). The use of these WEPs as vegetables was the most cited mode of consumption (37.5%) by the local population. The leaves were the most commonly used part (35%) for medicinal uses of WEPs. Decoction (27.27%) was the most common method of preparing traditional medicines. The majority of preparations were administered orally (80.25%). The study results showed also that local people have sufficient information on the safe use of WEPs. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the people of the Sidi Bennour region, hold rich traditional knowledge of a large number of WEPs, however, the study population underlined the sharp decline in the consumption of most of the species recorded consequently the detailed documentation may effectively prevent knowledge loss through time. Keywords: ethnobotanical survey, Wild edible plants, relative frequency index of citation, phytotherapy, beqoula, Sidi Bennour, Morocco
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • The subalpine and alpine vegetation of the Georgian Caucasus - a first
           ethnobotanical and phytosociological synopsis

    • Authors: George Nakhutsrishvili, Ketevan Batsatsashvili, Rainer W Bussmann, Inayat Ur Rahman, Robbie E Hart, Marifatul Haq
      Pages: 1 - 60
      Abstract: Background: The Republic of Georgia is part of the Caucasus biodiversity hotspot, and human agricultural plant use dates back at least 6000 years. Over the last years lots of ethnobotanical research on the area has been published. In this paper we analyze the use of food plants in the 80% of Georgia not occupied by Russian forces. We hypothesized that, (1) given the long tradition of plant use, and the isolation under Soviet rule, plant use both based on home gardens and wild harvesting would be more pronounced in Georgia than in the wider region, (2) food plant use knowledge would be widely and equally spread in most of Georgia, (3) there would still be incidence of knowledge loss despite wide plant use, especially in climatically favored agricultural regions in Western and Eastern Georgia. The alpine vegetation of the Caucasus hotspot has fascinated botanists for centuries. Given the very complicated biogeographic setting, a concise classification of vegetation communities has however eluded science so far. Methods: The present work, based on 619 plots, is the first study to attempt a concise phytosociological classification. Even given this large number of samples a complete vegetation classification still proved difficult, and more releveés are needed for a detailed assessment, following Braun-Blanquet. It is also the first attempt to give an overview on plant uses in the alpine and subalpine areas of Georgia. For plant uses we employed the very large dataset that we gathered all over Georgia interviewing over 300 participants from 2014-2019. For the vegetation analysis we employed traditional phytosociological table work combined with an analysis based on species composition, coverage and abiotic factors using "R", compared to a classification using "Twinspan". From 2013 to 2019 we also interviewed over 380 participants in all regions of Georgia not occupied by Russian forces. All interviews were carried out in the participants’ homes and gardens by native speakers of Georgian and its dialects (Imeretian, Rachian, Lechkhumian, Tush, Khevsurian, Psavian, Kakhetian), other Kartvelian languages (Megrelian, Svan) and minority languages (Ossetian, Ude, Azeri, Armenian, Greek). Results: We found that 183 species of the subalpine and alpine flora, representing about 33% of all species encountered in the vegetation survey, had reported uses. The usage of alpine and subalpine species in Georgia is mostly focused on the use of the plants as fodder, which is unsurprising. Green crops such as Lactuca sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha x piperita, Allium cepa, and Artemisia dracunculus are grown virtually everywhere. Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Solanum melongena, and Zea mays, all introduced species, were discovered to be popular elements in local cuisine. In human and veterinary medicine, however, Matricaria chamomilla, Berberis vulgaris, and Juniperus hemisphaerica are still used. There are two vegetation classes: Bromopsis variegatae - Festucaetea ovinea (Class. nov.) (Subalpine pastures), which has seven orders and twelve alliances/eighteen associations, and Sympoholoma graveolensis - Saxifragetea exaratae (Class. nov.) (Alpine pastures), which has one order, two alliances, and four associations. Conclusions: The alpine and subalpine vegetation of the Greater Caucasus and its uses were assessed in detail for the first time, highlighting the still existing gaps in both phytosociological and ethnobotanical work. Given the establishment of borders in post-soviet independence, it will be interesting to see how long this original cross-cultural knowledge will remain, given that the actual use of the traditional knowledge, as well as cross-border high altitude pastoralism are declining. Keywords: Republic of Georgia, Caucasus, Traditional Knowledge
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • "Cómo me convertí en etnobotánica" una entrevista con el Editor
           Asociado de ERA Dr. Narel Paniagua-Zambrana

    • Authors: Maroof Ali
      Pages: 1 - 94
      Abstract: Una entrevista con Narel Paniagua-Zambrana, investigadora principal del Departamento de Etnobotánica del Instituto de Botánica de la Universidad Estatal de Ilia, Georgia, investigadora asociado del Herbario Nacional de Bolivia y co-directora de Saving Knowledge. Su trabajo se centra en la investigación etnobotánica y la preservación del conocimiento tradicional en los Andes, el Cáucaso y el Himalaya.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • "How I became an ethnobotanist" an interview with ERA Associate Editor Dr.
           Narel Paniagua Zambrana

    • Authors: Maroof Ali
      Pages: 1 - 92
      Abstract: An interview with Narel Paniagua-Zambrana, Senior Research of the Department of Ethnobotany at the Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Georgia, Associated Researcher of Herbario Nacional de Bolivia and co-director of Saving Knowledge. His work focuses on ethnobotanical research and the preservation of traditional knowledge, in the Andes, the Caucasus, and the Himalayas.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Ethnobotanical inventory and therapeutic applications of plants traded in
           the Ho Central Market, Ghana

    • Authors: Maxwell Kwame Boakye, Alfred Ofori Agyemang, Bernard Kofi Turkson, Edward Debrah Wiafe, Michael Frimpong Baidoo, Marcel Tunkumgnen Bayor
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: Background: For therapeutic purposes, local markets serve as the main trading center of medicinal plants for both traditional medicine practitioners and the general public. However, there is still limited information about the plant species and their derivatives traded outside larger markets in major cities. This study aimed to take inventory of the plant species traded for medicinal purposes in a traditional market outside a major city and determine their applications through vendors’ familiarization. Methods: An inventory of plant species traded for medicinal purposes in the Ho Central Market was undertaken, coupled with a semi-structured interviews on their applications based on the vendor's familiarization. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices were used to determine the most culturally important species. Results: A total of 60 plant species from 37 families was documented to be traded in the Ho Central Market. The Adansonia digitata, Thaumatococcus daniellii and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides were recorded to have the highest frequency of citations. The highest use report (UR) and cultural importance (CI) values were recorded for Z. zanthoxyloides. Body pains, blood tonic (anemia), and abdominal pains were the most prominent conditions that traded plants were used to treat. Conclusion: The study revealed a total of 60 medicinal plants which is commonly sold in the Ho Central Market and other major markets in the country, which was attributed to idiosyncrasy in cultural knowledge about the application of the plants. The market served as a venue for information exchange and learning, resulting in the high uniformity of vendors' familiarization with plant application and that of traditional medicine practitioners. Keywords: Local market, Medicinal plants, Trade, Cultural importance, Traditional medicine, Body pains
      PubDate: 2022-01-16
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Brazilian cherry: identifying local knowledge and diversity of Eugenia
           involucrata in the countryside of Santa Catarina state/Brazil

    • Authors: Julia Goetten Wagner, Karine Louise Santos, Dilma Budziak, Rosa Lía Barbieri
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: Background: Eugenia involucrata (cerejeira do mato) is a fruit species from the Atlantic Forest Biome, which presents several potential uses; however, it is considered an endangered species. An ethnobotanical survey and physical-chemical evaluations were carried out in order to characterize the local knowledge about E. involucrata, the variability maintained by local communities and identify fruits with agronomic traits of interest. Methods: The study was conducted in the counties of Curitibanos, Frei Rogério, and Rio das Antas. Ethnographic research was used to gather ethnobotanical knowledge. Fruit samples from seven plants owned by family units were evaluated for diameter, height, pH, vitamin C, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids. Results: Nineteen family units were interviewed, where eleven use purposes and fifteen agricultural management practices were mentioned for Eugenia involucrata. The main criteria indicated by people interviewed for E. involucrata selection were “sweeter fruits,” “darker fruits” and “larger fruits.”. There was variability among the seven accessions of E. involucrata evaluated. The accessions 3.D, 4.MI, 5.MII and 6.G were the ones that best met the selection criteria. The affective bond, related to familiar or childhood traditions has contributed to the conservation of E. involucrata. Conclusions: The family units interviewed share a cultural relationship with E. involucrata, which has been perpetuated over generations through the continuous use of the species. Among the genetic variability maintained by the family units, the accessions 3.D, 4.MI, 5.MII and 6.G were those which best attend the selection criteria established. Keywords: cerejeira do Rio Grande, on-farm conservation, ethnobotany.
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Quantitative ethnomedicinal study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal
           plants used by the tribal communities of Central Kurram, Khyber
           Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Sayed Hussain, Wahid Hussain, Ashiq Nawaz, Lal Badshah, Ashgar Ali, Shariat Ullah, Maroof Ali, Hidayat Hussain, Rainer W Bussmann
      Pages: 1 - 31
      Abstract: Background: The use of plants for different ethnobotanical purposes is a common practice in the remote areas of developing countries, particularly in reference to human and animal healthcare. For this aim, it is important to document ethnomedicinal use of plants for human and livestock healthcare from unexplored regions. Objective: The current study aimed to document the use of medicinal plants and to assess their conservation status. We hypothesized that Central Kurram, due to its remoteness and maintenance of traditions would show distinct differences in medicinal plant use in comparison to other areas of Pakistan. Method: The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and  was analyzed using various quantitative indices including use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (ICF) and family importance value (FIV). Plant samples were collected identified and then processed as voucher specimens following standard ethnobotanical practice. Results: One hundred twenty participants including 80 men and 40 women were interviewed. The participants reported a total of 106 plant species, belonging to 96 genera and 50 families. There were two families of pteridophytes (2 species), 2 families of gymnosperm (4 species) and 100 species belonging to 46 families of angiosperms. The local population used therapeutic plants to heal 114 different diseases in 19 aliment categories in the study area.  A total of 106 species belonging to 50 families were documented as used to treat different types of illness. The UV ranged from 0.01 (Artemisia scoparia and Malva sylvestris) to 0.75 (Conyza canadensis). The RFC varied from 0.025 (Hyoscyamus niger and Senecio crysanthemoides) to 1.992 (Ephedra intermedia). The species with 100% FL were Astragalus stocksii and Artemisia scoparia, while the FCI ranged from 0 to 1 for insecticides and acoustic disorders. The conservation assessment revealed that 49 plant species were vulnerable, followed by rare (34 spp.), infrequent (7 spp.), Dominant (5spp.) And 5 endangered species.   Conclusion: The current study showed that Central Kurram has a significant diversity of medicinal plant, and the use of medicinal plants and plant-based remedies is still common in the area. A total of 106 medicinal plant species, belonging to 50 families were documented for the treatment of 114 disorders.   The residents used medicinal plants in treatment of important diseases such as Covid-19, cancer, dysentery, as diuretic, wound healing, and sexual diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Prospects for the introduction of Ferula tadshikorum Pimenov in the
           conditions of the Tashkent region

    • Authors: Dilovar T. Khamraeva, Olim Khojimatov, Rainer W. Bussmann, Alisher Khujanov, Zokir Kosimov
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Background: Ferula species are used for a wide variety of purposes from the Middle East to the Himalayas. This paper provides information on the biological features and ontogenesis of the promising medicinal plant Ferula tadshikorum Pimenov during the introduction in the conditions of the Tashkent Botanical Garden. Methods: The features of morphological development of the studied ontogenetic states were recorded during similar periods of vegetation in 2019-2021 in two variants of treatment. Under the conditions of introduction, 2 growth periods (latent, virginal) and 4 age classes (seedlings, juvenile, immature and virginal plants) were documented in plant ontogenesis. Results: According to our study, a rapid transition from one to the next age state was found in introduced specimens. This is an important factor for the establishment of agrocenoses needed to obtain raw material in a significantly shorter time. The results of the study show the success of the introduction of Ferula tadshikorum in the conditions of the Tashkent Botanical Garden, although the new growth conditions differed from natural soil and climatic characteristics. The collection of this species in the Garden can now serve as a basis for plantations in natural growing conditions. Conclusion: The obtained experimental data can be used as a basis for the development of agricultural techniques and technologies for growing this plant in introduced conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes and
           hypertension used in communities near Fathala Forest, Senegal

    • Authors: Mariama Diop, Fatimata Niang-Diop , Sara Danièle Dieng , Abdoulaye Samb, Gilberta Elisa Djidiambone Manga , Ansoumana Papa Sané , Mayacine Badara Sène , Bienvenu Sambou, Assane Goudiaby, Eric Arnaud Diatta
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes and hypertension are serious health issues, and both are predicted to increase, particularly in Africa. The objectives of this study are to (1) identify plants used to treat diabetes and hypertension and (2) characterize their therapeutic uses based on ethnobotanical information. Methods: Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with traditional healers, patients, nurses and other actors near Fathala Classified Forest in western Senegal. Data were processed using content analysis. Citation frequency (CF) was used to determine importance of each species. Results: A total of 38 species were used to treat diabetes and hypertension. These belong to 34 genera and 21 families. Eighteen species were used to treat both diabetes and hypertension, 12 were used to treat hypertension and eight to treat diabetes. The most used plant parts were leaves (56%) bark (10%) and roots (10%). Preparation of the medicine mainly consisted of decoction (45%), infusion (17%) and maceration (15%) and most medicines were taken as a drink (76%). The most used species in the treatment of diabetes are Terminalia avicennioides (FC= 69%), Sclerocarya birrea (FC=23 %) and Cocos nucifera (FC=15%). Moringa oleifera (FC=46,15%), Oxytenanthera abyssinica (FC=30,76%) and Detarium microcarpum (FC=23,07%) are mainly used against hypertension. Combretaceae (28,57%), Fabaceae (28,57%) and Anacardiaceae (19,05%), are most represented families. Conclusion: A diversity of native plants were used as antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicine. Ethnobotanical knowledge could constitute a foundation for identifying new active ingredients for developing new or improved medicine. Key words: Africa, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge.
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Entre a tradição e a modernidade: a relação entre as benzedeiras e as
           plantas medicinais em um centro urbano no sul do Brasil

    • Authors: Camila Fabiana da Silva, Sofia Zank
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Introdução: A benzedura é uma prática tradicional de saúde presente tanto em áreas rurais quanto urbanas do Brasil. Diversos estudos etnobotânicos ressaltam que os praticantes possuem um vasto conhecimento sobre as plantas medicinais, porém ainda é necessário ampliar as investigações sobre a importância da prática e as formas de transmissão dos conhecimentos frente à modernidade.  Neste contexto, este estudo foi realizado em uma região urbana de Florianópolis (SC) onde buscamos investigar as doenças tratadas por benzeduras, as plantas utilizadas nesta prática e o processo de transmissão cultural do conhecimento. Métodos: Realizamos entrevistas com onze benzedeiras da região leste de Florianópolis. A coleta de informações foi realizada através de protocolos semi-estruturados com lista-livre de plantas, e a coleta e identificação botânica das plantas citadas. Os dados foram analisados através de estatística descritiva. Resultados: Foram levantadas 34 tipos de doenças e males que são tratados através de benzeduras. Para o tratamento e cura desses males foi registrado o uso de 24 espécies de plantas medicinais, sendo as mais citadas: Ruta graveolens (6 citações), Rosmarinus officinalis (3) e Petiveria alliacea (3). Sobre as formas de transmissão do conhecimento, a maioria das entrevistadas (46%) aprenderam na infância, 36% na fase adulta através de cursos e 18% na juventude. Ao longo das entrevistas percebemos que estão surgindo novas formas de transmitir os conhecimentos, onde os cursos e os aplicativos de celulares estão ganhando importância. Conclusões: A prática da benzedura continua exercendo um papel importante na saúde das comunidades da região leste da Ilha de Santa Catarina e está passando por adaptações frente à modernidade. É importante que estudos futuros investiguem o efeito das tecnologias nesta prática e as possíveis implicações na resiliência ou vulnerabilidade destes sistemas de saúde. Palavras-chave: Benzedeiras, etnobotânica, práticas de saúde, conhecimento ecológico local, plantas medicinais.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • ერთიანობა
           მრავალფეროვნებაში -
           საქართველოს საკვები
           მცენარეები და სოკოები

    • Authors: რაინერ ვ. ბუსმან, ნარელ ი. პანიაგუა სამბრანა, ინაიატ ურ რაჰმან, ზაალ კიკვიძე, შალვა სიხარულიძე, დავით ქიქოძე, დავით ჭელიძე, მანანა ხუციშვილი, ქეთევან ბაცაცაშვილი
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Bussmann, RW; Paniagua Zambrana, NY; Ur Rahman, I; Kikvidze, Z; Sikharulidze, S; Kikodze, D; Tchelidze, D; Khutsishvili, M; Batsatsashvili, K (2021). Unity in diversity - Food plants and fungi of Sakartvelo (Republic of Georgia), Caucasus. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 17(72). doi: 10.1186/s13002-021-00490-9 შესავალი: საქართველო ეკუთვნის კავკასიის ბიომრავალფეროვნების კერას, სადაც ადამიანების მიერ სამიწათმოქმედო მცენარეების გამოყენება სულ ცოტა 6000 წელს ითვლის. ბოლო წლებში ამ რეგიონიდან ბევრი შრომა გამოქვეყნდა. ამ სტატიაში ჩვენ ვაანალიზებთ საკვებ მცენარეებს საქართველოს ტერიტორიის იმ 80% პროცენტიდან, რომელიც რუსულ საოკუპაციო ჯარებს არ უკავიათ. ჩვენი ჰიპოთეზით: (1) მცენარეების გამოყენების ხანგრძლივი ტრადიციისა და საბჭოთა წლებში ქვეყნის იზოლაციის გამო, როგორც ბაღბოსტანში მოყვანილი, ისე ტყეში შეგროვილი მცენარეების გამოყენება უფრო გამოხატული იქნებოდა საქართველოში, ვიდრე მის გარეთ ამ რეგიონში, (2) მცენარეებისა და მათი გამოყენების ცოდნა ფართოდ და თანაბრად იქნებოდა გავრცელებული საქართველოს უდიდეს ნაწილში და (3) მიუხედავად მცენარეების ფართო გამოყენებისა, მაინც იქნებოდა ამ ცოდნის კარგვის შემთხვევები, განსაკუთრებით აღმოსავლეთ და დასავლეთ საქართველოს კლიმატურად ხელსაყრელ სამიწათმოქმედო რეგიონებში. მეთოდები: 2013-2019 წწ. გამოვკითხეთ 380 რესპ...
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1186/s13002-021-00490-9
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
  • Between tradition and modernity: the relationship among healers and
           medicinal plants in an urban center in southern Brazil.

    • Authors: Camila Fabiana da Silva, Sofia Zank
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Background: Blessing (or benzedura) is a traditional health practice present in both rural and urban areas of Brazil. Several ethnobotanical studies demonstrate that practitioners have a vast knowledge of medicinal plants; however, it is still necessary to expand research to include the importance of the practice and the ways knowledge is transmitted when facing modernity. Thus, this study was conducted in an urban region of Florianopolis (SC) where we sought to investigate the diseases treated by blessings, the plants used in this practice, and the process of cultural transmission. Methods: We conducted interviews with eleven healers from the eastern region of Florianopolis. Information was collected through semi-structured protocols with a free list of plants, and the botanical collection and identification of mentioned plants. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 34 types of diseases and ailments that are treated through blessings were cited. For the treatment and cure of these ailments, the use of 24 species of medicinal plants was recorded, the most cited were Ruta graveolens (6 citations), Rosmarinus officinalis (3) and Petiveria alliacea (3). In terms of knowledge transmission, most respondents (46%) learned in childhood, 36% learned in adulthood through course, and 18% learned in adolescence. During the interviews, we noticed that new ways of transmitting knowledge are emerging, where courses and mobile applications are gaining importance. Conclusions: The practice of blessing continues to play an important role in the health of communities in the eastern region of Santa Catarina Island, and it is undergoing modernizing adaptations. It is important that future studies investigate the effect of technologies on this practice and the possible implications for the resilience or vulnerability of these health systems. Keywords: Blessings, ethnobotany, health practices, local ecological knowledge, medicinal plants.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2022)
       
 
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