Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biology Open     Open Access  
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioma : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomarkers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biomass and Bioenergy     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomaterials Advances     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Biomath     Open Access  
Biomatter     Open Access  
Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BioMetals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biometrical Letters     Open Access  
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biomimetic Intelligence and Robotics     Open Access  
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Bionature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biopreservation and Biobanking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bioresource Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access  
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biosemiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Biosensors and Bioelectronics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioseparation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biosfer : Jurnal Biologi dan Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
Biosfer : Jurnal Tadris Biologi     Open Access  
BioSocieties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biospecies     Open Access  
BIOspektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosystematics and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biosystems Diversity     Open Access  
Biota Amazônia     Open Access  
Biota Neotropica     Open Access  
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotropia : The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology     Open Access  
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Birth Defects Research     Hybrid Journal  
BJHM Open Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 119)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
BMC Molecular and Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Boletín Científico : Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural     Open Access  
Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas     Open Access  
Boletín Micológico     Open Access  
Bone Reports     Open Access  
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Breastfeeding Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Brittonia     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caldasia     Open Access  
Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries     Open Access  
Cancer Biology & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cancer Cell International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Carbon Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caryologia : International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics     Partially Free  
Caucasiana     Open Access  
Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1152)
Cell Adhesion & Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cell and Tissue Banking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cell and Tissue Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell and Tissue Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cell Biology Education     Free   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology International Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Calcium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Communication & Adhesion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Cycle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cell Death and Differentiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cell Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Genomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cell Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Cell Proliferation     Open Access  
Cell Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Cell Reports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cell Reports Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cell Stress and Chaperones     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cell Surface     Open Access  
Cell Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cells & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cells Tissues Organs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cellular Logistics     Full-text available via subscription  
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cellular Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Reprogramming     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular Signalling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ceylon Journal of Science     Open Access  
Channels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Check List : The Journal of Biodiversity Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chemosensory Perception     Hybrid Journal  
Chirality     Hybrid Journal  
Chromosoma     Hybrid Journal  
Chromosome Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia     Open Access  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cladistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Dysmorphology     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Phytoscience     Open Access  
Clinical Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coevolution     Open Access  
Cogent Biology     Open Access  
Cognitive Neurodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Communication in Biomathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Biology     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Communications Materials     Open Access  
Communicative & Integrative Biology     Open Access  
Community Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comptes Rendus : Chimie     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Biologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering : Imaging & Visualization     Hybrid Journal  
Computers in Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Connective Tissue Research     Hybrid Journal  
Contact (CTC)     Open Access  
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CRISPR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Crustaceana     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cryobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.324
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  

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ISSN (Online) 2079-7737
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 944: N6-Methyladenosine Methylome Profiling of
           Muscle and Adipose Tissues Reveals Methylase–mRNA Metabolic
           Regulatory Networks in Fat Deposition of Rex Rabbits

    • Authors: Gang Luo, Shuhui Wang, Yaotian Ai, Jiapeng Li, Zhanjun Ren
      First page: 944
      Abstract: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent internal form of modification in messenger RNA in higher eukaryotes and plays an important role in cancer, immunity, reproduction, development, and fat deposition. Intramuscular fat is the main factor used to measure the meat quality of an animal. The deposition of intramuscular fat and perirenal fat increases with age. However, there is no data on m6A modification of Rex rabbits and its potential biological roles in adipose deposition and muscle growth. Here, we performed two high-throughput sequencing methods, m6A-modified RNA immunoprecipitation sequence (MeRIP-seq) and RNA sequence (RNA-seq), to identify key genes with m6A modification on fat deposition in the muscle and adipose tissues of Rex rabbits. Then, qRT-PCR was used to identify the differently methylated genes related to fat deposition. Our findings showed that there were 12,876 and 10,973 m6A peaks in the rabbit muscle and adipose tissue transcriptomes, respectively. Stop codons, 3′-untranslated regions, and coding regions were found to be mainly enriched for m6A peaks. In addition, we found 5 differential methylases and 12 key genes of methylation modification related to fat deposition between muscle and adipose tissues samples. The expression levels of six random key genes were significantly higher in the fat than that in the muscle of Rex rabbits at different stages (p < 0.01). Finally, five differential methylases were found to regulate adipogenesis by affecting the expression of screened genes in different ways. These findings provided a theoretical basis for our future research on the function of m6A modification during the growth of fat deposits.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070944
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 945: Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect and
           Cytoplasmic Irradiation Studies with Microbeams

    • Authors: Ziqi Zhang, Kui Li, Mei Hong
      First page: 945
      Abstract: Although direct damage to nuclear DNA is considered as the major contributing event that leads to radiation-induced effects, accumulating evidence in the past two decades has shown that non-target events, in which cells are not directly irradiated but receive signals from the irradiated cells, or cells irradiated at extranuclear targets, may also contribute to the biological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation. With a beam diameter at the micrometer or sub-micrometer level, microbeams can precisely deliver radiation, without damaging the surrounding area, or deposit the radiation energy at specific sub-cellular locations within a cell. Such unique features cannot be achieved by other kinds of radiation settings, hence making a microbeam irradiator useful in studies of a radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) and cytoplasmic irradiation. Here, studies on RIBE and different responses to cytoplasmic irradiation using microbeams are summarized. Possible mechanisms related to the bystander effect, which include gap-junction intercellular communications and soluble signal molecules as well as factors involved in cytoplasmic irradiation-induced events, are also discussed.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070945
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 946: Cytokine Profiling among Children with
           Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome versus Simple COVID-19 Infection: A
           Study from Northwest Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Hany M. Abo-Haded, Amer M. Alshengeti, Abdulsalam D. Alawfi, Saad Q. Khoshhal, Khalid M. Al-Harbi, Mohammad D. Allugmani, Dina S. El-Agamy
      First page: 946
      Abstract: Background: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a novel syndrome associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with varying clinical features. This study aimed to analyze the expression profiles of cytokines in blood, report the important clinical characteristics, and correlate these with the short- and mid-term outcomes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on hospitalized children with MIS-C from March 2021 to May 2022. Phenotypes were classified into two groups (A,B) according to the severity of the disease and the need for invasive respiratory support. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, and outcomes were reported. Results: We identified 60 children with MIS-C (mean age of 7.4 ± 3.8 years) compared to 30 age- and sex-matched controls with simple COVID-19. The clinical manifestations of MIS-C patients were fever (100%), respiratory (83.3%), GIT (80%), and conjunctivitis (80%). Twenty-seven MIS-C children (45%) required PICU admission due to shock and needed mechanical ventilation. Anemia, lymphopenia, and elevated levels of inflammatory and tissue injury markers were observed in the MIS-C groups (mainly B). High cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-α, GM-CSF, and HMGB1) were observed acutely in the MIS-C children, and a persistent elevation of some cytokines were reported at midterm follow-up, especially in Group B. Conclusion: Robust inflammatory response to COVID-19 disease with elevated IL-1β, IL-6, and GM-CSF levels might explain the severity and outcome of the clinical syndrome.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070946
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 947: Comparison between the Impacts of Memory and
           Arithmetic-Based Dual Tasks on Physical Performance in Women with

    • Authors: Jesús Sánchez-Gómez, Santos Villafaina, Francisco Javier Domínguez-Muñoz, Juan Luis Leon-Llamas, Alvaro Murillo-Garcia, Narcis Gusi
      First page: 947
      Abstract: Background: Fibromyalgia symptoms have a significant impact on the ability to perform activities of daily living. These activities require the ability to perform two or more tasks at the same time, which is known as a dual task. Purpose: To analyze physical and cognitive performance differences between memory and arithmetic dual tasks. Methods: Twenty-five women with fibromyalgia participated in this study. Participants performed three physical tests (back scratch, arm curl, and 10-step stair) as a single task and under two types of dual task (memory and arithmetic). Results: Differences between the single and dual tasks were observed in the back scratch and the 10-step stair tests using the arithmetic dual-task. Significant differences were only observed for the memory dual-task in the 10-step stair test. In addition, the performance in the back scratch and in the 10-step stair was significantly lower under the arithmetic compared to the memory-based dual task. Furthermore, a significant difference between these two types of dual task was obtained in the dual-task cost of 10-step stair. Regarding cognitive performance, a significantly lower percentage of correct responses was found in the AbDT compared to the MbDT in the 10-step stair test. Conclusions: the AbDT could have a higher impact on physical performance than the MbDT during the back scratch and the 10-step stair tests. The characteristics of the sample, environment, complexity of the motor task, and difficulty of the simultaneous cognitive task may also be relevant for understanding the differences in dual-task interference.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070947
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 948: Temporal Skin Temperature as an Indicator of
           Cardiorespiratory Fitness Assessed with Selected Methods

    • Authors: Agnieszka Danuta Jastrzębska, Rafal Hebisz, Paulina Hebisz
      First page: 948
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine whether there are associations between cardiovascular fitness (and aerobic capacity) and changes in temporal skin temperature during and after a single bout of high-intensity exercise. Twenty-three men with varying levels of physical activity (VO2max: 59.03 ± 11.19 (ml/kg/min), body mass 71.5 ± 10.4 (kg), body height 179 ± 8 (cm)) participated in the study. Each subject performed an incremental test and, after a 48-h interval, a 110%Pmax power test combined with an analysis of the thermal parameters, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability. Thermal radiation density from the body surface (temple) was measured using a Sonel KT384 thermal imaging camera immediately after warm-up (Tb), immediately after exercise (Te) and 120 sec after the end of exercise (Tr). The differences between measurements were then calculated. The correlation analysis between the thermal and cardiovascular function parameters during the recovery period showed strong positive associations between the Tr-Te difference and measures of cardiovascular fitness (50 < r < 69, p < 0.05). For example, the correlation coefficient between Tr-Te and VO2max reached 0.55 and between Tr-Te and Pmax reached 0.68. The results obtained indicate that the measurement of temporal temperature during and after an intense 3-min bout of exercise can be used to assess aerobic physical capacity and cardiovascular fitness.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070948
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 949: Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of
           Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus aureus from Different Food Sources in

    • Authors: Fatimah Muhammad Ballah, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Liton Rana, Farhana Binte Ferdous, Rokeya Ahmed, Pritom Kumar Pramanik, Jarna Karmoker, Samina Ievy, Md. Abdus Sobur, Mahbubul Pratik Siddique, Mst. Minara Khatun, Marzia Rahman, Md. Tanvir Rahman
      First page: 949
      Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a major foodborne pathogen. The ability of S. aureus to produce biofilm is a significant virulence factor, triggering its persistence in hostile environments. In this study, we screened a total of 420 different food samples and human hand swabs to detect S. aureus and to determine their biofilm formation ability. Samples analyzed were meat, milk, eggs, fish, fast foods, and hand swabs. S. aureus were detected by culturing, staining, biochemical, and PCR. Biofilm formation ability was determined by Congo Red Agar (CRA) plate and Crystal Violet Microtiter Plate (CVMP) tests. The icaA, icaB, icaC, icaD, and bap genes involved in the synthesis of biofilm-forming intracellular adhesion compounds were detected by PCR. About 23.81% (100/420; 95% CI: 14.17–29.98%) of the samples harbored S. aureus, as revealed by detection of the nuc gene. The CRA plate test revealed 20% of S. aureus isolates as strong biofilm producers and 69% and 11% as intermediate and non-biofilm producers, respectively. By the CVMP staining method, 20%, 77%, and 3% of the isolates were found to be strong, intermediate, and non-biofilm producers. Furthermore, 21% of S. aureus isolates carried at least one biofilm-forming gene, where icaA, icaB, icaC, icaD, and bap genes were detected in 15%, 20%, 7%, 20%, and 10% of the S. aureus isolates, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed highly significant correlations (p < 0.001) between any of the two adhesion genes of S. aureus isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Bangladesh describing the detection of biofilm-forming S. aureus from foods and hand swabs using molecular-based evidence. Our findings suggest that food samples should be deemed a potential reservoir of biofilm-forming S. aureus, which indicates a potential public health significance.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070949
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 950: Ferroptosis-Related Proteins Are Potential
           Diagnostic Molecular Markers for Patients with Preeclampsia

    • Authors: Meiting Shi, Xiaofeng Yang, Yuzhen Ding, Lu Sun, Ping Zhang, Mengyuan Liu, Xiaoxue Han, Zhengrui Huang, Ruiman Li
      First page: 950
      Abstract: Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Early and accurate diagnosis is critical to reduce mortality. Placental oxidative stress has been identified as a major pathway to the development of PE. Ferroptosis, a new form of regulated cell death, is associated with iron metabolism and oxidative stress, and has been suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology of PE, although the mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The identification of potential ferroptosis-related biomarkers is of great significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of PE. A gene expression dataset of peripheral blood samples was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were filtrated with the R package “limma”. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of the DEGs were then conducted. Ferroptosis-related DEGs were screened by overlapping the ferroptosis-related genes with DEGs. The protein–protein interaction (PPI) network was used to identify the key ferroptosis-related DEGs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to validate changes in the selected key ferroptosis-related DEGs. The correlations between the key genes and clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed. Finally, the diagnostic value of these key genes for PE was confirmed by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 5913 DEGs were identified and 45 ferroptosis-related DEGs were obtained. Besides, ferroptosis-related pathways were enriched by KEGG using DEGs. The PPI network showed that p53 and c-Jun were the critical hub genes. ELISA showed that p53 in the serum of PE patients was higher than that of the control group, while c-Jun was lower than that of the control group. Analysis of the clinicopathological features showed that p53 and c-Jun were correlated with the PE characteristics. Finally, based on the area under curve (AUC) values, c-Jun had the superior diagnostic power (AUC = 0.87, p < 0.001), followed by p53 (AUC = 0.75, p < 0.001). Our study identified that two key genes, p53 and c-Jun, might be potential diagnostic biomarkers of PE.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070950
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 951: Improving the Accuracy of Diagnosis for
           Multiple-System Atrophy Using Deep Learning-Based Method

    • Authors: Yasuhiro Kanatani, Yoko Sato, Shota Nemoto, Manabu Ichikawa, Osamu Onodera
      First page: 951
      Abstract: Multiple-system atrophy (MSA) is primarily an autonomic disorder with parkinsonism or cerebellar ataxia. Clinical diagnosis of MSA at an early stage is challenging because the symptoms change over the course of the disease. Recently, various artificial intelligence-based programs have been developed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of neurodegenerative diseases, but most are limited to the evaluation of diagnostic imaging. In this study, we examined the validity of diagnosis of MSA using a pointwise linear model (deep learning-based method). The goal of the study was to identify features associated with disease differentiation that were found to be important in deep learning. A total of 3377 registered MSA cases from FY2004 to FY2008 were used to train the model. The diagnostic probabilities of SND (striatonigral degeneration), SDS (Shy-Drager syndrome), and OPCA (olivopontocerebellar atrophy) were estimated to be 0.852 ± 0.107, 0.650 ± 0.235, and 0.858 ± 0.270, respectively. In the pointwise linear model used to identify and visualize features involved in individual subtypes, autonomic dysfunction was found to be a more prominent component of SDS compared to SND and OPCA. Similarly, respiratory failure was identified as a characteristic of SDS, dysphagia was identified as a characteristic of SND, and brain-stem atrophy was identified as a characteristic of OPCA.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070951
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 952: The Role of Serendipita indica
           (Piriformospora indica) in Improving Plant Resistance to Drought and
           Salinity Stresses

    • Authors: Mohammad Reza Boorboori, Hai-Yang Zhang
      First page: 952
      Abstract: Plant stress is one of the biggest threats to crops, causing irreparable damage to farmers’ incomes; Therefore, finding suitable, affordable, and practical solutions will help the agricultural economy and prevent the loss of millions of tons of agricultural products. Scientists have taken significant steps toward improving farm productivity in the last few decades by discovering how beneficial soil microorganisms enhance plant resistance to environmental stresses. Among these microorganisms is Serendipita indica, which the benefits of coexisting this fungus with plant roots have been extensively explored in recent years. By investigating fungus specification and its effects on plants’ morphological, physiological, and molecular traits, the present study seeks to understand how Serendipita indica affects plant resistance to salinity and drought conditions. Furthermore, this study attempts to identify the unknown mechanisms of action of the coexistence of Serendipita indica with plants in the face of stress using information from previous studies. Thus, it provides a way for future research to assess the impact of this fungus on tackling environmental stresses and enhancing agricultural productivity.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070952
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 953: The Complete Genome of the “Flavescence
           Dorée” Phytoplasma Reveals Characteristics of Low Genome

    • Authors: Christophe Debonneville, Léa Mandelli, Justine Brodard, Raphaël Groux, David Roquis, Olivier Schumpp
      First page: 953
      Abstract: Members of the genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ are obligate intracellular bacteria restricted to phloem sieve elements and are able to colonize several tissues and the hemolymph in their insect vectors. The current unfeasibility of axenic culture and the low complexity of genomic sequences are obstacles in assembling complete chromosomes. Here, a method combining pathogen DNA enrichment from infected insects and dual deep-sequencing technologies was used to obtain the complete genome of a phytoplasma causing Grapevine Flavescence dorée. The de novo assembly generated a circular chromosome of 654,223 bp containing 506 protein-coding genes. Quality assessment of the draft showed a high degree of completeness. Comparative analysis with other phytoplasmas revealed the absence of potential mobile units and a reduced amount of putative phage-derived segments, suggesting a low genome plasticity. Phylogenetic analyses identified Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi as the closest fully sequenced relative. The “Flavescence dorée” phytoplasma strain CH genome also encoded for several putative effector proteins potentially playing a role in pathogen virulence. The availability of this genome provides the basis for the study of the pathogenicity mechanisms and evolution of the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070953
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 954: Comparative DNA Methylome of Phytoplasma
           Associated Retrograde Metamorphosis in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

    • Authors: Pratima Verma, Amrita Singh, Supriya Purru, Kangila Venkataramana Bhat, Suman Lakhanpaul
      First page: 954
      Abstract: Phytoplasma-associated diseases such as phyllody and little leaf are critical threats to sesame cultivation worldwide. The mechanism of the dramatic conversion of flowers to leafy structures leading to yield losses and the drastic reduction in leaf size due to Phytoplasma infection remains yet to be identified. Cytosine methylation profiles of healthy and infected sesame plants studied using Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing (WGBS) and Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation with the real-time PCR (qAMP) technique revealed altered DNA methylation patterns upon infection. Phyllody was associated with global cytosine hypomethylation, though predominantly in the CHH (where H = A, T or C) context. Interestingly, comparable cytosine methylation levels were observed between healthy and little leaf-affected plant samples in CG, CHG and CHH contexts. Among the different genomic fractions, the highest number of differentially methylated Cytosines was found in the intergenic regions, followed by promoter, exonic and intronic regions in decreasing order. Further, most of the differentially methylated genes were hypomethylated and were mainly associated with development and defense-related processes. Loci for STOREKEEPER protein-like, a DNA-binding protein and PP2-B15, an F-Box protein, responsible for plugging sieve plates to maintain turgor pressure within the sieve tubes were found to be hypomethylated by WGBS, which was confirmed by methylation-dependent restriction digestion and qPCR. Likewise, serine/threonine-protein phosphatase-7 homolog, a positive regulator of cryptochrome signaling involved in hypocotyl and cotyledon growth and probable O-methyltransferase 3 locus were determined to be hypermethylated. Phytoplasma infection-associated global differential methylation as well as the defense and development-related loci reported here for the first time significantly elucidate the mechanism of phytoplasma-associated disease development.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070954
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 955: Vitamin C Is Essential for the Maintenance of
           Skeletal Muscle Functions

    • Authors: Shoko Takisawa, Yuka Takino, Jaewon Lee, Shuichi Machida, Akihito Ishigami
      First page: 955
      Abstract: Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, VC) is a water-soluble antioxidant essential for collagen polymerization. Previously, we reported that long-term VC deficiency causes muscle atrophy and deterioration in physical ability using female senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30)-deficient mice with a lack of VC synthesis, which is similar to that observed in humans. To determine whether these findings also hold true for male SMP30-deficient mice, two-month-old male SMP30-deficient mice were divided into two groups: the VC-treated group (VC(+)) was administered 1.5 g/L VC, and the VC-untreated group (VC(−)) was supplied water without VC. The VC level at four weeks in the gastrocnemius muscles from the VC(+) and VC(−) groups was 205.7 ± 8.5 nmol/g tissue and 13.1 ± 0.6 nmol/g tissue, respectively. Thus, four weeks was enough to reduce the VC level in the skeletal muscle in the VC-untreated group. On the other hand, muscle weights of the gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, tibialis anterior, and extensor digitorum longus in the VC(−) group were significantly reduced by VC deficiency after twelve weeks. The physical endurance of the VC(−) group at eight weeks was markedly lower than that of the VC(+) group. The grasping strength and activity in the cage in the nocturnal phases of the VC(−) group were markedly lower at twelve and sixteen weeks than those of the VC(+) group. Interestingly, muscle atrophy and declined physical ability were completely restored with VC supplementation for twelve weeks after VC deficiency. Thus, VC is essential for maintaining skeletal muscle function in both male and female SMP30-deficient mice with a lack of VC synthesis.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070955
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 956: The Role of p16/ Ki-67 Immunostaining, hTERC
           Amplification and Fibronectin in Predicting Cervical Cancer Progression: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Septimiu Toader Voidăzan, Caterina Dianzani, Mădălina Aurelia Husariu, Bíborka Geréd, Sabin Gligore Turdean, Cosmina Cristina Uzun, Zsolt Kovacs, Florin Francisc Rozsnyai, Nicoleta Neagu
      First page: 956
      Abstract: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are common sexually transmitted infectious agents responsible for several anogenital and head and neck cancers. Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth leading cause of death in women with cancer. The progression of a persistent HPV infection to cancer takes 15–20 years and can be preventable through screening. Cervical cytology (Pap smear) is the standard screening test for CC and precancerous lesions. For ASC-US and ASC-H lesions, a combination of Pap smear and HR-HPV analysis is recommended as a triage step before colposcopy. However, these tests cannot predict progression to CC. For this purpose, we summarized current scientific data on the role of p16/Ki-67 immunohistostaining, telomerase and fibronectin in predicting progression to CC. p16 and p16/Ki-67 dual staining (DS) were more specific than HR-HPV DNA testing for the detection of CIN2+/CIN3+ in women with ASC-US and LSIL. Similarly, hTERC FISH analysis significantly improved the specificity and positive predictive value of HPV DNA testing in differentiating CIN2+ from CIN2 cytological samples. In conclusion, p16 IHC, p16/Ki-67 DS and hTERC FISH amplification are all valid adjunctive biomarkers which significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of cervical dysplasia diagnosis, especially when combined with HPV DNA testing. However, considering the global socioeconomic background, we can postulate that p16 and p16/ Ki-67 IHC can be used as a next step after positive cytology for ASC-US or LSIL specimens in low-income countries, instead of HPV DNA testing. Alternatively, if HPV DNA testing is covered by insurance, p16 or p16/Ki-67 DS and HPV DNA co-testing can be performed. In middle- and high-income countries, hTERC amplification can be performed as an adjunctive test to HPV DNA testing in women with ASC-US and LSIL.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070956
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 957: Manganese Porphyrin Promotes Post Cardiac
           Arrest Recovery in Mice and Rats

    • Authors: Peng Wang, Ying Li, Baihui Yan, Zhong Yang, Litao Li, Zhipeng Cao, Xuan Li, Ines Batinic-Haberle, Ivan Spasojevic, David Warner, Huaxin Sheng
      First page: 957
      Abstract: Introduction Cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation induces global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, causing neurologic deficits or death. Manganese porphyrins, superoxide dismutase mimics, are reportedly able to effectively reduce ischemic injury in brain, kidney, and other tissues. This study evaluates the efficacy of a third generation lipophilic Mn porphyrin, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+, Mn(III) ortho meso-tetrakis (N-n-butoxyethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnBuOE, BMX-001), in both mouse and rat models of CA. Methods Forty-eight animals were subjected to 8 min of CA and resuscitated subsequently by chest compression and epinephrine infusion. Vehicle or MnBuOE was given immediately after resuscitation followed by daily subcutaneous injections. Body weight, spontaneous activity, neurologic deficits, rotarod performance, and neuronal death were assessed. Kidney tubular injury was assessed in CA mice. Data were collected by the investigators who were blinded to the treatment groups. Results Vehicle mice had a mortality of 20%, which was reduced by 50% by MnBuOE. All CA mice had body weight loss, spontaneous activity decline, neurologic deficits, and decreased rotarod performance that were significantly improved at three days post MnBuOE daily treatment. MnBuOE treatment reduced cortical neuronal death and kidney tubular injury in mice (p < 0.05) but not hippocampus neuronal death (23% MnBuOE vs. 34% vehicle group, p = 0.49). In rats, they had a better body-weight recovery and increased rotarod latency after MnBuOE treatment when compared to vehicle group (p < 0.01 vs. vehicle). MnBuOE-treated rats had a low percentage of hippocampus neuronal death (39% MnBuOE vs. 49% vehicle group, p = 0.21) and less tubular injury (p < 0.05) relative to vehicle group. Conclusions We demonstrated the ability of MnBuOE to improve post-CA survival, as well as functional outcomes in both mice and rats, which jointly account for the improvement not only of brain function but also of the overall wellbeing of the animals. While MnBuOE bears therapeutic potential for treating CA patients, the females and the animals with comorbidities must be further evaluated before advancing toward clinical trials.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070957
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 958: Evolvability in the Cephalothoracic
           Structural Complexity of Aegla araucaniensis (Crustacea: Decapoda)
           Determined by a Developmental System with Low Covariational Constraint

    • Authors: Erwin M. Barría, Hugo A. Benítez, Cristián E. Hernández
      First page: 958
      Abstract: The integration of complex structures is proportional to the intensity of the structural fusion; its consequences are better known than the covariational effects under less restrictive mechanisms. The synthesis of a palimpsest model based on two early parallel pathways and a later direct pathway explains the cephalothoracic complexity of decapod crustaceans. Using this model, we tested the evolvability of the developmental modularity in Aegla araucaniensis, an anomuran crab with an evident adaptive sexual dimorphism. The asymmetric patterns found on the landmark configurations suggest independent perturbations of the parallel pathways in each module and a stable asymmetry variance near the fusion by canalization of the direct pathway, which was more intense in males. The greater covariational flexibility imposed by the parallel pathways promotes the expression of gonadic modularity that favors the reproductive output in females and agonistic modularity that contributes to mating success in males. Under these divergent expressions of evolvability, the smaller difference between developmental modularity and agonistic modularity in males suggests higher levels of canalization due to a relatively more intense structural fusion. We conclude that: (1) the cephalothorax of A. araucaniensis is an evolvable structure, where parallel pathways promote sexual disruptions in the expressions of functional modularity, which are more restricted in males, and (2) the cephalothoracic palimpsest of decapods has empirical advantages in studying the developmental causes of evolution of complex structures.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070958
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 959: Response of Cyanic and Acyanic Lettuce
           Cultivars to an Increased Proportion of Blue Light

    • Authors: Laura Cammarisano, Oliver Körner
      First page: 959
      Abstract: Indoor crop cultivation systems such as vertical farms or plant factories necessitate artificial lighting. Light spectral quality can affect plant growth and metabolism and, consequently, the amount of biomass produced and the value of the produce. Conflicting results on the effects of the light spectrum in different plant species and cultivars make it critical to implement a singular lighting solution. In this study we investigated the response of cyanic and acyanic lettuce cultivars to an increased proportion of blue light. For that, we selected a green and a red leaf lettuce cultivar (i.e., ‘Aquino’, CVg, and ‘Barlach’, CVr, respectively). The response of both cultivars to long-term blue-enriched light application compared to a white spectrum was analyzed. Plants were grown for 30 days in a growth chamber with optimal environmental conditions (temperature: 20 °C, relative humidity: 60%, ambient CO2, photon flux density (PFD) of 260 µmol m−2 s−1 over an 18 h photoperiod). At 15 days after sowing (DAS), white spectrum LEDs (WW) were compared to blue-enriched light (WB; λPeak = 423 nm) maintaining the same PFD of 260 µmol m−2 s−1. At 30 DAS, both lettuce cultivars adapted to the blue light variant, though the adaptive response was specific to the variety. The rosette weight, light use efficiency, and maximum operating efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light, Fv/Fm’, were comparable between the two light treatments. A significant light quality effect was detected on stomatal density and conductance (20% and 17% increase under WB, respectively, in CVg) and on the modified anthocyanin reflectance index (mARI) (40% increase under WB, in CVr). Net photosynthesis response was generally stronger in CVg compared to CVr; e.g., net photosynthetic rate, Pn, at 1000 µmol m−2 s−1 PPFD increased from WW to WB by 23% in CVg, compared to 18% in CVr. The results obtained suggest the occurrence of distinct physiological adaptive strategies in green and red pigmented lettuce cultivars to adapt to the higher proportion of blue light environment.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070959
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 960: Mercury-Induced Oxidative Stress Response in
           Benthic Foraminifera: An In Vivo Experiment on Amphistegina lessonii

    • Authors: Caterina Ciacci, Michele Betti, Sigal Abramovich, Marco Cavaliere, Fabrizio Frontalini
      First page: 960
      Abstract: The evaluation of the effects of pollution (e.g., Hg pollution) is a difficult task and relies mostly on biomonitoring based on bioindicators. The application of biomarkers may represent a complementary or alternative approach in environmental biomonitoring. Mercury is known to pose a significant health hazard due to its ability to cross cellular membranes, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify. In the present research, the effects of short-term (i.e., 24 h) Hg exposure in the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminiferal species Amphistegina lessonii are evaluated using several biomarkers (i.e., proteins and enzymes). Mercury leads to significant changes in the biochemistry of cells. Its effects are mainly associated with oxidative stress (i.e., production of reactive oxygen species: ROS), depletion of glutathione (GSH), and alteration of protein synthesis. Specifically, our findings reveal that exposure to Hg leads to the consumption of GSH by GPx and GST for the scavenging of ROS and the activation of antioxidant-related enzymes, including SOD and GSH-enzymes (GST, GSR, GPx, and Se-GPx), that are directly related to a defense mechanism against ROS. The Hg exposure also activates the MAPK (e.g., p-p38) and HSP (e.g., HSP 70) pathways. The observed biochemical alterations associated with Hg exposure may represent effective and reliable proxies (i.e., biomarkers) for the evaluation of stress in A. lessonii and lead to a possible application for the detection of early warning signs of environmental stress in biomonitoring.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070960
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 961: Effects of Dominance and Sprint Interval
           Exercise on Testosterone and Cortisol Levels in Strength-, Endurance-, and
           Non-Training Men

    • Authors: Grzegorz Zurek, Natalia Danek, Alina Żurek, Judyta Nowak-Kornicka, Agnieszka Żelaźniewicz, Sylwester Orzechowski, Tadeusz Stefaniak, Magdalena Nawrat, Marta Kowal
      First page: 961
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the response of testosterone and cortisol to sprint interval exercises (SIEs) and to determine the role of dominance. The experiment was conducted in a group of 96 men, divided into endurance-training, strength-training, and non-training groups. Participants performed SIEs consisting of 5 × 10-s all-out bouts with a 50-s active recovery. Using the passive drool method, testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples at rest at 10 min pre and 12 min post exercise. Participants’ heart rate (HR) was measured during the whole exercise. Dominance was assessed by the participants before the study; the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured immediately after each bout. The study showed that those who trained in endurance and strength sports had significantly lower mean HRs after five acute 10-s interval bouts than those in the non-training group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.041, respectively). Dominance has an inverse relation to changes in HR; however, it has no relation to hormone response. No significant differences were observed in testosterone and cortisol changes in the endurance-training, strength-training, and non-training groups after SIE (p > 0.05), which may indicate that the exercise volume was too low.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070961
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 962: Alterations in Gut Microbiota and
           Upregulations of VPAC2 and Intestinal Tight Junctions Correlate with
           Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Electroacupuncture in Colitis Mice with Sleep

    • Authors: Geng-Hao Liu, Xin-Cheng Zhuo, Yueh-Hsiang Huang, Hsuan-Miao Liu, Ren-Chin Wu, Chia-Jung Kuo, Ning-Hung Chen, Li-Pang Chuang, Shih-Wei Lin, Yen-Lung Chen, Huang-Yu Yang, Tzung-Yan Lee
      First page: 962
      Abstract: The relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and sleep disturbances is complicated and of increasing interest. We investigated the inflammatory and immunological consequences of EA in sleep-deprived colitis and found that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in sleep-fragmented (SF) mice was more severe than that in mice with normal sleep. This increase in the severity of colitis was accompanied by reduced body weight, shortened colon length, and deteriorated disease activity index. DSS with SF mice presented obvious diminished intestinal tight junction proteins (claudin-1 and occludin), elevated proinflammatory cytokines (CRP, IFN-γ, IL-6), lowered melatonin and adiponectin levels, downregulated vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) type 1 and 2 receptor (VPAC1, VPAC2) expression, and decreased diversity of gut bacteria. EA ameliorated colitis severity and preserved the performance of the epithelial tight junction proteins and VIP receptors, especially VPAC2. Meanwhile, the innate lymphoid cells-derived cytokines in both group 2 (IL-4, IL5, IL-9, IL-13) and group 3 (IL-22, GM-CSF) were elevated in mice colon tissue. Furthermore, dysbiosis was confirmed in the DSS group with and without SF, and EA could maintain the species diversity. Firmicutes could be restored, such as Lachnospiraceae, and Proteobacteria become rebalanced, mainly Enterobacteriaceae, after EA intervention. On the other hand, SF plays different roles in physiological and pathological conditions. In normal mice, interrupted sleep did not affect the expression of claudin-1 and occludin. But VPAC1, VPAC2, and gut microbiota diversity, including Burkholderiaceae and Rhodococcus, were opposite to mice in an inflamed state.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11070962
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 863: Regulation of Stanniocalcin Secretion by
           Calcium and PTHrP in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata)

    • Authors: Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo, Silvia F. Gregório, Juan Fuentes
      First page: 863
      Abstract: Calcium balance is of paramount importance for vertebrates. In fish, the endocrine modulators of calcium homeostasis include the stanniocalcin (STC), and some members of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) family, such as the PTH-related protein (PTHrP), acting as antagonists. STC is ubiquitously expressed in higher vertebrates. In turn, bony fish exhibit specific STC-producing glands named the corpuscles of Stannius (CS). Previous studies pointed to a calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) involvement in the secretion of STC, but little is known of the involvement of other putative regulators. The CS provides a unique model to deepen the study of STC secretion. We developed an ex vivo assay to culture CS of fish and a competitive ELISA method to measure STC concentrations. As expected, STC released from the CS responds to CaSR stimulation by calcium, calcimimetics, and calcilytic drugs. Moreover, we uncover the presence (by PCR) of two PTHrP receptors in the CS, e.g., PTH1R and PTH3R. Thus, ex vivo incubations revealed a dose-response inhibition of STC secretion in response to PTHrP at basal Ca2+ concentrations. This inhibition is achieved through specific and reversible second messenger pathways (transmembrane adenylyl cyclases and phospholipase C), as the use of specific inhibitors highlights. Together, these results provide evidence for endocrine modulation between two antagonist hormones, STC and PTHrP.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060863
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 864: Gender Differences and Relationship of
           2D:4D-Ratio, Mental Toughness and Dark Triad Traits among Active Young

    • Authors: Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani, Dena Sadeghi-Bahmani, Zahra Fathirezaie, Mohammad Taghi Aghdasi, Kosar Abbaspour, Georgian Badicu, Serge Brand
      First page: 864
      Abstract: There is consistent evidence that prenatal exposures to higher testosterone and lower estrogen concentrations during the first trimester of embryonal and fetal development are associated with a lower 2D:4D-ratio, which is to say: The index finger (2D) is shorter, compared to the ring finger (4D). Compared to non-active, athletes show lower 2D:4D ratios. However, athletes also report specific personality traits such as mental toughness, assertiveness, and competitive behavior. Here, we tested if 2D:4D-ratios were related to specific personality traits. We further investigated possible gender differences. A total of 460 active young adults (mean age: 24.81 years; 67% females) completed a series of self-rating questionnaires covering sociodemographic information and traits of the dark triad and mental toughness. Participants also provided a scan of their right palm hand to measure and calculate 2D:4D-ratios. t-tests, Pearson’s correlations, and multiple regression analysis were performed to analyze data. Compared to male participants, female participants had a higher 2D:4D-ratio. Female and male participants did not differ as regards dark triad traits and mental toughness traits. Irrespective of gender, and based on correlational computations, 2D:4D-ratios were unrelated to the dark triad (DT) and mental toughness (MT) scores. Higher DT scores were modestly associated with higher MT scores among females, but not among males. Lower 2D:4D-ratios were associated with higher constancy scores and the male gender. The constancy and male gender appeared to be associated with lower 2D:4D-ratios.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060864
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 865: ITRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Wheat
           (Triticum aestivum) Spikes in Response to Tilletia controversa Kühn
           and Tilletia foetida Kühn Infection, Causal Organisms of Dwarf Bunt
           and Common Bunt of Wheat

    • Authors: Ting He, Tongshuo Xu, Ghulam Muhae-Ud-Din, Qingyun Guo, Taiguo Liu, Wanquan Chen, Li Gao
      First page: 865
      Abstract: Dwarf bunt and common bunt diseases of wheat are caused by Tilletia controversa Kühn and Tilletia foetida Kühn, respectively, and losses caused by these diseases can reach 70–80% in favourable conditions. T. controversa and T. foetida are fungal pathogens belonging to the Exobasidiomycetes within the basidiomycetous smut fungi (Ustilaginomycotina). In order to illuminate the proteomics differences of wheat spikes after the infection of T. controversa and T. foetida, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technique was used for better clarification. A total of 4553 proteins were differentially detected after T. controversa infection; 4100 were upregulated, and 453 were downregulated. After T. foetida infection, 804 differentially expressed proteins were detected; 447 were upregulated and 357 were downregulated. In-depth data analysis revealed that 44, 50 and 82 proteins after T. controversa and 9, 6 and 16 proteins after T. foetida were differentially expressed, which are antioxidant, plant-pathogen interaction and glutathione proteins, respectively, and 9 proteins showed results consistent with PRM. The top 20 KEGG enrichment pathways were identified after pathogen infection. On the basis of gene ontology, the upregulated proteins were linked with metabolic process, catalytic activity, transferase activity, photosynthetic membrane, extracellular region and oxidoreductase activity. The results expanded our understanding of the proteome in wheat spikes in response to T. controversa and T. foetida infection and provide a basis for further investigation for improving the defense mechanism of the wheat crops.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060865
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 866: Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals Four New
           Species of Otidea from China

    • Authors: Yu-Yan Xu, Ming-Qi Zhu, Ning Mao, Li Fan, Xiao-Ye Shen
      First page: 866
      Abstract: The emergence of molecular systematics has greatly helped researchers to identify fungal species. China has abundant Otidea species resources, and a number of new species of Otidea have been recently proposed. However, many old specimens in herbaria are mainly identified by morphology rather than molecular methods. In this study, 11 specimens deposited in Chinese herbaria and one newly collected Otidea species from northern China were identified based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Four gene fragments (ITS, LSU, rpb2, and tef1-α) were used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of species within Otidea. A total of nine phylogenetic species are recognized, of which four are described as new species, namely O. bomiensis, O. gongnaisiensis, O. hanzhongensis, and O. shennongjiana. Among the known species were O. aspera and O. sinensis.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060866
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 867: Match Running Performance in UEFA Champions
           League: Is There a Worthwhile Association with Team Achievement'

    • Authors: Toni Modric, Sime Versic, Paweł Chmura, Marek Konefał, Marcin Andrzejewski, Igor Jukic, Patrik Drid, Suncica Pocek, Damir Sekulic
      First page: 867
      Abstract: Although running performance (RP) is considered an important factor of success in soccer, there is a lack of studies to examine this issue in highest-level soccer competition, such as UEFA Champions League (UCL). Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyse players’ RP according to the achievement of their teams in UCL. In addition, position specific RP of the players who competed in the UCL was evaluated. The players’ RPs (n = 244) were collected during UCL group stage matches (n = 20) in the 2020/21 season using semiautomatic optical system InStat Fitness. A team’s achievement was defined by qualification of the team from the group stage into the knockout stage of the UCL, and by total group points earned at the end of the UCL group stage. Linear mixed models and Pearson’s correlation were used to examine differences in players’ RP according to the achievement of their teams. Results indicated (i) similar values of RP irrespective of whether the teams qualified from the group stage into the knockout stage of the UCL, and (ii) trivial-to-small correlations between RP and total group points. Such findings show that players’ RP was poorly related to the achievement of their teams in the UCL group stage, indicating trivial influence of RP on success in elite-level soccer.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060867
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 868: Modeling and Prediction of the Species’
           Range of Neurobasis chinensis (Linnaeus, 1758) under Climate Change

    • Authors: Jian Liao, Haojie Wang, Shaojun Xiao, Zhaoying Guan, Haomiao Zhang, Henri J. Dumont, Bo-Ping Han
      First page: 868
      Abstract: Neurobasis chinensis is widely distributed in eastern tropical Asia. Its only congener in China, the N. anderssoni, has not been observed for decades. To protect N. chinensis, it is necessary to understand the ecological properties of its habitats and specie’s range shift under climate change. In the present study, we modeled its potential distribution under one historical, current, and four future scenarios. We evaluated the importance of the factors that shape its distribution and habitats and predicted the historical and current core spatial distributions and their shifting in the future. Two historical core distribution areas were identified: the inland region of the Bay of Bengal and south-central Vietnam. The current potential distribution includes south China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Luzon of Philippines, Malaysia, southwest and northeast India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia (Java, Sumatera), Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and foothills of the Himalayas, in total, ca. 3.59 × 106 km2. Only one core distribution remained, concentrated in south-central Vietnam. In a warming future, the core distribution, high suitable habitats, and even the whole range of N. chinensis will expand and shift northwards. Currently, N. chinensis mainly resides in forest ecosystems below 1200 m above sea level (preferred 500 m to 1200 m a.s.l.). Annual precipitation, mean temperature of driest quarter, and seasonality of precipitation are important factors shaping the species distribution. Our study provides systematic information on habitats and geographical distribution, which is useful for the conservation of N. chinensis.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060868
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 869: Molecular Identification and Characterization
           of Two Groups of Phytoplasma and Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus in
           Single or Mixed Infection of Citrus maxima on Hainan Island of China

    • Authors: Shao-Shuai Yu, An-Na Zhu, Wei-Wei Song, Wei Yan
      First page: 869
      Abstract: The pathogens associated with citrus Huanglongbing symptoms, including yellowing and mottled leaves in Citrus maxima, an important economic crop on Hainan Island of China, were identified and characterized. In the study, detection, genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship analysis of the pathogens were performed based on 16S rRNA and β-operon gene fragments specific to phytoplasma and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. The results indicated that the pathogens—such as phytoplasma strains of CmPII-hn belonging to the 16SrII-V subgroup and CmPXXXII-hn belonging to the 16SrXXXII-D subgroup, as well as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus strains CmLas-hn—were identified in the diseased plant samples, with numbers of 12, 2 and 6 out of 54, respectively. Among them, mixed infection with the 16SrII-V subgroup phytoplasma and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus was found in the study, accounting for 7.4% (four samples). The phytoplasma strains of CmPII-hn—Tephrosia purpurea witches’ broom, Melochia corchorifolia witches’ broom and Emilia sonchifolia witches’ broom—were clustered into one clade belonging to the 16SrII-V subgroup, with a 99% bootstrap value. The phytoplasma strains of CmPXXXII-hn and Trema tomentosa witches’ broom belonging to 16SrXXXII-D, and the other 16SrXXXII subgroup strains were clustered into one clade belonging to the 16SrXXXII group with a 99% bootstrap value. There were 16 variable loci in the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the tested 16SrXXXII group phytoplasma strains, of which two bases had an insertion/deletion. The strains of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, identified in the study and the strains that had been deposited in GenBank, were in one independent cluster with a 99% bootstrap value. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that Citrus maxima can be infected by 16SrII-V and16SrXXXII-D subgroup phytoplasmas in China. Moreover, this is also the first report in which the plants are co-infected by 16SrII-V subgroup phytoplasmas and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. More comprehensive and detailed identification and characterization of the pathogens associated with the diseased symptoms in Citrus maxima on the island in China would be beneficial for epidemic monitoring and for the effective prevention and control of related plant diseases.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060869
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 870: Plant Diversity and Fungal Richness Regulate
           the Changes in Soil Multifunctionality in a Semi-Arid Grassland

    • Authors: Zhuo Li, Xiaowei Liu, Minghui Zhang, Fu Xing
      First page: 870
      Abstract: Loss in plant diversity is expected to impact biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbes play essential roles in regulating ecosystem functions. However, the important roles and differences in bacterial and fungal diversity and rare microbial taxa in driving soil multifunctionality based on plant diversity remain poorly understood in grassland ecosystems. Here, we carried out an experiment in six study sites with varied plant diversity levels to evaluate the relationships between soil bacterial and fungal diversity, rare taxa, and soil multifunctionality in a semi-arid grassland. We used Illumina HiSeq sequencing to determine soil bacterial and fungal diversity and evaluated soil functions associated with the nutrient cycle. We found that high diversity plant assemblages had a higher ratio of below-ground biomass to above-ground biomass, soil multifunctionality, and lower microbial carbon limitation than those with low diversity. Moreover, the fungal richness was negatively and significantly associated with microbial carbon limitations. The fungal richness was positively related to soil multifunctionality, but the bacterial richness was not. We also found that the relative abundance of saprotrophs was positively correlated with soil multifunctionality, and the relative abundance of pathogens was negatively correlated with soil multifunctionality. In addition, the rare fungal taxa played a disproportionate role in regulating soil multifunctionality. Structural equation modeling showed that the shift of plant biomass allocation patterns increased plant below-ground biomass in the highly diverse plant plots, which can alleviate soil microbial carbon limitations and enhance the fungal richness, thus promoting soil multifunctionality. Overall, these findings expand our comprehensive understanding of the critical role of soil fungal diversity and rare taxa in regulating soil multifunctionality under global plant diversity loss scenarios.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060870
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 871: Isolation of Listeria ivanovii from Bulk-Tank
           Milk of Sheep and Goat Farms—From Clinical Work to Bioinformatics
           Studies: Prevalence, Association with Milk Quality, Antibiotic
           Susceptibility, Predictors, Whole Genome Sequence and Phylogenetic

    • Authors: Daphne T. Lianou, Anargyros Skoulakis, Charalambia K. Michael, Eleni I. Katsarou, Dimitris C. Chatzopoulos, Nikolaos Solomakos, Katerina Tsilipounidaki, Zoe Florou, Peter J. Cripps, Angeliki I. Katsafadou, Natalia G. C. Vasileiou, Konstantina S. Dimoveli, Maria V. Bourganou, Dimitra V. Liagka, Vasileios G. Papatsiros, Panagiota I. Kontou, Vasia S. Mavrogianni, Mariangela Caroprese, Efthymia Petinaki, George C. Fthenakis
      First page: 871
      Abstract: A cross-sectional study was performed in 325 sheep and 119 goat dairy farms in Greece. Samples of bulk-tank milk were examined by standard microbiological techniques for Listeria spp. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from one (0.3%) and Listeria ivanovii from three (0.9%) sheep farms. No associations between the isolation of L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii and milk quality were found. No resistance to antibiotics was identified. Three variables emerged as significant predictors of isolation of the organism: the presence of pigs, low average relative humidity and a high number of ewes on the farm. The three L. ivanovii isolates were assessed in silico for identification of plasmids, prophages, antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, CRISPRs and CAS genes. Phylogenetic analysis using the core genome revealed that the three strains belonged to the L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii branch and were especially close to the PAM 55 strain. All strains of the branch appeared to be very similar, with the distance between them being small.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060871
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 872: Acute Dehydration Impairs Performance and
           Physiological Responses in Highly Trained Judo Athletes

    • Authors: Bayram Ceylan, Rafael L. Kons, Daniele Detanico, Jožef Šimenko
      First page: 872
      Abstract: Background: The present study investigated highly trained male judo athletes and how a 5% body mass dehydration affects their judo-specific performance and physiological responses. Methods: Nine highly trained international-level male judo athletes who are weight-cyclers voluntarily participated in the study. The study had a controlled crossover design in nature. Athletes completed three sessions, including a familiarisation session and two experimental sessions (dehydration (DEHY) and control (CON)) with judo-specific tests, including maximal handgrip strength test (HGS), judogi grip strength tests (JGST), and the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT). Results: Intergroup analysis revealed a significant increase in urine specific gravity (USG) and decreased body mass following DEHY condition compared to CON. Furthermore, significant decreases were determined in HGS, JGSTs, and a number of throws in the first and third series of SJFTs, as well as higher heart rate (HR) responses in the second and third series of SJFT and worse SJFT index in DEHY condition (p < 0.05). Conclusions: We concluded that 5% dehydration of body mass led to impairment in dynamic and isometric strength in upper limbs and in judo-specific performance, as well as elevated HR during the SJFT.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060872
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 873: Reproductive Biology of Dry Grassland
           Specialist Ranunculus illyricus L. and Its Implications for Conservation

    • Authors: Dawid Kocot, Ewa Sitek, Barbara Nowak, Anna Kołton, Krystyna Towpasz
      First page: 873
      Abstract: Ranunculus illyricus, a component of xerothermic grasslands, is a declining species and deserves active conservation treatments in many countries preceded by studies on the biology of its reproduction. So far, our knowledge of R. illyricus, a species with two modes of reproduction, has been fragmentary. The purpose of the studies presented here was to describe the annual development cycle of R. illyricus with particular emphasis on the production of underground tuber clusters that serve as vegetative propagation. Based on three-year-long observations in an ex situ collection, the efficiency of vegetative propagation was estimated and compared with the efficiency of generative propagation. It was found that in 3 years the best clones could produce up to 57 progeny clusters followed by flowering specimens in the first season. Meanwhile, the high potential for generative reproduction was suppressed by many limitations including fruit setting, the germination capacity of seeds, seedling survival rate, and additionally, the first flowering plant was observed only in the third year. It seems that the efficiency of vegetative propagation of this species can be higher than the efficiency of generative propagation. Moreover, vegets bloomed in the first year after emergence, whereas the first plant of generative origin was observed to bloom only after 3 years. A large proportion of individuals of vegetative origin can negatively affect the genetic diversity of the population but their survival rate against competing plants is higher. To enhance the existing populations or to create new ones, it would be best to use plants derived from clonal propagation of genets carried out in ex situ conditions.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060873
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 874: Reversion of MRAP2 Protein Sequence Generates
           a Functional Novel Pharmacological Modulator for MC4R Signaling

    • Authors: Jing Xu, Meng Wang, Yanbin Fu, Cong Zhang, Zhe Kuang, Shan Bian, Rui Wan, Shen Qu, Chao Zhang
      First page: 874
      Abstract: As a member of the melanocortin receptor family, melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) plays a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis and feeding behavior, and has been proven as a promising therapeutic target for treating severe obesity syndrome. Numerous studies have demonstrated that central MC4R signaling is significantly affected by melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) in humans, mice and zebrafish. MRAP2 proteins exist as parallel or antiparallel dimers on the plasma membrane, but the structural insight of dual orientations with the pharmacological profiles has not yet been fully studied. Investigation and optimization of the conformational topology of MRAP2 are critical for the development of transmembrane allosteric modulators to treat MC4R-associated disorders. In this study, we synthesized a brand new single transmembrane protein by reversing wild-type mouse and zebrafish MRAP2 sequences and examined their dimerization, interaction and pharmacological activities on mouse and zebrafish MC4R signaling. We showed that the reversed zebrafish MRAPa exhibited an opposite function on modulating zMC4R signaling and the reversed mouse MRAP2 lost the capability for regulating MC4R trafficking but exhibited a novel function for cAMP cascades, despite proper expression and folding. Taken together, our results provided new biochemical insights on the oligomeric states and membrane orientations of MRAP2 proteins, as well as its pharmacological assistance for modulating MC4R signaling.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060874
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 875: A fresh look at the Hyolithid Doliutheca from
           the Early Cambrian (Stage 4) Shipai Formation of the Three Gorges Area,
           Hubei, South China

    • Authors: Fan Liu, Christian B. Skovsted, Timothy P. Topper, Zhifei Zhang
      First page: 875
      Abstract: New hyolith specimens from the early Cambrian (Stage 4) of the Three Gorges area, western Hubei Province are described and assigned to the species Doliutheca orientalis. Doliutheca are preserved in two taphonomic modes: casts in silty mudstone revealing gross morphology and some soft parts, and internal molds in calcareous pelites, which exhibit new morphological details of the conch and operculum. SEM and Micro-CT analyses show that Doliutheca preserve well-developed platy clavicles and cardinal processes on the interior of the operculum composed of rod-shaped tubular elements. This observation and the distinct cardinal and conical shields of the operculum indicate that Doliutheca could be placed within the Family Paramicrocornidae, most recently established as a group of hyoliths closely related to hyolithids.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060875
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 876: Histochemical Evidence for Nitrogen-Transfer
           Endosymbiosis in Non-Photosynthetic Cells of Leaves and Inflorescence
           Bracts of Angiosperms

    • Authors: April Micci, Qiuwei Zhang, Xiaoqian Chang, Kathryn Kingsley, Linsey Park, Peerapol Chiaranunt, Raquele Strickland, Fernando Velazquez, Sean Lindert, Matthew Elmore, Philip L. Vines, Sharron Crane, Ivelisse Irizarry, Kurt P. Kowalski, David Johnston-Monje, James F. White
      First page: 876
      Abstract: We used light and confocal microscopy to visualize bacteria in leaf and bract cells of more than 30 species in 18 families of seed plants. Through histochemical analysis, we detected hormones (including ethylene and nitric oxide), superoxide, and nitrogenous chemicals (including nitric oxide and nitrate) around bacteria within plant cells. Bacteria were observed in epidermal cells, various filamentous and glandular trichomes, and other non-photosynthetic cells. Most notably, bacteria showing nitrate formation based on histochemical staining were present in glandular trichomes of some dicots (e.g., Humulus lupulus and Cannabis sativa). Glandular trichome chemistry is hypothesized to function to scavenge oxygen around bacteria and reduce oxidative damage to intracellular bacterial cells. Experiments to assess the differential absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants suggest the assimilation of nitrogen into actively growing tissues of plants, where bacteria are most active and carbohydrates are more available. The leaf and bract cell endosymbiosis types outlined in this paper have not been previously reported and may be important in facilitating plant growth, development, oxidative stress resistance, and nutrient absorption into plants. It is unknown whether leaf and bract cell endosymbioses are significant in increasing the nitrogen content of plants. From the experiments that we conducted, it is impossible to know whether plant trichomes evolved specifically as organs for nitrogen fixation or if, instead, trichomes are structures in which bacteria easily colonize and where some casual nitrogen transfer may occur between bacteria and plant cells. It is likely that the endosymbioses seen in leaves and bracts are less efficient than those of root nodules of legumes in similar plants. However, the presence of endosymbioses that yield nitrate in plants could confer a reduced need for soil nitrogen and constitute increased nitrogen-use efficiency, even if the actual amount of nitrogen transferred to plant cells is small. More research is needed to evaluate the importance of nitrogen transfer within leaf and bract cells of plants.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060876
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 877: DDK: The Outsourced Kinase of Chromosome

    • Authors: Peter J. Gillespie, J. Julian Blow
      First page: 877
      Abstract: The maintenance of genomic stability during the mitotic cell-cycle not only demands that the DNA is duplicated and repaired with high fidelity, but that following DNA replication the chromatin composition is perpetuated and that the duplicated chromatids remain tethered until their anaphase segregation. The coordination of these processes during S phase is achieved by both cyclin-dependent kinase, CDK, and Dbf4-dependent kinase, DDK. CDK orchestrates the activation of DDK at the G1-to-S transition, acting as the ‘global’ regulator of S phase and cell-cycle progression, whilst ‘local’ control of the initiation of DNA replication and repair and their coordination with the re-formation of local chromatin environments and the establishment of chromatid cohesion are delegated to DDK. Here, we discuss the regulation and the multiple roles of DDK in ensuring chromosome maintenance. Regulation of replication initiation by DDK has long been known to involve phosphorylation of MCM2-7 subunits, but more recent results have indicated that Treslin:MTBP might also be important substrates. Molecular mechanisms by which DDK regulates replisome stability and replicated chromatid cohesion are less well understood, though important new insights have been reported recently. We discuss how the ‘outsourcing’ of activities required for chromosome maintenance to DDK allows CDK to maintain outright control of S phase progression and the cell-cycle phase transitions whilst permitting ongoing chromatin replication and cohesion establishment to be completed and achieved faithfully.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060877
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 878: Trematodes of Genera Gyrabascus and
           Parabascus from Bats in European Russia: Morphology and Molecular

    • Authors: Nadezhda Yu. Kirillova, Sergei V. Shchenkov, Alexander A. Kirillov, Alexander B. Ruchin
      First page: 878
      Abstract: Morphological variability of trematodes from bats (Chiroptera) is poorly studied. Since the variability of adult digenean specimens may be rather high, morphological features are often insufficient for the identification of closely related species, and confirmation with the use of molecular data is required. The aim of our study was to combine the morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses of several bat trematodes from the genera Gyrabascus and Parabascus (Pleurogenidae): Gyrabascus amphoraeformis, Gyrabascus oppositus, Parabascus lepidotus, Parabascus duboisi, and Parabascus semisquamosus, of which G. amphoraeformis and G. oppositus are little known in European Russia. We made detailed morphological descriptions of these trematodes from several definitive hosts, analyzed morphometric features, and generated new partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. A broad variability of trematodes of the genera Gyrabascus and Parabascus was revealed both from various host species and from specimens of the same host species. We propose a new taxonomic key for the identification of the studied species. Certain host specificity of these trematodes was revealed.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060878
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 879: Possible Event-Related Potential Correlates
           of Voluntary Attention and Reflexive Attention in the Emei Music Frog

    • Authors: Wenjun Niu, Di Shen, Ruolei Sun, Yanzhu Fan, Jing Yang, Baowei Zhang, Guangzhan Fang
      First page: 879
      Abstract: Attention, referring to selective processing of task-related information, is central to cognition. It has been proposed that voluntary attention (driven by current goals or tasks and under top-down control) and reflexive attention (driven by stimulus salience and under bottom-up control) struggle to control the focus of attention with interaction in a push–pull fashion for everyday perception in higher vertebrates. However, how auditory attention engages in auditory perception in lower vertebrates remains unclear. In this study, each component of auditory event-related potentials (ERP) related to attention was measured for the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon in the Emei music frog (Nidirana daunchina), during the broadcasting of acoustic stimuli invoking voluntary attention (using binary playback paradigm with silence replacement) and reflexive attention (using equiprobably random playback paradigm), respectively. Results showed that (1) when the sequence of acoustic stimuli could be predicted, the amplitudes of stimulus preceding negativity (SPN) evoked by silence replacement in the forebrain were significantly greater than that in the mesencephalon, suggesting voluntary attention may engage in auditory perception in this species because of the correlation between the SPN component and top-down control such as expectation and/or prediction; (2) alternately, when the sequence of acoustic stimuli could not be predicted, the N1 amplitudes evoked in the mesencephalon were significantly greater than those in other brain areas, implying that reflexive attention may be involved in auditory signal processing because the N1 components relate to selective attention; and (3) both SPN and N1 components could be evoked by the predicted stimuli, suggesting auditory perception of the music frogs might invoke the two kind of attention resources simultaneously. The present results show that human-like ERP components related to voluntary attention and reflexive attention exist in the lower vertebrates also.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060879
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 880: Cardiomyocyte Proliferation from Fetal- to
           Adult- and from Normal- to Hypertrophy and Failing Hearts

    • Authors: Sanford P. Bishop, Jianyi Zhang, Lei Ye
      First page: 880
      Abstract: The cardiomyocyte undergoes dramatic changes in structure, metabolism, and function from the early fetal stage of hyperplastic cell growth, through birth and the conversion to hypertrophic cell growth, continuing to the adult stage and responding to various forms of stress on the myocardium, often leading to myocardial failure. The fetal cell with incompletely formed sarcomeres and other cellular and extracellular components is actively undergoing mitosis, organelle dispersion, and formation of daughter cells. In the first few days of neonatal life, the heart is able to repair fully from injury, but not after conversion to hypertrophic growth. Structural and metabolic changes occur following conversion to hypertrophic growth which forms a barrier to further cardiomyocyte division, though interstitial components continue dividing to keep pace with cardiac growth. Both intra- and extracellular structural changes occur in the stressed myocardium which together with hemodynamic alterations lead to metabolic and functional alterations of myocardial failure. This review probes some of the questions regarding conditions that regulate normal and pathologic growth of the heart.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060880
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 881: MTBP and MYC: A Dynamic Duo in Proliferation,
           Cancer, and Aging

    • Authors: Brian C. Grieb, Christine M. Eischen
      First page: 881
      Abstract: The oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC (MYC) is highly conserved across species and is frequently overexpressed or dysregulated in human cancers. MYC regulates a wide range of critical cellular and oncogenic activities including proliferation, metabolism, metastasis, apoptosis, and differentiation by transcriptionally activating or repressing the expression of a large number of genes. This activity of MYC is not carried out in isolation, instead relying on its association with a myriad of protein cofactors. We determined that MDM Two Binding Protein (MTBP) indirectly binds MYC and is a novel MYC transcriptional cofactor. MTBP promotes MYC-mediated transcriptional activity, proliferation, and cellular transformation by binding in a protein complex with MYC at MYC-bound promoters. This discovery provided critical context for data linking MTBP to aging as well as a rapidly expanding body of evidence demonstrating MTBP is overexpressed in many human malignancies, is often linked to poor patient outcomes, and is necessary for cancer cell survival. As such, MTBP represents a novel and potentially broad reaching oncologic drug target, particularly when MYC is dysregulated. Here we have reviewed the discovery of MTBP and the initial controversy with its function as well as its associations with proliferation, MYC, DNA replication, aging, and human cancer.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060881
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 882: Elevated CO2 Altered Rice VOCs Aggravate
           Population Occurrence of Brown Planthoppers by Improving Host Selection

    • Authors: Yanhui Wang, Runzhao Li, Xiaohui Wang, Xiaowei Liu, Fajun Chen
      First page: 882
      Abstract: It is predicted that plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are affected by the atmospheric CO2 levels rising globally, which further affects the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects, especially the host selection behavior of herbivorous insects. In this study, the effects of elevated CO2 on the host-selection behavior of the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the emission of VOCs from the healthy and BPH-damaged rice plants were studied simultaneously to make clear the population occurrence of BPH under global climate change. Compared with ambient CO2, elevated CO2 significantly increased the host selection percent of BPH for the healthy (CK) and BPH-damaged rice plants, and the host selection percent of BPH for the BPH-damaged rice plants was significantly higher than that for the healthy rice plants under elevated CO2, which might be regulated by the transcription levels of OBP1, OBP2 and CSP8 in BPH due to the upregulated transcriptional levels of these three genes of BPH under elevated CO2. In addition, we analyzed and quantified the emission of VOCs in rice plants grown under ambient CO2 and elevated CO2 by GS-MS. A total of 36 VOCs from rice plants were identified into eight categories, including alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons. Elevated CO2 significantly decreased the contents of heptadecane, linalool and limonene from rice plants compared with ambient CO2. Besides, the contents of linalool, phytol, decanal, 1-methyldecalin and 2,6-diphenylphenol from BPH-damaged rice plants under ambient CO2, and undecane, hexadecane, nonanal and 2,6-diphenylphenol from BPH-damaged rice plants under elevated CO2 were all significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants. The percentage composition of phenols was positively correlated with the host selection rate of BPH. Our study indicates that elevated CO2 is beneficial to promote the host selection ability of BPH for rice plants damaged by BPHs due to the changed plant VOCs.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060882
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 883: Biotransformation of Androstenedione by
           Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Cultural Heritage Sites in the State
           Tretyakov Gallery

    • Authors: Alexander A. Zhgun, Mark P. Potapov, Darya A. Avdanina, Natalya V. Karpova, Vera V. Yaderets, Vakhtang V. Dzhavakhiya, Dmitry A. Kardonsky
      First page: 883
      Abstract: The transformation of steroids by microorganisms is widely used in medical biotechnology. A huge group of filamentous fungi is one of the most promising taxa for screening new biocatalytic reactions in order to obtain pharmaceutically significant steroids. In this work, we screened 10 filamentous fungi-destructors of egg tempera for the ability to biotransform androst-4-en-3,17-dione (AD) during cultivation in a liquid nutrient medium or in a buffer solution. These taxonomically unrelated strains, belonging to the classes Eurotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes, are dominant representatives of the microbiome from halls where works of tempera painting are stored in the State Tretyakov Gallery (STG, Moscow, Russia). Since the binder of tempera paints, egg yolk, contains about 2% cholesterol, these degrading fungi appear to be a promising group for screening for steroid converting activity. It turned out that all the studied fungi-destructors are able to transform AD. Some strains showed transformation efficiency close to the industrial strain Curvularia lunata RNCIM F-981. In total, 33 steroids formed during the transformation of AD were characterized, for 19 of them the structure was established by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. In this work, we have shown for the first time that fungi-destructors of tempera paintings can efficiently transform steroids.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060883
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 884: Identification and Characterization of a New
           Microalga Dysmorphococcus globosus-HI from the Himalayan Region as a
           Potential Source of Natural Astaxanthin

    • Authors: Wafaa F. Zohir, Vikas U. Kapase, Shashi Kumar
      First page: 884
      Abstract: Synthesized astaxanthin (ASX), stereoisomers of 3S,3′R, 3R,3′R, and 3S,3′S, have over 95% market share and have relatively poor antioxidant and bioactivity properties, with persistent issues in terms of biological functions, health benefits, and biosafety if compared to natural ASX. Bioprospecting of new microalgal strains could be vital for a new source of powerful antioxidant (ASX). In this study, a new algal strain was isolated from the Indian foothills of the Himalayas. Its identity was discerned by morphological and DNA barcode studies. It is a unicellular spheroidal cell-shaped alga with 100–200 μm diameter. The isolate has 93.4% similarity to Dysmorphococcus globosus species based on 18S-rDNA phylogenetic analysis and named as D. globosus-HI (HI stands for Himalayan India). Its growth and major cellular components (carotenoids, carbohydrates, protein, lipids, fatty acid profile, and ASX) were optimized using the seven different culture media. The highest biomass (1.14 g L−1) was observed in the MBBM medium, with a specific growth rate (0.087 day−1), division/day (0.125), and cellular yield (6.16 x 106 cells/mL). The highest carotenoids (1.56 mg g−1), lipids (32.5 mg L−1), and carbohydrates (135.62 mg L−1) were recorded in the 3N-BBM medium. The maximum ω3-FAs (17.78%), ω6-FAs (23.11%), and ω9-FAs (7.06%) were observed in MBBM, JW, and BG-11 medium respectively. The highest amount of antioxidant ASX was accumulated in the 3N-BBM medium (391 mg L−1). It is more than any other known algal species used in the production of natural ASX. The optimized biochemical studies on the D. globosus-HI strain should fulfill the increasing demand for natural ASX for commercial application.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060884
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 885: Four New Pale-Spored Species of Xylaria
           (Xylariaceae, Xylariales) with a Key to Worldwide Species on Fallen Fruits
           and Seeds

    • Authors: Haixia Ma, Zikun Song, Xiaoyan Pan, Zhi Qu, Zhanen Yang, Yu Li, Anhong Zhu
      First page: 885
      Abstract: Xylaria, a large and cosmopolitan genus of Ascomycota, plays an important ecological role in forest ecology as wood-decomposers, and serve as a source of bioactive secondary metabolites. The present work concerns a survey of Xylaria from Southwest China. Four new species of Xylaria with pale-colored ascospores associated with fallen fruits and seeds are described and illustrated based on morphological and phylogenetic evidences. The phylogeny inferred from a combined dataset of ITS-RPB2-β-tubulin sequences supports these four species as distinct species. The four new taxa, namely Xylariarogersii, X. schimicola, X. theaceicola, and X. wallichii, are compared and contrasted against morphologically similar species. A dichotomous identification key to all the accepted species of Xylaria associated with fallen fruits and seeds is given.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060885
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 886: Odonate Diversity Patterns in Italy Disclose
           Intricate Colonization Pathways

    • Authors: Simone Fattorini
      First page: 886
      Abstract: As a natural bridge between Europe and Africa, Italy occupies a prominent position to understand the biogeography of Europe. The influence of climatic, spatial, and historical factors on current patterns of species richness and turnover (i.e., inter-regional biogeographical differences) has been analyzed for 88 species occurring in 17 Italian natural regions. Use of multimodel inference showed that odonate richness decreased southwards in response to decreasing rainfall, as expected for animals that depend on freshwater for their development. Use of Mantel tests indicated that patterns of inter-regional similarities were influenced by both climate and geographical distances. These patterns, as highlighted using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling, indicate a role for historical factors. Biogeographical similarities between Italian regions and adjacent areas revealed multiple colonization pathways. These results, coupled with the overall southward decrease in species richness, suggest that, after serving as a Pleistocene refuge from which odonates may have colonized medio-European areas, Italy was in turn subject to colonization from north to south. This resulted in Italian odonate fauna being less species rich compared to faunas in the medio-European territories, but also being biogeographically very complex.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060886
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 887: Application of Optical Fluorescence
           Spectroscopy for Studying Bee Abundance in Tropaeolum majus L.

    • Authors: Claudemir Antonio Garcia Fioratti, Evaristo Alexandre Falcão, Rosicleia Matias da Silva, Maria do Carmo Vieira, Anderson Rodrigues Lima Caires, Rosilda Mara Mussury
      First page: 887
      Abstract: Tropaeolum majus L. species produce flowers with all sorts of colors, from yellow to red. This work aimed to apply optical fluorescence spectroscopy to study bee abundance in T. majus, answering the following questions: (1) do corolla temperature and weather conditions affect the abundance of visiting bee species' (2) do flower color and corolla fluorescence affect the abundance of visiting bee species' (3) do red flowers attract more visiting bees' (4) is there a relationship between bee visits and flower compounds' The bee species Apis mellifera, Paratrigona lineata, and Trigona spinipes were the most observed in T. majus flowers. The latter was more active in the morning and preferred orange and yellow flowers. These colors also had higher temperatures and fluorescence emissions than did the red ones and those with yellow-red and orange-red nectar guides. Orange flowers emitted a broadband UV spectrum (between 475 and 800 nm). This range might be due to compounds such as hydroxycinnamic acid, flavonols, isoflavonoids, flavones, phenolic acid, and chlorophyll. Extracts from different T. majus corolla colors showed that flowers emit specific fluorescent signals, mainly related to bee color vision and learning, thus acting as a means of communication between bees and flowers. In this way, this information evidences the interaction between bees and T. majus flowers, allowing conservation actions for pollinators.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060887
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 888: Neuro- and Cardiovascular Activities of
           Montivipera bornmuelleri Snake Venom

    • Authors: Christina Sahyoun, Wojciech Krezel, César Mattei, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Christian Legros, Ziad Fajloun, Mohamad Rima
      First page: 888
      Abstract: The complications following snake bite envenoming are due to the venom’s biological activities, which can act on different systems of the prey. These activities arise from the fact that snake venoms are rich in bioactive molecules, which are also of interest for designing drugs. The venom of Montivipera bornmuelleri, known as the Lebanon viper, has been shown to exert antibacterial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory effects. However, the venom’s activity on the nervous system has not yet been studied, and its effect on the cardiovascular system needs further investigation. Because zebrafish is a convenient model to study tissue alterations induced by toxic agents, we challenged it with the venom of Montivipera bornmuelleri. We show that this venom leads to developmental toxicity but not teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos. The venom also induces neurotoxic effects and disrupts the zebrafish cardiovascular system, leading to heartbeat rate reduction and hemorrhage. Our findings demonstrate the potential neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity of M. bornmuelleri’s venom, suggesting a multitarget strategy during envenomation.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060888
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 889: Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Insights into
           Novel Ascomycota from Forest Woody Litter

    • Authors: Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe, Peter E. Mortimer
      First page: 889
      Abstract: While surveying the mycobiomes of dead woody litter in Yunnan Province, China, numerous isolates with affinity to Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were recovered. The present work characterizes two species associated with dead woody twigs found in terrestrial habitats in the Kunming area of Yunnan. The novel taxa were recognized based on a polyphasic approach, including morphological examination and multiple gene phylogenetic analyses (non-translated loci and protein-coding regions). Neokalmusia jonahhulmei sp. nov. is introduced in Didymosphaeriaceae (Pleosporales) as a woody-based saprobic ascomycete that possesses multiloculate ascostromata immersed under a black clypeus-like structure, and three-septate, brown, fusiform, guttulate ascospores. Thyridaria jonahhulmei (Thyridariaceae) is introduced with teleomorphic and anamorphic (coelomycetous) characteristics. The teleomorph has the following characteristics: globose to subglobose ascomata with an ostiolum, a pruinose layer of yellow to reddish- or orange-brown material appearing around the top of the ostiolar necks, and brown, ellipsoid to fusoid, two-to-three-septate, euseptate, rough-walled ascospores; the anamorph features pycnidial conidiomata, phialidic, ampulliform to doliiform, conidiogenous cells, and brown, guttulate, ellipsoidal, aseptate conidia.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060889
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 890: Temperature- and Nutrients-Induced Phenotypic
           Changes of Antarctic Green Snow Bacteria Probed by High-Throughput FTIR

    • Authors: Margarita Smirnova, Valeria Tafintseva, Achim Kohler, Uladzislau Miamin, Volha Shapaval
      First page: 890
      Abstract: Temperature fluctuations and nutrient composition are the main parameters influencing green snow microbiome. In this study we investigated the influence of temperature and nutrient conditions on the growth and cellular chemical profile of bacteria isolated from green snow. Chemical profiling of the green snow bacteria was done by high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis. We showed that temperature and nutrients fluctuations strongly affect growth ability and chemical profile of the green snow bacteria. The size of colonies for green snow bacteria grown at higher (25 °C) and lower (4 °C and 10 °C) than optimal temperature (18 °C) was smaller. All isolates grew on rich medium, and only 19 isolates were able to grow on synthetic minimal media. Lipid and mixed spectral regions showed to be phylogeny related. FTIR fingerprinting indicates that lipids are often affected by the temperature fluctuations. Growth on different media resulted in the change of the whole chemical profile, where lipids showed to be more affected than proteins and polysaccharides. Correlation analysis showed that nutrient composition is clearly strongly influencing chemical changes in the cells, followed by temperature.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060890
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 891: Urinary Tract Infections Impair Adult
           Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    • Authors: Batoul Darwish, Farah Chamaa, Bassel Awada, Nada Lawand, Nayef E. Saadé, Antoine G. Abou Fayad, Wassim Abou-Kheir
      First page: 891
      Abstract: Previous studies have suggested a link between urinary tract infections (UTIs) and cognitive impairment. One possible contributing factor for UTI-induced cognitive changes that has not yet been investigated is a potential alteration in hippocampal neurogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of UTI on brain plasticity by specifically examining alterations in neurogenesis. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received an intra-urethral injection of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) clinical isolate (108 CFU/mL). We found that rats with a UTI (CFU/mL ≥ 105) had reduced proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) at an early time point post infection (day 4) and neurogenesis at a later time point (day 34). This was associated with the decreased expression in mRNA of BDNF, NGF, and FGF2, and elevated expression of IL-1β in the hippocampus at 6 h post infection, but with no changes in optical intensity of the microglia and astrocytes. In addition, infected rats spent less time exploring a novel arm in the Y-maze test. Treatment with an anti-inflammatory drug did not revert the effect on NSCs, while treatment with antibiotics further decreased the basal level of their proliferation. This study presents novel findings on the impact of urinary tract infections on hippocampal neurogenesis that could be correlated with cognitive impairment.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060891
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 892: Isolation, Identification and Hyperparasitism
           of a Novel Cladosporium cladosporioides Isolate Hyperparasitic to Puccinia
           striiformis f. sp. tritici, the Wheat Stripe Rust Pathogen

    • Authors: Hongjuan Zhang, Mengying He, Xin Fan, Lu Dai, Shan Zhang, Zeyu Hu, Ning Wang
      First page: 892
      Abstract: Wheat rust outbreaks have caused significantly economic losses all over the world. Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is an obligate biotrophic fungus causing stripe rust on wheat. Application of fungicides may cause environmental problems. The effects of hyperparasites on plant pathogens are the basis for biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and parasites of Pst have great value in biological agents development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides from Pst based on morphological characterization and analysis of molecular markers. The hyperparasitic isolate was isolated from taupe-colored uredinia of Pst. Upon artificial inoculation, the hyperparasitic isolate was able to reduce the production and germination rate of Pst urediospores, and Pst uredinia changed color from yellow to taupe. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the strain could efficiently colonize Pst urediospores. Therefore, the isolate has the potential to be developed into a biological control agent for managing wheat stripe rust.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060892
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 893: Enhancing Night and Day Circadian Contrast
           through Sleep Education in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A
           Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Cristina García-Serrano, Jesús Pujol Salud, Lidia Aran-Solé, Joaquim Sol, Sònia Ortiz-Congost, Eva Artigues-Barberà, Marta Ortega-Bravo
      First page: 893
      Abstract: Background: Evidence supports a causal relationship between circadian disturbance and impaired glucose homeostasis. Methods: To determine the effect of an educational intervention delivered by primary care nurses to improve sleep hygiene, a parallel, open-label clinical trial in subjects aged 18 and older with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was performed. Study variables were sex, age, fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep duration and efficiency, body mass index, antidiabetic treatment, diet and physical exercise. An individual informative educational intervention was carried out following a bidirectional feedback method. The intervention aimed to develop skills to improve sleep through nine simple tips. An analysis of covariance was performed on all the mean centred outcome variables controlling for the respective baseline scores. Results: In the intervention group, PSQI dropped, the duration and quality of sleep increased, and a decrease in fasting glucose and in HbA1c levels was observed. Conclusion: The proposed intervention is effective for improving sleep quality, length and efficiency, and for decreasing fasting glucose and HbA1c levels in only 3 months. These findings support the importance of sleep and circadian rhythm education focused on improving IFG and T2DM.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060893
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 894: Molecular Pathogenesis and New Therapeutic
           Dimensions for Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    • Authors: Andrés López-Cortés, Gabriela Echeverría-Garcés, María José Ramos-Medina
      First page: 894
      Abstract: The condition known as 5q spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease caused by a deficiency of the ubiquitous protein survival of motor neuron (SMN), which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes. It is one of the most common pediatric recessive genetic diseases, and it represents the most common cause of hereditary infant mortality. After decades of intensive basic and clinical research efforts, and improvements in the standard of care, successful therapeutic milestones have been developed, delaying the progression of 5q SMA and increasing patient survival. At the same time, promising data from early-stage clinical trials have indicated that additional therapeutic options are likely to emerge in the near future. Here, we provide updated information on the molecular underpinnings of SMA; we also provide an overview of the rapidly evolving therapeutic landscape for SMA, including SMN-targeted therapies, SMN-independent therapies, and combinational therapies that are likely to be key for the development of treatments that are effective across a patient’s lifespan.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060894
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 895: MAGE: An Open-Source Tool for Meta-Analysis
           of Gene Expression Studies

    • Authors: Ioannis A. Tamposis, Georgios A. Manios, Theodosia Charitou, Konstantina E. Vennou, Panagiota I. Kontou, Pantelis G. Bagos
      First page: 895
      Abstract: MAGE (Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression) is a Python open-source software package designed to perform meta-analysis and functional enrichment analysis of gene expression data. We incorporate standard methods for the meta-analysis of gene expression studies, bootstrap standard errors, corrections for multiple testing, and meta-analysis of multiple outcomes. Importantly, the MAGE toolkit includes additional features for the conversion of probes to gene identifiers, and for conducting functional enrichment analysis, with annotated results, of statistically significant enriched terms in several formats. Along with the tool itself, a web-based infrastructure was also developed to support the features of this package.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060895
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 896: Impact of Metacognitive and Psychological
           Factors in Learning-Induced Plasticity of Resting State Networks

    • Authors: Valentine Chirokoff, Georges Di Scala, Joel Swendsen, Bixente Dilharreguy, Sylvie Berthoz, Sandra Chanraud
      First page: 896
      Abstract: While resting-state networks are able to rapidly adapt to experiences and stimuli, it is currently unknown whether metacognitive processes such as confidence in learning and psychological temperament may influence this process. We explore the neural traces of confidence in learning and their variability by: (1) targeting rs-networks in which functional connectivity (FC) modifications induced by a learning task were associated either with the participant’s performance or confidence in learning; and (2) investigating the links between FC changes and psychological temperament. Thirty healthy individuals underwent neuropsychological and psychometric evaluations as well as rs-fMRI scans before and after a visuomotor associative learning task. Confidence in learning was positively associated with the degree of FC changes in 11 connections including the cerebellar, frontal, parietal, and subcortical areas. Variability in FC changes was linked to the individual’s level of anxiety sensitivity. The present findings indicate that reconfigurations of resting state networks linked to confidence in learning differ from those linked to learning accuracy. In addition, certain temperament characteristics appear to influence these reconfigurations.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060896
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 897: Desert Ants Learn to Avoid Pitfall Traps
           While Foraging

    • Authors: Adi Bar, Chen Marom, Nikol Zorin, Tomer Gilad, Aziz Subach, Susanne Foitzik, Inon Scharf
      First page: 897
      Abstract: Central-place foragers, such as social insects or nesting birds, repeatedly use the same routes from and to their nests when foraging for food. Such species forage more efficiently after accumulating experience. We examined, here, a relatively neglected aspect of such an improvement with experience—the avoidance of pitfall traps. Similar pits are built by antlions, which co-occur with the ants, but they also resemble other natural obstacles. We used the desert ant Cataglyphis niger, common in sandy habitats, and allowed it to forage for three successive runs for a food reward. Ant workers discovered food more slowly and in smaller numbers when pits were in their path. Pit presence also led to longer tracks by ants and slower movement. However, with experience, the ants fell into such pits less often and reached the food more quickly. To understand how past conditions affect current behavior, we investigated whether removing or adding pits led to a different result to that with a constant number of pits. Workers adjusted their behavior immediately when conditions changed. The only carryover effect was the longer tracks crossed by workers after pit removal, possibly resulting from the mismatch between the past and current conditions. Finally, the workers were more likely to fall into pits that were closer to the nest than those that were further away. This is a good example of the advantage that ambush predators can derive from ambushing their prey in specific locations.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060897
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 898: Confirmation of the Applicability of
           Skeletochronology and Estimating the Age Structure of Kaloula borealis
           (Microhylidae: Anura) at Lake Sihwa, South Korea

    • Authors: Md Mizanur Rahman, Yu-Young Lee, Seung-Min Park, Choong-Ho Ham, Ha-Cheol Sung
      First page: 898
      Abstract: Despite having some limitations, the use of skeletochronology—age determination by counting lines of arrested growth (LAGs)—in amphibians is increasing. The main limitation of using skeletochronology is identifying the innermost visible line (IVL) and counting the exact number of LAGs. Thus, we tested its applicability to Kaloula borealis, a class II endangered amphibian in South Korea. We reared juveniles in the lab to investigate the process of bone formation. This confirmed the development of one LAG each year. Hence, our study validates skeletochronology for the age determination of this species and recommends it for others that show similar growth patterns. Furthermore, the comparison of threshold diameters with the IVL of wild individuals confirmed no LAG1 resorption. The average age of males and females in this population was 2.75 ± 1.05 and 3.64 ± 3 years, respectively. We estimated sexual maturity at 2 years with rapid growth up to that stage in both sexes. We found a female-dominated sexual size dimorphism. This study offers accurate information on the life history traits and age structure of K. borealis that may help to evaluate population dynamics in other areas, identify vulnerable life stages and sites, assess the causes of population decline, and set conservation priorities.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060898
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 899: Breaking of Sitting Time Prevents Lower Leg
           Swelling—Comparison among Sit, Stand and Intermittent (Sit-To-Stand
           Transitions) Conditions

    • Authors: Rúben Francisco, Catarina L. Nunes, João Breda, Filipe Jesus, Henry Lukaski, Luís B. Sardinha, Analiza M. Silva
      First page: 899
      Abstract: Background: Sitting or standing during prolonged periods is related to leg swelling. It is unknown if interrupting sedentary behavior can attenuate lower leg swelling. We aimed to examine if adding sit-to-stand transitions prevents lower leg swelling as compared with uninterrupted motionless standing and sitting, using localized bioelectrical impedance raw parameters. Methods: Twenty adults participated in this crossover randomized controlled trial and acted out three conditions: (1) uninterrupted, motionless standing; (2) uninterrupted motionless sitting; (3) sit-to-stand transitions (1 min sitting followed by 1 min standing). Localized resistance (R), reactance (Xc), impedance (Z) and phase angle (PhA) were assessed at baseline, at 10 min and at 20 min for each condition. Results: For sitting and standing conditions, R and Xc values decreased after 10 and 20 min. Uninterrupted sitting resulted in the highest decrease in R Sit − Stand = −9.5 Ω (4.0), p = 0.019; Sit − Int = −11.6 Ω (4.0), p = 0.005). For standardized R (R/knee height), sitting was the condition with a greater decrease Sit − Stand = −30.5 Ω/m (13.4), p = 0.025; Sit − Int = −35.0 Ω/m (13.5), p = 0.011). Conclusions: Interrupting sedentary behavior by changing from sit to stand position during short periods may be effective at preventing leg swelling.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060899
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 900: Comparative Study of Brain Size Ontogeny:
           Marsupials and Placental Mammals

    • Authors: Carmen De Miguel, Arthur Saniotis, Agata Cieślik, Maciej Henneberg
      First page: 900
      Abstract: There exists a negative allometry between vertebrate brain size and body size. It has been well studied among placental mammals but less is known regarding marsupials. Consequently, this study explores brain/body ontogenetic growth in marsupials and compares it with placental mammals. Pouch young samples of 43 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 28 possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), and 36 tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) preserved in a solution of 10% buffered formalin, as well as fresh juveniles and adults of 43 koalas and 40 possums, were studied. Their brain size/body size allometry was compared to that among humans, rhesus monkeys, dogs, cats, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, wild pigs, and mice. Two patterns of allometric curves were found: a logarithmic one (marsupials, rabbits, wild pigs, and guinea pigs) and a logistic one (the rest of mammals).
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060900
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 901: Effect of Diet Consistency on Rat Mandibular
           Growth. A Geometric Morphometric and Linear Cephalometric Study

    • Authors: Ioannis A. Tsolakis, Christos Verikokos, Despoina Perrea, Konstantina Alexiou, Sotiria Gizani, Apostolos I. Tsolakis
      First page: 901
      Abstract: Background: Our study intended to investigate the null hypothesis that there is no effect of diet consistency on rat mandibular growth. Methods: A total sample of 24 female wistar rats, 30 days old, was used in this study. In the first group, the rats were fed soft diet and in the second group, they were fed hard diet for 60 days. On the 60th day, the rats were sedated and lateral cephalometric X-rays were taken. Lateral cephalometric X-rays were digitized with 7 craniofacial landmarks for the linear measurements, as well as with 12 curves and 90 landmarks, of which 74 were semilandmarks and 16 were fixed landmarks for morphometric analysis. These landmarks were exposed to Procrustes superimposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to describe the shape variability of the mandible. Results: Means measurements of the soft diet group compared to those of the hard diet group were significantly different in linear and morphometric analysis measurements. The soft diet group of wistar rats revealed significant changes on the condyle (smaller), the angle of the mandible, and on the body of the mandible. Conclusions: Diet consistency affects the craniofacial growth of rats. Soft diet could be responsible for less mandibular growth.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060901
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 902: Concordance Analysis between the Segments and
           the Overall Performance in Olympic Triathlon in Elite Triathletes

    • Authors: Javier Olaya-Cuartero, José Fernández-Sáez, Ove Østerlie, Alberto Ferriz-Valero
      First page: 902
      Abstract: To date, the performance in triathlon has been measured through time or position. Although this is what defines the medals and the goal of the competition, it can have some limitations. As an alternative, the purpose of this study is to assess the degree of concordance of performance between each of the triathlon disciplines with overall performance through the triathlon performance indicator for the Olympic distance event. The official results from the World Triathlon Series for Olympic distance events from 2000 to 2019 were examined. A total of 11,263 entries were analysed, 6273 corresponding to elite men and 4990 to elite women. Moderate agreement was found between the running performance and overall performance in both elite men ICCa = 0.538 and elite women ICCa = 0.581. Moreover, moderate agreement was found between swimming performance and overall performance in both elite men ICCa = 0.640 and elite women ICCa = 0.613. Finally, good agreement was found between cycling performance and overall performance also in both elite men ICCa = 0.777 and elite women ICCa = 0.816. The main results of the present study show that the cycling performance indicator could be an alternative to anticipate the overall performance in the competition for the Olympic distance event.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060902
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 903: An Overview of the Importance and Value of
           Porcine Species in Sialic Acid Research

    • Authors: Oluwamayowa Joshua Ogun, Georg Thaller, Doreen Becker
      First page: 903
      Abstract: Humans frequently interact with pigs, whose meat is also one of the primary sources of animal protein. They are one of the main species at the center of sialic acid (Sia) research. Sias are sugars at terminals of glycoconjugates, are expressed at the cell surfaces of mammals, and are important in cellular interactions. N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) are notable Sias in mammals. Cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) encodes the CMAH enzyme that biosynthesizes Neu5Gc. Although humans cannot endogenously synthesize Neu5Gc due to the inactivation of this gene by a mutation, Neu5Gc can be metabolically incorporated into human tissues from red meat consumption. Interactions between Neu5Gc and human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies have been associated with certain diseases and disorders. In this review, we summarized the sialic acid metabolic pathway, its regulation and link to viral infections, as well as the importance of the pig as a model organism in Sia research, making it a possible source of Neu5Gc antigens affecting human health. Future research in solving the structures of crucial enzymes involved in Sia metabolism, as well as their regulation and interactions with other enzymes, especially CMAH, could help to understand their function and reduce the amount of Neu5Gc.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060903
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 904: Analysis of Physiological and Transcriptomic
           Differences between a Premature Senescence Mutant (GSm) and Its Wild-Type
           in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Juan Lu, Lili Sun, Xiujuan Jin, Md Ashraful Islam, Feng Guo, Xiaosha Tang, Kai Zhao, Huifang Hao, Ning Li, Wenjun Zhang, Yugang Shi, Shuguang Wang, Daizhen Sun
      First page: 904
      Abstract: Premature leaf senescence has a profound influence on crop yield and quality. Here, a stable premature senescence mutant (GSm) was obtained from the common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Chang 6878 by mutagenesis with ethyl methanesulfonate. The differences between the GSm mutant and its wild-type (WT) were analyzed in terms of yield characteristics, photosynthetic fluorescence indices, and senescence-related physiological parameters. RNA sequencing was used to reveal gene expression differences between GSm and WT. The results showed that the yield of GSm was considerably lower than that of WT. The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, maximum quantum yield, non-photochemical quenching coefficient, photosynthetic electron transport rate, soluble protein, peroxidase activity, and catalase activity all remarkably decreased in flag leaves of GSm, whereas malondialdehyde content distinctively increased compared with those of WT. The analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated blockade of chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis, accelerated degradation of chlorophyll, and diminished photosynthetic capacity in mutant leaves; brassinolide might facilitate chlorophyll breakdown and consequently accelerate leaf senescence. NAC genes positively regulated the senescence process. Compared with NAC genes, expression of WRKY and MYB genes was induced earlier in the mutant possibly due to increased levels of reactive oxygen species and plant hormones (e.g., brassinolide, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid), thereby accelerating leaf senescence. Furthermore, the antioxidant system played a role in minimizing oxidative damage in the mutant. These results provides novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of premature leaf senescence in crops.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060904
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 905: Collagen Extraction from Animal Skin

    • Authors: Andrea Marie E. Matinong, Yusuf Chisti, Kim L. Pickering, Richard G. Haverkamp
      First page: 905
      Abstract: Collagen is the most abundant structural protein in animals. It is the major component of skin. It finds uses in cosmetics, medicine, yarn production and packaging. This paper reviews the extraction of collagen from hides of most consumed animals for meat with the focus on literature published since 2000. The different pretreatment and extraction techniques that have been investigated for producing collagen from animal skins are reviewed. Pretreatment by enzymatic, acid or alkaline methods have been used. Extraction by chemical hydrolysis, salt solubilization, enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrasound assisted extraction and other methods are described. Post-extraction purification methods are also explained. This compilation will be useful for anyone wishing to use collagen as a resource and wanting to further improve the extraction and purification methods.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060905
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 906: Forced Sedentariness and Sports Activity as
           Factors Differentiating Anthropometric Characteristics, Indices, and Body
           Composition in People with Disabilities

    • Authors: Anna Zwierzchowska, Barbara Rosołek, Marcin Sikora, Diana Celebańska
      First page: 906
      Abstract: Introduction: Although the assessment of physique and body composition poses methodological, technical, and interpretative difficulties, it is of great importance for the health of people with disabilities. The aim of the study was to demonstrate that sedentariness and sports activity are factors differentiating anthropometric characteristics, indices, and body composition in people with physical disabilities. Materials and methods: Fifty-eight people were examined: 48 elite Polish Para athletes, including Paralympic track and field athletes (PTF, n = 8), sitting volleyball players (SV, n = 15), wheelchair rugby players (WR, n = 25), and individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI, n = 10). Body mass (BM), body height (BH), body length (BL), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body fat percentage (%FT), and visceral fat rating (VFR) were measured. Furthermore, BMI, BMIcorrected, and body adiposity index (BAI) were evaluated. Results: The highest WC, BAI, %FT, and VFR were found for the CSCI group. The type of sport significantly differentiated between anthropometric features, indices, and body composition of the athletes. Sitting volleyball players achieved the highest mean BM (83.9), WC (92.9), HC (103.7), BMI (24.5), BAI (23.4), and VFR (12.6). The highest %FT (28.9) was found in wheelchair rugby players. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that forced sedentariness and sports activity among individuals with disabilities differentiate body structure and physique.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060906
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 907: Optical Fiber-Based Recording of Climbing
           Fiber Ca2+ Signals in Freely Behaving Mice

    • Authors: Jiechang Tang, Rou Xue, Yan Wang, Min Li, Hongbo Jia, Janelle M. P. Pakan, Longhui Li, Xiaowei Chen, Xingyi Li
      First page: 907
      Abstract: The olivocerebellar circuitry is important to convey both motor and non-motor information from the inferior olive (IO) to the cerebellar cortex. Several methods are currently established to observe the dynamics of the olivocerebellar circuitry, largely by recording the complex spike activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells; however, these techniques can be technically challenging to apply in vivo and are not always possible in freely behaving animals. Here, we developed a method for the direct, accessible, and robust recording of climbing fiber (CF) Ca2+ signals based on optical fiber photometry. We first verified the IO stereotactic coordinates and the organization of contralateral CF projections using tracing techniques and then injected Ca2+ indicators optimized for axonal labeling, followed by optical fiber-based recordings. We demonstrated this method by recording CF Ca2+ signals in lobule IV/V of the cerebellar vermis, comparing the resulting signals in freely moving mice. We found various movement-evoked CF Ca2+ signals, but the onset of exploratory-like behaviors, including rearing and tiptoe standing, was highly synchronous with recorded CF activity. Thus, we have successfully established a robust and accessible method to record the CF Ca2+ signals in freely behaving mice, which will extend the toolbox for studying cerebellar function and related disorders.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060907
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 908: Recent Advances in Forensic Anthropological
           Methods and Research

    • Authors: Eugénia Cunha, Ann H. Ross
      First page: 908
      Abstract: This Special Issue, “Recent Advances in Forensic Anthropological Methods and Research”, with thirteen articles covers a wide range of highly diverse topics within forensic anthropology [...]
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060908
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 909: Effects of High-Intensity Resistance Training
           on Physical Fitness, Hormonal and Antioxidant Factors: A Randomized
           Controlled Study Conducted on Young Adult Male Soccer Players

    • Authors: Ana Filipa Silva, Mohammad Hosein Aghidemand, Masoud Kharatzadeh, Vahab Khan Ahmadi, Rafael Oliveira, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Georgian Badicu, Eugenia Murawska-Ciałowicz
      First page: 909
      Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the effects of high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) intervention on the physical fitness, hormonal and antioxidant factors of adult male soccer players. Methods: A randomized controlled study design was implemented. Eighteen soccer players (age: 20.3 ± 0.66 years; stature: 174.0 ± 6.01 cm; body mass: 69.1 ± 6.4 kg; body mass index: 22.8 ± 1.6 kg/m2) voluntarily participated in this study. Players were assessed before and after an intervention lasting 8 weeks, with three training sessions a week. Assessments of physical fitness included the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1), 10-, 20-, and 30 m sprint time (ST), running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) and change-of-direction time (COD). Hormonal tests included cortisol, testosterone and growth hormone (GH), whereas the antioxidant assessment included superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Results: Between-group analysis revealed no significant differences at baseline, whereas it revealed that HIRT presented significant better results than the control group on YYIRT (p = 0.032), 10 m ST (p = 0.041), 20 m ST (p = 0.040), 30 m ST (p = 0.044), RAST (p = 0.013), and COD (p = 0.031) after the intervention period. The within group analysis revealed that the HIRT group significantly improved the YYIRT1 (p < 0.001), VO2max (p < 0.001), 10 m ST (p < 0.001), 20 m ST (p = 0.006), 30 m ST (p < 0.001), RAST (p < 0.001) and COD (p < 0.001). Moreover, HIRT group significantly reduced the cortisol (p < 0.001) and MDA (p = 0.021), whereas it significantly increased the GH (p < 0.001), testosterone (p < 0.001), SOD (p = 0.009) and GSH (p = 0.005). Conclusions: The HIRT is effective for improving physical fitness, revealing significant better adaptations than controls. Moreover, hormonal and antioxidant adaptations are also confirmed after HIRT intervention.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060909
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 910: Effects of a Physical Literacy Breaks
           (PLBreaks) Program on Physical Literacy and Body Composition in Portuguese
           Schoolchildren: A Study Protocol

    • Authors: Maria Mendoza-Muñoz, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Santos Villafaina, Jose A. Parraca, Alejandro Vega-Muñoz, Nicolás Contreras-Barraza, Armando Raimundo
      First page: 910
      Abstract: (1) Background: Several studies have shown that active breaks have led to different improvements in their participants. However, no studies have assessed how they affect physical literacy (PL). (2) Aims: Therefore, this study will examine the effect of the PLBreaks programme on school children’s PL and body composition. (3) Methods: A parallel-group randomised controlled trial will be conducted with assessments of PL (Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy Development) and body composition (height, bodyweight, fat mass and fat-free mass) before and after an active breaks programme. PLBreak programme will run for 3 months and will be carried out 3 days a week for 20 min each day. The PLBreaks programme will consist of two blocks of 10 min of different physical activities (PA). The first block will be focused on the acquisition of knowledge and healthy life habits that will contribute to the development of the domains of knowledge and understanding and daily activity. The second block will be focused on physical competence and motivation throughout games. (4) Conclusions: The present study will investigate the efficacy of PLBreaks in schoolchildren in improving their PL and body composition. If the efficacy of the program is demonstrated, including the programme in public education programmes can be possible. This could be a scientific breakthrough in terms of health-related PA improvement and adherence, as well as the prevention of diseases associated with inactivity.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060910
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 911: Physiological and Pathophysiological Effects
           of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide on the Heart

    • Authors: Akihiro Yasoda
      First page: 911
      Abstract: C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is the third member of the natriuretic peptide family. Unlike other members, i.e., atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), which are cardiac hormones secreted from the atrium and ventricle of the heart, respectively, CNP is regarded as an autocrine/paracrine regulator with broad expression in the body. Because of its low expression levels compared to ANP and BNP, early studies failed to show its existence and role in the heart. However, recent studies have revealed the physiological and pathophysiological importance of CNP in the heart; in concert with the distribution of its specific natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B), CNP has come to be regarded as the major heart-protective natriuretic peptide in the failed heart. NPR-B generates intracellular cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) upon CNP binding, followed by various molecular effects including the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases, which generates diverse cytoprotective actions in cardiomyocytes, as well as in cardiac fibroblasts. CNP exerts negative inotropic and positive lusitropic responses in both normal and failing heart models. Furthermore, osteocrin, the intrinsic and specific ligand for the clearance receptor for natriuretic peptides, can augment the effects of CNP and may supply a novel therapeutic strategy for cardiac protection.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060911
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 912: Achilles Tendon Mechanical Behavior and Ankle
           Joint Function at the Walk-to-Run Transition

    • Authors: Andrea Monte, Paolo Tecchio, Francesca Nardello, Paola Zamparo
      First page: 912
      Abstract: Walking at speeds higher than transition speed is associated with a decrease in the plantar-flexor muscle fibres’ ability to produce force and, potentially, to an impaired behaviour of the muscle–tendon unit (MTU) elastic components. This study aimed to investigate the ankle joint functional indexes and the Achilles tendon mechanical behaviour (changes in AT force and power) to better elucidate the mechanical determinants of the walk-to-run transition. Kinematics, kinetic and ultrasound data of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were investigated during overground walking and running at speeds ranging from 5–9 km·h−1. AT and GM MTU force and power were calculated during the propulsive phase; the ankle joint function indexes (damper, strut, spring and motor) were obtained using a combination of kinetic and kinematic data. AT force was larger in running at speeds > 6.5 km/h. The contribution of AT to the total power provided by the GM MTU was significantly larger in running at speeds > 7.5 km/h. The spring and strut indexes of the ankle were significantly larger in running at speeds > 7.5 km/h. These data suggest that the walk-to-run transition could (at least partially) be explained by the need to preserve AT mechanical behaviour and the ankle spring function.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060912
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 913: Functional and Seasonal Changes in the
           Structure of Microbiome Inhabiting Bottom Sediments of a Pond Intended for
           Ecological King Carp Farming

    • Authors: Agnieszka Wolińska, Anna Kruczyńska, Jarosław Grządziel, Anna Gałązka, Anna Marzec-Grządziel, Klaudia Szałaj, Agnieszka Kuźniar
      First page: 913
      Abstract: The main goal of the study was to determine changes in the bacterial structure in bottom sediments occurring over the seasons of the year and to estimate microbial metabolic activity. Bottom sediments were collected four times in the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) from 10 different measurement points in Cardinal Pond (Ślesin, NW Poland). The Next-Generation Sequencing (MiSeq Illumina) and Community-Level Physiological Profiling techniques were used for identification of the bacterial diversity structure and bacterial metabolic and functional activities over the four seasons. It was evident that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla, while representatives of Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria predominated at the class level in the bottom sediments. An impact of the season on biodiversity and metabolic activity was revealed with the emphasis that the environmental conditions in summer modified the studied parameters most strongly. Carboxylic and acetic acids and carbohydrates were metabolized most frequently, whereas aerobic respiration I with the use of cytochrome C was the main pathway used by the microbiome of the studied bottom sediments.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060913
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 914: Hemochromatosis Mimicked Gaucher Disease:
           Role of Hyperferritinemia in Evaluation of a Clinical Case

    • Authors: Carmela Zizzo, Irene Ruggeri, Paolo Colomba, Christiano Argano, Daniele Francofonte, Marcomaria Zora, Emanuela Maria Marsana, Giovanni Duro, Salvatore Corrao
      First page: 914
      Abstract: Gaucher disease is a disorder of lysosomes caused by a functional defect of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme. The disease is mainly due to mutations in the GBA1 gene, which determines the gradual storage of glucosylceramide substrate in the patient’s macrophages. In this paper, we describe the case of a 38-year-old man who clinically presented with hyperferritinemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia and mild splenomegaly; a diagnosis of hemochromatosis was made 10 years earlier. Re-evaluation of the clinical case led to a suspicion of Gaucher disease, which was confirmed by enzymatic analysis, which was found to be below the normal range, and genetic evaluation, which identified compound heterozygosity N370S/RecNciI. We know that patients suffering from Gaucher disease can also have high ferritin levels. Even if the mechanism underlying the changes in iron metabolism is not yet elucidated, the chronic mild inflammatory state present in these patients probably causes the storage of ferritin in macrophages, resulting in hyperferritinemia. Therefore, in the presence of few typical signs and symptoms of the disease should raise an alarm bell in the clinicians, inducing clinical suspicion of Gaucher disease. Misdiagnosis and diagnostic delay in metabolic diseases could cause irreversible organ damage and delay the start of specific therapy for these patients.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060914
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 915: Not Too Warm, Not Too Cold: Thermal
           Treatments to Slightly Warmer or Colder Conditions from Mother’s
           Origin Can Enhance Performance of Montane Butterfly Larvae

    • Authors: Konstantina Zografou, George C. Adamidis, Brent J. Sewall, Andrea Grill
      First page: 915
      Abstract: Climate change alters organismal performance via shifts in temperature. However, we know little about the relative fitness impacts of climate variability and how cold-adapted ectotherms mediate these effects. Here, we advance the field of climate change biology by directly testing for species performance, considering the effects of different thermal environments at the first developmental stage of larvae. We conducted our experiments in climatic chambers (2019–2020) using five cold-adapted butterflies of the genus Erebia (Erebia aethiops, Erebia cassioides, Erebia manto, Erebia tyndarus, Erebia nivalis). Larvae were reared indoors and were treated with higher and lower temperatures than those of their mothers’ origins. Overall, we found evidence of better performance at warmer temperatures and a decreased performance at lower temperatures, and larvae were able to tolerate small temperature changes from mother’s origin. Warmer conditions, however, were unfavorable for E. nivalis, indicative of its limited elevational range and its poor ability to mediate a variety of thermal conditions. Further, larvae generally performed poorly where there was a large difference in thermal regimen from that of their maternal origin. Future efforts should include additional life history stages and focus on a more mechanistic understanding of species thermal tolerance. Such studies could increase the realism of predicted responses to climate change and could account for asynchronous changes in species development, which will alter community composition and ecosystem functioning.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060915
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 916: Impact of FLT3-ITD Insertion Length on
           Outcomes in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Propensity Score-Adjusted Cohort

    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Corley, Moaath K. Mustafa Ali, Hanan Alharthy, Kathryn A. F. Kline, Danielle Sewell, Jennie Y. Law, Seung Tae Lee, Sandrine Niyongere, Vu H. Duong, Maria R. Baer, Ashkan Emadi
      First page: 916
      Abstract: The prognostic significance of the length of internal tandem duplication (ITD) insertions in mutant FLT3 genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the correlation between the ITD base-pair (bp) insertion length and clinical outcomes. The mutational status of the FLT3 gene was evaluated in 402 of 467 consecutive AML patients treated at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center between 2013 and 2020; 77 had FLT3-ITD mutations. Patients were divided into three cohorts based on bp insertion length (<30 (0–33rd percentile), 30–53 (34th–66th percentile),and >53 (>66th percentile)). The median overall survival (OS) of patients was 16.5 months (confidence interval (CI) 7.3-NA), 18.5 months (CI 7.3-NA), and 21.9 months (CI 19.1-NA) (p = 0.03) for the <30, 30–53, and >53 bp insertion length cohorts, respectively. The adjusted median event-free survival (EFS) for the ITD insertion lengths >30, 30–53, and >53 bp was 11.1 months (CI 2.8–16.5), 5.2 months (CI 2.9–12.6), and 9.1 months (CI 5.4-NA) (p = 0.5), respectively. Complete remission (CR) rates were 64% (<30 inserted bp), 55% (30–53 inserted bp), and 79% (>53 inserted bp) (p = 0.23). For patients treated with gilteritinib and midostaurin, the unadjusted median OS was not statistically significantly different between cohorts.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060916
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 917: Efficiency of the Adjusted Binary
           Classification (ABC) Approach in Osteometric Sex Estimation: A Comparative
           Study of Different Linear Machine Learning Algorithms and Training Sample

    • Authors: MennattAllah Hassan Attia, Marwa A. Kholief, Nancy M. Zaghloul, Ivana Kružić, Šimun Anđelinović, Željana Bašić, Ivan Jerković
      First page: 917
      Abstract: The adjusted binary classification (ABC) approach was proposed to assure that the binary classification model reaches a particular accuracy level. The present study evaluated the ABC for osteometric sex classification using multiple machine learning (ML) techniques: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), boosted generalized linear model (GLMB), support vector machine (SVM), and logistic regression (LR). We used 13 femoral measurements of 300 individuals from a modern Turkish population sample and split data into two sets: training (n = 240) and testing (n = 60). Then, the five best-performing measurements were selected for training univariate models, while pools of these variables were used for the multivariable models. ML classifier type did not affect the performance of unadjusted models. The accuracy of univariate models was 82–87%, while that of multivariate models was 89–90%. After applying ABC to the crossvalidation set, the accuracy and the positive and negative predictive values for uni- and multivariate models were ≥95%. Sex could be estimated for 28–75% of individuals using univariate models but with an obvious sexing bias, likely caused by different degrees of sexual dimorphism and between-group overlap. However, using multivariate models, we minimized the bias and properly classified 81–87% of individuals. A similar performance was also noted in the testing sample (except for FEB), with accuracies of 96–100%, and a proportion of classified individuals between 30% and 82% in univariate models, and between 90% and 91% in multivariate models. When considering different training sample sizes, we demonstrated that LR was the most sensitive with limited sample sizes (n < 150), while GLMB was the most stable classifier.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060917
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 918: Microbial Consortia: An Engineering Tool to
           Suppress Clubroot of Chinese Cabbage by Changing the Rhizosphere Bacterial
           Community Composition

    • Authors: Jinhao Zhang, Waqar Ahmed, Zhenlin Dai, Xinghai Zhou, Zulei He, Lanfang Wei, Guanghai Ji
      First page: 918
      Abstract: Clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) production, which results in extensive yield losses. At present, clubroot control mainly depends upon pesticides, which provoke food-safety concerns, and the application of sole biocontrol agents cannot successfully control the disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bacillus cereus BT-23, Lysobacter antibioticus 13-6, and Lysobacter capsici ZST1-2 as sole strains, intra-/inter-genus co-culture, and microbial consortia on clubroot disease, plant growth, and rhizosphere bacterial diversity in a field experiment. The microbial consortia efficiently controlled the incidence of clubroot disease, with a biocontrol effect of about 65.78%, by decreasing the soil acidity and enhancing the yield (17,662.49 kg/acre). The high-throughput sequencing results demonstrated that the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present in high relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil of the Chinese cabbage. Furthermore, Firmicutes was found as a unique phylum in the rhizosphere soil of CK-H and T1-T7, except for CK-D. The application of microbial consortia recovers the imbalance in indigenous microbial communities. Therefore, we conclude that microbial consortia can reduce the clubroot incidence in Chinese cabbage by decreasing the soil acidity and altering the diversity and structure of rhizosphere bacterial communities. This study highlights the potential of microbial consortia as an engineering tool to control devastating soilborne diseases in commercial crops.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060918
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 919: Effect of Nitric Oxide Pathway Inhibition on

    • Authors: Maryam Alfalasi, Sarah Alzaabi, Linda Östlundh, Rami H. Al-Rifai, Suhail Al-Salam, Paul Michel Mertes, Seth L. Alper, Elhadi H. Aburawi, Abdelouahab Bellou
      First page: 919
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) induces vasodilation in various types of shock. The effect of pharmacological modulation of the NO pathway in anaphylactic shock (AS) remains poorly understood. Our objective was to assess, through a systematic review, whether inhibition of NO pathways (INOP) was beneficial for the prevention and/or treatment of AS. A predesigned protocol for this systematic review was published in PROSPERO (CRD42019132273). A systematic literature search was conducted till March 2022 in the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane and Web of Science. Heterogeneity of the studies did not allow meta-analysis. Nine hundred ninety unique studies were identified. Of 135 studies screened in full text, 17 were included in the review. Among six inhibitors of NO pathways identified, four blocked NO synthase activity and two blocked guanylate cyclase downstream activity. Pre-treatment was used in nine studies and post-treatment in three studies. Five studies included both pre-treatment and post-treatment models. Overall, seven pre-treatment studies from fourteen showed improvement of survival and/or arterial blood pressure. Four post-treatment studies from eight showed positive outcomes. Overall, there was no strong evidence to conclude that isolated blockade of the NO/cGMP pathway is sufficient to prevent or restore anaphylactic hypotension. Further studies are needed to analyze the effect of drug combinations in the treatment of AS.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060919
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 920: Morphometric Features and Microanatomy of the
           Lingual Filiform Papillae in the Wistar Rat

    • Authors: Elena Huțanu, Aurel Damian, Viorel Miclăuș, Ioana A. Rațiu, Vasile Rus, Ion Vlasiuc, Adrian F. Gal
      First page: 920
      Abstract: The mammalian tongue plays a fundamental role in various physiological and behavioral activities. Significant morphological variations have been recorded in the tongue of several species. This study aims to obtain detailed histological and morphometric information about the filiform papillae on the surface of rat tongue. The tongues of five 10-month-old Wistar rats were utilized, which were later examined with a stereo-microscope. Fragments from the three regions of the tongue were collected for histological investigations. The tongue of the Wistar rat has an intensely keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, with the highest degree of keratinized epithelium covering the filiform papillae. The filiform papillae differ in density, with the highest density recorded on the posterior part of the lingual body and the lowest density on the protuberance. The shortest filiform papillae were observed on the apex of the tongue and the tallest on the anterior part of the lingual body. Interestingly, the orientation of the filiform papillae on the lingual protuberance was inclined posteroanteriorly, in the opposite way as compared to the papillae from all the other regions of the tongue. Histologically, a difference was recorded in the structure of the covering epithelium of the anterior vs. the posterior face of the filiform papillae.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060920
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 921: Revisiting the Tigger Transposon Evolution
           Revealing Extensive Involvement in the Shaping of Mammal Genomes

    • Authors: Mohamed Diaby, Zhongxia Guan, Shasha Shi, Yatong Sang, Saisai Wang, Yali Wang, Wencheng Zong, Numan Ullah, Bo Gao, Chengyi Song
      First page: 921
      Abstract: The data of this study revealed that Tigger was found in a wide variety of animal genomes, including 180 species from 36 orders of invertebrates and 145 species from 29 orders of vertebrates. An extensive invasion of Tigger was observed in mammals, with a high copy number. Almost 61% of those species contain more than 50 copies of Tigger; however, 46% harbor intact Tigger elements, although the number of these intact elements is very low. Common HT events of Tigger elements were discovered across different lineages of animals, including mammals, that may have led to their widespread distribution, whereas Helogale parvula and arthropods may have aided Tigger HT incidences. The activity of Tigger seems to be low in the kingdom of animals, most copies were truncated in the mammal genomes and lost their transposition activity, and Tigger transposons only display signs of recent and current activities in a few species of animals. The findings suggest that the Tigger family is important in structuring mammal genomes.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060921
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 922: Realising the Environmental Potential of
           Vertical Farming Systems through Advances in Plant Photobiology

    • Authors: Matthieu de Carbonnel, John M. Stormonth-Darling, Weiqi Liu, Dmytro Kuziak, Matthew Alan Jones
      First page: 922
      Abstract: Intensive agriculture is essential to feed increasing populations, yet requires large amounts of pesticide, fertiliser, and water to maintain productivity. One solution to mitigate these issues is the adoption of Vertical Farming Systems (VFS). The self-contained operation of these facilities offers the potential to recycle agricultural inputs, as well as sheltering crops from the effects of climate change. Recent technological advancements in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting technology have enabled VFS to become a commercial reality, although high electrical consumption continues to tarnish the environmental credentials of the industry. In this review, we examine how the inherent use of electricity by VFS can be leveraged to deliver commercial and environmental benefits. We propose that an understanding of plant photobiology can be used to vary VFS energy consumption in coordination with electrical availability from the grid, facilitating demand-side management of energy supplies and promoting crop yield.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060922
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 923: The Status of Posidonia oceanica at Tremiti
           Islands Marine Protected Area (Adriatic Sea)

    • Authors: Andrea Tursi, Francesco Mastrototaro, Federica Montesanto, Francesco De Giosa, Anna Lisco, Antonella Bottalico, Giovanni Chimienti
      First page: 923
      Abstract: Posidonia oceanica meadows are Mediterranean coastal habitats of great conservation importance. This study is focused on a meadow located at Tremiti Islands Marine Protected Area (Adriatic Sea, Italy), which was monitored in 2003, 2015, and 2020 to evaluate its health state over time in relation to coastal human activities, which have been highly affecting this MPA for the last 20 years. To assess any change in the physiognomy of the meadow, rhizome density, percentage coverage, and lower limit progressions and/or regression over time were evaluated by scuba diving, while the distribution and extension of the meadow were assessed through habitat mapping using a side-scan sonar. Moreover, phenological and lepidochronological analyses were performed on the collected rhizomes to assess the leaf area index (LAI, m2m−2) and the rhizome age (lepidochronological years). Our study showed a general deterioration of P. oceanica meadow from 2003 to 2020, with a significant reduction of its absolute and relative rhizome density and LAI at almost all sampling stations, absence of renovation of the meadow, and lower limit regression and overall worsening of the main conservation status indicators. However, appropriate management actions, such as the establishment of mooring buoy fields, supported the improvement of the P. oceanica status at the local scale with a significant increase in density and LAI and the presence of active stolonization processes, suggesting that mitigation actions can play a crucial role in the conservation of this habitat. On the contrary, local anthropogenic impacts, especially anchoring and coastal development, markedly affect the resilience of P. oceanica meadows to global stressors, such as climate change.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060923
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 924: Sex-Related Pain Behavioral Differences
           following Unilateral NGF Injections in a Rat Model of Low Back Pain

    • Authors: Michael Syrett, Nicholas R. Reed, William R. Reed, Madison L. Richey, Andrey Frolov, Joshua W. Little
      First page: 924
      Abstract: Low back pain (LBP) is a globally prevalent and costly societal problem with multifactorial etiologies and incompletely understood pathophysiological mechanisms. To address such shortcomings regarding the role of neurotrophins in the underlying mechanisms of pain, an LBP model was developed in rats involving two unilateral intramuscular injections of nerve growth factor (NGF) into deep trunk muscles. To date, behavioral investigations of this NGF-LBP model have been limited, especially as it pertains to female pain behaviors. This study compared mechanical sensitivity to noxious (hyperalgesia) and non-noxious (hypersensitivity) stimuli in control and NGF-injected male and female rats through pain resolution. Although the baseline testing revealed no differences between males and females, NGF-injected females demonstrated prolonged ipsilateral deep trunk mechanical hyperalgesia that resolved seven days later than males. Moreover, females showed bilateral trunk mechanical sensitivity to noxious and non-noxious stimuli compared to only ipsilateral behaviors in males. Sex differences were also observed in the severity of behavioral responses, with females displaying greater mean differences from baseline at several timepoints. Overall, these NGF-LBP behavioral findings mirror some of the sex differences reported in the clinical presentation of LBP and accentuate the translatability of this NGF-LBP model. Future studies using this LBP-NGF model could help to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development, severity, and/or resolution of muscular LBP as well as to provide insights into the processes governing the transition from acute to chronic LBP.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060924
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 925: Associations between Objectively Determined
           Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health in Adult Women: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Yining Lu, Huw D. Wiltshire, Julien S. Baker, Qiaojun Wang, Shanshan Ying, Jianshe Li, Yichen Lu
      First page: 925
      Abstract: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to qualitatively synthesize and quantitatively assess the evidence of the relationship between objectively determined volumes of physical activity (PA) and cardiometabolic health in women. Four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane library) were searched and, finally, 24 eligible studies were included, with a total of 2105 women from eight countries. A correlational meta-analysis shows that moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was favorably associated with high-density lipoprotein (r = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.25; p = 0.002); however, there was limited evidence for the effects of most of the other cardiometabolic biomarkers recorded from steps, total physical activity, light- and moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA. It is most compelling and consistent that being more physically active is beneficial to the metabolic syndrome. Overall, PA levels are low in adult women, suggesting that increasing the total volume of PA is more important than emphasizing the intensity and duration of PA. The findings also indicate that, according to the confounding effects of body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, meeting the minimal level of 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity recommended is not enough to obtain a significant improvement in cardiometabolic indicators. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity between studies inhibits robust conclusions.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060925
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 926: Effects of Non-Thermal Treatment on Gilaburu
           Vinegar (Viburnum opulus L.): Polyphenols, Amino Acid, Antimicrobial, and
           Anticancer Properties

    • Authors: Berna Erdal, Seydi Yıkmış, Nazan Tokatlı Demirok, Esra Bozgeyik, Okan Levent
      First page: 926
      Abstract: Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) is an important fruit that has been studied in recent years due to its phytochemicals and health benefits. In this study, traditionally produced vinegar made from gilaburu fruit (C-GV) was evaluated. Vinegar with higher levels of bioactive components optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) was also produced using ultrasound (UT-GV). The maximum optimization result for the bioactive components was achieved at 14 min and 61.2 amplitude. The effectiveness of thermal pasteurization (P-GV) on gilaburu vinegar was evaluated. An increase was detected for every organic acid with ultrasound treatment. In the UT-GV and C-GV samples, arabinose was present, which is useful for stimulating the immune system. Gilaburu vinegar samples contained 29–31 volatile compounds. The smallest amount of volatile compounds was found in P-GV (1280.9 µg/kg), and the largest amounts of volatile compounds were found in C-GV (1566.9 µg/kg) and UT-GV (1244.10 µg/kg). In the UT-GV sample, Fe was increased, but Ca, K, Mg, and Mn were decreased. A total of 15 polyphenols were detected in C-GV, P-GV, and UT-GV samples, and gallic acid was the most common. A total of 17 free amino acids were detected in gilaburu vinegar samples. Ultrasound provided enrichment in total phenolic compounds and total free amino acids. All three vinegar samples had good antimicrobial activity against pathogens. The efficacy of C-GV, P-GV, and UT-GV samples against colon and stomach cancer was determined, but there were no significant differences between them. As a result, ultrasound treatment is notable due to its antimicrobial and anticancer activity, especially for the enrichment of phenolic compounds and amino acids in gilaburu vinegar.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060926
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 927: Chronic Toxicity of Primary Metabolites of
           Chloroacetamide and Glyphosate to Early Life Stages of Marbled Crayfish
           Procambarus virginalis

    • Authors: Nikola Tresnakova, Jan Kubec, Alzbeta Stara, Eliska Zuskova, Caterina Faggio, Antonin Kouba, Josef Velisek
      First page: 927
      Abstract: Degradation products of herbicides, alone and in combination, may affect non-target aquatic organisms via leaching or runoff from the soil. The effects of 50-day exposure of primary metabolites of chloroacetamide herbicide, acetochlor ESA (AE; 4 µg/L), and glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA; 4 µg/L), and their combination (AMPA + AE; 4 + 4 µg/L) on mortality, growth, oxidative stress, antioxidant response, behaviour, and gill histology of early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) were investigated. While no treatment effects were observed on cumulative mortality or early ontogeny, growth was significantly lower in all exposed groups compared with the control group. Significant superoxide dismutase activity was observed in exposure groups, and significantly higher glutathione S-transferase activity only in the AMPA + AE group. The gill epithelium in AMPA + AE-exposed crayfish showed swelling as well as numerous unidentified fragments in interlamellar space. Velocity and distance moved in crayfish exposed to metabolites did not differ from controls, but increased activity was observed in the AMPA and AE groups. The study reveals the potential risks of glyphosate and acetochlor herbicide usage through their primary metabolites in the early life stages of marbled crayfish.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060927
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 928: Dimerization of Firing Factors for
           Replication Origin Activation in Eukaryotes: A Crucial Process for
           Simultaneous Assembly of Bidirectional Replication Forks'

    • Authors: Seiji Tanaka, Shiho Ogawa
      First page: 928
      Abstract: Controlling the activity of the heterohexameric Mcm2–7 replicative helicase is crucial for regulation of replication origin activity in eukaryotes. Because bidirectional replication forks are generated from every replication origin, when origins are licensed for replication in the first step of DNA replication, two inactive Mcm2–7 heterohexiameric complexes are loaded around double stranded DNA as a head-to-head double hexamer. The helicases are subsequently activated via a ‘firing’ reaction, in which the Mcm2–7 double hexamer is converted into two active helicase units, the CMG complex, by firing factors. Dimerization of firing factors may contribute to this process by allowing simultaneous activation of two sets of helicases and thus efficient assembly of bidirectional replication forks. An example of this is dimerization of the firing factor Sld3/Treslin/Ticrr via its binding partner, Sld7/MTBP. In organisms in which no Sld7 ortholog has been identified, such as the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Sld3 itself has a dimerization domain, and it has been suggested that this self-interaction is crucial for the firing reaction in this organism. Dimerization induces a conformational change in Sdl3 that appears to be critical for the firing reaction. Moreover, Mcm10 also seems to be regulated by self-interaction in yeasts. Although it is not yet clear to what extent dimerization of firing factors contributes to the firing reaction in eukaryotes, we discuss the possible roles of firing factor dimerization in simultaneous helicase activation.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060928
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 929: Tumor Microenvironment—A Short Review
           of Cellular and Interaction Diversity

    • Authors: Aleksandra Bożyk, Kamila Wojas-Krawczyk, Paweł Krawczyk, Janusz Milanowski
      First page: 929
      Abstract: The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of various interactions between immune cells and non-cellular components such as the extracellular matrix, exosomes and interleukins. Moreover, tumor heterogeneity and its constant modification may alter the immunophenotype and become responsible for its resistance regarding the therapies applied However, it should be remembered that in a strongly immunosuppressive neoplastic microenvironment, the immune system cells undergo reprogramming and most often cease to fulfill their original function. Therefore, understanding what happens within the tumor microenvironment, and which mechanisms are responsible for tumor development and progression should let us know how cancer could protect itself against the immune system. The presented review summarizes the latest information on the interactions between the tumor microenvironment and the cellular and non-cellular components, as well as their impact on cancer development, progression and immune system exhaustion.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060929
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 930: Identification of a Unique Cytotoxic
           Thieno[2,3-c]Pyrazole Derivative with Potent and Selective Anticancer
           Effects In Vitro

    • Authors: Jessica D. Hess, Luca H. Macias, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Karla Moran-Santibanez, Lisett Contreras, Stephanie Medina, Paulina J. Villanueva, Robert A. Kirken, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Manuel L. Penichet, Renato J. Aguilera
      First page: 930
      Abstract: In recent years, the thienopyrazole moiety has emerged as a pharmacologically active scaffold with antitumoral and kinase inhibitory activity. In this study, high-throughput screening of 2000 small molecules obtained from the ChemBridge DIVERset library revealed a unique thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole derivative (Tpz-1) with potent and selective cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Compound Tpz-1 consistently induced cell death at low micromolar concentrations (0.19 μM to 2.99 μM) against a panel of 17 human cancer cell lines after 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h of exposure. Furthermore, an in vitro investigation of Tpz-1’s mechanism of action revealed that Tpz-1 interfered with cell cycle progression, reduced phosphorylation of p38, CREB, Akt, and STAT3 kinases, induced hyperphosphorylation of Fgr, Hck, and ERK 1/2 kinases, and disrupted microtubules and mitotic spindle formation. These findings support the continued exploration of Tpz-1 and other thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole-based compounds as potential small-molecule anticancer agents.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060930
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 931: Role of mTOR Signaling Cascade in Epidermal
           Morphogenesis and Skin Barrier Formation

    • Authors: Juan Wang, Sabine A. Eming, Xiaolei Ding
      First page: 931
      Abstract: The skin epidermis, with its capacity for lifelong self-renewal and rapid repairing response upon injury, must maintain an active status in metabolism. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a central controller of cellular growth and metabolism that coordinates diverse physiological and pathological processes in a variety of tissues and organs. Recent evidence with genetic mouse models highlights an essential role of the mTOR signaling network in epidermal morphogenesis and barrier formation. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in understanding how mTOR signaling networks, including upstream inputs, kinases and downstream effectors, regulate epidermal morphogenesis and skin barrier formation. Understanding the details of the metabolic signaling will be critical for the development of novel pharmacological approaches to promote skin barrier regeneration and to treat epidermal barrier defect-associated diseases.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060931
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 932: The Effects of Silicone Enclosure Colour on
           the Function of Optical Sensors

    • Authors: Garrett Frank, Shahbaz Askari, Katharina Raschdorf, Sadra Khosravi, Brian K. Kwon, Babak Shadgan
      First page: 932
      Abstract: The colour of the silicone enclosure of an implantable reflectance-based optical probe plays a critical role in sensor performance. Red-coloured probes that are highly reflective to near-infrared light have been found to increase photodetector power by a factor of 6 for wavelengths between 660 and 950 nm and triple the magnitude of measured cardiac pulsations compared to traditional black probes. The increase in photodetector power and cardiac pulsation magnitude is presumably due to increased spatial range resulting from a higher magnitude of superficial tissue scattering. Conversely, probes with highly absorbent colours such as black and blue result in more stable signals and are expected to have higher spatial resolution and depth of penetration.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060932
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 933: Detecting Local Adaptation between North and
           South European Atlantic Salmon Populations

    • Authors: María Gabián, Paloma Morán, María Saura, Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez
      First page: 933
      Abstract: Pollution and other anthropogenic effects have driven a decrease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Iberian Peninsula. The restocking effort carried out in the 1980s, with salmon from northern latitudes with the aim of mitigating the decline of native populations, failed, probably due to the deficiency in adaptation of foreign salmon from northern Europe to the warm waters of the Iberian Peninsula. This result would imply that the Iberian populations of Atlantic salmon have experienced local adaptation in their past evolutionary history, as has been described for other populations of this species and other salmonids. Local adaptation can occur by divergent selections between environments, favoring the fixation of alleles that increase the fitness of a population in the environment it inhabits relative to other alleles favored in another population. In this work, we compared the genomes of different populations from the Iberian Peninsula (Atlantic and Cantabric basins) and Scotland in order to provide tentative evidence of candidate SNPs responsible for the adaptive differences between populations, which may explain the failures of restocking carried out during the 1980s. For this purpose, the samples were genotyped with a 220,000 high-density SNP array (Affymetrix) specific to Atlantic salmon. Our results revealed potential evidence of local adaptation for North Spanish and Scottish populations. As expected, most differences concerned the comparison of the Iberian Peninsula with Scotland, although there were also differences between Atlantic and Cantabric populations. A high proportion of the genes identified are related to development and cellular metabolism, DNA transcription and anatomical structure. A particular SNP was identified within the NADP-dependent malic enzyme-2 (mMEP-2*), previously reported by independent studies as a candidate for local adaptation in salmon from the Iberian Peninsula. Interestingly, the corresponding SNP within the mMEP-2* region was consistent with a genomic pattern of divergent selection.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060933
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 934: Anguillid Eels as a Model Species for
           Understanding Endocrinological Influences on the Onset of Spawning
           Migration of Fishes

    • Authors: Ryusuke Sudo, Takashi Yada
      First page: 934
      Abstract: Anguillid eels are the iconic example of catadromous fishes, because of their long-distance offshore spawning migrations. They are also a good model for research on the onset mechanisms of migrations to breeding areas, because the migrations begin in inland waters. When eels transform from yellow eels to silver eels, it is called silvering. Silver eels show various synchronous external and internal changes during silvering, that include coloration changes, eye-size increases, and gonadal development, which appear to be pre-adaptations to the oceanic environment and for reproductive maturation. A strong gonadotropic axis activation occurs during silvering, whereas somatotropic and thyrotropic axes are not activated. Among various hormones, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) drastically increases during spawning migration onset. Gradual water temperature decreases simulating the autumn migratory season, inducing 11-KT increases. Administration of 11-KT appeared to cause changes related to silvering, such as early-stage oocyte growth and eye enlargement. Moreover, 11-KT may be an endogenous factor that elevates the migratory drive needed for the spawning migration onset. These findings suggested that water temperature decreases cause 11-KT to increase in autumn and this induces silvering and increases migratory drive. In addition, we newly report that 11-KT is associated with a corticotropin-releasing hormone that influences migratory behavior of salmonids. This evidence that 11-KT might be among the most important factors in the spawning migration onset of anguillid eels can help provide useful knowledge for understanding endocrinological mechanisms of the initiation of spawning migrations.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060934
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 935: Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Quality of
           Life Are Contributing Factors of Muscle Pain and Lean Body Mass in
           Patients with Fibromyalgia

    • Authors: Jousielle Márcia dos Santos, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda, Vanessa Gonçalves César Ribeiro, Pedro Henrique Scheidt Figueiredo, Sueli Ferreira Fonseca, Vanessa Kelly da Silva Lage, Henrique Silveira Costa, Vanessa Pereira Lima, Borja Sañudo, Mário Bernardo-Filho, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá Caputo, Vanessa Amaral Mendonça, Redha Taiar
      First page: 935
      Abstract: (1) The evidence points to an increase in oxygen reactive species as one of the possible causes of fibromyalgia (FM). In addition, it is plausible that an imbalance in redox markers can be associated with pain amplification and dynapenia in FM patients. The aim of our study was to investigate possible factors associated with muscle pain and lean body mass in FM patients. (2) Methods: This was a quantitative, exploratory and cross-sectional study of 47 patients with FM (53.45 + 7.32 years). We evaluated self-perceptions of muscle pain, lean body mass, body composition, quality of life, sleep quality, depression index, muscle performance and oxidative stress biomarkers. (3) Results: We observed that lower blood levels of antioxidants and poor quality of life explained 21% of the greater muscle pain. In addition, high blood levels of oxidative stress, worse muscle performance and poor quality of life explained 27% of the lower lean mass in patients with FM. (4) Conclusions: Larger amounts of lipid peroxidation and reductions in antioxidant levels, in addition to lower muscle performance and poor life quality, are possible independent contributors to greater muscle pain and lower lean body mass in FM patients.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060935
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 936: In Vitro Model of Human Skeletal Muscle
           Tissue for the Study of Resident Macrophages and Stem Cells

    • Authors: Dandan Hao, Nils Becker, Eva Mückter, Aline Müller, Miguel Pishnamaz, Leo Cornelis Bollheimer, Frank Hildebrand, Mahtab Nourbakhsh
      First page: 936
      Abstract: Findings from studies of muscle regeneration can significantly contribute to the treatment of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, which may predispose older adults to severe morbidities. We established a human experimental model using excised skeletal muscle tissues from reconstructive surgeries in eight older adults. Muscle samples from each participant were preserved immediately or maintained in agarose medium for the following 5, 9, or 11 days. Immunofluorescence analyses of the structural proteins, actin and desmin, confirmed the integrity of muscle fibers over 11 days of maintenance. Similarly, the numbers of CD80-positive M1 and CD163-positive M2 macrophages were stable over 11 days in vitro. However, the numbers of PAX7-positive satellite cells and MYOD-positive myoblasts changed in opposite ways, suggesting that satellite cells partially differentiated in vitro. Further experiments revealed that stimulation with unsaturated fatty acid C18[2]c (linoleic acid) increased resident M1 macrophages and satellite cells specifically. Thus, the use of human skeletal muscle tissue in vitro provides a direct experimental approach to study the regulation of muscle tissue regeneration by macrophages and stem cells and their responses to therapeutic compounds.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060936
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 937: Characteristics of COVID-19 Inpatients in
           Rehabilitation Units during the First Pandemic Wave: A Cohort Study from a
           Large Hospital in Champagne Region

    • Authors: Amandine Rapin, Peter-Joe Noujaim, Redha Taiar, Sandy Carazo-Mendez, Gaetan Deslee, Damien Jolly, François Constant Boyer
      First page: 937
      Abstract: Background: Data describing patients hospitalized in medical rehabilitation wards after the acute phase of COVID-19 could help to better understand the rehabilitation needs in the current pandemic situation. Methods: Cohort including all patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a single, large university hospital in Northeast France from 25 February to 30 April 2020. Results: 479 patients were admitted with COVID-19 during the study period, of whom 128 died (26.7%). Among the 351 survivors, 111 were referred to rehabilitation units, including 63 (17.9%) referred to physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) units. The median age of patients referred to rehabilitation units was 72 years. Patients who had been in intensive care, or who had had a long hospital stay, required referral to PRM units. Two biomarkers were associated with referral to rehabilitation units, namely, elevated troponin (p = 0.03) and impaired renal function (p = 0.03). Age was associated with referral to PRM units (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Almost one-third of COVID-19 patients required post-acute care, but only one-fifth had access to PRM units. The optimal strategy for post-acute management of COVID-19 patients remains to be determined. The need for rehabilitation wards during a pandemic is a primary concern in enabling the long-term functioning of infected patients.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060937
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 938: Enhanced Anxiety and Olfactory Microglial
           Activation in Early-Stage Familial Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    • Authors: Keerthana Chithanathan, Fang-Ling Xuan, Miriam Ann Hickey, Li Tian
      First page: 938
      Abstract: Anxiety is a known comorbidity and risk factor for conversion to neuroinflammation-mediated dementia in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we investigated if anxiety occurred as an early endophenotype of mutant familial AD (5 × FAD) male mice and the underlying neuroinflammatory mechanisms. We observed that compared to wildtype (WT) littermates, 5 × FAD mice showed enhanced anxiety at as early as 2 months old (mo). Interestingly, these 5 × FAD male mice had concomitantly increased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (Il1b) and tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) in the olfactory bulb (OB) but not the frontal cortex (FC). Increased expression of Tnf in the OB was significantly correlated with the anxious behavior in the FAD but not WT mice. Furthermore, we found more prominent microglial activation and morphological changes in the OB of 2 mo 5 × FAD mice, while only microglial ramification was seen in the FC. To understand if neuroinflammatory changes in the FC could occur at a later stage, we studied 5~6 mo male mice and found that Il1b, interleukin 18 (Il18), and Tnf were upregulated in the FC at this older age. Furthermore, we observed that numbers of microglia and macrophage as well as microglial synaptic pruning, as indicated by phagocytosis of presynaptic component of vesicular glutamate transporter-2, were increased in the OB but not the FC of 5~6 mo 5 × FAD mice. Our findings demonstrated the OB as a more sensitive brain region than the cerebral cortex for microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in association with anxiety in FAD mice and supported the notion that the OB can be an early-stage biomarker in AD.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060938
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 939: The Inflammatory Response after Moderate
           Contusion Spinal Cord Injury: A Time Study

    • Authors: Minna Christiansen Lund, Ditte Gry Ellman, Maiken Nissen, Pernille Sveistrup Nielsen, Pernille Vinther Nielsen, Carina Jørgensen, Ditte Caroline Andersen, Han Gao, Roberta Brambilla, Matilda Degn, Bettina Hjelm Clausen, Kate Lykke Lambertsen
      First page: 939
      Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI) initiates detrimental cellular and molecular events that lead to acute and delayed neuroinflammation. Understanding the role of the inflammatory response in SCI requires insight into the temporal and cellular synthesis of inflammatory mediators. We subjected C57BL/6J mice to SCI and investigated inflammatory reactions. We examined activation, recruitment, and polarization of microglia and infiltrating immune cells, focusing specifically on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2. In the acute phase, TNF expression increased in glial cells and neuron-like cells, followed by infiltrating immune cells. TNFR1 and TNFR2 levels increased in the delayed phase and were found preferentially on neurons and glial cells, respectively. The acute phase was dominated by the infiltration of granulocytes and macrophages. Microglial/macrophage expression of Arg1 increased from 1–7 days after SCI, followed by an increase in Itgam, Cx3cr1, and P2ry12, which remained elevated throughout the study. By 21 and 28 days after SCI, the lesion core was populated by galectin-3+, CD68+, and CD11b+ microglia/macrophages, surrounded by a glial scar consisting of GFAP+ astrocytes. Findings were verified in postmortem tissue from individuals with SCI. Our findings support the consensus that future neuroprotective immunotherapies should aim to selectively neutralize detrimental immune signaling while sustaining pro-regenerative processes.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060939
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 940: Osteosynthesis Metal Plate System for Bone
           Fixation Using Bicortical Screws: Numerical–Experimental

    • Authors: Andrea A. R. Olmos, Aureliano Fertuzinhos, Teresa D. Campos, Isabel R. Dias, Carlos A. Viegas, Fábio A. M. Pereira, Nguyễn T. Quyền, Marcelo F. S. F. de Moura, Andrea Zille, Nuno Dourado
      First page: 940
      Abstract: This study reports the numerical and experimental characterization of a standard immobilization system currently being used to treat simple oblique bone fractures of femoral diaphyses. The procedure focuses on the assessment of the mechanical behavior of a bone stabilized with a dynamic compression plate (DCP) in a neutralization function, associated to a lag screw, fastened with surgical screws. The non-linear behavior of cortical bone tissue was revealed through four-point bending tests, from which damage initiation and propagation occurred. Since screw loosening was visible during the loading process, damage parameters were measured experimentally in independent pull-out tests. A realistic numerical model of the DCP-femur setup was constructed, combining the evaluated damage parameters and contact pairs. A mixed-mode (I+II) trapezoidal damage law was employed to mimic the mechanical behavior of both the screw–bone interface and bone fractures. The numerical model replicated the global behavior observed experimentally, which was visible by the initial stiffness and the ability to preview the first loading peak, and bone crack satisfactorily.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060940
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 941: Can Introns Stabilize Gene Duplication'

    • Authors: Gioacchino Micheli, Giorgio Camilloni
      First page: 941
      Abstract: Gene duplication is considered one of the most important events that determine the evolution of genomes. However, the neo-duplication condition of a given gene is particularly unstable due to recombination events. Several mechanisms have been proposed to justify this step. In this “opinion article” we propose a role for intron sequences in stabilizing gene duplication by limiting and reducing the identity of the gene sequence between the two duplicated copies. A review of the topic and a detailed hypothesis are presented.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060941
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 942: Running-Induced Fatigue Changes the Structure
           of Motor Variability in Novice Runners

    • Authors: Felix Möhler, Cagla Fadillioglu, Lucia Scheffler, Hermann Müller, Thorsten Stein
      First page: 942
      Abstract: Understanding the effects of fatigue is a central issue in the context of endurance sports. Given the popularity of running, there are numerous novices among runners. Therefore, understanding the effects of fatigue in novice runners is an important issue. Various studies have drawn conclusions about the control of certain variables by analyzing motor variability. One variable that plays a crucial role during running is the center of mass (CoM), as it reflects the movement of the whole body in a simplified way. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of fatigue on the motor variability structure that stabilizes the CoM trajectory in novice runners. To do so, the uncontrolled manifold approach was applied to a 3D whole-body model using the CoM as the result variable. It was found that motor variability increased with fatigue (UCMꓕ). However, the UCMRatio did not change. This indicates that the control of the CoM decreased, whereas the stability was not affected. The decreases in control were correlated with the degree of exhaustion, as indicated by the Borg scale (during breaking and flight phase). It can be summarized that running-induced fatigue increases the step-to-step variability in novice runners and affects the control of their CoM.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060942
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Biology, Vol. 11, Pages 943: Insulin and Its Key Role for Mitochondrial
           Function/Dysfunction and Quality Control: A Shared Link between
           Dysmetabolism and Neurodegeneration

    • Authors: Giacoma Galizzi, Marta Di Carlo
      First page: 943
      Abstract: Insulin was discovered and isolated from the beta cells of pancreatic islets of dogs and is associated with the regulation of peripheral glucose homeostasis. Insulin produced in the brain is related to synaptic plasticity and memory. Defective insulin signaling plays a role in brain dysfunction, such as neurodegenerative disease. Growing evidence suggests a link between metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This association is due to a common state of insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial dysfunction. This review takes a journey into the past to summarize what was known about the physiological and pathological role of insulin in peripheral tissues and the brain. Then, it will land in the present to analyze the insulin role on mitochondrial health and the effects on insulin resistance and neurodegenerative diseases that are IR-dependent. Specifically, we will focus our attention on the quality control of mitochondria (MQC), such as mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis, and selective autophagy (mitophagy), in healthy and altered cases. Finally, this review will be projected toward the future by examining the most promising treatments that target the mitochondria to cure neurodegenerative diseases associated with metabolic disorders.
      Citation: Biology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/biology11060943
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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