Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1401 - 1600 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
The Condor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
The Enzymes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The FASEB Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
The Herpetological Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Journal of Technology Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
The Knee     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
The Lancet Microbe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Lichenologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Nucleus     Hybrid Journal  
The Plant Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
The Protein Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical Population Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Therya     Open Access  
Tissue and Cell     Hybrid Journal  
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Tissue Engineering Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Traffic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Transcription     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transgenic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Transportation Planning and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tree Genetics & Genomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Trends in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141)
Trends in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Trends in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Trends in Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Trends in Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Tropical Drylands     Open Access  
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Freshwater Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology     Open Access  
Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
UNM Journal of Biological Education     Open Access  
Unnes Journal of Biology Education     Open Access  
Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Cell     Open Access  
Vegetation Classification and Survey     Open Access  
Victorian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
View     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Virchows Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Virologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal  
Virology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Virulence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Virus Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Virus Genes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Virus Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, medicine     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Water Biology and Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Webbia : Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography     Hybrid Journal  
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Western Undergraduate Research Journal : Health and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Wildlife Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - System Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Developmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Membrane Transport and Signaling     Hybrid Journal  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : RNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Xenobiotica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Yeast     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zebrafish     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Zitteliana     Open Access  
Zygote     Hybrid Journal  

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The Nucleus
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.165
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0029-568X - ISSN (Online) 0976-7975
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Karyomorphological analysis of five species of Murdannia Royle
           (Commelinaceae), including two endemics to India

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      Abstract: Abstract The study examines the karyotype and somatic chromosome numbers of five species of Murdannia Royle (Commelinaceae). The karyotype details of the two species namely M. blumei and M. lanceolata endemic to India are reported for the first time. The karyotype formula of the examined species are: M. blumei - 2n (36) = 1M+12m+5sm; M. lanceolata - 2n (20) = 2m+8sm; M. crocea subsp. ochracea - 2n (36) =7m+8sm+3st; M. spirata - 2n (40) = 9m+8sm+3st and M. triquetra - 2n (40) = 16m+4sm. Further details on karyomorphology including estimates of asymmetry indices, total form percent, ratio of mean length of short arms to long arms, intrachromosomal / interchromosomal asymmetry indices, and centromeric indices are provided. The karyomorphological parameters thus analysed suggest that M. blumei and M. lanceolata fit into the 2A category while M. crocea subsp. ochracea, M. spirata and M. triquetra belonged to the 2B category of Stebbins’ classification.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • Transcriptomic analysis of high oil-yielding cultivated white sesame and
           low oil-yielding wild black sesame seeds reveal differentially expressed
           genes for oil and seed coat colour

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      Abstract: Abstract Sesame is a well-known and primordial oilseed crop. The commonly cultivated Indian sesame (S. indicum) seed accumulates more than 50% oil and is pale yellow in colour at maturity. On the contrary, wild S. mulayanum is a low oil-containing (< 50%) genotype, with brownish black seed coat colour. The genic foundation of sesame oil quantity, quality and seed coat colour remains poorly known due to its intricacy. The present study examines the transcriptome of developing seeds from two sesame types, S. indicum and S. mulayanum, and sheds insight on the genes involved in oil biosynthesis and seed coat colour. We have carried out RNA sequencing of developing seeds at 10 and 30 DAP (days after pollination) from two genotypes and performed differential expression study. The high oil containing cultivated sesame revealed high expression of the key lipid biosynthesis genes like acetyl-CoA carboxylase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, choline phospho transferase, GDSL esterase or lipase, lipid transfer protein, and carboxylesterase. Furthermore, many transcription factors were differentially expressed during seed maturation, including bHLH30, PIF1, ASIL2, and WRKY. The genes controlling seed coat colour included polyphenol oxidases, NAC domain-containing protein 43, and pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins. Several transcription factors controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis, such as GATA 18-like90, zinc finger protein, WRKY, PIF1, and ASIL2 showed significant alterations in their expression levels. This study generated a considerable transcriptome dataset and gene list controlling oil production and seed coat colour modulation in sesame, which we envisage to validate through functional studies.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Cytomorphological evaluation of wild and cultivated cucumber (Cucumis
           sativus L.)

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      Abstract: Abstract Present study is based on wild and cultivated variety of cucumber namely Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii (wild cucumber) and C. sativus var. sativus (cultivated). Wild cucumber (var. hardwickii) has been localized for the first time from Billawar, Kathua (District) in Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Both are monoecious in sex expression and show unique arrangement of the appearance/development of male and female flowers on the vine. Both were studied for morphological parameters, reproductive efficiency and cytological details in PMCs of male flowers. Floral features were found to be more pronounced in C. sativus var. sativus in comparison to wild one. In term of sexual reproductive output, wild variety exhibits healthy, uniform and higher percentage fruit set than cultivated variety having misshapen and low fruit set. This might be due to the cytologically more stable nature of wild cucumber, showing seven perfect bivalents (2n = 14) at metaphase-I in all PMCs. While in cultivated cucumber varied chromosome numbers (2n = 10 and 20) were also seen in few PMCs in addition to normal euploid cells (2n = 14). Few multivalent formations were also recorded in cultivated cucumber. Presence of these abnormalities in cultivated cucumber might be the reason for low reproductive efficiency (70%) as compared to wild variety (85%).
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • Breeding of Bougainvillea: past, present, and future

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      Abstract: Abstract Bougainvillea is one of the most prominent and popular perennial ornamental crops in floriculture for multitudinous use and a very appropriate plant for multidisciplinary research work due to its wide range of bract colors, leaf characters, and plant stature. All the present-day colorful varieties and their novelties are the result of bud sports, open-pollinated seedling selection, indiscriminate intervarietal hybridization, limited planned hybridization, chromosomal manipulations, induced mutations, and selections. All basic literature for the development of new varieties is available but all experiments are being conducted as routine activities. Breeders mostly develop new varieties through a selection of bud sports and open-pollinated seedlings. Time has come to assess the past and present breeding knowledge and there is a need to formulate future research programs keeping in view the changing priorities and thrust areas of floriculture. The journey of breeding on bougainvillea from its starting point to its present scenario has been assessed and illustrated in the present article. The article focuses on all available past and present research results of variety development. There is a need for proper designing of breeding research on a need basis. A proper strategy or approach is required to shorten the research and development of the correct path to create new varieties within a reasonable time. Characterization of varieties is very important to identify desirable traits for selective breeding. Considering significant technological knowledge generated so far in the past and present, a future work plan has been proposed for selective hybridization, management of chimera, and target-oriented in vitro mutagenesis. Molecular breeding may be applicable only in rare exceptional cases.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
       
  • Genotoxicity of sodium arsenite on Vicia faba root meristematic cells

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the genotoxicity of sodium arsenite by employing the Vicia faba root chromosomal aberration assay. The seedlings were treated with different concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 mg/l) of sodium arsenite. In addition to the cytogenetic assay, effect of arsenic on biochemical parameters such as total protein content and antioxidative enzymes [Sodium dismutase (SOD) and Guaiacol peroxidase (POD)] were also studied in 7-day old Vicia faba seedlings. Results demonstrated that metal stress significantly induced chromosomal aberrations and exhibited cytotoxicity by lowering the mitotic index from 9.37 ± 0.05 to 3.73 ± 0.01. Biochemical analysis showed a significant decrease in total protein content and increased activity of antioxidative enzymes under heavy metal stress as compared to control. The present investigations not only provide insights into arsenic genotoxicity but also support the use of various arsenic induced genotoxic characteristics as toxicity indicators in plants.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-022-00385-4
       
  • Genetic diversity of twelve triploid bananas and plantains under section
           Eumusa as evident by chromosome morphology and SSR markers

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      Abstract: Abstract Cytological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) diversity of eight bananas and four plantains (Musa spp.) of the section Eumusa were analyzed. The chromosome characteristics and karyotype asymmetry reconfirmed triploid chromosome number of 2n = 3x = 33 in all varieties of Musa acuminata besides first reports in var. Desi Daskini Sagar and var. Shankara. Smaller chromosomes were observed in cooking varieties as compared to dessert bananas with a variation of total chromosome length from 39.75 µm in var. Shankara to 81.50 µm in var. Kathia. Metacentric chromosomes were recorded in all the varieties with total F% ranging from 35.65% in var. Amritapani to 45.31% in var. Desi Dakhini Sagara. Sub-median constricted chromosomes were prevalent in all studied varieties. The total chromosome volume and the interphase nuclear volume varied from 10.78 µm3 in var. Robusta to 32.24 µm3 in var. Desi Dakhini Sagara and 625.13 µm3 in var. Gaja Bantala to 2048.37 µm3 in var. Patakpura respectively. No correlation was found between interphase nuclear volume and chromosome length among the genotypes. The dendrogram created on the basis of five karyotype asymmetry indices [degree of asymmetry (A), intrachromosomal asymmetry index (A1), karyotype asymmetry index (AsK%), index of karyotype symmetry (Syi), and total form percentage (TF %)] exhibited different clusters for banana and plantain. A total of 89 amplicons were obtained with 22 SSR markers with an average of 1.68 polymorphic bands having a size range of 120–300 bp. SSR markers analysis in all 12 Musa varieties showed no polymorphism between var. Robusta and var. Grand Naine. Maximum polymorphism (72%) was found among cooking types besides var. Chini Champa of tabletop type. The mean polymorphism among SSR primers was 41.89% in the studied varieties. Out of the two major clusters formed in the dendrogram, Cluster-I showed with all the tabletop varieties and Cluster-II with all cooking varieties. Cluster analysis confirmed more genetic homogeneity among tabletop varieties as compared to the cooking varieties where var. Kathia showed distinct differences in their genetic makeup forming sub-cluster-II with genetic heterogeneity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00364-1
       
  • Comparative cytogenomic analysis of Cardinal fishes (Perciformes,
           Apogonidae) from Thailand

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      Abstract: Abstract Cardinal fishes (Apogonidae) belong to the numerically dominating reef fish families. Many species are kept in the aquarium and are popular as small, peaceful, and colorful fish. The taxonomic status of this family remains debatable. Up to the present, there are 366 valid species. However, only 15 species were studied cytogenetically including one by molecular cytogenetics. Here we report characterization of four cardinal fishes, namely Fibramia lateralis, Pterapogon kauderni, Sphaeramia nematotera and S. orbicularis from the Gulf of Thailand using different cytogenomic approaches. Chromosome preparations from kidney were studied by conventional staining, Ag-NOR banding and molecular cytogenetics by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA and microsatellite d(CA)15 probes. Whereas, all species had the same diploid chromosome number as 2n = 46, but there were differences in the fundamental number (NF) and chromosome structure: F. lateralis (NF = 54; 8a + 38t), S. nematotera (NF = 74; 14sm + 14a + 18t), S. orbicularis (NF = 68; 8sm + 14a + 24t) and P.kauderni (NF = 92; 4 m + 14sm + 28a). In all four species, NORs and 18S rDNA signals were detected adjacent to the telomere on the short arm of an acrocentric chromosome pair, but on different chromosome pairs, as 2, 10, 7 and 13 in F. lateralis, S. nematotera,S. orbicularis and P.kauderni, respectively. Also, microsatellite d(CA)15 sequences showed specific hybridization patterns along the chromosomes of the four studied species. Accordingly, all four Apogonidae species studied were clearly distinguishable by cytogenetic and molecular hybridization procedures. Further studies with more species are needed to explore their systematic status in the family
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00352-5
       
  • Application of biotechnology in sericulture: Progress, scope and prospect

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      Abstract: Abstract Traditional sericulture represents rearing of silkworm for production of silk that provides livelihood opportunity to millions of people in the country besides earning foreign exchange. The time has come to diversify the whole sericulture process for meaningful realization of its output under the present day scenario. The advent of modern biotechnology and its application have opened a new arena of the synthesized science for silk production. The vast potential of silk industry can effectively be exploited by the application of modern day biotechnological approaches like, marker assisted selection and expression of foreign protein through transgenic approaches. On the other hand, the silk quality has been enhanced using probiotics and providing artificial feed to the silkworm. The potential of silk has been further exploited for biomedical applications. In this communication the comprehensive account of biotechnological applications in sericulture and its byproducts for the development of sericulture industry are compiled while emphasizing the need of applying modern biotechnology for meaningful growth and development of sericulture and silk industry.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00355-2
       
  • An effective micropropagation protocol and determination of the clonal
           fidelity of in vitro developed microshoots of carnation (Dianthus
           caryophyllus L.) using SSR markers

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      Abstract: Abstract Carnation is an important cut flower in the floriculture industry. A micropropagation method for carnation cv. ‘Irene’ has been standardized. Nodal plant explants were grown in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing plant growth regulators (PGRs). Determination of clonal fidelity of regenerated plantlets was performed with the help of SSR markers. Early formation of micro-shoots with maximum regeneration was noted in the half MS medium in combination of benzyl amino purine (BAP) thidiazuron (TDZ) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) in the concentrations 1.5, 0.25 and 0.5 mg L−1, respectively; while BAP (2.5 mgL−1), TDZ (1.0 mg L−1) and AgNO3 (1.5 mg L−1) produced maximum length of the micro-shoots. Quick induction of roots and maximum number of roots per culture were achieved in half MS basal rooting medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L−1 of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 0.5 mg L−1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for clonal fidelity analysis showed uniform genetic fidelity among the proliferated plantlets and the mother plant lines. The protocol can be suitable for commercial cultivation of carnation plants.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00362-3
       
  • CRISPR-Cas system: a precise tool for plant genome editing

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      Abstract: Abstract Biotic and abiotic stress affects the productivity and quality of the plant; it is necessarily important to develop improved crops that can withstand the environmental conditions. Conventional methods of breeding are very tedious process that require some alternative. The molecular approach of genetic modification emerged out as a precise method for plant breeding in the past few years. Genome is altered by removing, adding or substituting DNA bases in the host genome. Different methods of genome editing have been developed, including transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs), zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas. These nucleases have enabled researchers to manipulate gene of interest in crop plants. Among these CRISPR-Cas has been developed recently and found to be a more efficient tool for genome editing because of its simple design and low cost. In recent years, CRISPR-Cas9 has been utilized for gene knockouts and knock-ins, multiplex gene targeting, and gene regulation in plants. In this review, we provide the use of CRISPR–Cas9 technology in genome editing and its fruitful applications in plants specifically in terms of improvement in quality and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Designing of an efficient CRISPR–Cas system using bioinformatic tools have also been discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00353-4
       
  • Variability of male and female pistachio genotypes with morphological and
           dominant DNA markers

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      Abstract: Abstract Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most economic nuts in the world. Identification of superior pistachio genotypes based on their genetic diversity can be used to introduce superior pistachio cultivars. In a primary evaluation, 40 superior pistachio genotypes (20 male and 20 female) were selected from an open-pollinated population with 800 genotypes. Twenty dominant DNA markers (10 ISSRs and 10 RAPDs) were used to estimate the genetic distance between selected pistachio genotypes and five local pistachio cultivars. The results showed that the ISSR primers produced 227 polymorphic bands ranged from 16 (S.14) to 27 (UBC.886) in microsatellite loci. 213 polymorphic bands (96% polymorphism) are achieved from 10 RAPD primers. The number of amplified bands in RAPD primers ranged from 12 (OPK02) to 28 (BD12). The selected ISSR and RAPD markers divided the male and female pistachio genotypes and classified all genotypes into three major groups. The commercial pistachio cultivars, as well as female genotypes, were identified in distinct groups in cluster analysis. The results indicated that the male and female pistachio genotypes were placed in separate groups despite similar parents, which can be attributed to recombination suppression in the sex regions. The studied pistachio genotypes showed great genetic variations, which can be implemented to select male cultivars or parents in pistachio breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00358-z
       
  • Metallo-adaptive response: a unique survival strategy of plants under
           genotoxic stress

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      Abstract: Abstract The sedentary nature of a plant’s lifestyle has lead to the evolvement of different strategies to minimise the effects of various genotoxic environmental agents. One of such strategies is adaptive response (AR) that plants develop inherently to maintain their genome integrity under stress. The concept of AR has emerged as a novel means of enhancing plant tolerance to different environmental stresses once exposed to low levels of certain genotoxins. It is a new challenge for the next generation of plant biology where AR, induced by the ‘low-concentration zone’ of the full dose–response range, holds a central role. The present paper discusses the historical background of the AR concept along with the reports of adaptive responses induced by different metals and heavy metals against various genotoxic challenges in plant systems. The responses to high-dose stress have been widely studied in the past century and now it is time to focus on the low-dose stress responses, which can improve plant’s performance under stress, enhance plant productivity and protect plant cells against such unfavourable conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00360-5
       
  • Mixoploidy in Strobilanthes anamallaica J.R.I.Wood (Acanthaceae Juss.) an
           important taxon of south-western Ghat, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Strobilanthes anamallaica (Acanthaceae) is an endemic plant of South-Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Cytogenetical characterisation from the root meristem revealed exhibition of mixoploidy, i.e. three chromosome counts, 2n = 10, 20 and 30, within the same tissue. Three different euploid linkage sets corresponding to hypoploid, diploid and hyperploid cells could be differentiated. Although it is difficult to ascertain true paired sets, but a close look at the karyomorphology led to deduce karyotype formulae as 2nsm(-) + 8 nm; 2 M + 18 nm; and 30 nm, respectively (nsm = nearly submedian, nm = nearly median, M = median). The centromere position of chromosomes was predominantly nearly median with a few median ones. The karyotype details and incidence of mixoploidy is the first report for this endemic species. The karyotype is symmetric and primitive in nature. Occurrence of mixoploidy is suggested as an adaptation measure for the species.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00363-2
       
  • Breeding of ornamentals: success and technological status

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      Abstract: Abstract Breeding for new ornamental varieties is quite often a profitable occupation in the world. Worldwide breeding activities have generated a massive amount of literature. All present day ornamental varieties have evolved through bud sports, open pollinated interspecific crosses, open pollinated intraspecific crosses, planned crosses, natural chromosomal changes, chromosomal manipulations, induced mutations and using new breeding techniques like management of chimera, in vitro mutation, molecular approaches, somaclonal variations etc. The breeders have modified and improved these techniques on need basis to achieve targeted and directional changes. All work on ornamental breeding and development of new varieties are the results of concerted efforts of scientific community, nurserymen, breeders, amateur growers and flower lovers. It is important to highlight the factual account of the early work, genuine drawback of fulfillments and success of ornamental breeding. It is now needful to assess the present status of each technology developed after extensive research activities conducted by different research institutions. Breeders will be familier with the capability and constraints of different techniques and select the proper experimental approach which is most suitable and profitable to achieve their goals. This review provides an indeepth knowledge base for accurate designing of future breeding strategies in the field of ornamentals. The entire breeding system of ornamentals have been very simply reviewed and cited with very common examples so that even a new breeder can follow and select the most suitable techniques for developing the new varieties with desired traits of commercial ornamental species.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00368-x
       
  • Microsatellites-based population analysis revealed micro-diversity in two
           major genepools of Brassica juncea

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      Abstract: Abstract Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) prove to be an important marker system for genetic analysis of a diverse population. The study presents the development of SSRs from A-genome of Brassica followed by genotyping with diverse genotypes from two major gene pools of Brassica juncea. A total of 61,918 SSRs were identified, of which dinucleotide repeats were most common. SSR markers were able to amplify 269 alleles among 85 genotypes. The average number of alleles per locus and PIC value was 3.24 and 0.41, respectively. Gene diversity and heterozygosity value was also able to identify a huge variability among the genotypes from two gene pools. Dendrogram based on Euclidean index was able to group genotypes into three clusters and identified micro-diversity within European gene pool. The present study will serve as a tool in the selection of contrast genotypes for Brassica juncea breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00351-6
       
  • Inter-specific hybrid sesame with high lignan content in oil reveals
           increased expression of sesamin synthase gene

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      Abstract: Abstract The presence of lignans (sesamin, sesamol) adds pharmaceutical value in the sesame oil. Wild sesame, Sesamum mulayanum, though less oil-yielding but contains remarkably higher lignan in oil. We performed an interspecific hybridization between cultivated Indian sesame (S. indicum) and S. mulayanum to bring a better oil profile in the cultivated sesame. The selected recombinant lines of F6 generation showed high oil content with a superior lignan profile and manifested distinct phenotypic selection traits. Sesamin synthase is an essential enzyme in the lignan biosynthetic pathway. We studied the gene behind this enzyme during seed development in the parents through semi-quantitative and qRT-PCR analysis. The recombinant lines with high sesamin content showed increased expression of sesamin synthase gene. This gene is a potential candidate for allele-based molecular marker development in future sesame breeding programme.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00354-3
       
  • New record of chromosome count and B- chromosome in Tinantia erecta
           (Jacq.) Fenzl collected from different localities of Mussoorie,
           Uttarakhand (India)

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      Abstract: Abstract Plants of Tinantia erecta (Jacq.) Fenzl were collected from four localities of Mussoorie, Uttarakhand (India) to investigate their cytological status and course of male meiosis. Three populations revealed the presence of n = 32 and one population showed the presence of n = 34 as the gametophytic chromosome count which is being reported for the first time from India. Presence of B- chromosomes (n = 32 + 0 − 1B) is being reported for the first time at the world level from one of the populations under present study. A detailed study of the course of meiosis revealed presence of irregularities in the form of stickiness, vagrants, interchromosomal connections, chromatin bridges, non-synchronous disjunction of bivalents, laggards and secondary associations. The variation in chromosome number and presence of B-chromosomes however did not have any bearing on the morphology of the plants.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-021-00359-y
       
  • Cytogenetic characterization of Mimosa pudica L (Fabaceae):
           heterochromatin distribution, rDNA mapping and genome size

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      Abstract: Abstract Chromosomal details and linear differentiation, including heterochromatin distribution, silver staining based characterization of NOR, delineation of chromomycin (CMA3) and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) bands and FISH based localization of 45 S and 5 S rDNA sites are investigated for the first time for Mimosa pudica. All the three populations examined showed 2n = 4x = 52 with karyotype consisting of median and submedian chromosomes. However, Flow Cytometry based estimation of nuclear DNA amount revealed occurrence of polysomaty within the same tissue from roots, hypocotyls, cotyledons and epicotyls exhibiting DNA content amounting to 2 C, 4 and 8 C values. On the other hand, leaves showed cells with same DNA amount (2 C = 1.34pg). The CMA+ / DAPI− banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques revealed a unique coincident pair of chromosomes containing 45 S rDNA that was also detectible as Ag-NOR+. Two chromosomes showed one site of 5 S rDNA. The data presents new and important information for understanding karyotypic profile of Mimosa and Fabaceae.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-022-00387-2
       
  • Synthetic hybrid speciation: a resource for breeding novel lineages for
           secondary metabolites

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      Abstract: Abstract Whereas the splitting of ancestral lineage into daughter species remains a common course of speciation, but hybridizing the two related species to give rise to a third independent lineage could be a powerful tool to hybrid speciation. The latter could give way to new plant type/s featuring novel combination for physiological, developmental, and metabolic pathways. Pre-selection of progenitor parental genotypes could enable realization of hybrid lineages with predictable features to a large extent. At the same time such derived lineages shall ensure hybrid fixity through vegetative propagation, but could offer opportunity of seed cultivation through ploidy mediation for fixation and/ or variation through meiotic segregation for selection of novel types. Experimental manoeuvring imitating homoploid speciation or somatic variation could be the other means to release de novo variation. In view of above, a prospective outline is discussed towards qualitative breeding for secondary metabolites.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-022-00384-5
       
  • Linking bisphenol potential with deleterious effect on immune system: a
           review

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      Abstract: Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) environmental exposure during the life stage of an organism can influence immune cell development and may cause disease in later life. The harmful health impacts of BPA exposure pinpoint multiple mechanisms for BPA-induced toxicity, further exacerbated by reports of a biphasic response. BPA exposure and its chronic negative consequences, as well as their links to endocrine disruption and epigenetic changes, reveal that shifts in DNA methylation patterns, histone modifications, and microRNA alteration modify the epigenome in a tissue-specific manner. BPA has immunotoxic properties observed during in vitro and in vivo studies. It is reported that BPA exhibits adverse health effects due to immunotoxicity, which may lead to immune disorders. In vitro and in vivo study confirms that bisphenol impairs both innate and adaptive immune mechanism which in turn interferes with cellular and humoral activities. The present review focus upon BPA mediated disturbances in the immune system including immune cells development, inflammation, its related pathways and ability to impair mature immune system.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13237-022-00383-6
       
 
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