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Showing 1401 - 1600 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
The Condor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
The Enzymes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The FASEB Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
The Herpetological Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Journal of Technology Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
The Knee     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
The Lancet Microbe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Lichenologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Nucleus     Hybrid Journal  
The Plant Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
The Protein Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical Population Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Therya     Open Access  
Tissue and Cell     Hybrid Journal  
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Tissue Engineering Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Traffic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Transcription     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transgenic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Transportation Planning and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tree Genetics & Genomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Trends in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141)
Trends in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Trends in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Trends in Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Trends in Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Tropical Drylands     Open Access  
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Freshwater Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology     Open Access  
Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
UNM Journal of Biological Education     Open Access  
Unnes Journal of Biology Education     Open Access  
Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Cell     Open Access  
Vegetation Classification and Survey     Open Access  
Victorian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
View     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Virchows Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Virologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal  
Virology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Virulence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Virus Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Virus Genes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Virus Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, medicine     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Water Biology and Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Webbia : Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography     Hybrid Journal  
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Western Undergraduate Research Journal : Health and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Wildlife Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - System Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Developmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Membrane Transport and Signaling     Hybrid Journal  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : RNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Xenobiotica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Yeast     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zebrafish     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Zitteliana     Open Access  
Zygote     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover
Wetlands
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.755
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 25  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0277-5212 - ISSN (Online) 1943-6246
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Response of China’s Wetland NDVI to Climate Changes

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetland vegetation dynamics are of vital importance for comprehending changes in ecosystem structure and function. In the context of global climate change, it is still unclear the change in trends occurring to wetland vegetation in China. Using Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index product (NDVI3g), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) Vegetation Health Products (VHP), and climate data, this study explored the response of wetland vegetation NDVI to climate change in China from 1981 to 2015. The results show that: 1) NDVI of wetland vegetation in China exhibited a downward trend on the whole after the year 2004. 2) In water-limited zones, wetland vegetation NDVI was positively correlated with precipitation; while in temperature-limited zones, it was positively correlated with temperature. We also discussed the impact of climate change to wetland vegetation and the complexity of wetland vegetation response to climate change. This study has the potential to provide guidance and support decision-making for the protection, assessment, restoration and management of wetlands.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
       
  • Phenolic Content of Aquatic Macrophytes of the Middle Paraná River
           Floodplain

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      Abstract: Abstract Phenolic compounds (PC) of aquatic macrophytes are involved in relevant ecological interactions and ecosystems functions. However, they have been scarcely evaluated in tropical and subtropical floodplains, where hydrological connectivity could be a related variable due to its effects on environmental conditions. Accordingly, we analysed the foliar phenolic content of 16 common aquatic macrophyte species that are native to the subtropical floodplain of the Middle Paraná River to evaluate 1) intraspecific variability in relation with the hydrological connectivity of floodplain habitats; 2) differences among the main life forms occurring in the floodplain; and 3) PC release and production of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from leaves belonging to species characterized by different PC content. No species showed significant differences in PC between individuals collected in connected and isolated habitats. However, emergent macrophytes showed a higher PC content than free-floating macrophytes, which could be related with their higher frequency in isolated habitats. In this regard, biotic interactions, nutrient limitation, and water stress are known to be stronger in isolated habitats, which could favour the establishment of phenolic-rich species due to the beneficial functions of PC under these conditions. Finally, PC release and CDOM production were larger in phenolic-rich species, with the highest values for Ludwigia peploides. The high PC content of L. peploides could have important implications for the functioning of the Middle Paraná floodplain, where it is one of the most conspicuous macrophyte species; and could be involved in the major ecological problems that it causes outside its native distribution range.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
       
  • Response of Heterotrophic Microbial Communities to an Environmental
           Gradient in the Floodplain of Mapire River, Venezuela

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      Abstract: Abstract Soil physico-chemical characteristics of floodplains, particularly hydrology, influence microbiological activity. As such, each river floodplain system has a unique physico-chemical dynamic that in turn supports the microbial community. The Mapire River floodplain is a complex system in which seasonal flood pulses cause changes in the soil physico-chemical variables. We examined how these temporal and spatial differences are associated with the microbiological activity along a seasonally flooded gradient at the mouth of the Mapire River (Lower Orinoco, Venezuela). Soil samples were collected during three different seasons by a systematic sampling at 4 points of the gradient, defined by the intensity of flooding. The physico-chemical parameters of the soil were determined and related by the density and physiological profile of the microbial community through multivariate permutation analysis and gradient analysis. The results indicate that there is a spatial gradient determined by soil clay content and a temporal gradient influenced by moisture and total organic carbon. Significant differences were found among soil zones and seasons, with the interaction of both factors also significant. It was observed that microbial activity is decisive in phosphorus dynamics, even during flooding. It is concluded that amid the complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, microbial communities are able to respond to changes in the physico-chemical soil environment and maintain their activity throughout the hydroperiod.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
       
  • Application of Choice Experiment and Individual Travel Cost Methods in
           Recreational Value Evaluation

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      Abstract: Understanding and evaluating the recreational value of a wetland park is important for the sustainability of wetland conservation and exploitation. This study evaluates the non-use and use values of the Haizhu National Wetland Park, China, using the choice experiment method (CEM) and individual travel cost method (ITCM) holistically. The CEM results showed that for conserving the non-use value, the total willingness to pay (WTP) amounted to 2.56 million CNY based on a per capita amount of 8.03 CNY. Tourists’ marginal WTP (MWTP) for each wetland attribute demonstrated a trend of “wetland popular science education” > “folk culture display and cultural inheritance” > “water visibility” > “open area of the park.” The results for ITCM showed that the per capita amount and total use values were 242.88 CNY and 77.48 million CNY, respectively. Thus, the total per capita amount and total recreational values were 250.91 CNY and 80.04 million CNY. This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating an integrated model for recreational value evaluation with CEM and ITCM applied simultaneously. It unveils tourists’ multifarious trade-offs of different wetland attributes. In addition, the sociocultural attributes, together with the natural ones, were integrated into the application of CEM. Several practical implications, including adjusting ticket price based on per capita non-use value, strengthening the management of tourists’ recreational behaviors, implementing environmental conservation activities, and enhancing Lingnan folk culture display and inheritance, were proposed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
       
  • Plant functional types drive Peat Quality differences

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      Abstract: Abstract Peatlands contain enormous carbon stocks, but the stability of this carbon is variable. Peatlands can vary in tree cover from completely open to forested with associated differences in peat quality. Peat quality, or potential for mineralization, is a contributing factor affecting how the carbon balance of peatland ecosystems could change with climate or land use changes. We compared the peat quality of open peatlands dominated by Sphagnum mosses to forested, or silvic, peatlands dominated by black spruce and tamarack or northern white cedar to quantify the effects of different carbon sources on peat quality. We used Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to analyze peat properties throughout the depth profile of 30 peat cores across the hemi-boreal Upper Great Lakes region. We found that tree cover was associated with differences in both surficial and deep peat quality. Silvic peat had lower peat quality than Sphagnum peat as shown by FTIR indices. Sphagnum peat also had significantly higher peat quality at the surface compared to at depth. However, silvic peat showed no significant difference with depth in any indices. Our results indicate that the dominant plant functional type is a strong driver of peat quality as we identified key differences between silvic and Sphagnum peatlands. These relatively local differences are similar in magnitude to those found across biomes comparing tropical swamps to boreal Sphagnum peatlands. This implies that the dominant plant functional type (e.g. tree, shrub, graminoid, or moss) may be more important to peat quality than species identity—or even latitude—in peatlands.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Physical Habitat Attributes Influence Diversity and Turnover of Waterbirds
           Wintering at Wetlands on Central Asian and East Asian-Australasian Flyways
           in Eastern India

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      Abstract: Abstract We assessed waterbirds richness and abundance in 13 selected wetlands with varied physiographic features and climatic heterogeneity, situated along the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) and East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF), West Bengal, India. We aimed to test the prediction that the features of physical habitats (area, mean depth, shore length) are important determinants of migratory waterbird richness and abundance. Three consecutive surveys were conducted at each of the wetlands in the mid-wintering season. 117 species of waterbirds were found in the study areas which belong to 21 families. Wetlands on river floodplains (like Gajoldoba and Purbasthali) had greater species richness. Significance correlations between different physical features and the total birds, number of species and different diversity indices were noted. The sites with larger differences in the characters of the physical habitats, shown Whittaker’s index of beta-diversity (βw) highest viz. between Gajoldoba and Rasik Beel and also between Gajoldoba and Santragachi jheel. The canonical correspondence analysis plot depicted that abundance of waders, dabblers and divers were under the influence of shore length, area and depth respectively while the water-associated birds were under the influence of these three factors. Furthermore, waterbirds were excellent indicators of wetland health and the present study recorded their abundance and richness at the important wintering sites along the length and breadth of the state of West Bengal. This study would help in formulating future strategies for the conservation of waterbirds migrating along with CAF and EAAF.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Surface Elevation Change Dynamics in Coastal Marshes Along the
           Northwestern Gulf of Mexico: Anticipating Effects of Rising Sea-Level and
           Intensifying Hurricanes

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      Abstract: Abstract Accelerated sea-level rise and intensifying hurricanes highlight the need to better understand surface elevation change in coastal wetlands. We used the surface elevation table-marker horizon approach to measure surface elevation change in 14 coastal marshes along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, within five National Wildlife Refuges in Texas (USA). During the 2014–2019 study period, the mean rate of surface elevation change was 1.96 ± 0.87 mm yr−1 (range: -1.57 to 8.37 mm yr−1). Vertical accretion rates varied due to landscape proximity relative to sediment inputs from Hurricane Harvey. At most sites, vertical accretion offset subsurface losses due to shallow subsidence. However, net elevation gains were often lower than recent relative sea-level rise rates, and much lower than rates expected under future sea-level rise. Because these marshes are not keeping pace with recent sea-level rise, it is unlikely that they will be able to adjust to future accelerations. Climate change threatens these Texas coastal wetlands and the ecological and economic services they provide. By characterizing the status and prospective loss of coastal marshes, our study reinforces the value of identifying local and landscape-level adaptation mechanisms that can enhance the ability of coastal marshes to adapt to threats posed by climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Effects of Agriculture and Hydrological Changes on Macrophyte and
           Macroinvertebrate Assemblages: a Case Study in Lowland Riverine Wetlands
           of Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use and periods of hydrological variability on the environmental variables, as well as macrophyte and macroinvertebrate assemblages in lowland riverine wetlands. As a case study, we compared two periurban wetlands with intensive agricultural land use against two others with extensive livestock, considered references for the region during a normal and a dry flow period. Nutrient concentrations were significantly higher in agricultural riverine wetlands (total phosphorus and total nitrogen 30% higher). These wetlands exhibited higher relative coverage of floating anchored macrophytes and the absence of submerged vegetation. They showed significantly lower taxonomic richness and 40% lower density of macroinvertebrates, and a higher relative abundance of scrapers and predators. Wetlands of both land uses had a lower total density of macroinvertebrates and a higher abundance of tolerant desiccation taxa in the dry period. Particular differences between land uses, such as lower dissolved oxygen concentrations and lower macroinvertebrate diversity in agricultural wetlands, were found during the dry period. These findings indicate that the differences between land uses seemed to increase during the aforementioned period. Further studies in riverine wetlands of both land uses must be carried on to generalize the results found. Despite this limitation, this study provides evidence of the effects of the surrounding landscape and hydrologic periods in the environmental characteristics, as well as the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate assemblages of the riverine wetlands studied.
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
       
  • Peatlands as Key Ecosystems for Water Provision on Chiloé Island
           (Southern Chile): Social-Ecological Issues

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      Abstract: Abstract In this article, we analyze the perceptions of rural social actors and experts on the peatlands of Chiloé Island, a Chilean epigenic system with low hills. We used a social-ecological survey (N = 228), structured interviews (N = 8), and an economic valuation of the ecosystem service of drinking water in the Quemchi commune (municipality) to answer whether the rural population still values peatlands in Chiloé. Results show a South to North gradient on increasing loss in peatlands surface. Rural people showed low direct use of peatland services, and few of them have noticed areal changes. Experts agreed that local people do not have enough education and knowledge about peatlands. The economic valuation showed that although peatlands could cover between 5 and 27% of the water needed for Quemchi, only 1.9% of its rural population uses this water source and no other communes. We discuss results regarding current peatlands policies in Chile and the need to transfer knowledge to local communities.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
       
  • Securing the Environmental Water Requirements of Seasonally Ponding
           Wetlands: Partnering Science and Management through Benefit Sharing

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      Abstract: Abstract Although environmental flow regime assessments are becoming increasingly holistic, they rarely provoke water managers to enact the adaptive water reallocation mechanisms required to secure environmental water for wetlands. The conditions that cause science-based environmental flow assessments to succeed or fail in informing the management of environmental water requirements remain unclear. To begin to resolve these conditions, we used process tracing to deconstruct the sequence of activities required to manage environmental water in four case studies of seasonally ponding wetlands in Mediterranean and Mesoamerican watersheds. We hypothesized that, when the flexibility and equitability of the socioeconomic system do not match the complexity of the biophysical system, this leads to a failure of managers to integrate scientific guidance in their allocation of environmental water. Diagnostic evidence gathered indicates that science-management partnerships are essential to align institutional flexibility and socioeconomic equitability with the system’s ecohydrological complexity, and thus move from determination to reallocation of environmental water. These results confirm that institutions e.g., river basin organizations need to be supplemented by motivated actors with experience and skill to negotiate allocation and adaptive management of environmental water. These institutional-actor synergies are likely to be especially important in water scarce regions when the need to accommodate extreme hydrological conditions is not met by national governance capacity. We conclude by focusing on benefit sharing as a means to better describe the conditions for successful science-based environmental flow assessments that realize productive efficiency in environmental water allocation i.e., recognition of multiple values for both people and ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
       
  • Decomposition and Nutrient Release into Water from Litter Mixtures of
           Coastal Wetland Species

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      Abstract: Abstract Coastal wetlands are among the most carbon-rich ecosystems in the world. Litter decomposition is a major process controlling soil carbon input. Non-additive effect of litter mixture on decomposition has been observed in many terrestrial plants but rarely tested in coastal species. We selected three common mangrove species and one saltmarsh species co-occurring in subtropical coasts to test whether the non-additive effect occurs when their litters mixed together, and how the nutrients release into water are impacted consequently. A litter-bag experiment was carried out in a glasshouse with single and mixed leaf litters. Non-additive effects were observed in the litter mixtures of mangrove species Aegiceras corniculatum vs. Kandelia obovata (antagonistic) and A. corniculatum vs. Avicennia marina (synergistic), but not in the litter mixtures of A. corniculatum (mangrove species) vs. Spartina alterniflora (saltmarsh species). The strength of the non-additive effect was unrelated to the initial trait dissimilarity of litters. Instead, the decomposition rate and mass remaining of litter mixtures were strongly related to the carbon concentrations in litter mixtures. Nutrient content in waters was dependent on the decomposition rate of litter mixtures but not on the initial nutrient concentrations in litters. Despite the behind mechanisms were not yet revealed by the current study, our findings have improved the understanding of the litter decomposition of coastal species and the consequent nutrient release.
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
       
  • Legume Tree Dominance in Central Amazonian Floodplain Forests

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      Abstract: Abstract Studying the patterns of dominance and species composition of legumes can contribute to more precise models for nutrient cycling, especially the N-cycle. Leguminosae is the most important family in Central Amazonian floodplain forests surrounding large rivers. The floodplains are classified as nutrient-poor (igapó) and nutrient-rich (várzea) ecosystems. In this study, we contrast patterns of dominance and composition of legume tree species between both floodplain ecosystems based on floristic data from 22 plots. We observed significant differences in species dominance and the absolute and relative density of individuals, which were significantly higher in igapó than in várzea. A significant floristic difference between várzea and igapó was found. Higher legume species dominance and absolute and relative legume tree density suggest that legumes are more prominent in igapó. Low nutrition contents in igapó water and alluvial substrates possibly act as an environmental filter favoring the dominance of well-adapted legume tree species, which markedly contributes to the difference in floristic composition between both ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
       
  • The Peculiar Hydrology of West-Central Florida’s Sandhill Wetlands,
           Ponds, and Lakes –Part 2: Hydrogeologic Controls

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigates hydrogeologic controls on a peculiar, poorly studied type of geographically isolated wetland in west-central Florida, USA, locally referred to as “sandhill” (or “xeric”) wetlands. Their peculiarity lies in their connectivity to a large regional aquifer, which controls their hydrology. Evidence for this connectivity was presented in Part I of this two-part series, but the mechanisms of their connectivity and ecohydrologic expression were yet undocumented. To make these determinations, we used geophysical, lithologic, hydrologic, and ecological data to construct hydrogeologic configurations for five distinct sandhill wetland types. From these configurations, two conceptual models were derived. The first model depicts the mechanisms by which sandhill wetlands connect to the regional aquifer. Three types of connectivity are proposed, each a function of the degree and depth of aquifer confinement: 1) direct-due to wetland embedment directly in the unconfined regional aquifer; 2) indirect-due to embedment in a surficial aquifer, where groundwater exchange with the regional aquifer occurs through breaches in the semi-confining unit; and 3) none-due to embedment in a surficial aquifer where groundwater exchange with the regional aquifer does not occur because the semi-confining unit is too deep. The second model conceptualizes sandhill wetland ecohydrologic expression as a function of depression geomorphology and the range of the regional water table. These models provide the basis of understanding of sandhill wetland, pond, and lake ecohydrology and can improve how natural resource managers classify, assess, and preserve these unique features, regionally and wherever wetlands of similar hydrogeologic control are found.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Hydrological Instability of Ponds Reduces Functional Diversity of
           Freshwater Molluscs in Protected Wetlands

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      Abstract: Abstract Different facets of biodiversity of freshwater molluscs were compared in 21 small ponds located in the wetland area around Lake Łuknajno (Nature Reserve protected by Ramsar Convention, UNESCO Biosphere Reserve). The ponds examined between 2010 and 2019 differed in their susceptibility to periodical drying out. In addition, the hydrological stability of many of them was significantly reduced in 2015-19 as a result of climatic changes (decrease in precipitation, shortening of the snow cover period, increase in the average temperature during the growing season, increase in the frequency of heat waves). The functional diversity of molluscs decreased linearly and monotonically with the increase in the frequency and intensity of drying up of ponds, so it can be treated as a good indicator of their hydrological instability. Other facets of biological diversity - taxonomic and phylogenetic - were unimodally related to differences in stability. Along time, species resistant to desiccation being specialized inhabitants of temporary water bodies clearly increase their percentage, and the share of species less resistant decreases.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • A Tale of Two Complexes: Secretive Marsh Bird Abundance Differs in the
           Sandhills and Rainwater Basin, Nebraska

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetland complexes in the Great Plains are critical for many bird populations. In Nebraska, two large and important wetland complexes are the Rainwater Basin (RWB) and Sandhills. The RWB is a highly altered landscape where most historic playa wetlands have been destroyed and remaining isolated wetlands are altered. The extensive wetlands of the Sandhills are influenced by water table levels and the wetlands and overall landscape are, by comparison, far less altered. Secretive marsh birds (SMBs; bitterns, rails, gallinules and certain species of grebes) are a group of difficult-to-detect species which have received little attention in both complexes. Standardized SMB surveys were conducted in both regions to determine whether (1) conservation actions in the RWB have the potential to benefit breeding SMBs, (2) SMB species assemblages are similar between the two complexes, and (3) whether certain habitat conditions influence SMBs abundance in each complex. Most SMB species, especially Virginia Rail, Least Bittern, Pied-billed Grebe, and American Bittern, were numerous in the Sandhills as expected, but moderate densities of Pied-billed Grebe, Sora and American Bittern were also present in the RWB. While certain SMBs were found in both complexes, overall SMB communities differed between the complexes. Water level and complex were important variables influencing SMB abundance. The purchase, restoration and management of additional wetlands in the RWB, as well as proactively working with private landowners to maintain the Sandhills as a working landscape, will benefit SMBs in Nebraska.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Physical Protection in Aggregates and Organo-Mineral Associations
           Contribute to Carbon Stabilization at the Transition Zone of Seasonally
           Saturated Wetlands

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetlands store significant soil organic carbon (SOC) globally due to anoxic conditions that suppress SOC loss. However, stored SOC may become vulnerable to decomposition where climate and land use change alter wetland hydrology. Seasonally saturated wetlands experience fluctuating hydrologic conditions that could promote physicochemical mechanisms known to stabilize terrestrial SOC. These wetlands are therefore likely to be important for SOC storage at the landscape-scale. This study examined physicochemical stabilization of SOC within five seasonally saturated wetlands across a hydrologic gradient from the frequently saturated basin edge to the rarely saturated upland. At each wetland, we monitored water level and collected soil samples from the top two mineral horizons across five transect points to quantify physical protection of SOC in aggregates and organo-mineral associations between SOC and iron (Fe). As expected, both SOC concentrations and SOC stocks from 10–50 cm decreased across the transect from frequently saturated soils to rarely saturated soils. However, SOC stocks from 0–10 cm increased along this gradient, indicating diverging SOC dynamics throughout the soil profile. The majority of SOC was associated with macroaggregates across the transect, suggesting that macroaggregates are likely to physically protect wetland SOC during seasonal drying. By contrast, Fe-associated SOC was low across the transect, though modest accumulations of Fe (5 mg Fe g−1 soil) were observed in the transition zone where saturation was most dynamic throughout the year. Our results suggest that SOC stabilization occurs via physical protection within macroaggregates and, to a lesser extent, organo-mineral associations during dry periods in and around seasonally saturated wetlands. As climate scenarios predict intensified wet and dry cycles in many wetlands, understanding SOC stabilization is critical to predicting vulnerability to future change.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
       
  • Modeling Present Distribution Commercial Fish and Shrimps Using MaxEnt

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      Abstract: Abstract Most fish and shrimps have valuable ecological and commercial benefits. The difficulties of the collection of distribution records and volatile nature these marine organisms have limited their monitoring and conserving. MaxEnt modeling technique is ideal option for modeling distribution and habitat preference of different marine organisms. In this study, the present distribution of commercial fish and shrimps including orange-spotted grouper John’s snapper, tigertooth croaker, banana and Jinga shrimps was predicted using MaxEnt and a set of environmental layers. Distribution modeling findings showed that this technique reflects well the actual distribution of species. Environmental predictors including iron, calcite, temperature, primary productivity and depth were the most important environmental factors determining the distribution of species. Finding of habitat preferences indicated that the recent habitats of the species have suitable environmental conditions for the species. The Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, the North Arabian Sea and Australia coasts of the South Pacific were predicted as the most suitable habitats for species. The finding of this study provided basic data to identify distribution areas and habitat preferences of commercial fish and shrimps for their recent management plans and conservation development.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Late Holocene Vegetation and Environmental Changes of Coastal Lowlands in
           Northern Iran: Possible Role of Climate, Human Impact and Caspian Sea
           Level Fluctuations

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      Abstract: Abstract Coastal forests and wetlands play an important role in supporting biodiversity, protecting the hinterlands and shorelines from erosion and also contributing to carbon sequestration and freshwater storage. To reconstruct late Holocene vegetation and environmental dynamics in the coastal lowlands of northern Iran and to detect the possible role of climate, human and Caspian Sea level fluctuation on coastal ecosystems, multi-proxy analysis was applied on the sediment cores from the inland Eynak (EYK) lagoon and near coast Bibi Heybat (BBH) alder swamp. Results shows that in the last 170 years, strong reduction of alder forest occurred around Eynak lagoon, while an expansion occurred in the coastal area in the last 100 years. This indicates that human impact shifted from the near coast to elevated inland, which might be due to the raised water level from the Caspian Sea and the coastal area of BBH region was flooded by brackish water from the Caspian Sea, and was not so suitable for agriculture anymore. This study indicate that alder swamp extent is different between coastal and inland sites, suggesting that further studies of multiple records across the region are needed. Moreover, this study helps to distangle human impacts from wetland processes and thus will be an important contribution to effective climate mitigation and conservation strategies. This multi-proxy study presents important palynological records, which helps to understand past and future impacts of various drivers, such as climate, human impact and sea level changes on wetland ecosystems both regionally and globally.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Predicting greenhouse gas fluxes in coastal salt marshes using artificial
           neural networks

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      Abstract: Abstract Prediction of wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes has been a challenging undertaking. Machine learning techniques such as the artificial neural network (ANN) has a strong potential to provide high quality predictions of the wetland GHG fluxes. We developed eight different ANN models and investigated their suitability to predict the major GHG fluxes (CO2 and CH4) in coastal salt marshes (dominated by Spartina alterniflora) of Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, USA. Based on the dominant environmental drivers, the daytime net uptake fluxes of CO2 were predicted as a function of photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature (ST), and porewater salinity (SS). The net emission fluxes of CH4 were predicted as a function of ST and SS. Our models with the radial basis function neural network (RBNN) provided the most accurate and least-biased predictions of the net CO2 uptake (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency, NSE = 0.98) and CH4 emission (NSE = 0.90-0.92). The linear layer neural network generated the least successful and most biased predictions of the GHG fluxes (NSE = 0.48-0.80). Other ANNs, including the commonly-used feed forward neural network (FFNN), provided less accurate and more biased predictions of the CO2 (NSE = 0.86-0.97) and CH4 (NSE = 0.73-0.89) fluxes than the RBNN. We, therefore, recommend using RBNN as the first choice and FFNN (or its variant) as the second choice for predicting the GHG fluxes in coastal salt marshes. Our findings and tools would help derive plausible scenarios and guidelines for restoration, monitoring, and maintenance of coastal salt marshes in the U.S. and beyond.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • Responses of Soil Active Organic Carbon Fractions and Enzyme Activities to
           Freeze-thaw Cycles in Wetlands

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      Abstract: Abstract In order to clarify the response of soil active organic carbon fractions and enzyme activities in different type of wetlands to freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs), a FTCs simulation experiment of different type wetland soils were carried out. In the study, samples were collected from three soil layers of (0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm) undisturbed Deyeuxia purpurea wetland (UDPW), disturbed Deyeuxia purpurea wetland (DDPW) and rice paddy field (RP), and then exposed to FTCs at large (-10 to 10℃) or small (-5 to 5℃) amplitudes, respectively. The results showed that FTCs increased the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the three soil layers of UDPW, DDPW and RP by approximately 4.7–45.1%, 3.8–41.9% and 1.1–32.7% at large amplitude, and 8.7–48.1%, 5.2–43.4% and 2.2–31.8% at small amplitude. The interaction between small amplitude and higher water content resulted in the maximum increment of DOC concentration. However, FTCs decreased microbial biomass carbon (MBC) concentration and cellulase, invertase and catalase activities, and particularly the interaction between the large amplitude and higher water content exerted the most significant effect. As the increase of freeze-thaw frequency, DOC concentrations increased firstly and then decreased, while MBC concentrations and the three enzyme activities were opposite to DOC. The average change in DOC and MBC concentrations and enzyme activities due to the effects of FTCs varied from soil type, and the variation of DOC, MBC and enzyme activities across different type wetlands were as follows: UDPW > DDPW > RP. As the soil depth increased, the FTCs effect gradually weakened, which was manifested as 0–10 cm > 10–20 cm > 20–30 cm. For the three wetland soils, the significant correlations between active organic carbon fractions and enzyme activities indicate that the increase in DOC due to FTCs plays an important role on soil microbes and enzyme activities. However, the correlation was weak in RP soil, which might be related to strong disturbance of human.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
       
 
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