Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Biomarker Sciences and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
All Life     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Phycology     Open Access  
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in the Life Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access  
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioeduscience     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225)
Bioinformatics Advances : Journal of the International Society for Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Bioenergy Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.151
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1939-1242 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1234
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Optimization Study for Enhanced Biodiesel Production by Novel Yeast
           Isolates Cultivated in Dilute Acid Pretreated Pumpkin Peel

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, lipid accumulation and biodiesel production potentials of novel yeast isolates grown in pumpkin peel were investigated. Effect of some critical parameters on lipid production such as initial biomass loading (5–20%), type and concentration of nitrogen source (cheese whey and (NH4)2SO4, 0.25–2 gL−1), and incubation time (0–96 h) were also determined. Furthermore, the effect of biomass loading (0.5–2 gL−1) and catalyst concentration (NaOH 1–3%) with methanol on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM). One yeast isolate showed the highest lipid production, and this strain was identified as Candida boidinii. The maximum lipid accumulation of the novel isolate was observed as 45.6% in the presence of 10% initial pumpkin peel loading, 0.5 gL−1 cheese whey, and 72-h incubation time. The highest FAME (C16-C18) yield was 92.3% when 2 gL−1 biomass and 3% catalyst (NaOH) were used. These results showed that Candida boidinii is a promising microorganism for biodiesel production and pumpkin peel supports the microbial growth.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Microalgae as a Source for Bioenergy: a Search for an Energy-Efficient
           Process

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, a life cycle energy assessment is applied to estimate the efficiency of different products from microalgae biomass as a source of bioenergy. The combination of different processes were studied to search for the most energy efficient approach. Processes included cultivation (bubble column vs raceway) photobioreactors (PBRs), dewatering and drying (centrifuge, rotary press, solar, and thermal drying), oil extraction (wet and dry) and conversion to biodiesel. Laboratory data along with previous studies reported data and, for well-established technologies, producer’s datasheets were used to estimate energy demands. It was estimated that the type of PBR has the major effect on the efficiency where raceway and bubble column type requires 19.15 and 5.8 GJ/t dried biomass. At the best scenario, net energy efficiency of 3.5 was estimated for 98% dried microalgae biomass as a source of energy product when produced in raceway PBR followed by centrifuge/rotary-press/solar/thermal drying approach. It was concluded that the technology at current status cannot be efficient enough without solar drying, where at the best value of 0.4 happens for 98% dried biomass in raceway PBR.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
       
  • Process Optimization of Lipid Extraction from Microalgae Aphanothece
           halophytica in Wet and Dry Conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract Unearthing new sustainable and economically viable sources for biofuel production which do not affect the environment is a dire need of the hour. Microalgae is one such promising source due to its high lipid content, productivity, and carbon neutrality. Identification of appropriate strain and process optimization decides the biomass productivity, nutrient value, and oil content which are the major factors for commercialization. In the present work, mass cultivation of halophilic Aphanothece halophytica in raceway ponds was optimized by using organic and inorganic nutrients by using design of experiments. Organic flocculant, neem plus was successfully adapted for harvesting the biomass and oil extraction was done with solvent methodology. A maximum lipid yield of 29.3% was obtained on wet basis, when the reaction temperature, reaction time, biomass-to-solvent ratio and mixing intensity were kept at 68 ºC, 190 min, 9:1, and 300 rpm respectively. Similarly, on dry basis, a lipid yield of 27.5% was reported when the reaction temperature, reaction time, biomass-to-solvent ratio and mixing intensity were maintained at 68 ºC, 190 min, 12:1, and 300 rpm respectively. GC–MS analysis of the lipid was done to appropriate the combination of fatty acid for enhancing the biofuel production.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Effect of Hydrochar from Anaerobically Digested Sewage Sludge and Manure
           as a Soil Amendment on Soil Properties and Plant Responses

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      Abstract: Abstract Soil amendments, such as pyrochar (PC) and hydrochar (HC), have the potential to enhance soil properties and crop yields. The objective was to investigate the effects of HC from anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) of sewage sludge (SS), ADE of manure (M), and PC, as soil amendments. Lettuce seeds were sown and grown in soil amended with chars at rates of 1 to 15 g char/kg soil. Soil properties and plant responses were compared to soil without amendment (control). Soil amended with HC-ADE-SS and HC-ADE-M had higher pH, phosphorus content, and cation exchange capacity than the control. All treatments and the control resulted in 80% + emergence rates. Root dry mass of plants grown on soil with 10 and 15 g/kg was higher than the control. No negative effects were observed in emergence and whole-plant dry biomass, indicating that HC-ADE-SS and HC-ADE-M could be amended without negative impacts on soil properties and plant responses.
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
       
  • Utilization of Saline Water Enhances Lipid Accumulation in Green
           Microalgae for the Sustainable Production of Biodiesel

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      Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this research was to determine the effect of salinity on growth, and production of bio-relevant molecules, from green microalgae: Oedogonium, Cladophora, Ulothrix, and Spirogyra using response surface methodology (RSM) together with central composite design (CCD). Investigated algal biomass decreased (4-–fivefold), whilst carbohydrates decreased ranging from (0.14–0.19 mg/g), proteins (28–36%), and chlorophyll by (17–50%) using a treatment 100 mM of NaCl. The reduction in carbohydrates, proteins, and pigments was accompanied with a significant increase in lipids ranging from 33 to 80% at 100 mM NaCl. Saturated fatty acids were increase from 34.3 to 49.5%, PUFAs from 12.0 to 27.9% while MUFAs decreased from 52.8 to 19.4% at 80 mM of NaCl. Biodiesel-related values including iodine value (less than 120 g I2/100 g), saponification value (161–209 mg/KOH/g), cetane number (greater than 47 except for Cladophora sp.), cold filter plugging point (− 13.84 to − 16.39 °C), density (0.86–0.88 gcm−3), kinematic viscosity (3.5–3.9 mm2/s), oxidative stability (46–382 h at 110 °C), and heating value (36 to 41 MJ/kg) were in the satisfactory ranges of biodiesel standards EN 14,214 & ASTM D6751-02. Our results indicate that the investigated green algal species can produce large lipid yields and biofuels using brackish, saline water in contrast to conventional and current systems.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Biomass for the Future: Miscanthus and Sorghum for New End-Uses in France

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      PubDate: 2022-06-02
       
  • Correction to: QTL Detection for Flowering‑Time Related Traits in
           Miscanthus sinensis Using a Staggered‑Start Design

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Components Analysis of Recycled Alkali Black Liquor Combined with Corn
           Straw Under Ozone Pretreatment

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      Abstract: Abstract Alkali combined with ozone pretreatment of corn straw could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis degree of cellulose to realize the biomass conversion of straw waste. In order to recycle the alkali black liquor derived from this process and realize the environment-friendly effect, the main components of alkali combined with ozone pretreatment of straw recycling black liquor were investigated in this paper. To this end, the alkali black liquor was sequentially withdrawn for 0–6 times under the optimal pretreatment conditions, and solid content, organic and inorganic matter, acid precipitation, alkali precipitation, and organic composition were analyzed to identify the main factors inhibiting cellulase hydrolysis in recycled alkali black liquor. The results showed that the cellulase hydrolysis rate presented a significant decrease at the fourth cycle, which was decreased by 11.39%, and the content of alkali precipitation was maximum (0.707 g). Meanwhile, the organic matter content in alkali precipitation also reached the maximum value of 0.491 g. Through the component analysis, the contents of lignin and acid precipitation increased throughout the cycles. Moreover, GC–MS results showed that phenols, benzene ring heterocyclic, and furans were main degradation products in cycles of black liquor. Accordingly, it was indicated that small molecular organics and lignin were inhibitors of cellulase hydrolysis, which accumulated during recycling, and reduced alkali utilization and delignification efficiency, resulting in lower enzymatic hydrolysis rate.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Biorefinery Platform for Spathaspora passalidarum NRRL Y-27907 in the
           Production of Ethanol, Xylitol, and Single Cell Protein from Sugarcane
           Bagasse

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      Abstract: Abstract Spathaspora passalidarum is a naturally pentose-fermenting yeast with the potential to be applied for biotransformation of sugars from lignocellulosic biomasses. Despite being mostly investigated for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse sugars (mainly xylose and glucose), this microorganism is also capable of producing high xylitol concentrations as a by-product of the ethanol fermentation. The integration of ethanol and xylitol production can improve the economic viability of the process due to the lower sale price of ethanol and the higher added-value of xylitol, a sucrose-substitute sugar with healthier properties. Considering the metabolic pathways interaction from glucose and xylose, it is essential to understand the effect of different glucose and xylose concentrations in the production of ethanol and xylitol by S. passalidarum. In this way, a simultaneous production of both products for the development of an integrated platform for food and chemical and biofuel industries can be accessed. Yeast biomass can also be recovered and applied as a protein source. Therefore, in this study, the fermentative performance of S. passalidarum was investigated in batch fermentations with different xylose and glucose concentrations, using synthetic substrate. The ATP levels and the enzymatic activities of xylose reductase (XR), xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were also determined for each condition. The results indicated that low amounts of glucose (35%) were necessary to promote a higher xylitol production (10.58 ± 0.29 g/L) without losses on ethanol yield (78.99 ± 4.41%), being the most interesting condition for simultaneous formation of both products.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Enzymatic Production of Xylooligosaccharides from Xylan Solubilized from
           Food and Agroindustrial Waste

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      Abstract: Abstract A large volume of biomass residue is disposed daily, and the use of chemical and enzymatic treatments is an alternative to reuse it generating value-added products such as xylooligosaccharides (XOS). Banana peel, guava bagasse, orange bagasse, and restaurant pre-prepare waste were subjected to three treatments for xylan solubilization. Subsequently, xylan was enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain xylooligosaccharides. The maximum polysaccharide solubilization using alkaline hydrogen peroxide was 90.70% from restaurant residue. Sodium hydroxide solubilized 88.01% of xylan from guava bagasse and 74.20% of xylan from the banana peel, using potassium hydroxide. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the maximum production of XOS was 54.14% with banana peel residue (peroxide solubilized), 59.86% with guava bagasse (sodium hydroxide solubilized), 50.42% for orange bagasse (peroxide solubilized), and 50.80% with restaurant residue (potassium hydroxide solubilized). The results showed that each of the biomass had a different condition of treatment. The best conditions to obtain xylan from banana peel and guava bagasse were using NaOH treatment, and from orange bagasse and restaurant pre-prepare were using KOH. To produce XOS, banana peel and orange bagasse were treated with peroxide, and the guava bagasse and restaurant residue were treated with potassium hydroxide and subsequently submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis for 12 and 48 h.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Integration of Subcritical Water and Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Obtain
           Fermentable Sugars and Second-Generation Ethanol from Sugarcane Straw

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      Abstract: Converting the chemical and biologically resistant structure of cellulosic biomass into useful products is a technological and economic challenge. The use of sustainable and efficient conversion technology sustainably has been gaining prominence. This work aimed to evaluate the integration of subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane straw to obtain fermentable products and second-generation ethanol. SWH was conducted under semi-continuous conditions at 200 °C, 5 mL/min, and a 19-min retention time. Enzymatic hydrolysis using an enzyme blend produced simple sugars that were evaluated for fermentation using two strategies: (i) Saccharomyces cerevisiae SA-1; and (ii) co-culture of S. cerevisiae SA-1 and Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRLY-7124. Integrating subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in greater fermentable sugar yield (2.40 ± 0.01 g/L of xylose and 8.9 ± 0.6 g/L of glucose) than subcritical pre-treatment on its own. The co-culture fermentation strategy was more efficient than fermentation by S. cerevisiae on its own, resulting in 2.8 ± 0.3 g/L of ethanol. Subcritical water hydrolysis pre-treatment disrupted the lignocellulosic matrix, leading to increased enzymatic accessibility of cellulose, with minimal formation of degradation compounds, and with minimal waste formation. Future work can optimize the hydrolysis process to increase the yield of simple sugars, increase fermentation efficiency by controlling oxygen concentration and removing acetic acid, and consequently increase the yields of second-generation ethanol. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Alkaline Pretreatments for Sorghum and Miscanthus Anaerobic Digestion:
           Impacts at Cell Wall and Tissue Scales

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      Abstract: Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass is hardly degraded during anaerobic digestion. Among a large panel of pretreatments used to improve the biodegradability of this substrate, alkaline pretreatments are recognized as the most efficient to remove lignin and therefore improve the methane production of these substrates. This article uses different histological stains (FASGA, phloroglucinol, Mäule reagent, Congo red), immunolocalization, and histological quantification on pretreated internode stem tissue section in order to decipher the mechanism of alkaline pretreatment action (CaO and NaOH) in the anatomical and lignocellulosic matrix scale of Sorghum Biomass 140 hybrid and of Miscanthus × giganteus Floridulus. A significant delignification of all tissues was observed (sclerenchyma, parenchyma, and xylem) except in the epidermis and in the internal part of the perivascular sclerenchyma. The degradation of lignin under the effect of alkaline pretreatment is accompanied by a massive unmasking of cellulose and a reduction of crystalline cellulose. This induced an increase of anaerobic digestion kinetics for both biomass and of methane yield for miscanthus. Miscanthus is rich in G-type lignins located mainly at the level of the perivascular sclerenchyma of the external internode zone which was more degraded by alkalies than the S-type lignin; this may explain the improvement of miscanthus methane potential.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Optimisation of Pretreatment Catalyst, Enzyme Cocktail and Solid Loading
           for Improved Ethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum Bagasse

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      Abstract: Abstract Sweet sorghum bagasse displays many characteristics rendering it a promising substrate for lignocellulosic ethanol production. In this study, the steam pretreatment catalyst, enzymatic hydrolysis and the substrate loading for the fermentation were investigated in order to maximise the production of ethanol from the feedstock. The results deemed water as a sufficient pretreatment catalyst since the SO2 impregnation of the biomass did not produce any significant beneficial effects on the yield of ethanol produced. The preferred pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were incorporated in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process using pressed-only (not washed) WIS at a final solid loading of 13% (w/w) that resulted in the targeted ethanol concentration of 39 g/L with a corresponding yield of 82% of the theoretical maximum. Yeast inhibition coupled with significant glucose accumulation was observed at higher solid loadings of 16% and 20%. Ultimately, the sweet sorghum bagasse could be integrated into existing ethanol production regimes to improve the global bioenergy production.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Bioenergy Production Potential of 16 Energy Crops on Marginal Land in
           China

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      Abstract: Alternative energy sources, derived from biomass feedstocks, are important for China’s energy security. To evaluate China’s capacity for bioenergy in the future, Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were adopted to identify potentially productive marginal areas for the growth of 16 energy crops and to comprehensively estimate their biomass and bioenergy production potential under three scenarios. The results showed that a total of 267.23 Mha (i.e., million hectare) of marginal land was available for energy crop production. When assessing the suitability of individual environments for each type of energy crop, the largest total land area of a lignocellulosic energy crop, an oil energy crop, and a lignocellulosic energy tree were 3.64 Mha (Miscanthus spp.), 45.44 Mha (Jatropha curcas L.), and 63.55 Mha [Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey.) Bunge], respectively. In addition, the proposed production of bioethanol [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], biodiesel [Swida wilsoniana (Wanger.) Sojak], and bio-electricity [H. ammodendron] in the baseline scenario met 31.83%, 26.08%, and 9.2% of ethanol demand for E10, diesel, and electricity in 2016, respectively. Furthermore, if upland and forest land could be used to produce bioenergy, the bioethanol substitution rates of ethanol for E100, diesel, and electric power were calculated as 62.63%, 153.94%, and 60.47%, respectively, for 2040. The results indicated that China’s future energy demands could not be satisfied by simply depending on energy crops in most situations. Future bioenergy should be developed based on reliable supplies of several types of biomass materials and dedicated biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes, among other renewable energy sources. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Role of Temperature in Sludge Composting and Hyperthermophilic Systems: a
           Review

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      Abstract: Abstract The utilization of nutrients in sewage sludge partly alleviates the economic and environmental constraints, and the composting process has been proved a cost-efficient and simple approach for the recycling of sewage sludge. During the bio-oxidative process, the thermophilic phase is considered to be the most effective stage for the biodegradation of organic matter in sewage sludge composting systems. However, the maximum temperatures of conventional thermophilic composting systems only reach approximately 55–60 °C because of the activity limitations of thermophiles at higher temperatures. Notably, increasing temperatures can accelerate the humification process and shorten the composting cycle. Therefore, the effect of rising temperature on sewage sludge composting was examined as a specific mechanism. Further, the consequent hyperthermophilic composting (HTC) system created by rising temperatures was reviewed. Moreover, the potential techno-economic advantages and future challenges of HTC systems were discussed. Finally, the microbial communities necessary to ensure the efficiency of HTC systems were analyzed and suitable hyperthermophiles for sludge HTC systems were proposed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Heterosis for Biomass-Related Traits in Interspecific Triploid Hybrids of
           Willow (Salix spp.)

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      Abstract: Abstract Species hybridization is key for the improvement of shrub willow (Salix spp.) bioenergy crops because hybrids often display heterosis for yield. The development of high-yielding genotypes requires numerous broad attempts at hybridization followed by field evaluation and selection for stable performance. Selection of improved shrub willow varieties for use as a bioenergy crop involves evaluation of full-sib progeny in family-based selection trials. Improving the accuracy of evaluation through the use of components of yield would greatly improve the efficiency of selection. Heterosis for biomass yield in intra- and interspecific F1 and F2 shrub willow crosses, made between Salix sections and ploidy, was examined by utilizing a suite of morphological, physiological, and chemical composition traits collected over the course of 12 weeks in the greenhouse and over 3 years in the field. Triploid families generated from diploid S. viminalis and tetraploid S. miyabeana displayed the greatest levels of heterosis for harvestable biomass and biomass-related growth traits in the greenhouse and in the field. While intraspecific S. purpurea diploids exhibited low levels of heterosis for these traits, interspecific diploids produced moderate levels of heterosis in greenhouse experiments. Differences between greenhouse and field trial results can largely be explained by pest damage, which negatively impacted interspecific diploids. Heterosis for the traits that form the basis for biomass yield, including stem growth, foliar, and physiological traits, was quantified, and family-level differences are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Biodiesel Production Using Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Enzyme
           Catalysts via Transesterification and Esterification Reactions: a Critical
           Review

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      Abstract: Abstract The excessive utilization of petroleum resources leads to global warming, crude oil price fluctuations, and the fast depletion of petroleum reserves. Biodiesel has gained importance over the last few years as a clean, sustainable, and renewable energy source. This review provides knowledge of biodiesel production via transesterification/esterification using different catalysts, their prospects, and their challenges. The intensive research on homogeneous chemical catalysts points to the challenges in using high free fatty acids containing oils, such as waste cooking oils and animal fats. The problems faced are soap formation and the difficulty in product separation. On the other hand, heterogeneous catalysts are more preferable in biodiesel synthesis due to their ease of separation and reusability. However, in-depth studies show the limited activity and selectivity issues. Using biomass waste-based catalysts can reduce the biodiesel production cost as the materials are readily available and cheap. The use of an enzymatic approach has gained precedence in recent times. Additionally, immobilization of these enzymes has also improved the statistics because of their excellent functional properties like easy separation and reusability. However, free/liquid lipases are also growing faster due to better mass transfer with reactants. Biocatalysts are exceptional in good selectivity and mild operational conditions, but attractive features are veiled with the operational costs. Nanocatalysts play a vital role in heterogeneous catalysis and lipase immobilization due to their excellent selectivity, reactivity, faster reaction rates owing to their higher surface area, and easy recovery from the products and reuse for several cycles.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Plantation Model of Soapberry (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) in Southeast
           China in Relation to Environmental Impact Effect Based on a Life Cycle
           Assessment

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      Abstract: Abstract Sapindus mukorossi G. has been considered as a potential feedstock for forest-based biodiesel in China. To optimize the cultivation of soapberry and ensure its sustainable supply, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using a chronological approach combined with extrapolation. Soapberry plantations with two degrees of cultivation intensities were comparatively analyzed. For the studied environmental categories, nitrogen fertilization accounted for half or more of the global warming potential, primary energy demand, acidification, and eutrophication potential. The main contributors to ozone depletion were pesticides and potassium fertilizer. The plantations with a relatively low cultivation intensity presented better environmental performance, mainly due to the lower input of fertilizers, but they are not a priority choice for soapberry cultivation because of low yield. Stakeholders should focus on how to reduce the environmental impacts of the plantations with a relatively high cultivation intensity in this area. Overall, classified management, increasing the yield, reducing the inputs of chemicals, and decreasing the unproductive years are the key ways to improve the environmental performance of soapberry cultivation in Southeast China. Woody biomass carbon should be included in LCAs, and 3.71–5.11 t CO2 can be fixed by soapberry plantations per ha year, indicating that soapberry cultivation provides a net carbon sink.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Xylose Metabolism in Bioethanol Production: Saccharomyces cerevisiae vs
           Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts

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      Abstract: Abstract Xylose is the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic biomass and on the planet. In the second-generation bioethanol production process, it is essential to metabolize all sugars obtained in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose to increase ethanol titers and conversion yields of biomass to biofuel and decrease production costs. Wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, the workhorse microorganisms in ethanol production, are not able to ferment xylose. In this review, a comparison in bioethanol production from xylose was carried out between non-conventional yeasts and recombinant strains of Saccharomyces, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages according to the most important factors that influence sugar metabolism to ethanol, such as the assimilation pathway used, co-assimilation with glucose, oxygen levels, tolerance to fermentation inhibitors, and process temperature, among others. The review begins reviewing the metabolic pathways of xylose assimilation, followed by the associated cofactor imbalance, heterologous expression of xylose isomerase (XI), regulation of xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), and the relevance of genes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Likewise, the importance of other yeasts, such as Scheffersomyces stipitis, Candida shehatae, and Kluyveromyces marxianus, as non-conventional yeasts to produce bioethanol is highlighted, due to their ability to ferment a wide range of sugars, including xylose, compared to S. cerevisiae.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Biomass Production and Composition
           Traits in Miscanthus sinensis Using a Staggered-Start Design

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      Abstract: Abstract Traits for biomass production and composition make Miscanthus a promising bioenergy crop for different bioconversion routes. They need to be considered in miscanthus breeding programs as they are subjected to genetic and genetic × environment factors. The objective was to estimate the genetic parameters of an M. sinensis population grown during 4 years in two French locations. In each location, the experiment was established according to a staggered-start design in order to decompose the year effect into age and climate effects. Linear mixed models were used to estimate genetic variance, genotype × age, genotype × climate interaction variances, and residual variances. Individual plant broad-sense heritability means ranged from 0.42 to 0.62 for biomass production traits and were more heritable than biomass composition traits with means ranging from 0.26 to 0.47. Heritability increased through age for most of the biomass production and composition traits. Low genetic variance along with large genotype × age and genotype × climate interaction variances tended to decrease the heritability of biomass production traits for young plant ages. Most of the production traits showed large interaction variances for age and climate in both locations, while biomass composition traits highlighted large interaction variances due to climate in Orléans. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between biomass production and composition traits were positive, while hemicelluloses were negatively correlated with all traits. Selection is difficult on young plants as the heritability is too low. The joint improvement of biomass production and composition traits would help provide a better response of miscanthus to selection.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
 
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