Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (239 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (143 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1491 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (53 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (243 journals)
    - BOTANY (233 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (67 journals)
    - GENETICS (165 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (279 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (13 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (117 journals)

BIOLOGY (1491 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Biomarker Sciences and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
All Life     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Phycology     Open Access  
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in the Life Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access  
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioeduscience     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Bioinformatics Advances : Journal of the International Society for Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Anthropological Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.282
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 27  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1898-6773 - ISSN (Online) 2083-4594
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Association patterns between 2D:4D ratio and age at menarche: the impact
           of methodology

    • Abstract: The ratio of index finger to ring finger length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic feature and widely used as an indicator of prenatal androgen-estrogen exposure. Several studies have investigated the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and the onset of the first menstrual period (menarche) in women.The present study tested the association patterns between 2D:4D ratio and age at menarche. Furthermore, the impact of methods of measuring finger lengths was considered.Two samples were used to conduct the study. One sample consisted of 110 women who self-measured their finger lengths. The finger length measurements in the second sample (88 women) were taken from one trained observer using the caliper-based technique. Age at menarche was determined using a retrospective method.Women from the first sample reported an average age for the onset of the first menstrual bleeding at 12.9 (SD = 1.4) years of age. There was no significant association between the left and right 2D:4D ratio and the age at menarche. The second sample showed a mean age at menarche at 12.8 (SD = 1.3) years of age. Here, the right hand 2D:4D ratio and age at menarche were significantly correlated (p<0.001).A more feminine 2D:4D ratio was significantly associated with an earlier menarcheal age only in the sample with direct finger length measurements by a trained investigator. The sample using self-measurements yielded no significant associations between menarcheal age and 2D:4D. The use of a reliable and well-founded methodology is essential for obtaining meaningful results.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dread in Academia – how COVID-19 affects science and scientists

    • Abstract: In order to gain an insight into scholars’ concerns emerging from the COVID-19 crisis, we asked scientists from all over the world about their attitudes and predictions regarding the repercussions of this current crisis on academia. Our data showed that the academic world was placed in an unprecedented situation. Results further showed that everybody worked on-line, conducting studies was impossible or highly impeded, and lab work was difficult. Almost a quarter of all scientists participating in our survey were anxious about their scientific employment, and over 25% expected serious financial losses as a consequence of the pandemic. Moreover, we identified sex differences regarding the severity of the COVID-19 impact in the majority of questions. We inferred from this that women perceived to be in a worse situation than men.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Identification of sex using discriminant function analysis of fingerprint
           ridge density at three topological areas among North Indian population

    • Abstract: The present study attempted to identify sex of an individual using a fingerprint ridge density at three topological areas in the North Indian population. The study population consisted of 134 males and 136 females aged 17 to 25 years (mean age 19.34±2.12). Ridge density (RD) at radial, ulnar and proximal topological areas of the distal phalanges were determined on the surface area of 25mm2. Fingerprint ridge density in a defined area was significantly higher among females as compared to their male counterparts at radial, ulnar and proximal topological areas for both hands. Sexual dimorphic ratio also supported this trend for all three counting areas in right and left hands. Univariate discriminant function analysis explained that the left 2 radial (L2R) (88.1%) had the highest percentage of accuracy for sex identification, followed by the left 3 ulnar (L3U) (82.1%) and the right 2 ulnar (R2U) (81.6%). Multivariate discriminant function analysis showed that the radial topological area of the left hand was the best predictor of sex with the overall accuracy of 84.4%with following discriminant function equation −8.263 − 0.236(L1R) + + 0.321(L2R) + 0.269(L3R) + 0.268(L4R) − 0.067(L5R).It can be inferred that ridge density in the radial topological area of left hand is the most reliable tool for identifying the sex of an individual.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Social position in a peer group of school-aged boys and selected
           biological parameters

    • Abstract: The period of adolescence includes biological, psychological and social maturation. All these processes complement and affect each other. The ultimate goal is the transition from childhood to adulthood which enables individuals to become socialized beings, who are psychologically mature and able to pass on their genetic inheritance. In the process of reaching full maturity, adolescents are exposed to both positive and negative stimuli the socio-cultural environment. In the process of socialization, the influence of peers, and the maturing into social roles is important. At the same time, adolescents mature biologically. A holistic understanding of the sequence of changes that occur during adolescence foregrounds the significance of biology in informing emotions and cognition. Research conducted on adolescents from Wrocław, Poland, showed the impact that physical development plays on social development within a school peer group. Adolescents with a slower pace of maturity, lower BMI, and lower body height achieved the lowest social status in the group’s hierarchy. These adolescents also became victims of peer rejection. The role of scapegoat assigned to them highlighted and completed the symptomatic rejection process, which highlighted negative social group behaviours. In contrast, their peers from the same classes, with higher biological parameters, became leaders in the school’s social groups. Furthermore, sociometric ‘stars’, leaders and gray eminences, compared to scapegoats, achieved maturity faster, and had greater body height and higher BMI among all age groups.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Relationship between bone density of paranasal sinuses and adrenal
           steroids pattern in women during menopausal transition

    • Abstract: The course of menopause transition (MT) is associated with peculiarities of alterations occurring in a woman’s body, in particular, in the structure of bone tissue. Considering that bones of the paranasal sinuses (BPNSs) play a natural defense role against the spread of dental infection, their structure is important in dentistry. However, no information was found pertaining to changes of BPNSs during MT – a time when dental maladies increase in many women.The aim of our study was to collate density of BPNSs with status of adrenal steroids in women during MT, since the pattern of their changes determines the course of MT.Cross-sectional associations were examined between bone density of PNSs assessed by Spiral Computed Tomography and Serum content of testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), Adione, and Adiol in 113 women of perimenopausal age (age range from 45 to 55 years) who had already experienced premenopausal menstrual decline (amenorrhea less than 2 years).Strong positive (r = 0.73) correlation between minimal bone density of maxillary sinus in women with level of DHEAS was detected. It is important to note, that the correlation between minimal density of the lower wall of frontal sinus is a weak positive (0.3). Therefore, it can be suggested that bone tissue of the maxillary sinus is more sensitive to changes in DHEAS.The study showed that the level of male steroids, in particular DHEAS, affected the state of bone tissue in participants older than 50 years of age.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Functional fitness of people over 65 participating in physical activities
           organized by the Universities of the Third Age and Seniors’ Clubs in
           South-Eastern Poland

    • Abstract: The subject of the research was to assess the level of functional physical fitness of people aged 65 and over, taking into account the sex of the respondents, and to estimate the direction of changes in the functional physical fitness of the respondents as a result of participation in programmed physical activities of a University of the Third Age. The research on the level of functional physical fitness was carried out both among men and women aged 65 and over (104 men – 29% of the respondents and 251 women – 71% of the respondents), in total 355 people who are members of the Universities of the Third Age in Rzeszów, Mielec, Jasło, Zamość, and Seniors’ Clubs in Rzeszów, Stalowa Wola, Przemyśl, Krosno and Lubaczów. The Functional Senior Fitness Test by Rikli and Jones (1999) was used to objectively analyse the level of functional physical fitness in the study group. The individual tests of the Functional Senior Fitness Test give the opportunity to assess the muscle strength of the lower and upper body, flexibility in the upper and lower body areas, agility and dynamic balance as well as the aerobic endurance of the senior citizen.The research procedure assumed two studies to assess the level of functional physical fitness of people over 65 using the Functional Senior Fitness Test among seniors who are members of Universities of the Third Age participating in physical activities. Study 2 was conducted 6 months after study 1. In order to obtain reliable and credible results of individual tests and to maintain similar conditions for all participants, study 1 was conducted at the University of the Third Age at the beginning of the winter semester, and study 2 at the end of the first half of the academic year. The number of respondents was n = 86.Men showed statistically significantly higher results in muscle strength in upper and lower parts of the body and aerobic endurance, women in flexibility of upper and lower parts of the body. Regular participation in physical activities among people over 65 has a significant statistical impact on the achievement of higher results in individual motor skills.Sex significantly differentiates the level of functional physical fitness in selected age groups. A significantly higher level of functional physical fitness was presented by men in the test of muscle strength in in upper and lower parts of the body, agility and dynamic balance, and aerobic endurance, while women showed higher results in flexibility of upper and lower parts of the body.The analysis of the results of the preliminary (study 1) and repeated (study 2) functional fitness level allows us to find significant differences in the results of the Functional Senior Fitness Test. It is worth noting that the regular participation in programmed physical activities organized at U3A contributed to an improvement in individual motor skills, such as the strength of the lower and upper body and aerobic endurance.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessment of Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Tibetan
           Adolescent girls of Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh

    • Abstract: Malnutrition among adolescents is an important public health issue in India. The aim of the present study was to assess nutritional status and body composition characteristics of adolescent girls and their interrelationships with physical activity and socioeconomic status (SES). Nutritional status and body composition characteristics were assessed in terms of body mass index (BMI), upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) and percent body fat (PBF) among 276 Tibetan adolescent girls from Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh. Overall, 12.7% of the girls were in the wasting category (using Z-score based classification for UAMAH) and 9.8% were thin. About 16.3% girls were obese. Significant variabilities of PBF have been observed with respect to age and levels of physical activity and wasting. Adolescent girls were observed to have higher lean body mass than body fat.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • From gerontology to geroscience: a synopsis on ageing

    • Abstract: Biological ageing can be tentatively defined as an intrinsic and inevitable degradation of biological function that accumulates over time at every level of biological organisation from molecules to populations. Senescence is characterised by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. With advancing age, all components of the human body undergo these cumulative, universal, progressive, intrinsic and deleterious (CUPID) changes. Although ageing is not a disease per se, age is the main risk factor for the development of a panoply of age-related diseases. From a mechanistic perspective, a myriad of molecular processes and components of ageing can be studied. Some of them seem especially important and they are referred to as the hallmarks of ageing. There is compelling evidence that senescence has evolved as an emergent metaphenomenon that originates in the difficulty in maintaining homeodynamics in biological systems. From an evolutionary perspective, senescence is the inevitable outcome of an evolutionarily derived equilibrium between the amount of resources devoted to somatic maintenance and the amount of resources devoted to sexual reproduction. Single-target, single-molecule and disease-oriented approaches to ageing are severely limited because they neglect the dynamic, interactive and networking nature of life. These limitations notwithstanding, many authors promote single-target and disease-oriented approaches to senescence, e.g. repurposed drugs, claiming that these methods can enhance human health and longevity. Senescence is neither a disease nor a monolithic process. In this review, the limitations of these methods are discussed. The current state of biogerontology is also summarised.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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