Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (117 journals)

BIOLOGY (1491 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access  
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biology Open     Open Access  
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioma : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomarkers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biomass and Bioenergy     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomaterials Advances     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomath     Open Access  
Biomatter     Open Access  
Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BioMetals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biometrical Letters     Open Access  
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biomimetic Intelligence and Robotics     Open Access  
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Bionature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biopreservation and Biobanking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bioresource Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access  
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biosemiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biosensors and Bioelectronics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioseparation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biosfer : Jurnal Biologi dan Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
Biosfer : Jurnal Tadris Biologi     Open Access  
BioSocieties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biospecies     Open Access  
BIOspektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosystematics and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biosystems Diversity     Open Access  
Biota Amazônia     Open Access  
Biota Neotropica     Open Access  
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotropia : The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology     Open Access  
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Birth Defects Research     Hybrid Journal  
BJHM Open Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 110)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
BMC Molecular and Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Boletín Científico : Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural     Open Access  
Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas     Open Access  
Boletín Micológico     Open Access  
Bone Reports     Open Access  
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Breastfeeding Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Brittonia     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access  
Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries     Open Access  
Cancer Biology & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cancer Cell International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Carbon Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caryologia : International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics     Partially Free  
Caucasiana     Open Access  
Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1141)
Cell Adhesion & Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cell and Tissue Banking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cell and Tissue Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell and Tissue Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cell Biology Education     Free   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology International Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Calcium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Communication & Adhesion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Cycle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cell Death and Differentiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cell Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Genomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cell Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Cell Proliferation     Open Access  
Cell Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Cell Reports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Reports Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cell Stress and Chaperones     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cell Surface     Open Access  
Cell Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cells & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cells Tissues Organs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cellular Logistics     Full-text available via subscription  
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cellular Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Reprogramming     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular Signalling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ceylon Journal of Science     Open Access  
Channels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Check List : The Journal of Biodiversity Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chemosensory Perception     Hybrid Journal  
Chirality     Hybrid Journal  
Chromosoma     Hybrid Journal  
Chromosome Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia     Open Access  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cladistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Dysmorphology     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Phytoscience     Open Access  
Clinical Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Spectroscopy     Open Access  
Coevolution     Open Access  
Cogent Biology     Open Access  
Cognitive Neurodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communication in Biomathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Biology     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Communications Materials     Open Access  
Communicative & Integrative Biology     Open Access  
Community Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comptes Rendus : Chimie     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Biologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering : Imaging & Visualization     Hybrid Journal  
Computers in Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Connective Tissue Research     Hybrid Journal  
Contact (CTC)     Open Access  
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CRISPR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Crustaceana     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cryobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biology and Philosophy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.713
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-8404 - ISSN (Online) 0169-3867
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Two kinds of historical explanation in Evolutionary Biology

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      Abstract: Abstract Historical explanations in evolutionary biology are commonly characterized as narrative explanations. Examples include explanations of the evolution of particular traits and explanations of macroevolutionary transitions. In this paper I present two case studies of explanations in accounts of pathogen evolution and host-pathogen coevolution, respectively, and argue that one of them is captured well by established accounts of time-sequenced narrative explanation. The other one differs from narrative explanations in important respects, even though it shares some characteristics with them as it is also a population-level historical explanation. I thus argue that the second case represents a different kind of explanation that I call historical explanation of type phenomena. The main difference between the two kinds of explanation is the conceptualization of the explanandum phenomena as particulars or type phenomena, respectively. Narrative explanations explain particulars but also deal with generalization, regularities and type phenomena. Historical explanations of type phenomena, on the other hand, explain multiply realizable phenomena but also deal with particulars. The two kinds of explanation complement each other because they explain different aspects of evolution.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Does the study of facilitation require a revision of the Hutchinsonian
           niche concept'

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      Abstract: This paper revisits the debate over whether the study of facilitation requires ecologists to revise their understanding of the relationship between realized and fundamental niches as conceptualized by Hutchinson. Following Rodriguez-Cabal et al. (2012), I argue against Bruno et al.’s (2003) claim that facilitation can make a species’ realized niche larger than its fundamental niche. However, I also maintain that the abstract Hutchinsonian conceptualization of the niche makes a whole range of facilitative interactions—which I propose to call ameliorative facilitation—invisible to niche-based approaches to the study of ecological communities. I propose a way to incorporate ameliorative facilitation into such approaches. My proposal involves supplementing the Hutchinsonian realized/fundamental dyad with a third concept: the potential niche. This concept was introduced by ecologists studying the effects of environmental change on species distributions (Jackson and Overpeck 2000), but I show how it could also be fruitfully used in facilitation studies. I argue that this proposed solution is more appealing than Stachowicz’s (2012) suggestion that Hutchinson’s realized/fundamental contrast be applied to a spatial-geographical, as opposed to an abstract-conceptual, notion of the niche.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
       
  • Darwin’s empirical claim and the janiform character of fitness
           proxies

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      Abstract: Abstract Darwin’s claim about natural selection is reconstructed as an empirical claim about a causal connection leading from the match of the physiology of an individual and its environment to leaving surviving progeny. Variations in this match, Darwin claims, cause differences in the survival of the progeny. Modern concepts of fitness focus the survival side of this chain. Therefore, the assumption that evolutionary theory wants to explain reproductive success in terms of a modern concept of fitness has given rise to the so-called tautology problem. It is shown that the tautology problem reappears in the treatment of fitness proxies in today’s experimental evolutionary biology when these proxies are considered to indicate fitness only. Taking Darwin’s empirical claim seriously suggests, by contrast, that fitness proxies are first of all measures of the match between organism and environment, which I call the organism’s ‘fittedness’. At the same time, they are indeed related to reproductive success. Thus looking in both directions, at fitness and at fittedness, they are janiform. Acknowledging this situation not only allows for rejection of the tautology objection, but also for integration of Darwin’s argument into current evolutionary biology. It is suggested that this helps reframe and alleviate the dispute between the Modern Synthesis and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
       
  • Emotionshaping: a situated perspective on emotionreading

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      Abstract: Abstract Can we read emotions in faces' Many studies suggest that we can, yet skeptics contend that these studies employ methods that unwittingly help subjects in matching faces with emotions. Some studies present subjects with posed faces, which may be more exaggerated than spontaneous ones. And some studies provide subjects with a list of emotion words to choose from, which forces them to interpret faces in specific emotion terms. I argue that the skeptics’ challenge rests on a false assumption: that once subjects leave the lab, they no longer receive help in matching faces with emotions. I contend that people receive as much help in the wild as they do in the lab. People unconsciously amplify their spontaneous expressions in the presence of others, thereby making them easier to read. And people teach children to interpret faces in the same specific emotion terms found in the experimenters’ word lists. I argue that we are good at readings emotions in faces because we can normally count on a little help from our friends.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Everything in moderation or moderating everything' Nutrient balancing
           in the context of evolution and cancer metabolism

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      Abstract: Abstract While philosophers of science have marginally discussed concepts such as ‘nutrient’, ‘naturalness’, ‘food’, or the ‘molecularization’ of nutrition, they have yet to seriously engage with the nutrition sciences. In this paper, I offer one way to begin this engagement by investigating conceptual challenges facing the burgeoning field of nutritional ecology and the question of how organisms construct a ‘balanced’ diet. To provide clarity, I propose the distinction between nutrient balance as a property of foods or dietary patterns and nutrient balancing as an evolved capacity to regulate nutrient intake. This distinction raises conceptual and empirical issues, such as what properties constitute this capacity and whether they are the same in all organisms. Additionally, while scientists use the term ‘balancing’, its intension and extension need further clarification. Based on the literature, the properties of external nutrient detection, internal sensing of nutrient levels, and organismal regulation could provide a basic recipe for nutrient balancing. Next, using an evolutionary lens, I examine nutrient acquisition in some prokaryotes, slime molds, simple multicellular eukaryotes, and in the quirks of multicellular metabolism to raise questions about the origins and universality of balancing. Finally, I build on this explication of balance and balancing by considering how obesity and cancer might respectively elucidate problems of organismal nutrient imbalances versus disrupted cellular nutrient balancing.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • The arithmetic mean of what' A Cautionary Tale about the Use of the
           Geometric Mean as a Measure of Fitness

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      Abstract: Abstract Showing that the arithmetic mean number of offspring for a trait type often fails to be a predictive measure of fitness was a welcome correction to the philosophical literature on fitness. While the higher mathematical moments (variance, skew, kurtosis, etc.) of a probability-weighted offspring distribution can influence fitness measurement in distinct ways, the geometric mean number of offspring is commonly singled out as the most appropriate measure. For it is well-suited to a compounding (multiplicative) process and is sensitive to variance in offspring number. The geometric mean thus proves to be a predictively efficacious measure of fitness in examples featuring discrete generations and within- or between-generation variance in offspring output. Unfortunately, this advance has subsequently led some to conclude that the arithmetic mean is never (or at best infrequently) a good measure of fitness and that the geometric mean should accordingly be the default measure of fitness. We show not only that the arithmetic mean is a perfectly reasonable measure of fitness so long as one is clear about what it refers to (in particular, when it refers to growth rate), but also that it functions as a more general measure when properly interpreted. It must suffice as a measure of fitness in any case where the geometric mean has been effectively deployed as a measure. We conclude with a discussion about why the mathematical equivalence we highlight cannot be dismissed as merely of mathematical interest.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
       
  • Correction to: Causes with material continuity

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      PubDate: 2022-03-17
       
  • The ‘niche’ in niche-based theorizing: much ado about nothing

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      Abstract: Abstract The niche is allegedly the conceptual bedrock underpinning the most prominent, and some would say most important, theorizing in ecology. We argue this point of view is more aspirational than veridical. Rather than critically dissect existing definitions of the concept, the supposedly significant work it is thought to have done in ecology is our evaluative target. There is no denying the impressive mathematical sophistication and theoretical ingenuity of the ecological modeling that invokes ‘niche’ terminology. But despite the pervasive labeling, we demonstrate that niche talk is nothing more than a gloss on theory developed without it, that doesn’t need it, and that doesn’t benefit from it.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
       
  • What are ecological mechanisms' Suggestions for a fine-grained
           description of causal mechanisms in invasion ecology

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      Abstract: Abstract Invasion ecology addresses the spread of species outside of their native ranges. A central aim of this field is to find mechanistic explanations for why species are able to establish and spread in an area in which they did not evolve. Usually it remains unclear, however, what exactly is meant by ‘mechanistic explanation’ or ‘mechanism’. The paper argues that the field can benefit from the philosophical discussion of what a mechanism is. Based on conceptions of mechanisms as processes in concrete systems, causal mechanisms can be defined as one type of mechanism, representing recurring networks of causal relationships. With the example of a well-known hypothesized mechanism in invasion ecology, namely enemy release, the paper demonstrates how such causal mechanisms can be depicted as causal network diagrams. This approach could facilitate the development of step-by-step explanations, enhance clear argumentation and allow for more precise linkage of empirical tests to theory. Challenges to assessing the empirical relevance of hypothesized mechanisms are discussed, and suggestions are made concerning how the proposed approach could help in overcoming some of them.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
       
  • Tools of the trade: the bio-cultural evolution of the human propensity to
           trade

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      Abstract: Abstract Humans are standouts in their propensity to trade. More specially, the kind of trading found in humans—featuring the exchange of many different goods and services with many different others, for the mutual benefit of all the involved parties—far exceeds anything that is found in any other creature. However, a number of important questions about this propensity remain open. First, it is not clear exactly what makes this propensity so different in the human case from that of other animals. Second, it is not clear why other animals did not acquire this propensity to the extent that humans did. Third, it is not clear what explains the fact that the extent to which humans engage in trade is culturally highly variable. The paper argues that at the heart of the human-animal divergence in this propensity is the particular socio-cultural environment in which humans evolved. This has led them to sometimes, but not always, acquire the cognitive technology (writing, algebra, tallying devices, money, etc.) to support a sophisticated disposition and capacity for reciprocal cooperation, and deep and wide concepts of property and exchange value.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
       
  • Science and values in the biodiversity-ecosystem function debate

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper explores interactions between ecological science and conservation values in the biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF) debate of the 1990–2000s. The scientific debate concerned the interpretation of observed correlations between species richness and ecosystem properties like primary productivity in experimental ecosystems. The debate over the causal or explanatory role of species richness was presumed to have implications for conservation policy, and the use of such research to support policy recommendations generated hostility between rival groups of ecologists. I argue that the debate was due in part to the adoption of a broad conception of biodiversity as a goal and value in conservation politics and ethical debates, and the ecologists who questioned the causal efficacy of species richness were also suggesting problems with this goal. I characterize what I call the “uneasy consensus” established by BEF researchers in the late 2000s, discuss roles for values in BEF research, and suggest that this episode shows that ecological science can itself be an important site for ethical debates about conservation values.
      PubDate: 2022-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-022-09835-4
       
  • The value of and in novel ecosystem(s)

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      Abstract: Abstract The very idea of novel ecosystems has been controversial in ecology. Critics have complained about its imprecision, and that it illicitly smuggles problematic ethical and political values into the science. By labelling a human-modified system a ‘novel ecosystem,‘ they worry, we give policymakers a “license to trash nature.“ The critics are right to be suspicious. I show that proponents of the novel ecosystem concept have been unable to make it both value-free and precise enough to allow for applied use. Also, the critics are right to be suspicious, because a goal for many proponents of novel ecosystems is to bring new values into applied ecology. But the critics are wrong that this is illicit. I defend a value-laden conception of novel ecosystems, showing that applied ecologists are comfortable with other value-laden concepts (e.g. invasive species), and that the value shift motivating discussion of novel ecosystems is necessary if we want to understand and protect nature in a changing world.
      PubDate: 2022-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-022-09833-6
       
  • Remembering emotions

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      Abstract: Abstract Memories and emotions are both vital parts of everyday life, yet crucial interactions between the two have scarcely been explored. While there has been considerable research into how emotions can influence how well things are remembered, whether or not emotions themselves can be remembered is still a largely uncharted area of research. Philosophers and scientists alike have diverging views on this question, which seems to stem, at least in part, from different accounts of the nature of emotions. Here, I try to answer this question in a way that takes an intuitive notion of emotion and includes both scientific as well as philosophical aspects of both emotions and memory. To do this, I first distinguish between two different ways emotions can be expressed: as certain physiological responses, or as certain conscious experiences. Next, I show how each of these expressions of emotions can be remembered. Finally, I bring these two ways of expressing emotions, and the ways of remembering each of them, together into an explanation that also includes aspects often ascribed to emotions such as cognition. This interdisciplinary endeavor aims to serve as a starting point on what it could mean to remember emotions, and in doing so tries to build a bridge between scientific research and philosophical investigation of the memory of emotions.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-022-09834-5
       
  • Is co-management a double-edged sword in the protected areas of Sundarbans
           mangrove'

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      Abstract: Abstract The overall objective of the study was to examine the pros and cons of the participatory approach adopted in natural resource management in the ecologically protected areas of the Sundarbans mangrove of Bangladesh. A comparative study was done between the people who are involved and non-involved in this approach. Empirical data was collected through personal interviews with a structured questionnaire. The Gini coefficient was measured first and then embedded with the Lorenz curve to draw a line between perfect equality and inequality vis-a-vis. The study revealed that the co-management built awareness in favor of biodiversity conservation and the efficient use of natural resources. Contradictorily, a segment of different hierarchical committees was involved in destructive activities like poisoning the wetlands for fishing. Therefore, a mixed outcome was found. The findings will help the policymakers in identifying the pitfalls and bottlenecks rooted in co-management. Hence, the study recommends revising the approach to ensure the community’s active participation on an equal basis and take action against them who degrade those resources. Exploring profitable alternative income-generating activities is warranted to narrow down the dependency on the Sundarbans mangrove’s natural resources. In order to address the tragedy of the commons, the study advocates for the unity of all knowledge ranging from science to humanistic scholarship for sound policymaking.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-022-09836-3
       
  • From philosophy to anaesthesiology and back: an interdisciplinary
           reflection on the neural correlates of state consciousness

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      Abstract: Abstract Philosophy and anaesthesiology are disciplines that are rarely associated despite their respective interests in human consciousness. In this paper, we consider the advantages of integrating anaesthesiology and philosophy in the endeavour of discovering the neural correlates of state consciousness. We venture the following twopart argument. First, we argue that philosophical debates about the correlation conditions for state consciousness can be improved by focusing on how anaesthesiologists actually measure and study consciousness in practice. We present Integrated Information Theory as a promising framework for discriminating features hitherto considered relevant to the identification of the neural correlates of state consciousness. Second, we argue that an improved philosophical understanding of what comprises the correlation conditions for state consciousness can, in turn, advance anaesthesiological methodologies; not only can it improve how potential evidence is gathered and assessed, but it can aid in the prevention of intraoperative awareness, increasing patient safety and well-being.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-021-09832-z
       
  • When can cultural selection explain adaptation'

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      Abstract: Abstract Cultural selection models aim to explain cultural phenomena as the products of a selective process, often characterising institutions, practices, norms or behaviours as adaptations. I argue that a lack of attention has been paid to the explanatory power of cultural selection frameworks. Arguments for cultural selection frequently depend on demonstrating only that selection models can in principle be applied to culture, rather than explicitly demonstrating the explanatory payoffs that could arise from their application. Understanding when and how cultural selection generates powerful explanations is crucial to evaluating cultural selection, as well as realising its promised epistemic and practical benefits. I argue that the ability for cultural selection to explain ‘design without a designer’ is crucial to successful and powerful cultural selection explanations. I introduce the strategy of comparing cultural selection to goal-directed agent accounts in order to evaluate when cultural selection can provide distinctive explanatory payoffs, drawing on two case studies to illustrate the benefits of this strategy. I argue that a focus on phenomena which cannot be explained through intention or agency-based explanations in particular could provide a fruitful avenue to identifying the cases where cultural selection can be insightfully applied.
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-021-09831-0
       
  • Likeness-making and the evolution of cognition

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      Abstract: Paleontological evidence suggests that human artefacts with intentional markings might have originated already in the Lower Paleolithic, up to 500.000 years ago and well before the advent of ‘behavioural modernity’. These markings apparently did not serve instrumental, tool-like functions, nor do they appear to be forms of figurative art. Instead, they display abstract geometric patterns that potentially testify to an emerging ability of symbol use. In a variation on Ian Hacking’s speculative account of the possible role of “likeness-making” in the evolution of human cognition and language, this essay explores the central role that the embodied processes of making and the collective practices of using such artefacts might have played in early human cognitive evolution. Two paradigmatic findings of Lower Paleolithic artefacts are discussed as tentative evidence of likenesses acting as material scaffolds in the emergence of symbolic reference-making. They might provide the link between basic abilities of mimesis and imitation and the development of modern language and thought.
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-021-09830-1
       
  • Natural artificiality, niche construction, and the content-open mediation
           of human behavior

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      Abstract: Abstract There are at least two senses in which human beings can be called “naturally artificial”: (1) being adapted for creation of and participation in niche constructed environments, and (2) being adapted for creation of and participation in such environments despite an exceptional indeterminacy in the details of the niche constructed environments themselves. The former puts human beings in a common category with many niche-constructing organisms while the latter is arguably distinctive of our species. I explain how this can be so by developing an account of supporting concepts of complexity, contingency, and content-openness, and show how to defend the position against a common style of objection by a single comparative case study: hermit crabs and their shells versus humans and their movable dwellings. Finally, I consider evidence that such a feature is indeed species-typical and evolved in human populations.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-021-09825-y
       
  • The coordination dilemma for epidemiological modelers

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      Abstract: Abstract Epidemiological models directly shape policy responses to public health crises. We argue that they also play a less obvious but important role in solving certain coordination problems and social dilemmas that arise during pandemics. This role is both ethically and epistemically valuable. However, it also gives rise to an underappreciated dilemma, as the features that make models good at solving coordination problems are often at odds with the features that make for a good scientific model. We examine and develop this dilemma in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and suggest extensions to other domains.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-021-09828-9
       
  • Mechanism, autonomy and biological explanation

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      Abstract: Abstract The new mechanists and the autonomy approach both aim to account for how biological phenomena are explained. One identifies appeals to how components of a mechanism are organized so that their activities produce a phenomenon. The other directs attention towards the whole organism and focuses on how it achieves self-maintenance. This paper discusses challenges each confronts and how each could benefit from collaboration with the other: the new mechanistic framework can gain by taking into account what happens outside individual mechanisms, while the autonomy approach can ground itself in biological research into how the actual components constituting an autonomous system interact and contribute in different ways to realize and maintain the system. To press the case that these two traditions should be constructively integrated we describe how three recent developments in the autonomy tradition together provide a bridge between the two traditions: (1) a framework of work and constraints, (2) a conception of function grounded in the organization of an autonomous system, and (3) a focus on control.
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10539-021-09829-8
       
 
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