Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Biomarker Sciences and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
All Life     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Phycology     Open Access  
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in the Life Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access  
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioeduscience     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Bioinformatics Advances : Journal of the International Society for Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
BioControl
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.813
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-8248 - ISSN (Online) 1386-6141
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Ant-psyllid mutualism affects predation of Diaphorina citri by lady beetle
           larvae and abundance of psyllid natural enemies

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      Abstract: Ants can be involved in mutualistic relationships with honeydew producing hemipterans in which ants provide protection against their natural enemies, and, in return, hemipterans reward ants with honeydew. Such mutualism may affect population regulation of hemipterans by third trophic level predators. However, current knowledge regarding the effects of this food-for-protection mutualism of ants with Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Florida, USA is limited. Two treatments were established in replicated small plots under field conditions in a citrus (var. Valencia) grove: (1) ants present, and (2) ants absent by exclusion with a tangle-trap sticky barrier deployed on the base of trees. Lower abundance of Coccinellidae, Araneae, and Eulophidae and corresponding higher abundance of D. citri were recorded in trees with ants compared to that recorded in trees without ants as measured by direct visual observations and stem tap sampling. In addition, ant-beetle behavioral interactions were directly investigated with three species of ants [Solenopsis invicta Buren, Dorymyrmex bureni (Trager), and Brachymyrmex obscurior Forei]. Predation of D. citri nymphs by ladybeetle larvae was reduced on leaf flushes infested with S. invicta as compared with leaves without ants and this species caused significant direct mortality to larval beetles. Our results support the hypothesis that predation of D. citri by natural enemies may be reduced in citrus groves colonized by S. invicta than in those where ant populations are suppressed. Furthermore, our results indicate that S. invicta aggressively protect D. citri nymphs on leaves from otherwise effective potential predators, such as Harmonia axyridis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
       
  • Improving biological control of the invasive aquatic weed, Alternanthera
           philoxeroides: cold tolerance of Amynothrips andersoni (Thysanoptera:
           Phlaeothripidae) and the short-term feeding impact on different host
           haplotypes

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      Abstract: Abstract Poor cold tolerance of the alligatorweed flea beetle, Agasicles hygrophila, has resulted in inadequate biological control of alligatorweed, Alternanthera philoxeroides, as the weed expands into more temperate climates. The alligatorweed thrips, Amynothrips andersoni, may be more cold tolerant than A. hygrophila, but they have received little attention in the literature. To investigate the value of the thrips as a biological control tool, we (1) surveyed alligatorweed populations to better understand range of A. andersoni in the USA, (2) evaluated the short-term impact of A. andersoni feeding on alligatorweed, and (3) compared cold tolerance of A. andersoni to A. hygrophila. Impact of A. andersoni was measured by infesting shoots of alligatorweed haplotypes Ap1 and Ap6 with low and high densities of adult thrips and allowing populations to increase for one generation before assessing thrips reproduction and host plant growth. Cold tolerance of the two agents was compared using critical thermal minimum (CTmin) and chill coma recovery time. Thrips were detected at 45% of the 20 locations surveyed, including two new state records. In the greenhouse, thrips feeding resulted in a significant shift in biomass from emergent growth to below the water surface, but total biomass was unaffected. The thrips were more cold-tolerant as measured by CTmin, which was 2 °C lower than that observed for A. hygrophila. Our results suggest that A. andersoni is better adapted for cooler climates, but their long term impact may depend on their ability to infest new emergent growth over multiple generations.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Effects of long-term cold storage on maternal and progeny fitness of
           laboratory-reared Harmonia axyridis adults

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      Abstract: Abstract Long-term cold storage is a commonly used technique in mass rearing of natural enemies, but it brings a diversity of negative effects, especially for the laboratory-reared biocontrol agents. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an important natural enemy of aphids. In this study, the laboratory-reared H. axyridis adults were stored at 6 °C for up to 120 days, and the accompanying effects on maternal and progeny fitness were evaluated and compared with the non-stored beetles (control). Before storage, the newly emerged adults were fed with β-carotene-amended artificial diet for ten days and then acclimated at 15 °C for two days. The mass and trehalose content of the beetle were inversely proportional to the storage duration. The survival rates of the cold-stored beetles decreased as the storage duration increased. However, the survival rates were still above 50% after 120 days in storage (DIS-120). The DIS-120 beetles had a similar fecundity but a significantly longer pre-oviposition period than the control beetles. The egg hatch rates of the DIS-120 beetles were above 60% during the first six days and then dramatically decreased to near zero after day 13. However, the egg viability of the fertility-reduced beetles could be partially restored to approximately 40% by re-mating with non-stored partners. The F1 offspring of the DIS-120 beetles also had a sustained high fecundity but significantly lower egg hatch rate than the F1 offspring of the control beetles. This study demonstrated that the laboratory-reared H. axyridis could be cold stored for approximately 120 days, and their reproductive capability was still acceptable.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Best of both worlds: The thermal physiology of Hydrellia egeriae, a
           biological control agent for the submerged aquatic weed, Egeria densa in
           South Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract The submerged aquatic weed, Egeria densa Planch. (Hydrocharitaceae) or Brazilian waterweed, is a secondary invader of eutrophic freshwater systems in South Africa, following the successful management of floating aquatic weeds. In 2018, the leaf and stem-mining fly, Hydrellia egeriae Rodrigues-Júnior, Mathis & Hauser (Diptera: Ephydridae), was released against E. densa, the first agent released against a submerged aquatic weed in South Africa. During its life stages, the biological control agent is exposed to two environments, air and water. The thermal physiology of both life stages was investigated to optimize agent establishment through fine-tuned release strategies. The thermal physiological limits of H. egeriae encompassed its host plant’s optimal temperature range of 10 to 35 °C, with lower and upper critical temperatures of 2.6 to 47.0 °C, lower and upper lethal temperatures of − 5.6 and 40.6 °C for adults, and − 6.3 to 41.3 °C for larvae. Results from development time experiments and degree-day accumulation showed that the agent is capable of establishing at all E. densa sites in South Africa, with between 6.9 and 8.3 generations per year. However, cold temperatures (14 °C) prolonged the agent’s development time to three months, allowing it to only develop through one generation in winter. Predictions obtained from laboratory thermal physiology experiments corroborates field data, where the agent has established at all the sites it was released.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
  • Molecular and morphological identification of the alfalfa weevil larval
           parasitoids Bathyplectes anura and Bathyplectes curculionis to estimate
           the rate of parasitism

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      Abstract: Abstract The alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyllenhal, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of alfalfa crops. Chemical control measures are inefficient, but the larvae are often infested by parasitoid wasps of the genus Bathyplectes Förster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), which offer a potential biological control strategy. The development of effective biological control requires the identification of parasitoid species, but conventional methods involve the rearing of parasitoids to the puparium stage for morphological confirmation. Here we designed a PCR method in which two pairs of primers are used to detect and identify Bathyplectes curculionis Thomson and Bathyplectes anura Thomson larvae in a faster way. We compared conventional rearing to the new method as a means to determine the parasitism rates caused by each species in Spain during the 2019 and 2020 seasons. In 2019, the PCR method detected five times as many B. curculionis events and twice as many B. anura events. Similarly, in 2020, the PCR method detected seven times as many B. curculionis events and twice as many B. anura events. High mortality of H. postica larvae was recorded in 2020 due to an epizootic attack by the fungus Zoophthora phytonomi Arthur (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales), explaining the lower overall rate of parasitism and the widespread death of the larvae. Statistical analysis confirmed that the PCR method is more sensitive than conventional rearing for the detection of target parasitoids. However, only rearing can confirm the effective parasitism or the presence of unexpected species. We therefore recommend the use of both methods in parallel when evaluating host–parasitoid systems.
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
       
  • The role of intercrops of eggplant and cowpea on the control of Leucinodes
           orbonalis guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

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      Abstract: Abstract The eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the major pest of eggplant, Solanum melongena L., in Iran. Influences of intercropping eggplant (E) with cowpea (C), Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., in the three patterns: 4E:2C, 4E:4C and 4E:8C (row ratios) and sole eggplant were assessed on the densities of EFSB, the efficacy of enemies, and the crop yield. Our experiments we conducted in a trial farm through the two consecutive cropping seasons 2019 and 2020. Moreover, sole cowpea plots were just established to evaluating the yield benefit in intercrops. The densities of EFSB eggs and larvae per plant were fewer in intercrops on the vegetative growing (0.4–1.5 eggs per plant and 0.2 -0.75 larvae per plant), the blooming and initial fruit set (9.6–13.9 eggs per plant and 2.4–5.1 larvae per plant), and the fruit development (14.8–22.7 eggs per plant and 3.3–7.7 larvae per plant) stages of eggplant, especially in the 4E:8C pattern at the later growth stages than in sole eggplant (4.1–39.4 eggs per plant and 2.6–20.3 larvae per plant over two seasons) (P ≤ 0.05). Chrysoperla carnea (Stephans) as the main predator of EFSB eggs and larvae were more frequent in all intercrops on the blooming (3.7–4.7 larvae per plant) and the fruit development (5.5–7.9 larvae per plant) stages of eggplant than sole eggplant (2.7–3.4 larvae per plant) in two years. Trichogramma brasicae Bezdenko and Bracon hebetor Say were the prevalent parasitoids of EFSB eggs and larvae, respectively. The rates of eggs and larval parasitism were higher in all intercrops compared with sole eggplant on the blooming and the fruit development stages of eggplant. The values of land equivalent ratio (LER) in intercrops ranged from 1.14 to 1.41 for 4E:2C and 4E:8C, respectively that indicate the yield benefit of intercrops compared with the sole crops. Therefore, intercropping eggplant and cowpea, particularly in the 4E:8C pattern, is more profitable in the management of L. orbonalis in eggplant farms.
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
       
  • Screening commercial entomopathogenic fungi for the management of
           Diaphorina citri populations in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, USA

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      Abstract: Abstract Ten strains of entomopathogenic ascomycete fungi, sourced from commercial formulations of blastopore or conidiospore formulations, were tested in 14 different formulations in a primary acquisition/direct spray bioassay against adult Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)). The Cordyceps (Isaria) javanica Apopka 97-C (conidia) strain was used as the standard. A statistical ranking system was established in which top performing pathogenic strains were selected for further screening and eventual field trials. Modified Potter-type spray towers were utilized to deliver a range of doses of viable spores to adult D. citri in an aqueous spray consistent with the rate of spores per hectare often used in real-world spray applications. Mortality was assessed after a seven-day incubation period under controlled climate conditions reflecting those in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas, USA. Of the 14 preparations, the strains Metarhizium anisopliae E9, C. fumosorosea Ifr9901, Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040 and ANT-03, M. anisopliae ESALQ1037, and M. robertsii DWR2009, showed greater levels of mortality than the standard, Apopka 97-C, in the laboratory setting. Of those six, two (Ifr9901 and ANT-03) were selected for further evaluation based on efficacy, commercial availability, geographical registration, and market outlook on production.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Long-term effects of cattail Typha latifolia pollen on development,
           reproduction, and predation capacity of Neoseiulus cucumeris, a predator
           of Tetranychus urticae

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      Abstract: Abstract The effects of cattail Typha latifolia L. pollen on development and reproduction of Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) was determined over 25 consecutive generations (G). The ability of N. cucumeris to locate, capture, and consume natural prey Tetranychus urticae (Koch) was assessed after the 10th generation (G10-switch) and the 20th generation (G20-switch). Results indicated that T. latifolia pollen had no effect on N. cucumeris development time between G1 and G25. N. cucumeris fecundity was significantly greater in the older than younger generations. Life table analysis revealed that net reproductive rate (R0) was significantly higher for N. cucumeris fed T. latifolia at G10. Feeding on T. latifolia from G1-G5 resulted in lower intrinsic (r) and finite (λ) rates of increase. Feeding at G10 resulted in higher population growth rates. When switched to a diet of T. urticae, N. cucumeris immature development and fecundity were not significantly affected by generation. However, the values of r, gross reproductive rate (GRR), and λ were higher at the G20-switch than the G10-switch. Our results demonstrate that a diet of T. latifolia pollen supports N. cucumeris development and reproduction for 25 consecutive generations without reducing predation capacity. T. latifolia pollen is a suitable diet for long-term rearing of N. cucumeris for augmentative biological control of tetranychid mites.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • How pollen grains of 23 plant species affect performance of the predatory
           mite Neoseiulus californicus

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      Abstract: Abstract Pollen is used as a dietary supplement or alternative food by predatory mites during prey scarcity and in a mass rearing system. Pollen grains of 23 plant species, as well as the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) were offered to Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) as food under laboratory conditions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the surface morphology of plant pollen species. Neoseiulus californicus was able to develop on pollen of 14 plant species tested, while the pollen of nine plants were not suitable. Unsuitable plant pollen species had long and sharp spines or a thick impervious exine layer. Overall pre-adult period ranged from 5.08 days on thorn apple to 12.45 days on tomato pollen. Fecundity was significantly higher when the predator fed on pistachio pollen (62.23 eggs). Females reared on pistachio and pomegranate pollen had the longest and shortest adult longevity, respectively. The highest and lowest net reproductive rate (R0) were on pistachio pollen (26.97 eggs per individual) and hemp pollen (2.98 eggs per individual), respectively. The shortest and longest mean generation times (T) were observed on pomegranate pollen (13.4 days) and sunflower pollen (24.84 days), respectively. The highest values of the intrinsic rate of increase (r) were found on pistachio pollen (0.217 days−1) and thorn apple pollen (0.214 days−1) and the lowest on sunflower pollen (0.046 days−1). On prey mites, T. urticae, the r value was 0.205 days−1. Feeding on pistachio and thorn apple pollen lead to the best performance of N. californicus and these pollens could be used to improve the experimental and commercial mass rearing programs of this predator or inter-planted to support the predator population in the field.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Evaluation of egg parasitoid Hadronotus pennsylvanicus as a prospective
           biocontrol agent of the leaffooted bug Leptoglossus zonatus

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      Abstract: Abstract The western leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a key pest of almonds and pistachios in the USA. With limited monitoring strategies and no economic threshold developed, the use of broad-spectrum insecticides remains the primary control tactic for L. zonatus. In pursuit of more sustainable management options, experiments were carried out to assess the biocontrol potential of the egg parasitoid Hadronotus pennsylvanicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) against L. zonatus. Biological and demographical attributes of H. pennsylvanicus were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Mated females lived on average 116 days. However, female longevity declined by 74% when provided with host eggs, and by 97% when deprived of a suitable diet. Females produced an average 39.70 offspring, with peak fecundity observed within the first week of their lifespan. The total progeny was on average 92.75% female. Non-reproductive host mortality accounted for > 52% of the total egg mortality observed within the first two weeks, and represented the majority of total host egg mortality thereafter. Age of host eggs did not influence parasitism rates. Under laboratory conditions, H. pennsylvanicus exhibits suitable demographic and reproductive traits as a candidate biocontrol agent of L. zonatus. Further research is needed to determine how to best manipulate and enhance H. pennsylvanicus populations to promote biocontrol of L. zonatus under field conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Choice behavior of the generalist pentatomid predator Podisus
           maculiventris when offered lepidopteran larvae infected with an
           entomopathogenic fungus

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      Abstract: Abstract To understand the practical application of entomopathogenic fungi and predatory insects in an integrated pest management program, it is necessary to investigate the compatibility of biocontrol agents occupying the same niche. The objectives of our research were to understand the response behavior of the predatory spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) exposed to volatiles from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). We assessed the predator’s behavior when presented with B. bassiana-infected lepidopteran prey and determined the volatile profile of B. bassiana spores. Choice behavior of P. maculiventris nymphs towards B. bassiana-infected (non-sporulating and sporulating) versus uninfected larval fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined in choice arenas. The predator nymphs more frequently chose the uninfected prey and avoided fungus-infected prey. Of five P. maculiventris nymphs that fed on non-sporulating fungus-infected prey, four molted to adulthood, and the time required to molt to adult was similar to that of nymphs that fed on uninfected prey. In Y-tube olfactometer choice assays, 65% of the nymphs (26/40) avoided potato dextrose agar plugs containing B. bassiana and preferred clean agar plugs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analysis showed that the primary volatile chemicals emitted from B. bassiana spores were 2-ethylhexanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Applications of B. bassiana combined with releases of P. maculiventris may be a viable option for pest management in the field.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Predator functional responses and the biocontrol of aphids and mites

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      Abstract: Abstract Biocontrol with predators is a key tool for controlling agricultural pests and preserving the productive efficiency of crops. Determining which predators to use for biocontrol often involves measuring their functional response—the relationship between foraging rate and prey abundance, yet comparisons of functional responses across predators are complicated by differences in experimental procedures. Here we use a compilation of functional responses standardized for time and space units to illustrate key sources of variation in functional responses for predators being tested for control of aphids and mites. Our results show that arena size (as a proxy for habitat structure) is a crucial predictor of predator performance, indicating that assessments of functional responses on the crops of interest may be necessary for accurate comparisons. Our results also suggest that larger predators may generally be more efficient, and that warming linked to climate change could make biocontrol using predators more effective when pests are abundant.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Molecular characterization of two MAPK genes and their thermotolerant
           functions in a high temperature acclimated strain of Neoseiulus barkeri

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      Abstract: Abstract Phytoseiid mites frequently experience stress under changing or fluctuating environments especially in hot and dry agroecosystems. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is known to mediate environmental stress response involved in different signaling transduction pathways. In this study, a high temperature acclimated strain (HTAS) of Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes was developed from a conventional strain (CS) based on our previous study, and the functional differences of two MAPK genes, NbJNK and Nbp38, involved in defense responses were determined between the two strains. At 42 °C, the relative gene expression levels of the two MAPK genes increased rapidly in both N. barkeri strains. The expressions, however, decreased with an increase in duration of thermal treatment in the CS, while they remained elevated after 4 h of heat treatment in the HTAS. Silencing of two NbHSP70 genes by RNA interference (RNAi) significantly suppressed the expression levels of NbJNK and Nbp38, indicating a positive correlation between the protective response of HSP70 proteins and activation of the MAPK pathway. Heterologous overexpression of exogenous proteins encoded by NbJNK and Nbp38 significantly enhanced the viability of Escherichia coli Escherich BL21 under lethal temperature conditions. These results suggested that the thermotolerance of HTAS may be related to the sustained accumulation of MAPK genes. Elucidation of the functions of the MAPK signaling pathway in phytoseiids provides a novel perspective to the development of sustainable control strategies for small sap-feeding pests under thermal stress environments.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Ribosomal ITS sequence-directed selection for endophytic Myrothecium
           strains antagonistic to Ralstonia solanacearum to control patchouli
           bacterial wilt

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      Abstract: Abstract Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) wilt is a soil-borne devastating disease that causes enormous loss to patchouli in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia. The aim of this study was to develop a feasible method to isolate antagonistic fungal endophytes against RS from patchouli and to investigate their effects on biocontrol of patchouli RS wilt. Diversity of endophytic fungi in roots, stems and leaves of healthy patchouli was estimated with Illumina-based sequencing strategies. The number of fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity level was 465, 542 and 298 in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. The most detected genus in patchouli stems and leaves was Aspergillus, while the most dominant genera in roots were Athelia (11.1%) and Myrothecium (10.1%). Due to wide applications of Myrothecium species for biocontrol, 40 isolates of Myrothecium were isolated from patchouli roots using the selection medium for Myrothecium. At the species level, the strain (SWG1) with the most potent activity against RS in vitro was further identified and used to control patchouli RS wilt in vivo. The results of pot experiments showed that fresh weight, dry weight and height of patchouli seedlings inoculated with SWG1 increased by 58.2%, 65.5% and 11.9%, respectively, compared to seedlings without inoculation. The inoculation of SWG1 reduced the disease incidence and disease index of patchouli RS wilt by 66.7% and 71.0%, respectively. The results indicated the directed isolation of antagonistic endophytic fungi based on Illumina sequencing analysis of the ribosomal fungal ITS should be valuable to screen biological agents to control plant diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Effects of intraguild predation and cannibalism in two generalist
           phytoseiid species on prey density of the pink citrus rust mite in the
           presence of high-quality food

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      Abstract: Abstract Intraguild predation (IGP) and cannibalism influence the effectiveness of biological control with generalist predators. In Japanese citrus orchards, two generalist phytoseiid species, Euseius sojaensis (Ehara) and Amblyseius eharai Amitai et Swirski, occur simultaneously, but only the former can control Aculops pelekassi (Keifer). First, we investigated the intensity of IGP and cannibalism in E. sojaensis and A. eharai in the presence and absence of pine pollen, which is a high-quality alternative food for these predatory mites. Amblyseius eharai was a stronger intraguild predator and cannibalistic predator than E. sojaensis with or without pollen. In the presence of pollen, although IGP and cannibalism were relaxed in both species, they were not dramatically reduced in A. eharai. Next, we investigated the effects of IGP and cannibalism on A. pelekassi control by changing the release ratio of E. sojaensis and A. eharai in the presence of pollen. With release of E. sojaensis alone, the E. sojaensis population increased and thus A. pelekassi was controlled. With release of A. eharai alone, however, the A. eharai population did not increase and thus A. pelekassi was not controlled. Simultaneous release of E. sojaensis and A. eharai reduced the rate of E. sojaensis population increase. Moreover, A. pelekassi densities were higher with a higher release ratio of A. eharai. These results suggest that A. eharai diminishes the biological control efficiency of the phytoseiid complex owing to IGP and cannibalism, even in the presence of high-quality food, and thus could indirectly increase pest populations.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • Intraguild predation does not necessarily have negative effects on pest
           biological control: insights from a multiple consumer-multiple resource
           food web population model

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      Abstract: Abstract We develop a food web population dynamic model based on an experimental pest biocontrol setup consisting of thrips and aphids (pests) being consumed by two agents Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), and with O. laevigatus being an intraguild predator of M. pygmaeus. By means of numerical simulations, we show that pest biocontrol disruption can be avoided depending on initial population densities of pests and agents, despite the intraguild predation (IGP) of O. laevigatus upon M. pygmaeus. This possible avoidance of pest biocontrol disruption is in accordance with the referred experimental setup. Moreover, the proposed model corroborates the importance of initial densities of pests and control agents in the determination of the failure or success of pest biocontrol found in this and other biocontrol experimental setups.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
       
  • The effect of mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticide and
           multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus of Lymantria dispar L. in combination with
           an optical brightener on L. dispar larvae

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      Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the efficacy of the commercially available insecticide Lepidocide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) and their combination with an optical brightener to control L. dispar L. Efficacy against both second and fourth instar L. dispar larvae was evaluated, and the type of interaction between the tested components was determined using second instar L. dispar larvae. Most combinations of Lepidocide and LdMNPV containing a 5 mg ml−1 optical brightener had synergistic effects, and their mixtures were most effective in reducing the number of second instar larvae. In contrast, mixtures containing Lepidocide and LdMNPV with an optical brightener caused significantly lower mortality of fourth instar L. dispar larvae than mixtures without Lepidocide. This result suggests that an increased concentration of Lepidocide in a mixture containing LdMNPV and an optical brightener leads to an antagonistic effect on insect mortality. The possible reasons for the differences in the observed effects of the components on the second and fourth instar L. dispar larvae may be associated with the resistance of fourth-instar larvae to the antifeedant effect of B. thuringiensis.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10526-022-10137-7
       
  • Exploitation of herbivore-induced cotton volatiles by the parasitic wasp
           Bracon vulgaris reveals a dominant chemotactic effect of terpenoids

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      Abstract: Abstract Plants emit a wide array of complex blends of volatile organic compounds that can be involved in plant communication with herbivores and their natural enemies. Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid that attacks the boll weevil larvae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), an important pest in cotton plantations in Brazil. This parasitoid species has been studied as a potential biological control agent of A. grandis. However, little is known about B. vulgaris host foraging behaviour. We have previously demonstrated that female wasps respond to host-associated cues (boll weevil’s aggregation pheromone) and host habitat odours, such as cotton volatiles induced by the presence of the boll weevil’s pheromone. In the current study, we evaluated the electrophysiological and behavioural responses of B. vulgaris to constitutive and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) emitted by A. grandis-infested cotton plants at different phenological stages. The results demonstrated that B. vulgaris recognizes and responds to reproductive cotton HIPVs and that polar compounds might not be essential for its attraction. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings and bioassays suggested that the compounds β-myrcene, (E)-ocimene, (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT), (E)-(1R,9S)-caryophyllene, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT), as well as other minor components of cotton blend, can be used by B. vulgaris wasps in its host foraging behaviour. Our results show an important role of terpenoids in cotton indirect defence, which is discussed relative to the role of other minor plant volatiles.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10526-022-10135-9
       
  • The combination of Neosartorya (Aspergillus) fischeri antifungal proteins
           with rationally designed γ-core peptide derivatives is effective for
           plant and crop protection

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      Abstract: Abstract Plant pathogenic fungi are responsible for enormous crop losses worldwide. Overcoming this problem is challenging as these fungi can be highly resistant to approved chemical fungicides. There is thus a need to develop and introduce fundamentally new plant and crop protection strategies for sustainable agricultural production. Highly stable extracellular antifungal proteins (AFPs) and their rationally designed peptide derivatives (PDs) constitute feasible options to meet this challenge. In the present study, their potential for topical application to protect plants and crops as combinatorial biofungicides is supported by the investigation of two Neosartorya (Aspergillus) fischeri AFPs (NFAP and NFAP2) and their γ-core PDs. Previously, the biofungicidal potential of NFAP, its rationally designed γ-core PD (γNFAP-opt), and NFAP2 was reported. Susceptibility tests in the present study extended the in vitro antifungal spectrum of NFAP2 and its γ-core PD (γNFAP2-opt) to Botrytis, Cladosporium, and Fusarium spp. Besides, in vitro additive or indifferent interactions, and synergism were observed when NFAP or NFAP2 was applied in combination with γNFAP-opt. Except for γNFAP2-opt, the investigated proteins and peptides did not show any toxicity to tomato plant leaves. The application of NFAP in combination with γNFAP-opt effectively inhibited conidial germination, biofilm formation, and hyphal extension of the necrotrophic mold Botrytis cinerea on tomato plant leaves. However, the same combination only partially impeded the B. cinerea-mediated decay of tomato fruits, but mitigated the symptoms. Our results highlight the feasibility of using the combination of AFP and PD as biofungicide for the fungal infection control in plants and crops.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10526-022-10132-y
       
  • What would be representative temperatures for shelf-life studies with
           biopesticides in tropical countries' Estimates through long-term
           storage of biocontrol fungi and calculation of mean kinetic temperatures

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      Abstract: Abstract In many tropical countries, studies to determine the shelf-life of biopesticides for commercialization and storage without refrigeration have been conducted under mild (≤ 25 °C) temperature regimes. Are these temperatures representative of non-refrigerated rural deposits' To answer this question, we set up trials in five Brazilian geographical regions. Representative temperatures were estimated using two distinct approaches: (1) calculation of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) inside packages stored in rural deposits for up to 19 months, and (2) comparison of germination counts of fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma spp.) kept under these conditions with those of conidia kept at constant temperatures. MKTs calculated for deposits located in the Northern, Northeastern, Central-Western, Southeastern, and Southern regions were 28.0, 26.7, 23.6, 22.2, and 21.7 °C, respectively. For all regions, MKTs calculated for the long-term trials were very close (≤ 0.5 °C) to the values calculated for the year 2013. However, in certain periods, MKTs in the South and Southeast deposits were near 25 °C, whereas variations in other regions were minimal (≤ 0.6 °C). The less precise estimate of representative temperatures in rural deposits, based on germination counts of B. bassiana and T. harzianum, were in the 23.8–35.4 and 24.0–27.5 °C ranges, respectively, depending on the geographical region. Our results indicate that guidelines that propose 30 °C to be adopted for stability tests for pharmaceutical and food products in tropical countries must also be applied to biopesticides intended for country-wide commercialization and storage under non-refrigerated conditions in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10526-021-10126-2
       
 
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