Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1491 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Marisiensis     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Biomarker Sciences and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
All Life     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Phycology     Open Access  
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in the Life Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access  
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioeduscience     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218)
Bioinformatics Advances : Journal of the International Society for Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Archives of Virology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.973
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-8798 - ISSN (Online) 0304-8608
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Complete genome sequence of cnidium closterovirus 1, a novel member of the
           genus Closterovirus infecting Cnidium officinale

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      Abstract: Abstract The genome of a novel virus identified in Cnidium officinale is composed of a monopartite ssRNA of 16,755 nucleotides that shares 68.73% (query coverage, 20%) sequence identity with carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV, accession no. FJ869862.1). It contains 11 putative open reading frames and has an organization typical of closteroviruses. It shares 30–50% nucleotide sequence identity with other closteroviruses. The heat shock protein 70-like protein (HSP70), putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and coat protein (CP) show 39–66%, 16–60%, and 24–41% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, to the homologous proteins of previously identified closteroviruses. Molecular and HSP70-based phylogenetic analysis of the genome and encoded protein sequences suggested that this virus is a novel member of the genus Closterovirus in the family Closteroviridae, which we have tentatively named “cnidium closterovirus 1” (CnClV1).
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Identification of a new strain of ligustrum virus A causing leaf necrosis
           and chlorosis symptoms in Syringa oblata var. dilatata (Nakai) Rehder

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      Abstract: Abstract In 2020, lilac trees showing virus-like symptoms such as leaf necrosis and chlorosis were observed in Korea. After RT-PCR detection with specific primer sets designed based on previously reported nucleotide sequences of viruses in lilac, the agent was identified as ligustrum virus A (LVA). The complete genome of the virus was sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. The genome of this novel strain of LVA, LVA-SNU, is 8524 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail, and shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (77.28%) with LVA-Sob, which was detected in a plant of the same species, Syringa oblata, in China, whereas LVA-Sob shares higher sequence identity (97.89%) with LVA-SK, which has been detected in host plants of various species.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Molecular characterization of a novel alternavirus infecting the
           entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps chanhua

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus, named Cordyceps chanhua alternavirus 1 (CcAV1), was detected in the entomogenous fungus Cordyceps chanhua in China and characterized. The complete genome of CcAV1 is composed of three dsRNA segments: dsRNA 1 (3,512 bp), dsRNA 2 (2,655 bp), and dsRNA 3 (2,415 bp). Each of the three dsRNAs possesses a single open reading frame (ORF). dsRNA 1 encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA 2 and dsRNA 3 encode hypothetical protein 1 (HP 1) and hypothetical protein 2 (HP 2), respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of the putative RdRp, HP 1, and HP 2 had the highest identity of 66.99%, 49.30%, and 56.91%, respectively, to those of Aspergillus foetidus dsRNA mycovirus. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on RdRp amino acid sequences showed that CcAV1 clustered with members of the proposed family “Alternaviridae”. Hence, we propose that Cordyceps chanhua alternavirus 1 is a novel member of the proposed family “Alternaviridae”.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Complete genome sequence of a novel victorivirus infecting Aspergillus
           niger

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      Abstract: Abstract Aspergillus niger is an important filamentous phytopathogenic fungus with a broad host range. A novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus, named Aspergillus niger victorivirus 1 (AnV1), isolated from A. niger strain baiyun3.23-4, was sequenced and analyzed. The AnV1 genome is 5317 nucleotides long with a GC content of 56%. AnV1 contains two open reading frames (ORF1 and 2), overlapping at a tetranucleotide sequence (AUGA). ORF1 encodes a putative capsid protein (CP) of 778 amino acids (aa), while ORF2 potentially encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 826 aa. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AnV1 is a new member of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae. As far as we know, this is the first report of the complete genome sequence of a victorivirus infecting A. niger.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Biological characterization and genomic analysis of Acinetobacter
           baumannii phage BUCT628

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      Abstract: Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that is resistant to the most commonly used antibiotics. In this study, the Acinetobacter phage BUCT628 was isolated from hospital wastewater. BLASTn analysis showed that the genome sequence of BUCT628 shared 89.76% identity with 66% query coverage with that of Acinetobacter phage Bphi-R2919. Genome sequencing showed that the BUCT628 genome is a 44,935-bp linear dsDNA molecule with 37.5% G+C content and 86 open reading frames (ORFs), and no tRNAs were identified.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Complete genome sequence of Amazon lily mosaic virus isolated from
           amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybridum Hort.)

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      Abstract: Abstract In April 2011, a virus was isolated by single-lesion isolation on Chenopodium quinoa leaves from an amaryllis plant with chlorotic ringspots in a private garden in Changhua County, Taiwan. An Illumina MiSeq sequencing system was used to determine the genomic nucleotide (nt) sequence of the virus. A de novo-assembled contig with 9377 nt, containing an open reading frame encoding a putative potyviral polyprotein, was annotated as the potyvirus Amazon lily mosaic virus (ALiMV), sharing 95.5% nt sequence identity with a partial genomic sequence of ALiMV available in the GenBank database. Therefore, the amaryllis virus was designated as ALiMV-TW. Through 5´ and 3´ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the complete 9618-nt genome sequence of ALiMV-TW was determined. Sequence comparisons indicated that the genome and polyprotein of ALiMV-TW share 52.3–65.1% nt and 30.1–64.2% aa sequence identity, respectively, with those of other potyviruses. This is the first report of a complete genome sequence of ALiMV.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • An overview of dinucleotide and codon usage in all viruses

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      Abstract: Abstract Viruses are, by far, the most abundant biological entities on earth. They are found in all known ecological niches and are the causative agents of many important diseases in plants and animals. From an evolutionary point of view, since viruses do not share any orthologous genes, there is a general consensus that they are polyphyletic; that is, they do not have a common ancestor. This means that they appeared several times during the course of evolution. For their life cycle, they are always obligate parasites of a free cellular life form, which can be bacteria, archaea, or eukaryotes. More complexity is added to these entities by the fact that their genetic material can be DNA or RNA (double- or single-stranded) or retrotranscribed. Given these features, we wondered if some general rules can be inferred when studying two basic genomic signatures—dinucleotides and codon usage—analyzing all available complete and non-redundant viral sequences. In spite of the obviously biased sample of sequences available, some general features appear to emerge.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • A new clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza genotype
           detected in Europe in 2021

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      Abstract: Abstract Despite their widespread distribution, only a single genotype variant of clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 influenza viruses has been found so far in Europe. Here, we report the detection of a new highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 genotype in geese and ducks from a backyard farm in the Czech Republic. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Czech H5N1 virus retained the A/Eurasian_Wigeon/Netherlands/1/2020-like backbone with an altered PB2 segment obtained from co-circulating low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Genomic analysis of a recombinant coxsackievirus A19 identified in
           Xinxiang, China, in 2019

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      Abstract: Abstract Coxsackievirus A19 (CV-A19) is an enterovirus belonging to the species Enterovirus C, and the prototype strain 8663 was isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome in Japan. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of a CV-A19 isolate identified in a stool sample from a child with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Xinxiang, Henan, China, in 2019 and named it CV-A19 strain 2019103106/XX/CHN/2019 – 2019103106 for short. The genome of this virus consists of 7409 nucleotides, including a 6624-nucleotide open reading frame encoding a potential polyprotein precursor of 2207 amino acids. Compared with strain 8663, strain 2019103106 showed 85.1% nucleotide sequence identity in the complete genome and 85.6% identity in the VP1 coding region, reflecting their genetic divergence. Phylogenetic analysis of strain 2019103106 and other representative EV-C strains with sequences available in the GenBank database showed that CV-A19 strains could be grouped into two clusters based on the complete or 214-nucleotide partial VP1 coding regions, and 2019103106 belonged to cluster 1, with the closest relationship to CV-A19 strain SWG82 from Shandong, China. Phylogenetic trees based on the P2 and P3 coding regions highlighted the divergence between strains 2019103106 and 8663, implying that strain 2019103106 had undergone recombination. Further recombination analysis suggested that strains V18A-like CV-A1 and BBD26-like CV-A19 probably recombined to yield strain 2019103106. The present study points out the genetic diversity of CV-A19. It expands our understanding of the evolution of the CV-A19 genome, but more genome sequences of epidemic strains are needed to explain the phylogeny and evolutionary history of CV-A19 comprehensively.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Detection and molecular phylogenetic analysis of chicken astrovirus in
           Saga prefecture, Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract We detected three chicken astrovirus strains in 4-day-old broiler chickens with high mortality and visceral gout and one strain from 150-day-old hens without clinical symptoms in Saga prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on ORF2 amino acid sequences revealed that the strains from the visceral gout cases belonged to subgroup Bi, and the strain from hens without clinical symptoms belonged to subgroup Aiii. Our study showed that CAstV had infiltrated into Saga prefecture, Japan. This is the first report of CAstV in Japan.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Complete genome sequence of pueraria virus A, a new member of the genus
           Caulimovirus

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      Abstract: Abstract The complete genome sequence of a new caulimovirus in Pueraria montana was determined using high-throughput sequencing. The 7,572 nucleotide genome of pueraria virus A (PVA) contains genes that encode a movement protein, an aphid transmission factor, a virion-associated protein, a coat protein, a protease + reverse transcriptase + ribonuclease H, and a transactivator/viroplasmin protein, as well as two intergenic regions, which are all common features of members of the genus Caulimovirus. A sequence alignment revealed that the complete genome of PVA shares 66.82% nucleotide sequence identity with strawberry vein banding virus (GenBank accession no. KX249738.1). The results of phylogenetic analysis and the observation that the nucleotide sequence of the polymerase coding region differed by more than 20% indicated that PVA is a member of a new species the genus Caulimovirus, family Caulimoviridae.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Characterization of a new potyvirus infecting Thevetia ahouai in Ecuador

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      Abstract: Abstract A new potyvirus was found in Thevetia ahouai L. (Fam. Apocynaceae) plants exhibiting white spots on leaves and fruit discoloration in Ecuador. The complete genome sequences of two isolates of this virus, tentatively named "thevetia white spot virus" (ThWSV), were determined and found to be 9,912 (isolate 1) and 9,904 (isolate 2) nucleotides (nt) in length, each encoding a polyprotein of 363 kDa. Sequence comparisons between the two isolates showed 80 and 87% identity at the nt and amino acid (aa) level, respectively, whereas the overall sequence identity between ThWSV and its closest relative was 69% and 71% at the nt and aa level, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Analysis and optimization of a Caco-2 cell culture model for infection
           with human norovirus

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      Abstract: Abstract Human noroviruses (hNoVs) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, the lack of a reproducible in vitro cell culture system has impaired research and the development of preventive measures, therapeutic drugs, and vaccines. The aim of this study was to analyze and optimize a suitable cell line for in vitro cultivation of hNoV. The Caco-2 cell line, which is of colorectal origin and differentiates spontaneously into intestinal enterocyte-like cells, was chosen as a model. It was found that differentiated cells were more susceptible to infection with hNoV, resulting in a higher virus yield. This was accompanied by an increase in H type 1 antigen in the cell membrane during differentiation, which functions as an attachment factor for hNoV. Induced overexpression of H type 1 antigen in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells resulted in an increase in viral output to a level similar to that in differentiated cells. However, the relatively low level of viral output, which contrasts with what is observed in vivo, shows that the viral replication cycle is restricted in this model. The results indicate that there is a block at the level of viral release.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Viruses as tools in gene therapy, vaccine development, and cancer
           treatment

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      Abstract: Abstract Using viruses to our advantage has been a huge leap for humanity. Their ability to mediate horizontal gene transfer has made them useful tools for gene therapy, vaccine development, and cancer treatment. Adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses, retroviruses, lentiviruses, alphaviruses, and herpesviruses are a few of the most common candidates for use as therapeutic agents or efficient gene delivery systems. Efforts are being made to improve and perfect viral-vector-based therapies to overcome potential or reported drawbacks. Some preclinical trials of viral vector vaccines have yielded positive results, indicating their potential as prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine candidates. Utilization of the oncolytic activity of viruses is the future of cancer therapy, as patients will then be free from the harmful effects of chemo- or radiotherapy. This review discusses in vitro and in vivo studies showing the brilliant therapeutic potential of viruses.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Monitoring the distribution of banana bunchy top virus in South Africa: a
           country-wide survey

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      Abstract: Abstract Banana bunchy top disease is the most devastating viral disease of bananas worldwide and is caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). The disease is spread by the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and through infected propagation material. In 2016, the virus was detected for the first time in an isolated area in the South Coast region of KwaZulu-Natal Province (KZN), South Africa. The aim of this study was to conduct surveys across all banana-producing regions in South Africa, viz. KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo provinces. Over 1700 plant and aphid samples were collected from commercial farms and rural households in the three provinces, and more-intense sampling was done in the affected KZN region. A BBTV-specific PCR targeting DNA-R (encoding the master replication initiation protein, M-Rep) was used to detect virus-infected samples, and amplicons of the expected size were sequenced. Comparative phylogenetic analysis showed that the South African BBTV isolates clustered within the Pacific Indian Oceans genomic group, which includes isolates from India and other regions in Africa, with a bootstrap value of 94%. To date, the virus has been identified only in the South Coast region of KwaZulu-Natal Province. Intense management strategies, including scouting, removal of infected plants, and control of aphids, have been implemented in areas where positive samples were identified to minimize the spread of the virus.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of various PET-bottled Japanese green teas and
           tea compounds in vitro

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      Abstract: Abstract The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a serious threat to global public health. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants is a significant concern regarding the continued effectiveness of vaccines and antiviral therapeutics. Thus, natural products such as foods, drinks, and other compounds should be investigated for their potential to treat COVID-19. Here, we examined the in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 of various polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-bottled green Japanese teas and tea compounds. Six types of PET-bottled green tea were shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 121- to 323-fold dilution. Our study revealed for the first time that a variety of PET-bottled Japanese green tea drinks inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dilution-dependent manner. The tea compounds epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate showed virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2, with IC50 values of 6.5 and 12.5 µM, respectively. The investigated teas and tea compounds inactivated SARS-CoV-2 in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by the viral RNA levels and infectious titers. Furthermore, the green teas and EGCG showed significant inhibition at the entry and post-entry stages of the viral life cycle and inhibited the activity of the SARS-CoV-2 3CL-protease. These findings indicate that green tea drinks and tea compounds are potentially useful in prophylaxis and COVID-19 treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Genomic characterization of two nickie-like bacteriophages that infect the
           kiwifruit canker phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae

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      Abstract: Abstract Here, we report the genomic characterization of two siphophages, named hairong and ZY21, that infect the kiwifruit canker phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. The genome sequences of hairong (112,842 bp) and ZY21 (112,006 bp) were determined. Global sequence comparison showed that hairong, ZY21, and two phages of the genus Nickievirus (nickie and psageB1) are similar but are not closely related to any other known phage, and they comprise a unique phylogenetic cluster. Moreover, hairong represents a new genus related to Nickievirus. Comparative genomic analysis revealed some common features shared by the four nickie-like phages.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
       
  • First report on co-isolation and whole-genomic characterisation of
           mammalian orthorubulavirus 5 and mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 from
           domestic pigs in India

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      Abstract: Abstract During a surveillance study to monitor porcine epidemic diarrohoea virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus in India, a total of 1043 swine samples including faeces (n = 264) and clotted blood (n = 779) were collected and tested. Five samples (four faecal and one serum) showed cytopathic effects in Vero cells. Transmission electron microscopy of infectious cell supernatant revealed the presence of two types of virions. Next-generation sequencing (de novo) allowed the complete genome sequence of mammalian orthorubulavirus 5 (MRuV5; 15246 bp) and that of all 10 gene segments of mammalian orthoreovirus to be determined. Genetic analysis of MRuV5 revealed grouping of the Indian MRuV5 with isolates from various mammalian species in South Korea and China, sharing more than 99% nucleotide sequence identity. The deduced amino acid sequences of the HN, NP, and F genes of MRuV5 isolates showed three (92L, 111R, 447H), two (86S, 121S), and two (139T, 246T) amino acid substitutions, respectively, compared to previously reported virus strains. Phylogenic analysis based on S1 gene sequences showed the Indian MRV isolates to be clustered in lineage IV of MRV type 3, with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (97.73%) to MRV3 strain ZJ2013, isolated from pigs in China. The protein encoded by the MRV3 S1 gene was found to contain the amino acid residues 198-204NLAIRLP, 249I, 340D, and 419E, which are known to be involved in sialic acid binding and neurotropism. This is the first report of co-isolation and whole-genomic characterisation of MRuV5 and MRV3 in domestic pigs in India. The present study lays a foundation for further surveillance studies and continuous monitoring of the emergence and spread of evolving viruses that might have pathogenic potential in animal and human hosts.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
       
  • A study on the infection status and transmission of avian leukosis virus
           subgroup J in Hy-line brown roosters

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      Abstract: Abstract Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is the most prevalent subgroup in chickens and exhibits increased pathogenicity and stronger horizontal and vertical transmission ability among different breeds. Although vertical transmission of ALV-J from infected hens through artificial insemination has been inferred from the detection of the p27 antigen in swabs and serum, there has been no further research on the transmission pattern of ALVs in roosters. In the present study, the positive rate of ALV increased significantly in an indigenous flock after detecting the p27 antigen via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus isolation in DF-1 cells. Viral sequence comparisons and an indirect fluorescent antibody assay showed that these isolates belonged to the ALV-J subgroup but formed a new branch in a phylogenetic tree when compared to domestic and foreign referential strains. The gp85 gene of the ALV-J isolated from hens and albumen was 94.1–99.7% identical to that in roosters, revealing that these isolates were quite likely transmitted to the hens and their offspring through the semen of ALV-infected roosters by artificial insemination from the Hy-line brown roosters. In addition, we defined four ALV-J infection states in plasma and semen of roosters (P+S+, P-S+, P+S-, and P-S-), which suggests that, in order to eradicate ALV in roosters, it is necessary to perform virus isolation using both semen and plasma. Additionally, ALV detection in semen by ELISA produced false-positive and false-negative results when compared to virus isolation in DF-1 cells. Collectively, our results suggested that an incomplete process of eradication of ALV from ALV-positive roosters led to the sporadic presence of ALV-J in laying hens.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
       
  • Identification and molecular characterization of a novel kudzu-infecting
           virus of the family Betaflexiviridae

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      Abstract: Abstract A new virus, tentatively named “kudzu virus D” (KuVD) was discovered in kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in South Korea. Its complete genome comprises 7,922 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains five open reading frames (ORFs) encoding, from 5′ to 3′, a replicase (ORF1), three triple gene block proteins TGB1–3 (ORF2–ORF4), and a coat protein (ORF5). This genome organization is typical of members of the subfamily Quinvirinae of the family Betaflexiviridae. Pairwise alignment analysis revealed that the nucleotide sequences of the replicase and coat protein of KuVD were 12.13-54.46% and 24.03-50.67% identical, respectively, to those of other members of the family Betaflexiviridae. These values are far below the current species ICTV demarcation threshold. Consequently, KuVD should be considered a member of a new species in the subfamily Quinvirinae.
      PubDate: 2022-05-22
       
 
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